Você está na página 1de 115

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY

According to Kotler and Armstrong (2010) who Robert (2010) as a

contributor that once noted that everyone lives by selling

something. Companies all around the world use forces to sell

products and services to business customers and final consumers.

Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance

into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it.

Personal selling is one of the oldest professions in the world. The

people who do the selling go by many names: salespeople, sales

representatives, district managers, account executives, sales

consultants, sales engineers, agents and account development

representatives, to mention a few.


These people are found in many kinds of organizations,

promotion mix (marketing communication mix) is the specific

blend of advertizing, sales promotions public relations, personal

selling and direct-marketing tools the company uses to

persuasively communicate customer value and build customer

relationships. The focus of this research is personal selling among

the promotion mix.

Personal selling which is the personal representation by the firm’s

sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer

relationships is the interpersonal arm of the promotion mix. A

good example of personal selling is found in department stores

on the perfumes and cosmetic counters.

However, modern salespeople are a far cry from unfortunate store

types. Today, must salespeople are well educated.


Well-trained professionals who add value for customers and

maintain long-term customers relationships. They listen to their

customers, assess customer needs, and organize the company’s

efforts to solve customer problems (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010).

Modern views of personal selling emphasized the relationship that

develops between a salesperson and a buyer. Relationship selling

a consultative selling is a multistage process that emphasizes

personalization and empathy as key ingredients in identifying

prospects and developing them as long-term satisfied customers.

This selling strategy focused on retaining customers cost a

company less than constantly prospecting and selling to new

customers. The selling promote the product through their

attitude, appearance and specialist product knowledge. They aim

to inform and encourage the customer to buy, or at least try the


product. A customer can get advice on how to apply the product

and can try different products.

1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE ORGANIZATION

The company starline Nigeria limited, started as a sole

proprietorship in the mid-fifties, marketing pharmaceutical

products under the name Owunna and sons company, founded by

chief (Dr) Peter S. Owunna and ( late). It metamorphosed into star

line chemists and company in 1962 under the leadership of the

founder. Starling, just before the outbreak of the civil war in 1967,

became the leader in the marketing and importation of

pharmaceutical products in Nigeria.

However, activities resumed in 1970 after the civil war with

everything lost.
In over 40 years of its existence, starline Nigeria limited (SNL)

range of products have become an important need for Nigeria’s

growing population with over seventy products currently in the

market. The products are distributed locally and along the sub-

Sharan region. The company’s factories and corporate

headquarters are located in Kaduna at 2nd gate the line from

leventis road, Chechenia market, Kaduna, Kaduna state.

Starline has maintained an average growth of 30% P.A in real time

with the aid of personal selling strategies among other promotion

tools. Within the past three years, in product quality, consistency

and integrity, SNL (starline-Nigeria limited) has won the Nigeria

industrial standard award and other Local and International

Awards.

It is interesting to note that is synergy exist between the

cosmetics, plastics and corrugated packaging factories where by


all needed plastics, packaging materials and carton boxes are

supplied by the plastics factory and starline corrugated packaging

respectively.

SNL’S management team is structured in such a way as to give

defined functions and level of accountability for each person,

giving them adequate responsibilities, influence and power to

giving them adequate responsibilities, influence and power to

cope with it.

The thrust is to position the company ensure that it moves

through the years from a position of strength, innovation, growth

and diversification.

Presently, SNL is the market leader in the production and

distribution of body sprays, and bottled perfumes in Nigeria. The

company also produces creams, lotions, rollons, powders, hair


food, and relaxer. Products manufactured and marketed by

starline group includes- cosmetics, toiletries, home care products,

carton boxes (corrugated packaging) plastics (office, domestic

products and containers), pharmaceutical, industrial chemical.

COMPANY’S MISSION: committed to creating excellent quality

cosmetics and toiletries for the sub-Saharan African market and

beyond.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The significance of person selling to the attainment of

organizational objectives cannot be overemphasized. This is

because of the multifaceted benefits of personal selling as well as

its related comparative edge over other promotional mix element

such as immediacy of feedback and flexibility. Personal selling


contributes in no small measure to increased sales and ultimately

profitability.

However, despite the enormous advantages of personal selling, a

lot need to be desired. Companies fail to maximize the benefits of

personal selling due to a number of factors, among which are.

1. COST: cost of maintaining a good sales team are high which

most at times are low.

2. LACK OF PROPER CONSUMER RESEARCH: reach and frequency

are most at times low.

3. DEARTH OF QUALIFIED PROFESSIONALS: it is really very

difficult to get qualified professionals.

4. INCONSISTENT MESSAGE: message control is often low and

therefore inconsistent.

5. BAD PAY-MASTERS: even if it is possible that some


organizations might be likely to get real able salesmen, the

treatment of payment made available including facilities may

not be quite matching to their abilities, proficiency, calibre

and hence contribution.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

i. this study will evaluate the role effective personal selling

plays in the sales of cosmetics.

ii. This research work will ascertain the extent to which

Starline Nigeria limited uses personal selling to achieve its

set objective.

iii. This project will also seek to establish relationship

Between effective person selling and increase in sales of

cosmetics.
Iv. To highlight the problems associated with personal

Selling of cosmetics products.

v. to make recommendation based on the outcome of the

study.

1.5 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS

HYPOTHESIS ONE

Null Hypothesis (Ho): effective personal selling does not lead to

increase in the sales of cosmetics.

Alternative Hypothesis (Hi): effective personal selling lead to

increase in the sales of cosmetics.

HYPOTHESIS TWO

Null Hypothesis (Ho): effective personal selling does not influence

consumer purchase decision.


Alternative hypothesis (hi) effective personal influence consumer

purchase decision.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research work, without mincing words is not conclusive in

itself. It is hoped, however, that the findings and recommendation

of this research work will assist management in getting more

understanding and informed on the effectiveness of personal

selling strategies in the safes of cosmetics and other industrial

goods. It will also serve as a guide to and manufactures in

successful implementation of sales programme.

To the general public, it will serve as an enlightening medium to

correct their bad impression of sales people and how they carry

out their selling activities.


To other future researchers, this work will serve as a basis for

reference while conducting research.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study focuses on the analysis of the effectiveness of personal

selling strategies and sales of cosmetics with special reference to

starline Nigeria limited who manufacture and market cosmetics as

line products located at Kaduna, Kaduna state and their customers

in the female hostel of the federal polytechnic Nasarawa,

Nasarawa state as at the year 2014.


CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 DEFINITION OF PERSONAL SELLING

Personal selling is the personal presentation of the firm’s sales

force for the purpose of marketing sales and building customer

relationship (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010).

Mc Daniel, lamb, and hair (2006) were of the opinion that personal

selling is direct communication between a sales representative

and one or more prospective buyers in an attempt to influence

each other in a purchases situation. Personal selling is the face-

to-face selling in which a seller attempts to persuade buyer to

make a purchases (www.businessdictinary.com).

According to pankaj (2011), personal selling is a promotional

method in which one party (e.g. salesperson) uses skills and


techniques for building personal relationships with another party

(e.g. those involved in a purchase decision) that result in both

parties obtaining value.

Frutell (2002) has the opinion that personal selling refers to the

personal communication of information to persuade a prospective

customer to buy something, a good, services, idea or something

else that satisfies that individuals needs. This definition of selling

involves a person helping another person. The salesperson often

works with prospects or customers to examine their needs

provide information. Suggests product to meet their needs, and

provide after – the –sale service to ensure long-term satisfaction.

Personal selling is where business use people (sales force) to sell a

product after meeting face-to-face with the customer (riley,

2012).
Personal selling involves persuasive deliberate contract between a

buyer and a seller for the specific purpose of creating an

exchange between them (Bingham, 1998).

The definition also involves communications between seller and

buyer the salesperson and the buyer discuss needs and talk about

the product us what the person needs then the salesperson

attempts to persuade the prospect to buy it (frutell, 2002).

Therefore, person selling is an interaction between two persons to

create better understanding in both parties and satisfaction

derived as a result of influence it is all about meeting potential

buyers by a seller and making them to try a product.

Author Robert (2010)in Kotler and Armstrong (2010) once noted

that “ everyone lives by selling something companies all around

the world use sales farces to sell products and services to


business customers and final consumers (Kotler and Armstrong,

2010).

Personal selling is a promotional method in which one party (e.g.

salesperson) use skills and techniques for building personal

relationships with another party (e.g. those involves in a purchase

decision) that result in both parties obtaining value. Personal

selling is an extension of the marketing concept move from a

product orientation (peddling to a customer orientation

(partnering) (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010).

2.2 DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL SELLING

According to Connie (2007). Personal selling can be traced back to

as far as ancient Greece. The need for salespeople was enhanced

by the industrial revolution and modern personal selling got its

start during the first part of the twentieth century.


Connie (2007) continued that the industrial revolution began in

the 18th century in Great Britain this mean that the local

economics were no longer self sufficient and the need to reach

new customers to buy the mass-produced products increases. The

birth of the traveling salespeople is the primary way for providing

paid personal communication to customers.

He defined personal selling as a communication process that

helps sales people fulfill customers needs which makes personal

selling the most important party of marketing communication for

most business. According to the textbook, there is more money

spent on personal selling than on any other form of marketing

communication whether it is advertizing sales promotion,

publicity, to public relations. According a source he read, there

are seven step to personal selling which are:

1. PROSPECTING: developing a list of potential buyers.


2. PRE-APPROACH: initial pre-approach letter, telephone call, etc

3. APPROACH: initial face-to-face contact with prospect during

which first impressions are formed.

4. NEED ANALYSIS: discovery and assessment of prospects needs

5. PRESENTATION: presentation/ demonstration of how the

product fills a need or solved a problem for the project.

6. ANSWERING QUESTIONS AND OVERCOMING OBJECTIONS:

prospects provides feedback and salesperson attempts to further

tailor the presentation for the prospect’s needs.

7. CLOSE: salesperson asks the prospect to buy.

8. FOLLOW-UP: delivery, customer services, referrals

2.3 ORIENTATION OF PERSONAL SELLING


Chris (2012) is of the opinion that the orientation of personal

selling can be seen in relationship marketing and personal serving

and sales management. He defined marketing as the process of

planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and

distribution of goods, service and ideas to create exchange that

satisfy individual and organizational objectives.

CUSTOMER ORIENTATION

Business has evolved the last few decades to become more

customer oriented. In the production concept before the great

depression (1930s) companies were production-oriented.

Companies believed that by offering the best product, they would

generate the most business. Price of products was based on

production costs plus profit amount.


The selling concept post world war II (late 1940s) companies

realized that consumer has more choice. Companies still believed

that by offering the best product, they would generate the most

business, but now also have sales people contracting potential

customers; training provided for sales was only product-based.

The marketing concept (19b50s) in realization that all company

planning and operation should be customer-oriented, goal was

profitable sales volume and not just volume, all marketing

activities organizationally coordinated. All company activities are

devoted to determining customers want and then satisfy them.

While still making a profit (perreavlt and McCarthy, 1999).

2.4 THE ROLE OF PERSONAL SELLING IN A FIRMS OVERALL SELLING

EFFORT
Perrault and McCarthy (1999) opined that almost every company

can benefit from personal selling. While face-to-face with

prospects, salespeople can get more attention than an

advertisement or a display. They can adjust what they say or do

take into consideration culture and other behavioral influence on

the customer. They can ask questions to find out about a

customer’s specific interest. They can also stay tune with the

prospect feedback and adjust the presentation as they move

along. If and when the prospect is ready to buy, the salesperson is

there to ask for the order. And afterward, the salesperson is there

to be certain that the customer is satisfied and that the

relationship between the customer and the firm continue to be

mutually beneficial.

i. PERSONAL SELLING REQUIRES STRATEGY DECISION: marketing

managers must decide how much and what kind of personal


selling effort each marketing mix needs. Specifically, as part of

their strategy planning, they must decide.

i. how many salespeople they need

ii. What kind of salespeople they need

iii. What kind of sales presentation to use

iv. How to select and train salespeople

v. how to supervise and motivate them

The sales manager’s job is to implement the personal selling part

of marketing strategy.

ii. Personal selling is often a company’s largest single operation

expense. This is another reason why it is important to understand

the decision in this area. Bad sales management decision can be


costly not only in lost sales but also actual out of packet

expenses.

iii. Every economy needs and uses many salespeople: any activity

that employs so many people and so it is so important to the

economy deserves study. In the United States, one person out of

every ten in the total labour force is involved in sales work. By

comparison, that is about 20 times more people that are

employed in advertising looking at what salespeople do is a good

way to start. Good sales people don’t just try to sell to the

customer, rather than to help the customer buy- by

understanding the customers need and presenting the advantages

and disadvantages of their products. Such helpfulness results in

satisfied customer and long-term relationships. And strong

relationship often forms the basis for a competitive advantage

especially for firms that target business markets. You may think of
personal selling in terms of old-times stereotypes of a

salesperson, a big of wind with no more to offer than a funny

story, a big expense account, and an engaging grin, but that is

not true anymore. Old- time salespeople are being replaced by

real professionals; problem solves who have something definite to

contribute to their employers and their customers.

iv. Salespeople represent the whole company and customers too:

increasingly, the salesperson is seen as a representative of the

whole company, responsible for explaining its total effort to target

customers rather than just pushing products. The salesperson

many provide information about products, explain and interpret

company policies, and even negotiate prices or diagnose technical

problems when a product doesn’t work well.

v. the salesperson representative is often the only link between

the firm and its customers, especially if customers are far away:
when a number of people from the firm are involved with the

customer organization- which is increasingly common as more

suppliers and customers for closer relationship- it is usually the

sales representative who coordinates the relationship for his or

her firm. As this suggests, salespeople also represent their

customers back inside their own firms. Recall that feedback is an

essential part of both the communication process and the basic

management process of planning, implementing, and control. For

example, the sales representative is the likely one to explain to

the production manager why a customer is unhappy with product

performance or quality- or to the physical distribution manager

why slow shipments are colusing problems. They went further to

say that evidence of these changing responsibilities, some

companies give their salespeople such titles as field managers,

sales consultant, market specialist, account representative or sales


engineer. They continued that sales force can aid in the marketing

information function too. The sales representative may be the first

to hear about a new competitors or a competitor’s new product or

strategy . and, as the following example shows, sales

representatives who are well attuned to customer needs can be a

key sources of ideas for new products.

vi. salespeople can be strategy planners too. Some salespeople are

expected to be marketing managers in their own territories. And

some become marketing managers by default because too

management has not provided detailed strategy guidelines. Either

way, salespeople may take the initiative to fill the gap. The

salespeople may have choices about.

i. What target customers to aim at,

ii. Which particular products to emphasize,


iii. Which middlemen to call on or to work the hardest,

iv. How to use promotion money and

V. how to adjust prices.

vi. a salesperson that can put together profitable strategies and

implement them well, can rise very rapidly. The opportunity is

there for those prepared and willing to work. Even a starting job

may offer great opportunities. Some beginning salespeople,

especially those working for producers or wholesales- are

responsible for larger sales volumes than many small companies

.this is a serious responsibility and the person must be prepared

for it. Further, sales job are often viewed as entry level positions

and used to evaluate candidates for promotion. Success in this job

can lead rapid promotion to higher-level sales and marketing jobs

and more money and security (Perreault and McCarthy, 1999).


2.5 PERSONAL SELLING PROCESS AND ITS APPLICATION TO

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS

Personal selling is an essential element of any organization

marketing mix. The main functions of personal selling are to

generate revenue and provide service to help make customers

satisfied with their purchases. This builds relationship and is the

key to success in today’s competitive market place (frutell, 2002).

Kotler and Armstrong (2010) defined the selling process as

consisting of several steps that the salesperson must master the

selling process as consists of seven steps.

-prospecting and qualifying

- Pre-approach

- Approach,

- Presentation and demonstration


- handling objections

- closing, and

- Follow-up

STAGES AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PERSONAL SELLING PROCESS

1. Prospecting Search for and quality Start- off the selling

prospects process; prospects

produced through

advertizing, referrals

and cold canvassing

2. Pre-approach Gather information Information sources

and decide how to include personal

approach the observation, other

prospect customers and own

sales people
3. Approach Gain prospects First impression is

attention stimulate critical, again

interest and make attention and interest

transition to the through reference

presentation common

acquaintance, a

referral or product

demonstration.

4. Presentation Begin converting a Different

prospect into a presentation formats

customer by creating are possible,

a desire for the however, involving

production service the customer in the

product or service

through attention to
particular needs is

critical important to

deal professionally

and ethnically with

prospect skepticism,

indifference, or

objections.

5. Handling Customers almost

objections always have

objections during the

presentation or when

asked to place an

order. The problem

can be either logical

or psychological and
objections are often

unspoken.

6. Closing Obtain a purchase Sales person asks for

commitment from the purchase,

the prospect and different approaches

great a customer. include the trial close

and assumptive

close.

7. Follow-up Ensure that the Resolve any problems

customer is satisfied faced by the

with the products or customer to ensure

service satisfaction and

future sales possible-

bilities (Pp 21-30,36


Figure 1: illustration of the steps and objectives of the personal

selling process sources:

(Ber icowits, kein, Harley, & rudelius, 2000)

Although personal selling may sound like a relatively simple task,

completing a sale actually requires several steps. The sales

process, or sales cycle, is simply the set of step a salesperson

goes can be unique for each product or service. The sales process

or cycle of the product or services, characteristics of customer

segments, and internal processes, but others may take much

longer to complete. Sales of technical products like copy machines

or office supplies are generally more routine and may take only a

few days. Whether a salesperson spends a few minutes or a few

years on sales, these are seven basic steps in the personal selling

process.
-Generating leads or prospecting

_Qualifying leads

_Approaching the customer and probing needs

_Developing and proposing solutions

_Handling objections

-Closing the sales

-Following up

Like other forms of promotion, these steps of selling follow the

AIDA concept. One a salesperson has located a prospect with the

authority to buy; he or she tries to get the prospect’s attention. A

thorough needs assessment turned into an effective sales

proposal and presentation should generate interest. After

developing the customer’s initial desire (preferably during the


presentation of the sales proposal), the salesperson seeks action

in the close by trying to get an agreement to buy. Follow-up after

the sales. The final step in the selling process, not only lower

cognitive dissonance but also may open up opportunities to

discuss future sales. Effective follow-up will also lead to repeat

business in which the process may start all over again at the

needs assessment step.

Traditional selling and relationship selling follow the same basis

steps. They differ in the relative importance place on key steps in

the process. Traditional selling efforts are transaction oriented,

focusing on generating as may leads as possible making as many

presentations are possible, and closing as many sales as possible.

In contrast, the salesperson practicing relationship selling

emphasizes an up-front investment in the time and effort needed

to uncover each customer’s specific needs and wants and


matching. By doing the homework up front, the salesperson

creates the conditions necessary for a relatively straight forward

close let’s look at each step of the selling process individually.

GENERATING LEAD OR PROSPECTING

This is the identification of those firms and people most likely to

buy the sellers offerings. These firms or people become “sales

leads” or “prospects”. Sales can be obtained in several different

ways, most notably through advertizing, trade shows and

convention, or direct- mail and telemarketing progarmmes. One

accounting firm used direct mail, telephone, sales visits and

seminars in a four-step process aimed at generating business to

business leads. Another way to gather a lead is through a referral

a recommendation from a customer or business associate. The

advantage of referrals over forms of prospecting includes highly

qualified leads, higher closing rates, larger initial transactions,


and shorter sales cycles. Simply put, the salesperson and the

company can each more money in less time when prospecting

using referrals. Referrals typically are as much as ten times more

productive in generating sales than are cold calls. Unfortunately,

although most clients are willing to gives referrals, many

salespeople do not ask for them. Effective sales training people do

not ask for them. Effective sales training can help to overcome

this reluctance to ask for referrals. To increase the number of

referrals they receive, some companies even pay or send small

gifts to customers or suppliers who provide referrals. Networking

is using friends, business contacts, co-workers, acquaintances,

and fellow members in professional and civic organizations to

identify potential clients. Indeed, a number of national networking

clubs have been started for the sole purpose of generating leads

and providing valuable business advice. Before the advent of more


sophisticated methods of lead generation, such as direct mail and

telemarketing, most prospecting was, done through cold calling-a

form of lead generation in which the salesperson approaches

potential buyers without any prior knowledge of the prospects

need or financial statue. Sales expert’s visits have given way to

referral-bases and relationship selling.

QUALIFYING LEADS

When a prospect shows interest in learning more about a product,

the salesperson has the opportunity to follow up, or quality the

lead. Salespersons that are given accurate information on qualified

leads are more than twice as likely to follow up. Lead qualification

involves determining whether the prospect has three things.

-A recognized need: the most basic criterion for determining


whether someone is a prospect for a product is a need that is not

being satisfied. The salesperson should first consider prospects

who are aware of a need but should not discount prospects who

have a need for it. Preliminary interviews and questioning can

often provide the salespersons with enough information to

determine whether there is a need.

- Buying power: this involves both authorities to make the

purchase decision and access to funds to pay for it. To avoid

wasting time and money, the salesperson needs to identify the

purchasing authority and the ability to pay before making a

presentation. Organizational charts and information about a

firm’s credit standing can provide valuable clues.

- Receptivity and accessibility: the prospect must be willing to

see the salesperson and be accessible to the salesperson. Same

prospect simply refuse to see salespeople. Others, because of


their stature in their organization, will see only a salesperson or

sales manager with similar stature.

Often the task of lead qualification is handled by a

telemarketing group or a sales support person who prequalifies

the lead for the salesperson. Prequalification systems free sales

representatives from the time- consuming task of following up

on leads to determine need, buying power, and receptiveness.

Prequalification system may even set up initial appointment

with the prospect for the salesperson. The result is more time

for the sales force to spend in front of interested customers.

Software is increasingly being utilized in lead qualification.

Companies are increasingly using their websites to quality leads

when qualifying leads online, companies want vistors to

register, indicate the products and services. They are interested

in and provide information on their frame and resources. Leads


form the internet can then be prioritized ( those indicating a

short time frame, for instance, given a higher priority) and then

transferred to salespeople. Often website visitors can be

enticed to answer questions with offers of free merchandize or

information. Enticing visitors to register also enable companies

to customize future electronic interactions-for example, by

giving prospects who visit the website their choice form human

products tailored specifically to their needs.

APPROACHING THE CUSTOMER AND PROBLING NEEDS

Before approaching the customer, the salesperson should learn

as much as possible about the prospect’s organization and its

buyers. This process called the pre-approach, describes the

“homework” it must be done by the salesperson before

contacting the prospect. This may include consulting standard

reference sources, such as mood’s standard and poor, or own


and Bradstreet, or contacting acquaintances or others who may

have information about the prospect. Another pre-approach

task is to determine whether the actual approach should be a

personal visit, a phone call, a letter or some other form of

communication.

During the sales approach, the salesperson either talks to the

prospect or secures an appointment for a future time in which

to probe the prospect further as to his or her needs.

Relationship selling theorists suggest that salespeople should

begin developing mutual trust with their prospect during the

approach. Salespeople should use the approach as a way of

introducing themselves and their company and products. Small

talk that projects sincerity and some suggestion of friendship is

encouraged to build report with the prospect, the remarks that

could be construed as insincere should be avoided. The


salesperson’s ultimate goal during the approach is to conduct a

needs assessment to find out as much as possible about the

prospect’s situation. Salesperson must know these.

-The product or service: product knowledge is the cornerstone

for conducting a successful need analysis. The consultative

salesperson must be an expert on his or her product or service,

including technical specifications, the product’s features and

benefits, pricing and billing procedures, warranty and service

support, performance comparisons with the competition, other

customers experiences with the product, and current

advertizing and promotional campaign message.

- Customers and their needs: the salesperson should know

more about customers than they know about themselves.

That’s the secret to relationship and consultative selling, where

the salesperson acts not only as a supplier of products and


services but also as a trusted consultant and adviser. The

professional salesperson doesn’t just sell products. He or she

brings to each client business-building ideas and solution to

problems for the customer, consulting a professional

salesperson is like having another vital person on the team at

no cost.

-The competition: the salesperson must know as much about

the competitor’s company and products as he or she knows

about his or her own company. Competitive intelligence

includes many factors. Who the competitors are and what is

known about them, how their products and services compare,

advantages and disadvantages, and strengths and weaknesses.

- The industry: knowing the industry involves active research

on the part of the salesperson. This means attending industry

and trade association meeting, reading articles published in


industry and trade journals, keeping track of legislation and

regulation that affect the industry, awareness of product

alternatives and innovations form domestic and foreign

competition and having a feel for economic and financial

conditions that may affect the industry. Creating a customer

profit during the approach helps salespeople optimize their

time & resources. This profile is then used to help develop an

intelligent analysis of the prospect’s needs in preparation for

the next step, developing and proposing solutions (McDaniel,

lamb, & hair, 2006).

DEVELOPING AND PROPOSING SOLUTION

once salesperson has gathered the appropriate information

about the client’s needs and wants, the nest step is to

determine whether his or her company’s products or services

match the needs of the prospective customer. The salesperson


then develops solution, or possibly several solution, in which

the salesperson’s product or service solves the client’s

problems or meets a specific need.

these solution are typically presented to the client in theof a

sales proposal presented at a sales presentation a sales

proposal is a written document or professional presentation that

outlines how the company’s product or service will meet or

exceed the client’s needs the sales presentation is the formal

meeting in which the salesperson has the opportunity to present

the sales proposal. The presentation should be explicitly tied to

the prospect’s expressed needs. Further, the prospect should be

involved in the presentation by being encouraged to computer

exercise slides, videos or audio, flipcharts, photographs and so

on.
if the salesperson doesn’t have a convincing and confident

manner, then the prospect will very often forget the information.

Prospects take in body language, voice, patens dress and body

types. often customers are more likely to remember how

salespeople present themselves than what they say (McDaniel,

lamb and hair 2006 ).

HANDLING OBJECTION

Customers almost always have objections during the

presentation or when asked to place an order. The problems can

be either logical or psychological, and objections often

unspoken in handling objection, the salesperson should use a

positive approach, seek out objections as opportunities to

provide more information, and turn the objections into reasons

for buying. Every salesperson needs training in the skills of

handling objections (Kotler and Armstrong. 2010)


CLOSING THE SALE

After handling the prospect’s objections, the salesperson now

tries to close the sales. Some salespeople do not get around to

closing or do not handle it well (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010).

At the end of the presentation, the salesperson should ask the

customer how he or she would like to proceed. If the customer

exhibit signs that he or she is ready to purchase and all

questions have benn answered and objections have been met,

then the salesperson can try to close the sales customers often

give signals during or after the presentation that they are ready

to buy or are not interested. Example includes changes in facial

expressions gestures, and questions asked. The salesperson

should look for these signals and respond appropriately.

Closing requires courage and skill. Naturally, the salesperson

wants to avoid rejection, and asking for a sale carries with it the
risk of a negative answered. A salesperson should keep an open

mind when asking for the sale and be prepared for either yes or

no. rarely is a sale closed on the first call. In fact, the typical

salesperson males several hundred sales calls a year, many of

which are repeat calls to the same client in an attempt to make a

sale. As you can see, building a good relationship with the

customer is very important often, if the salesperson has

developed a strong relationship with the customer, only minimal

efforts are needed to close a sale.

Further said, negotiation often plays a key role in the closing of

the sale. Negotiation is the process during which both the

salesperson and the prospect offer special concessions in an

attempt to arrive at a sales agreement. For example , the

salesperson may offer a price cut, free installation free service,

or a trial order. Effective negotiations, however, avoid using


price as a negotiation to because cutting price directly affects a

company’s profitability. Because companies spend millions on

advertizing and product development to create values when

salespeople give in to price negotiation too quickly it decreases

the value to the customer, rendering price non-issue.

Salespeople should also be prepared to ask for trade-offs and

try to avoid giving unilateral concessions. If you are making only

a 50% margin on a product, and you need at least a 60% margin,

raise your price or drop the product. Moreover, if the customer

asks for a 5% discount, the salesperson should ask for

something in return, such as higher volumes or more flexibility

in delivery schedules.

FOLLOWING UP

Unfortunately, many salespeople have the attitude that making

the sale is all that is important. Once the sale is made, they can
forget about their customers. They are wrong salespeople’s

responsibilities do not end with making the sales and placing

the orders. One of the most important aspects of their job is

follow-up-the final step in the selling process, in which they

ensure that delivery schedules are met, that the goods or

services perform as promised, and that the buyer’s employees

are properly trained it use the products (mc Daniel, lamb, & hair,

2006).

They said in the traditional sales approach, follow-up with the

customer is generally limited to successful product delivery and

performance: a basic goal of relationship selling is to motivate

customers to come back, again and again, by developing and

nurturing long-term relationships. They said most business

depend on repeat sales, and repeat sales depend on thorough

and continued follow-up by the salesperson. They continued


that finding a new customer is for more expensive than

retaining an existing customer. When customer feed abandoned,

cognitive dissonance arises and report sales decline.

Today. This issues is more pertinent than ever because

customers are far loyal to brands and vendors. Buyers are more

inclined to look for the best deal, especially in the case of poor

after-the sale follow-up. More and more buyers favour building

a relationship with sellers. Automated e-mail follow-up

marketing – a combination of sales automation and internet

technology, is enhancing customer satisfaction as well as

bringing in more business for some marketer (McDaniel, lamb, &

hair 2006).

Sultle (2012) opined that industrial products sales associate

usually sell products that factories, manufactures, the military,

airlines or other industries use for parts in their machines;


airplanes or vehicles. For example, a motor than runs an

assembly line is an industrial product. People who want to sell

industrial products will need to get jobs with manufactures or

wholesalers that sell these types of products however, due to

the technical nature of the product, some companies can require

job candidates have an engineering education.

He went further to provide some instructions in the selling

process as thus:

i.Apply for industrial sales positions: look for jobs on line,

through the newspaper and by calling executive search forms or

employment agencies. Expand your search nationally if you

would consider relocating. Post your resume on high traffic, job

search engines that accept resumes. use your university’s career

placement office once you are near graduation.


ii. Participate in product training when you get your industrial

sales job: learn all the features and benefits of the products you

sell. Study competitive products in your training, as you will

need to learn the advantages of your products against key

competitors.

iii. Obtain a price list for products you will sell: find out what

discounts you can offer for multiple item purchases or how

much leeway you have in reducing prices to make a sale.

iv. Make a list of common objections you will face in the field: as

overcoming objection is an aspect of sales, according to

chainmail. Com-practice overcoming this objection with your

sales manager.

v. create a presentation to use on sales calls: arrange your sales

manual in a way that helps you memorize your presentation/


include pictures of your product, price list, comparison of your

product against the completion and comparisons of your

product against the competition and plenty of application or

order form forms. Use on line presentation during sales calls.

vi.contact current accounts once you have completed training:

use sources such as the Thomas register of manufactures or

contact the direct mail marketing association to generates leads

or new customers for your industrial product. Call various

companies within your territory and set up sales appointments

with these new businesses. Add these new business to your

regular sales route.

vii. Call on customers each month quarter: expanding their

volume of business each time. Invite your customers to call you

with questions or problems with products like shipping issues.


Tips and warning were also outlined by him as thus. Take more

consultative role when approaching industrial customers. Learn

each company’s business, including the problems and

challenges it faces against the completion. Present your

products like they are solutions to each company’s problem.

Provide excellent customer service.

2.6 PERSONAL SELLING STRATEGIES IN SALES OF COSMETICS

According to Louise (2013), personal selling is the act of orally

communicating with a potential customer with the intention of

closing a sale unlike internet selling; you have to develop a strong

personal relationship with the client a customer in order to be

successful. Personal selling requires a special skill that not all

people have: charisma you must also have a voice and face people

can trust, or else they will be wary about spending money with

you. He opined the following strategies.


1.identify and understand your customer: determine what

segments of people are most likely to respond well to tour

product. Narrow the group down as far as possible. Remember

that customers want the answer to this question. what is in it for

me? A customer will not buy from you because he likes you and

you have a great smile (though these are important factors). You

have to identify exactly what the customer needs and wants

through your communication with him. Demonstrate exactly how

your product or service will benefit him.

ii known your product and tell your story: many personal selling

efforts fail because the seller does not really known much or

anything about the product. How can you sell something to

another person face-to-face if you never even tried or

experienced the results yourself? Test the product to determine

results before trying to sell it to another person.


Your pitch will be much more believable and trustworthy. People

like to hear how the product has affected your life. Described in

detail how the product has helped you: saved you money, or made

your life more enjoyable. Help the customer envision how the

product can do the something in her life.

iii. Start close to home: the best way to learn personal selling

techniques on your friends and family. Ask your loved ones for

opinion about your sales pitch and what they honestly think of

products. Listen don’t be annoying and persistent with your love

ones- you don’t want to cause your family and friends to avoid

you. Just look at this strategy as more of a learning experience to

teach you what does and does not work when selling. It will also

show you what benefits you should push regarding the product.

iv. personal selling online: though personal selling is usally

considered to be face-to-face transaction, such as selling


cosmetics in a customer’s home, you can also used this selling

method with online relationship marketing. Relationship

marketing can be done online using personal emails, small online

seminars, forums, blogs, and other tools. The point is to maintain

a strong connection with your customers online, provide

information about new products and educate on new development

regarding your industry.

Build trusts in your sales contacts with your written words and

your voice through podcast. Encourage your online customers to

refer you to other interested parties (Louise, 2013).

2.7 TYPES OF PERSONAL SELLING

Perrault & McCarthy (1999) contributed that one of the difficulties

of determining the right number and kind of salespeople is that

every sales job is different. While an engineer or accountant can


look forward to fairly specific duties. The salespersons job

changes constantly. However, there are three basic types of sales

tasks. This gives us a starting point for understanding what

selling tasks need to be done and how many people are needed to

do them.

The three basic sales tasks according to them are: order getting,

order- taking and supporting. For convenience, we will describe

salespeople by these terms-referring to their primary task-

although one person may do all three tasks in some situation.

These were explained thus.

Order-gathers are concerned with establishing relationships with

new customers and developing new business order getting

means seeking possible buyers with a well organized sales

presentation designed to sell a good service or idea. Order getters

must known what they are talking about not just be personal
contacts. They work for producers wholesalers and retailers and

are normally well paid.

Producers of all kinds of products-especially business products

have a great need for order-getters. They use than to locate new

prospects open new accounts see new opportunities, and help

establish and build channel relationships.

Producers sometimes aid in the personal selling effort by

providing innovative displays that communicate not only the

features but also the benefits of their products.

Wholesalers order-getters almost hand it to the customer-

progressive merchant wholesaler sales representative are

developing into consultant and store advisors rather than just

order-gather. Such order-getter may become retailers’ partner in

the job of moving goods form the wholesaler warehouse through


the retail store to consumers. These order getters almost become

a part of the retailer’s self-helping to check stock, write orders,

and conduct demonstrations, and plan advertizing, special

promotions, and other retailing activities. Agent middlemen often

are order-gather-particularly the more aggressive manufacturer’s

agents and brokers. They face the same tasks as producer’s

order-getters.

Retail order-getters influence consumer behaviour, convincing

consumers about the value of products they haven’t seriously

considered takes bring products out of the introduction stage into

the market growth stage. They are also helpful for selling

heterogeneous shopping products consumers for many of these

items on the basis of price and quality. They welcome useful

information.
Order-takers-they nature relationships to keep the business

coming. They sell to the regular or established customers,

complete most sales transactions, and maintain relationship with

their customers. Order-taking is the routine completion if sales

made regularly to the target customer. Many firms lose sales just

because no one ever asks for the order and close the sale.

Once industrial, wholesaler, or retail accounts are established,

regular follow-up is necessary. Producer’s order takes train,

explain and collaborates with order-takers work on improving the

whole relationship with the customer, not just completing a single

transaction even if computers handle routine reorders, someone

has to explain detail’s make adjustments, handle complaints,

explain or negotiate new prices and terms, place sales promotion

materials and keep customers informed of new developments’

someone may have to train customers’ employees to use


machines or products. In sales to middlemen, someone may have

a train wholesalers or retailers sales people. all these activities are

part of the order takers’ job and a failure in meeting a customer’s

expectations on any of these activities might jeopardize the

relationship and future sales. Producers’ order- takers often have

a regular route with many calls. To handle these calls well, they

must have energy, persistence, enthusiasm, and a friendly

personality that wears well over time they goes along with some

other elements of the marketing mix.

Firms sometimes use order taking jobs to train potential order –

getters and managers and frequently, they run into some order-

getting opportunities when they meet key customers and netter

understand their needs thereby making the big difference in

generating new sales wholesalers orders takers not getting orders

but keeping them; such sales people are usually the low pressure
type- friendly and easily going. Usually these jobs are not as high

paying as the order-getting variety but they attract many because

they are not as taking. They required relatively little travelling, and

there is little or no pressure to get new accounts. There can be a

social aspect too.

Order-taking may be almost mechanical at the retail level for

example, at the super market checkout counter. Retail order

takers often are poor sales checkers because they are not paid

much often only the minimum wage. And there will probably be

far fewer such jobs in the future as more marketer make

adjustments in their mixes and turn to self- service selling.

Supporting salespeople-they inform and promote in the channel-

supporting sales people help the order- oriented sales people, but

they don’t try to get orders themselves their activities are aimed at

enhancing the relationship with customer and getting sales in the


long run. For the short run, however, they are ambassadors of

good will who may provide specialized services and technical

specialists.

Missionary sales people- sometimes called merchandisers or

detailer are supporting sales people who work for producers-

calling on their middlemen and their customers. They try to

develop good will and stimulate demand help the middlemen train

their salespeople, and often take orders for delivery by the

middlemen. An imaginative missionary salesperson can double or

triple sales. Recent college grades are often recruited for these

positions.

Technical specialists : are supporting salespeople who provide

technical assistances to order oriented salespeople. They are

usually more skilled in showing the technical details of their

product than in trying to persuade customers to buy it. The order


getter usually completes the sale- but only after the customer’s

technical people give at least tentative approval.

Three tasks may have to be blended they opined we have

described three sales person might be given two or all three of

these tasks this lead to team selling when different sales

representatives work to gather on a specific account. Producers of

high ticket items often use team selling. Strategy planners need to

specify what types of selling tasks the sales force will handle.

Once the tasks are specified, the sales manager needs to assign

responsibility for individual sales jobs so that the tasks are

completed sales managers often divide sales force responsibilities

based on the type of customer.

Involved different target markets need different selling tasks. Very

large customers often require special selling effort and

relationships with them are treated differently.


Big accounts get special treatment.

Some firms have a group of salespeople who specialize in

telemarketing using the big advantages of telemarketing is that it

saves time and money. more useful when customers are small or

in hard to reach places telemarketing may be the only economical

approach when many prospects have to be contacted to reach one

actually interested in buying telemarketing is rapidly growing in

popularity.

Sales tasks are dome in sales territories often companies organize

selling tasks on the basis of a sales territory, a geographic area

that is the responsibility of one salesperson or several working

together. A territory might be a region of a country, a state or part

of a city- depending on the market potential. Carefully set

territories can reduce travel time and the cost sales. Assigning

territories can also help reduces confusion about who has


responsibility for a set of selling tasks, though size of sales force

depends on work load because over time the right number of

salespeople may change as selling tasks change (Perrault and

McCarthy, 1999).

2.8 ADVANTAGES OF PERSONAL SELLING OVER OTHER PROMOTIONAL

MET HODS

( mc Daniel, lamb, & hair, 2006) defined personal selling as a

direct communication between a sales representative and one or

more prospective buyers in an attempt to influence each other in a

purchase situation, all business people are sales people. Even

students in non-business majors may pursue a sales career.

Personal selling offers several advantages over other forms of

promotion.
i. Personal selling provides a detailed explanation or

demonstration of the product. This capability is especially

needed for complex or new goods and services.

ii. The sales message can be varied to the motivations and

interests of each prospect customer. More over, when the

prospect has questions or raises objection, the sales person is

there to provide explanations. In contrast, advertizing and sales

promotion can only respond to the objections the copy writer

thinks are important to customers.

iii. Personal selling can be directed only to qualified prospects.

Others forms of promotion include some unavoidable waste

because many people in the audience are not prospective

customers.

iv. Personal selling costs can be controlled by adjusting the size of

the sales force (and resulting experiences) in one- person


increments. On the other hand, advertizing and sales

promotion must often be purchase in fairly large amounts.

v. Perhaps the most important advantage is that personal selling

is considerably more effective than other forms of promotion in

obtaining a sale and gaining a satisfied customer ( mc Daniel,

lamb, & hair, 2006).

2.9 OBJECTIVES OF PERSONAL SELLING

Personal contact: personal selling is used to inform and persuade

the buyer through personal contact the organization selling the

specialty product need personal contact with the potential buyers

to persuade them to make the sales.

 To meet the specific needs if the customers generally people base

services like beauty care, health care, tailoring services are muted
through p-5 cause in such services, the services provides has to

meet the specific needs of the customer.

 To provide technical advice: p-5 is also used to provide technical

advices and assistance and help to the customers generally the

organization, selling the technical comp heated goods like solar,

washing machine uses personal selling with this objectives.

 To convince the buyer strongly: unsought product (unwanted

product) and high priced high price furniture, jewel need story

motivation, selling such products uses personal selling to

persuade the buyers strongly by santesh.

2.10 MANAGEMENT AND MEASUREMENT OF EFFECTIVENESS

Burton & thaker (1997), defined management as the process of

planning, organizing, leading and controlling the sources of an

organization in an efficient and effective pursuit of specified

organizational goal.
The success of failure of an organization depends on how

effective the management is the management team of a company

is responsible for propelling the future growth in the right

direction. It is also responsible for administering and controlling

the business activities and accounting for the results. Such is the

importance of management so one has to measure the

effectiveness of the management before purchasing a stock. It is

all about finding answer to one single question- are they doing

the right thing? how do you go about finding answer to that

question? To be more specific, how would you assess whether the

management utilizing the available resources in the best possible

way? How well is the company being run relative to others in its

sectors and the market as a whole? The answer lies in finding

three important rations:

-return on asset (ROA)


- Return on investment (ROCE)

- Return on equity (ROE)

RETURM ON ASSETS

Return on asset is calculated by taking the net income and

dividing it by the total assets.

ROA = net income / total assets

R O A is a very effective tool. The higher the ration, the better it is

. this ration should be only used to compare companies in the

same industry. The reason for this is that companies in some

industries are more asset- insensitive i.e. they need expensive

plant and equipment to generate income compared to others.

Their ROA will naturally be lower than the ROA of companies. A

single period ROA of a company will not tell you the whole story

you have to check the ROA for the past years and check if it is
showing an increase tread. An increasing tread of ROA indicates

that the profit ability of the company is improving. By measuring

the management’s effectiveness, you will be able to make

reasonable comparison between the company and its peers form

the same industry or sector (victor, 2011).

RETURN ON INVESTMENT

This ration measures the profits with assets this is given by:

ROI = Net profit after tax × 100


Total Assets

By this, the higher the ration, the better for the firm.

RETURN ON EQUITY

This ration reveals the actual return to shareholders only as

payment of interest to long term lenders has been deducted. ROE

is given by:
ROE = Net Profit After Tax × 100
Shareholders Equity

-In order to make a clear view of the company’s management

effectiveness use all the three rations mentioned.

- With ROE you get an idea about how to management is using the

money given by the shareholders.

- ROCE would reveal hoe the management is utilizing the total

capital employed, which includes loans and other debt funds.

- ROA is a totally different task. It measures the number of times

earnings generated using the asset of the company.

- the basic balance sheet equation is assets = liabilities equity. So,

if there were no liabilities in a company’s balance sheet, the ROA

and ROE of a company are different, the reason is the presence of

liabilities or loan fund, ROE would be more than the ROA. How? A

company buys more assets by taking loan, but since equity =

assets – liabilities, a company decreases its equity shrinks, and


since equity is the ROE’s denominator, ROE gets a boost. Hence

the presence of debt in a company’s balance sheet boost the ROE

in relation to ROA/ that’s about measuring effectiveness (victor,

2011).

2.10.1 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERSONAL SELLING IN AN

ORGANIZATION

Personal selling minimizes wasted effort, measures marketing

return on investment (ROI) better than most tools, promotes sales

and boosts word of mouth marketing.

Making the sale: Personal selling allows flexibility in presentation

to generate sales. Since the effect of marketing are difficult to

measure, Personal selling gives insight into customers habits and

responses to a particular marketing campaign or product offer.

Sales people can tailor their presentation to fit the needs, motives
and behaviour of individual customers. As sales people see the

prospect’s reaction to a sales approach, they can immediately

adjust as needed. High cost is the primary disadvantage of

personal selling with increased competition, high travel and

lodging costs and higher salaries, the cost per sales contract

continues to increases.

Marketing mix: a business tool used in marketing products; often

crucial when determining a product or brand’s unique selling

point. Often synonymous with the four ps: price, product,

promotion, and place.

Personal selling aims to improve the interdiction between the

customer and the sales facility, and/ or salesperson. Since the

effects of marketing are difficult to measure personal selling gives

insight into customer habits and responses to a particular


marketing campaign or product offer (value of Personal selling -

Personal selling – boundless, 2007).

Reference

Kotler, P, and Armstrong, G. (2010). Principles of Marketing

(Thirteenth Edition Ed). London Pearson Education Limited.

Mc Daniel; C. Lamb. Id. & Hair., (2006).

Introduction to Marketing (Eight Edition).

Singapore: Thomson South – Western.


Www.Businessdictionary .Com Pankaj, K. (2011, February 23)

Personal Selling Concept. Retrieved Form

Http://Www.Slideshare.Net/Biru/ Personal- Selling Concept -

7038933. On The 24the March 2013.

Frutell,M. (2002) Fund Amentals Of Selling ?(Seventh Edition). New

York: McGraw-Hill. Riley, J. (2012, September 23). Promotional

Mix- Personal Selling Retrieved From Tutor 2u.On 23rd August,

2014.

Bingham, F. (1998). Business Marketing Management.

Lincolnwood, Chicago, U.S.A Ntc Business Books.

Connie, D. (2007, January). History of Personal Selling Press. Html.

Retrieved From Conieglod.

Type Pad.Com/Mkt-By-Connie/History Of Personal Selling On 3rd

April 2013.
Chris, P.B. (2012). Orientation of Personal Selling. Marketing

Educator’s St. Petersburg, Florida.

Perrault.W.D, And McCarthy. J (1999). A Global Managerial

Approach (International Edition). New York: Mc Graw – Hill

Companies Ine.

Suttle, F. (2012, May 7). Personal Selling Objectives: Ettow

Retrieved From Ettow Corporation Web Site: Htt//Www.Ehow.Com

September 2, 2014.

Louise, B (2012, March 4th). What Is Personal Selling?

Www.Ehow.Com >Ehow > Business on 24th March 2013.

Berkowitz, E. Kerin, F. Hartley, S. And Rudelius,W. (2000). Personal

Selling and Sales Management. New York: Irwin/Mogaw-Hill

Companies Inc.
Burton, G, And Thaker, M.(1997). Management Today: Principles

And Practices, New York: McGraw-H.

Santosh, S. (2009). Objectives Of Personal Selling Retrieved From

Http://Forex.Saulo Shshr: Blogspot.Com September 4, 2014.

Victor,J.(2011, March2 3) Measuring Manager Effectiveness Basics

Of Share Marker From Effectiveness- Can Be Measured On October

5,2013.

Values Of Personal Selling-Boundless.(2007). Retrieved From

Boundless.

Corporation Idew Site: Http://Www/Boundless.Com March

23,2013.
CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 INTRODUCTION

This chapter is concerned with the method used in collecting data

for the research work.reserach is based on the existence of

problems or compelling needs to find answers or solution to the

problems.

3.1 TYPE OF STUDY

The types of study or research carried out is both exploratory and

conducive research and the area of interest is the effectiveness of

Personal selling strategies and sales of cosmetics with a case

study of starline Nigeria limited Kaduna.


3.2 SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION

Information on data for this research was collected through the

following basic sources and secondary sources of data collection:

namely:

-primary sources and secondary sources.

i. Primary sources: the researchers gathered relevant data through

the serving of closed-ended questionnaire to the sales person of

starline Nigeria limited and their consumers in federal polytechnic

Nasarawa female hostel.

ii.secondary source: information relevant to the research topic was

gotten this source form Manuel made available as a result of

browning the internet textbooks and related research works which

were relevant to the subject matter also consulted.

3.3 POPUKATION OF THE STUDY


The term population is applied to any finite collection of

individuals. It is practically synonymous with aggregate and not

necessarily refers to collection of living organisms for thus study,

the population of the study comprise of all the ten (10)

salespersons of starline Nigeria limited Kaduna and 260

occupants of the female hostel products making a total of 270

population size.

3.4 SAMPLE SIZE

The sample size is part of population or a subset from a set of

units, which is provided by some process or other usually by

deliberate selection of the object of investigating the properties of

parent population or set. For adequate representation of data, the

researcher used statistical approach of convenience sampling such

that all sections with have equal chances of being selected.10

starline Nigeria limited salesperson is the sample size. 24% of 260


occupants of the female hostel, federal polytechnic Nasarawa who

consumes cosmetics of starline Nigeria limited ware also

represented to make it more representative. Thus

24 × 260 = 62.4
100

= 62 consumers and 10 sales persons

= 72 sample size

3.5 SAMPLE TECHNIQUES

A sampling is precisely a part of the population the procedure for

drawing samples from a population is known as sampling.

Here are different types of sampling which include the

Following:

1.ROBABILITY SAMPLING: it is a sampling method in which the

same item like sale of cosmetic are chosen randomly that is every
item in the population is given equal and independent chance of

being include.

2. ACCIDENTAL SAMPLING: this is where the researcher is interest

in having a feeding or idea of a phenomenon of interest.

3. QUOTA SAMPLING: this involves identifying to certain

characteristics in the population.

3.6 QUESTIONNAIRS DESIGN

As a marketer you must be above to design a personal selling in

which a research producers that are reliable and valid data. This

may seem obvious but reliable and validity have a adequate

representation of the researcher use the approach of convenience

such in that of all section with have a chance of being selected.

First researcher must be designed so that they can accurately

reflect the entire customer of starline limited.

3.7 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS


in the course of carrying out the research, a total number of

seventy two (72) closed-ended questionnaires using like types of

question was administered to sales persons of starline Nigeria

limited Kaduna and consumers of federal polytechnic Nasarawa

female hostel. It was believed that they would possess the training

and knowledge of the questions to be answered besides the fact

that most users of cosmetics are ladies of sixteen (16) - fifty (50)

of age brackets. The questionnaire was administered through mail

and physical approach of the research.

3.8 DISTRIBUTION OF COLLECTION OF QUESTIONNAIR

The data collected from the questionnaire was presented and

analyzed using bar chart and chi-square both in the statistical

package of social science (SPSS) goodness of fit.


CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETAION

4.1 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

The researcher used bar chart and chi-square in the SPSS

goodness of fit to present and analysis the data collected from the

distributed questionnaire of both staff and customer of starline

Nigeria limited Kaduna the data was coded and that would be seen

in appendix it. The analysis was presented thus.

Crosstabs

Case processing summary

Cases

valid missing total

N percent N Percent N percent

Do you accept q1*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

Adoption q2 *age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

Influence q3*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%


agreed q4*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

Cost increased q5*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

making q6*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

choice q7*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

availability q8*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

regarding q9*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

welcome q10*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

problems q11*age 71 98 : 6 % 1 1.4% 72 100:0%

Decision rule: this state researcher should reject null hypothesis

(ho) if the probability of obtaining a given or more extreme

magnitude, when ho is true is equal or less than some small

number. In order words, reject ho if the calculated (empirical

value) of the statistics are greater than the table (critical value) at

the level of significant otherwise accept the

HO.

DECISION RULE/ CRITERION


When the chi-square calculated (×2c) is greater than the chi-

square tabulated (×2t) we reject the null hypothesesis (HO) and

accept the alternative hypothesis (hi) and conclude that the

research hypothesis is true, 1.e ×2t on the other hand, if the chi-

squaere calculated (×2c) is less than the chi-square tabulated, i.e

×2c > × 2t, we accept the null hypothesis is false.

Figure 4:1

Question one; do you accept the adoption of personal selling in

your company?

The tables below show the response of starline Nigeria limited

salesperson:
Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig.(2-sided)

Pearson chi-square 20.884 12 .052

Like I hood ratio 25.300 12 .013

Linear –b-linear .006 1 .938

Association

N of valid cases 71

9 14 cell (70.0%) have expected count less than 5.the minimum

expected count is 39.

Figure 4.1.2
BAR CHART

10

age
8
16-21

22-26
5
27-31

32-36
4
378 above

Disagree undecided agreed strongly agreed

Do you accept q1

Figure 4.1

Question 2: in the adoption of personal in your company, do you have

confidence in its role for effectiveness? The response was thus

Chi-square tests
Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 27.56 16 .036

Likelihood ratio 30.121 16 .017

Linear-by linear association 1.398 1 .237

N of valid cases 71

a. 20 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is.7

Figure 4.2.1
BAR CHART

12

10 AGE

16-21
8
22-26

27-31
6
32-36

378 above
4

Strongly disagree undecided agreed strongly agreed

Adoptioq2

Figure 4.3:

Question 3: in the influence of customer attitudes towards the product,

do you trust the effect of personal selling strategies in your company?

The response follows thus;


Chi- square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 59.776 16 .000

Likelihood ratio 60.673 16 .000

Linear-by linear association .1 132 1 .716

N of valid cases 71

a. 22 cells (88.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is 28.

BAR CHART

20

15

10

0
Strongly disagree undecided agreed strongly agree

Disagree influence q3

Figure 4:4

Question 4: do you agree increases rate in the portability of cosmetic

product in relation to the effect of personal selling strategies? The

response thus:

Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 43.638a 16 .000

Likelihood ratio 41.949 16 .00

Linear-by linear association .838 1 .360

N of valid cases 71

a. 21 cells (84.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is.17.

Figure 4.4.1
BAR CHART
10

Age
8
16-21

22-26
6
27-31

32-36
4
378 above

Strongly disagree undecided agreed strongly agreed

Disagree agreed q4

Figure 4.5:

Question 5: in cost increases of cosmetics, do you credit the adoption

or use of personal selling strategies? The response was thus;


Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 30.134 16 .0.17

Likelihood ratio 32.527 16 .009

Linear-by linear association .181 1 .670

N of valid cases 71

a. 20 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is.23

Figure 4.5.1.

BAR CHART

8 Age

16-21

6 22-26

27-31

4 32-36

37&above

0
Strongly disagree undecided agreed strongly agreed

Cost increase q5

Figure 4.6.

Question 6: do you think personal selling is a means of promoting the

company is cosmetic product? The response was thus:

Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 39.926 16 .001

Likelihood ratio 45.713 16 .000

Linear-by linear association 7.599 1 .006

N of valid cases 71

a. 20 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is.28.

Figure 4.6.1
BAR CHART
12

Age
10
16-21

22-26

8 27-31

32-36

37- & above


6

0
Strongly disagreed undecided agreed strongly

Disagreed agreed

Making q6

Figure 7: do you accept the help of personal selling strategies in making choices of

cosmetic? The customers thus responded

Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)


Pearson chi-square 49.316 16 .000

Likelihood ratio 58.268 16 .000

Linear-by linear association 10.715 1 .001

N of valid cases 71

a. 22 cells (88.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is.34.

Figure 4:7.1

BAR CHART

20 Age

16-21

15 22-26

27-31

10 32-36

37&above

0
Strongly disagreed undecided agreed strongly

Disagreed agreed
Making q7

Figure 4.9.1

Question 9: does the company policy regarding personal selling

strategies of cosmetic sales lightly effected and adoptable? Response

was thus:

Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 37.310 16 .001

Likelihood ratio 27.877 16 .033

Linear-by linear association 3.450 1 .063

N of valid cases 71

a. 19 cells (76.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is.06.

Figure 4.9.1:
Figure 4.8:

Question 8: Does the available of personal selling strategies build a

good relationship between the customers and the company through the

salesperson? The response was thus:

Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 25.226 16 .066

Likelihood ratio 30.568 16 .015

Linear-by linear association .892 1 .345

N of valid cases 71

a. 19 cells (76.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is.28.


BAR CHART
12

Age
10
16-21

22-26

8 27-31

32-36

37- & above


6

Strongly disagreed undecided agreed strongly

Disagreed agreed

Availability Q8
BAR CHART

20
Age

16-21
15
22-26

27-31

10 22-36

37 & above

Strongly disagreed undecided agreed strongly

Disagreed agreed

Regarding q9

Figure 4.10:

Question 10: do you welcome the view that personal selling strategies

have its own problems being encountered as a consumer? The response

was thus:
Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 22.310 16 .133

Likelihood ratio 28.255 16 .029

Linear-by linear association 5.328 1 .021

N of valid cases 71

a. 22 cells (88.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is.45.

Figure 4.10.1

BAR CHART

6
AGE
16-21

4 22-26

27-31

32-36
2
37 & above

0
Strongly disagree undecided agreed strongly
Disagree agreed
Welcome q 10

Figure 11: are you of the opinion that the problems encountered in the

use of personal selling strategies is higher than its uses and

effectiveness? The response was thus:

Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 41.28% 16 .001

Likelihood ratio 42.187 16 .000

Linear-by linear association 1.146 1 .284

N of valid cases 71

a. 20 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is17.


BAR CHART

10
AGE

16-21
8
22-21

27-31

6 32-36

37 & above

Strongly disagree undecided agreed strongly


Disagree agreed
Problems q 11

4.2 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS

In this part of the section, the formulated hypothesis are tested

one after the other using the chi-square non parametric test.

HYPOTHESIS ONE:
HO: effective personal selling does not lead to increase in the

sales of cosmetic to test the above hypothesis the chi-square (×2)

test of goodness of fit was employed test statistics

do

You

Accep Adoptio Influenc Agreed Increase Making choice availabilit regardin welcom problem

t q1 n q2 e Q4 s Q6 s y g e s

Q3 Q5 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11

Chi- 33.333a 21.750 19.111 23.694b 40.639 30.36 12.306b 64.944b 04.806 90.222b

squar b b b b b

Df 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Asym .000 .000 .001 .000 .000 0.15 .000 .000 .005 .000

sig

.
BAR CHART

6
age

16-21
4
22-26

27-31
2
32-36

37 & above
0

Strongly disagree undecided agreed strongly


Disagree agreed
Welcome q10

FIGURE 4.11

Question 11: are you of the opinion that the problems encountered in

the use of personal selling strategies is higher than its uses and

effectiveness? The response was thus:


Chi-square tests

Value Df Asymp.sig. (2- sided)

Pearson chi-square 41.28% 16 .001

Likelihood ratio 42.187 16 .000

Linear-by linear association 1.146 1 .284

N of valid cases 71

a. 20 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5.

The minimum expected count is17.

Figure 4.11.1:
QUESTIONNAIRE

PERSONAL DATA

(SECTION A. PLEASE FILL AS APPROPRIITED)

NAME: - - - - - - - - - - - - -

AGE:

16-21 [ ]

22-26 [ ]

27-31 [ ]

32-36 [ ]

37 & ABOVE [ ]

MARITAL STATUS- - - - - - - - - -

QUALIFICATION (S)- - - - - - - - - -
POSITION- - - - - - - - - - -

YEAR (S) OF EXPERIENCE- - - - - - - - -

SECTION B

1.to examine how the effectiveness of personal selling strategies is

prerequisite to increases effectiveness of cosmetics sales.

2.to examine how effective personal selling influence consumer

purchase decision.

DRECTIONS

1.read carefully before taking your decision

2.for each of the sections, statements below are questions, answer by

making the appropriate column.

3. give your immediate impression. There is no right or wrong answers.


STATEMENT STRONGLY AGREED UNDECIDED DISAGREED STRONGLYLY

AGREED (4) (3) (2) DISAGREED

(5) (1)

1.DO YOU ACCEPT THE ADOPTION OF PERSONAL

SELLING IN YOU COMPANY?

2. IN THE ADOPTION OF PERSONAL SELLING IN YOUR

COMPANY DO YOU HAVE CONFIDENCE IN ITS ROLE

FOR EFFECTIVENESS?

3. IN THE INFLUNCE OF CUSTOMER ATTITUDES THE

PRODUCT, DO YOU TRUST THE EFFECT OF PERSONAL

SELLING STR

4. DO YOU AFREE IN INCREASE RATE IN THE

PROFITABILITY OF COSMETIC PRODUCT IN RELATION

TO THE EFFECT OF PERSONAL SELLING.