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October 2010

Prisoner
Radicalization
October 2010
Volume 79
Number 10
United States
Department of Justice
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Washington, DC 20535-0001
Robert S. Mueller III
Director
Contributors’ opinions and statements Features
should not be considered an
endorsement by the FBI for any policy,
program, or service.
The attorney general has determined Prisoner Radicalization Authorities need to be aware
that the publication of this periodical
is necessary in the transaction of the
public business required by law. Use
By Dennis A. Ballas 1 of the potential for prisoners to
embrace a radical form of Islam.
of funds for printing this periodical has
been approved by the director of the
Office of Management and Budget.
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Increasing Organizational The promotional process can
(ISSN-0014-5688) is published
monthly by the Federal Bureau of
Investigation, 935 Pennsylvania
Leadership Through the
Police Promotional Process
10 impact a law enforcement agency’s
organizational leadership and
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.
commitment.
20535-0001. Periodicals postage paid By Patrick J. Hughes
at Washington, D.C., and additional
mailing offices. Postmaster:
Send address changes to Editor,
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
FBI Academy,
Quantico, VA 22135. Investigating and Prosecuting Law enforcement agencies
Editor
John E. Ott
Hidden-Compartment Cases
By Todd F. Prough
26 can be successful in these
crucial investigations.
Associate Editor and Robert Veiga
David W. MacWha
Stephanie Mitesser
Art Director
Stephanie L. Lowe

The Training Division’s Departments


Outreach and Communications Unit
produces this publication with
assistance from the division’s
National Academy Unit. 6 Leadership Spotlight 16 Bulletin Reports
Issues are available online at Table Manners Missing Children Guide
http://www.fbi.gov.
Family Abductions
E-mail Address 7 Police Practice
leb@fbiacademy.edu
Energy Conservation 18 Perspective
Cover Photo as a Budget Multiplier Career-Long Vitality and
© iStockphoto.com
Wellness in the Police
Send article submissions to Editor, 9 Bulletin Honors Profession
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Oregon Fallen Law
FBI Academy,
Quantico, VA 22135. Enforcement Officers
Memorial

ISSN 0014-5688 USPS 383-310


Prisoner
Radicalization
By DENNIS A. BALLAS, M.A.

n July 5, 2005, police in Torrance, California,

O arrested Levar Haley Washington and Grego-


ry Vernon Patterson because of their suspect-
ed involvement in a string of gas station robberies.
Officers conducting a standard follow-up investigation
searched Washington=s apartment and found jihad-
ist material, including an apparent target list. Both

© Thinkstock.com
October 2010 / 1
suspects are U.S. nationals and States and advocates the target- James met Washington in
converts to Islam. This arrest ing of the American and Israeli prison in 2004 and introduced
of Acommon criminals@ quickly governments, as well as Jews, him to JIS and its beliefs. Prior
led to a large-scale investiga- in retaliation for their policies to Washington=s release that
tion of a homegrown terrorist regarding Muslims.1 same year, James provided him
plot directed against targets In 2004, Kevin James, an with ABlueprint 2005,@ a docu-
in Southern California. Many inmate serving time for robbery ment urging prospective JIS
people found it surprising that convictions at the New Folsom members to blend into society
such a threat could exist in their Prison near Sacramento, Cali- by marrying, getting a job, and
own community. Even stranger, fornia, led the JIS. He recruited dressing casually. The docu-
individuals within the confines fellow prisoners to join and ment also instructed followers
of prison walls fermented the preached the duty of members to study Arabic, acquire two
plot. to target enemies of Islam, or pistols with silencers, and learn
Ainfidels,@ including the U.S. how to make bombs.3
IMPORTANT CASE government and Jewish and Washington used the docu-
Washington and Patterson non-Jewish supporters of Israel. ment to recruit Patterson, an
were part of Jam=iyyat Ul-Islam James distributed a document in employee at Los Angeles
Is-Saheeh (JIS), Arabic for prison that justified the killing International Airport (LAX),
Assembly of Authentic Islam, of infidels and made members and another individual, Hamad
a radical prison organization. take an oath not to speak of the Riaz Samana, a Pakistani citi-
The JIS interpretation of Islam, existence of JIS. He also alleg- zen, at the Jamaat-E-Masijudal
sometimes known as APrison edly sought to establish groups, mosque in Inglewood, Califor-
Islam,@ supports the establish- or cells, of members outside nia, where they all worshiped.
ment of an Islamic caliphate, prison to carry out violent Both Patterson and Samana
or government, in the United attacks.2 swore allegiance to Washington
and pledged to serve as Amuja-
hideen,@ Muslim guerilla war-
riors engaged in a jihad.4
The men plotted to attack

“ While only a small


percentage of converts
turn radical beliefs into
Jewish institutions and other
targets in the Los Angeles area,
including synagogues, the Is-
raeli Consulate, LAX, and U.S.
military recruiting offices and
terrorist action, the military bases, intending to kill
James case is not an as many people as possible.5
isolated event. They planned to carry out their
attack on a synagogue during

Lieutenant Ballas serves with the Los Angeles,


California, Police Department.
” Yom Kippur to increase the
number of casualties; the plot-
ters also considered the fourth
anniversary of the September 11
terrorist attacks.6

2 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


EFFECTIVE RESPONSE them to obtain overhead and Perhaps most important, the
street-level views of potential TPD had established relation-
Identification of target locations. ships with its local and fed-
Terrorist Activities The suspects ultimately eral law enforcement partners.
The Los Angeles Police advised investigators that they These partnerships allowed for
Department (LAPD) trains conducted the gas station rob- a coordinated investigation suf-
its officers on the tactics and beries to raise funds to finance ficient to disrupt JIS= terror plan,
methods used by contemporary their terror efforts. This consti- identify all involved parties, and
terrorists. This includes the tuted the supply procurement ensure an eventual successful
various steps that lead up to an stage. The FBI later determined prosecution. As stated by the
attack, such as target acquisi- that Patterson bought a .223- special agent in charge of the
tion, preattack surveillance, caliber rifle with the proceeds FBI=s Los Angeles office, AThis
and supply procurement. The from his robberies. case reminds me of the evolv-
JIS investigation, conducted ing terror threat we face and
by more than 200 investigators continues to serve as one of the


from the Torrance Police De- finest examples of line police
partment (TPD), LAPD, FBI, officers uncovering a terrorist
and other local and federal law Prisons plot and setting aside jurisdic-
enforcement agencies, revealed literally provide a tional boundaries to work with
that Washington, Patterson, and captive audience of the JTTF.@7
Samana, under the leadership of disaffected young men Washington and Patterson
James, had taken part in all of easily influenced by pled guilty in 2007 to charges of
these activities. conspiring to wage war against
Patterson and Washington
charismatic extremist the United States. In 2008,
originally were connected to the leaders. they received sentences of 22
gas station robberies when Pat- years and 12 years respectively.


terson, who lived with Washing- Washington also was sentenced
ton, dropped a cell phone at one to an additional 22 years in
of the crime scenes. During a prison for unrelated robbery and
search of their apartment, inves- Valuable Measures weapons charges. Kevin James
tigators found evidence of target The JIS case serves as an pled guilty in federal court to
acquisition in a 2-page docu- excellent example of local law conspiring to levy war against
ment written by Samana titled, enforcement using straight- the United States. In 2009,
AModes of Attack,@ which listed forward crime-fighting efforts James was sentenced to 16
the addresses of each location to thwart terrorist activities. In- years in federal prison. Hamad
they targeted. vestigators from TPD followed Samana was sentenced to 70
Prior to their arrests, the JIS the clues to locate the robbery months in prison in 2009 for his
members conducted surveil- suspects, and they had the train- participation in the plot.
lance and used the Internet to ing that allowed them to recog-
research possible targets. They nize that they had uncovered a SERIOUS PROBLEM
easily did so with commonly terrorist cell, not just a group of The radicalization of Wash-
used Web sites that allowed common criminals. ington in prison is not unique.

October 2010 / 3
Muslims overseas. This per-
ceived oppression, combined
with a limited knowledge of
Islam, makes this population
vulnerable for extremists look-
ing to radicalize and recruit.11
The shortage of qualified
religious providers in prisons
heightens the threat of inmate
radicalization. Prisoners with
little training in Islam have
asserted themselves as leaders
among the prison population,
at times misrepresenting the
faith. Prison Islam incorporates
violent inmate culture with
religious practice. Currently,
© iStockphoto.com little standardization or accredi-
tation exists to identify persons
Kevin James himself was of collective resistance against qualified to teach Islam or lead
radicalized while incarcerated. the U.S. government.8 its services in prisons. Wardens
In 1997, the then 21 year old While only a small percent- rely on local endorsing agencies
began serving a 10-year sen- age of converts turn radical or simply leave it up to inmates
tence for robbery at the Califor- beliefs into terrorist action, the to choose. Prison authorities are
nia State Prison in Tehachapi. James case is not an isolated not ensuring that religious lead-
Initially while in prison, James event.9 Jose Padilla, a Chicago, ers have adequate training or if
followed a traditional form Illinois, street gang member, they espouse radical theology.12
of American Islam, Nation of is just one more example of
Islam, but found those teachings someone who became a radical POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS
uninteresting. JIS provided him Islamist while in prison. Au- Currently, and not surpris-
a level of protection not af- thorities arrested him in 2002 on ingly, researchers are proposing
forded other religious followers suspicion of planning to explode the need for more study in the
because it is based on a model a Adirty bomb.@10 area of prisoner radicalization.
in which its members act as a Prisons literally provide a The magnitude of the problem
prison gang. The group not only captive audience of disaffected remains unknown. Authorities
has its own hierarchy, code of young men easily influenced by must temper their responses
conduct, and secret communica- charismatic extremist leaders. with the understanding that re-
tion system but the members These inmates, mostly minori- ligious conversion differs from
also have their own group iden- ties, feel that the United States radicalization. Many people
tity. This gives them a shared has discriminated against them have advocated the necessity
purpose and has led to a form or against minorities and of more effort in identifying

4 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


and recruiting qualified chap- closely tracking inmates with 2
J. Kouri, AFour Terrorists Arrested
lains who could teach a more suspected terrorist ties.13 for Conspiracy, Robberies,@ http://www.
mainstream version of Islam in americanchronicle.com/articles/view/2231
CONCLUSION (accessed March 26, 2010).
prisons. Even so, the JIS case 3
Anti-Defamation League, ATwo Sen-
demonstrates that some prison- The problem of prisoner tenced in Los Angeles Terror Plot Against
ers will find Prison Islam more radicalization is a serious one. Jewish Institutions.@
attractive than a moderate or Clearly, any solution will 4
Ibid.
5
mainstream teaching of the require a multiagency and 6
Ibid.
multidisciplinary response and Ibid.
Quran. 7
U.S. Department of Justice, Fed-
Other recommended so- will rely on better education, eral Bureau of Investigation, AMan Who
lutions to the radicalization intelligence, and enforcement. Formed Terrorist Group That Plotted
problem stem from the position Attacks on Military and Jewish Facilities
that groups, such as JIS, are Sentenced to 16 Years in Federal Prison,@


http://www.justice.gov/usao/cac/
prison gangs and that authorities pressroom/pr2009/024.html (accessed
should deal with them as such. March 26, 2010).
In California, gang investiga- …any solution will 8
U.S. Department of Justice, Office
tors assigned to prisons have require a multiagency of Justice Programs, National Institute of
been trained to recognize and Justice, Prisoner Radicalization: Assessing
and multidisciplinary the Threat in U.S. Correctional Institutions
monitor the potential radicaliza-
tion of inmates. Of particular
response and will rely (Washington, DC, 2008).
9
Ibid.
concern are people, such as on better education, 10
Ontario Consultants on Religious
Washington, who can be pa- intelligence, and Tolerance, APotential for Radicalization
roled into the community after enforcement. of U.S. Muslim Prison Inmates,@ http://
www.religioustolerance.org/islpris.htm
radicalization. Such individu-


(accessed March 26, 2010).
als pose the threat of commit- 11
FBI Deputy Assistant Director Don-
ting acts of violent jihad. In an ald Van Duyn, statement before the Senate
effort to get an early warning Committee on Homeland Security and
Governmental Affairs and Related Agen-
about any such prisoner who Seemingly, law enforcement cies, September 19, 2006, http://www.fbi.
may play the role of the mar- and government in general are gov/congress/congress06/vanduyn091906.
tyr, California=s correctional better positioned to respond to, htm (accessed March 26, 2010).
authorities forward information if not prevent, future incidents,
12
George Washington University
about prison radicalization to like the JIS case. And, certainly,
Homeland Security Policy Institute and
the state=s intelligence fusion the University of Virginia Critical Incident
a greater awareness of the threat Analysis Group, Out of the Shadows:
centers, where officials from exists. Getting Ahead of Prisoner Radicaliza-
all three levels of government, tion, available at http://www.healthsystem.
as well as the private sector, virginia.edu/internet/ciag/publications/
share information. Likewise, the Endnotes out_of_the_shadows.pdf (accessed March
Federal Bureau of Prisons and
1
Anti-Defamation League, ATwo Sen- 26, 2010).
tenced in Los Angeles Terror Plot Against 13
J. Straw, APrisons: Fostering Extrem-
the FBI address the problem, as Jewish Institutions,@ http://www.adl.org/ ism?@ http://www.securitymanagement.
well, both by vetting chaplains main_Terrorism/los_angeles_sentenced. com/article/prisons-fostering-extremism
and religious volunteers and by htm (accessed March 26, 2010). (accessed March 26, 2010).

October 2010 / 5
Leadership Spotlight
Table Manners from Mom and Dad
You can tell a lot about a fellow’s character by his way of eating jelly beans. —Ronald Reagan

A s a child growing up in a middle class family with two brothers and a sister, we always were coming
and going in many different directions—except when it was time for dinner. It was an unspoken
rule that all family members had to be at the dinner table by 5 p.m. on weekdays. While I recall
a few meals that were not particularly appetizing (meatloaf with raisins—sorry Mom), the conversations
always were rewarding. Eating dinner together was considered a time to unite and share the day’s hap-
penings and events. It also was a time of instruction on the proper etiquette required at the dinner table. I
am reminded today of the many life teachings that my parents instilled at dinnertime in the guise of table
manners.

TEN LEADERSHIP LESSONS FROM THE DINNER TABLE


Lesson Leadership Translation
Be punctual Honor your commitments by being on time or notifying others
when you will be late.
Give thanks It is simple, free, and powerful to show appreciation. We can
inspire others by thanking them for their efforts.
Place your napkin on your lap The professional courtesies we sometimes ignore or forget leave a
lasting impression and can weaken team morale. Manners count!

Ask someone to pass you the food Ask advice from others and let them feed your creativity.

Use little or no salt Too much of anything is generally unhealthy; maintain a balanced
worklife that keeps stress in check.
Try new foods Expand your palate by seeking new learning opportunities that
make you a well-rounded leader.
Listen to what is said at the table Generous listening is rare. Take time to be a more active listener.

Share something about your day Share your skills, talents, and experience with others. This is a great
way to build new leaders.
Don’t overeat Avoid taking fill in yourself because of a title or position. It creates
indigestion for everyone, including you.
Help clean up the dishes Understand that it never hurts to occasionally climb back in the
trench and help. Servant leadership speaks volumes.

Christopher C. Lenhard, a member of the Leadership Development Institute at the FBI Academy, prepared
this Leadership Spotlight.

6 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


Police Practice

Energy Conservation
as a Budget Multiplier
By Alan John

© Thinkstock.com

A s the nation’s economy struggles and local


tax revenues drop, the mayor and council
members call you, the chief of police, in for a
convincing government officials that they are not
only aware of the depth of the financial crisis but
are actively engaging in a solution.
meeting. They advise that they cannot continue to In today’s society, although many people be-
fund the police department at the current budget lieve it is always noble and politically correct to go
levels; they want to lay off officers. What are you “green” and save the environment, employees may
going to do? How are you going to respond? not buy into the program without motivation. They
By proactively taking certain steps now, must understand the need to conserve, and organi-
law enforcement agencies can begin to decrease zations must regularly inform them of the progress
operating costs. The opening scenario may not and results of their efforts. Each area of the country
occur. But, if it does, leaders can demonstrate is unique in its needs and uses of energy for dif-
how they have reduced their bottom line through ferent reasons. Police officers in the Arizona heat
energy conservation at fundamental budget levels, may want to leave their patrol cars running when

October 2010 / 7
unoccupied to keep them cool. In Jackson Hole, care if you believe in the environmental benefits
Wyoming, officers may want their cruisers running of conserving energy or not. This has come down
because of the frigid temperatures. Most agencies to a money issue. Every bit of energy we save
have chargers for every electronic gadget plugged translates to money we have in the general fund,
in all over the department. Officers plug in radio which is where we get money for salaries.” Now,
battery and cell phone chargers, automated exter- of course, he had everyone’s attention and finished
nal defibrillators, and jump packs for cars even by reminding each employee to save energy.
when they are not using or charging them. Further,
many organizations regularly leave all of the lights New Policies
on in their buildings. Over the next 6 months, department heads
monitored their employees’ energy use. The police
ONE AGENCY’S EXPERIENCE chief reminded all supervisors that vehicles should
Jackson, Wyoming, is one of the most beautiful not run while unattended unless the temperature
places in the world. Its citizens care about the future fell below 0 degrees Fahrenheit. Subsequently,
of the planet and ecosystem supervisors passed that infor-
and continue to increase their mation to officers and brought


environmental awareness. it to their attention when they
The Jackson Police Depart- discovered a car’s engine
ment operated in the business
...although many running unattended. Soon, of-
mode outside the commu- people believe it is ficers started reminding each
nity norms. Officers often always noble and other. The message became
left cars running for hours at politically correct to clear, even though not par-
a time while they completed go “green” and save ticularly popular with some.
reports in the station. They the environment, Employees turned off office
joked to each other how they employees may not lights at night and whenever
turned their vehicles on in buy into the program not needed during the day. The
November and turned them without motivation. administration department
off in May. Many community shared educational tidbits
members complained to the
police chief and town council
that the department was not ” to teach officers additional
ways to conserve energy. Of-
ficers unplugged cell phone
being energy efficient. Drawing upon the badge of and radio chargers when not in use and turned off
public safety, for several years, the chief declared computer monitors. Additionally, the department
such practices necessary for the good of the com- installed motion lights in hallways and bathrooms
munity. Finally, the town administrator called an to conserve energy. The mayor and council mem-
all-employee meeting with attendance mandatory. bers applauded the employees’ efforts.
He announced that the budget was getting tighter,
and the organization needed to become more aware Results
of budget flow in all areas. When the administrator The Jackson Police Department reduced its
mentioned energy conservation, the room erupted fleet fuel consumption by 44 percent the next year.
with the usual laughter. He announced, “I don’t Consequently, the energy use for the town hall

8 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


where the police department is located decreased balances and save jobs. They can accomplish
23 percent in 2 years. The results of the conserva- these reductions without decreasing public safety
tion efforts became obvious to employees in nu- while, at the same time, helping to preserve the
merous ways. Department heads verbally thanked environment.
and acknowledged the success at department meet- Conserving energy and fuel benefits everyone.
ings and team briefings. As the budget became Law enforcement executives can demonstrate
tighter, the department saved positions that might their willingness to lead in tough economic times
have been eliminated. by implementing innovative programs to resolve
decreasing budget conflicts and save jobs in their
CONCLUSION departments.
Law enforcement organizations throughout
the country face financial constraints and are
expected to do more with less. By discovering Sergeant John serves with the Jackson, Wyoming, Police
ways to reduce electricity and fuel costs, agencies Department.
may be able to apply such savings to general fund

Bulletin Honors

Oregon Fallen Law Enforcement


Officers Memorial
The Oregon Fallen Law Enforcement Officers Me-
morial sits on the grounds of the Oregon Public Safety
Academy in Salem. The monument features a curved
granite wall, representing the survivors’ lives with the
ones they lost; another wall with the names of the de-
ceased, depicting the deaths themselves; and trees, rep-
resenting the lives of those left behind after their loss.
The memorial honors more than 160 Oregon law
enforcement officers killed in the line of duty, some
dating back to the 1880s. It recognizes those from all
agencies, including city, county, and state police of-
ficers; county and state corrections officers; parole and
probation officers; and other local, state, and federal
law enforcement agents and officers.

October 2010 / 9
Increasing Organizational
Leadership Through the
Police Promotional
Process
By PATRICK J. HUGHES, M.S.

© Thinkstock.com

aw enforcement agen- those holding a title, described So, how do officers obtain a

L cies and their design


appear to differ from
any other type of organization.
what those in the profession be-
lieved to constitute leadership.
However, more recent years
police leadership position, and
what measures their leadership
behaviors and skills? Are the
Although usually compared have shown that managers are right people placed into these
with the military, police depart- not necessarily leaders. Rather, positions, and can these indi-
ments have been referred to those placed into managerial viduals lead larger numbers of
as having “hyper-bureaucratic roles should possess leadership officers in the future? For the
military organizational attri- skills, behaviors, and knowl- past few decades, some police
butes—those of formal rank, edge. Employing such a concept research has dealt with such
formal hierarchy, and a chain of could improve officers’ connec- topics as leadership styles of
unquestioned and unquestioning tions with their departments and those in positions of authority.
command.”1 Only until a few aid in succession planning when Other studies have focused on
years ago, the term police man- promoting future leaders within leadership as it pertains to gain-
agement, designated only for the agency. ing organizational commitment.

10 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


Little research, however, has ex- and their design, however, lack nature of police work.”3 Police
amined the promotional process some items that officers would organizations face a changing
and how it can impact organiza- like, such as better communica- environment at a faster than
tional leadership and commit- tion networks, more participa- normal pace and should have
ment. In today’s world, a need tion, improved decision making, a structure flexible enough to
exists to research and create and enhanced ethical leader- handle such situations, as well
changes to both the design of ship. Through these requests for as flowing communication and
these agencies and the process change, organizational commit- leadership firmly embedded in
to promote future leaders. ment may increase. Research the design. In most police struc-
To this end, the author has indicated that “participa- tures, ranks descend from chief
explores the current assessment tive role clarification improved to deputy chief, captain, lieu-
process used to promote first- organizational commitment.”2 tenant, sergeant, corporal, and
line supervisors and discusses Inside a militaristic-designed patrol officer. These levels exist
leadership education and its organization, the levels of rank more in larger metropolitan or
availability and applicability to in management and their im- county-level agencies mainly
all officers. He draws a connec- portance often are oversimpli- due to the number of officers
tion between desired leadership fied and many times seen as a employed. However, in some
styles and how a proper assess- mere conduit of communication states, such as Pennsylvania,
ment process, coupled with having no real influence on department size does not allow
leadership education and train- subordinates. Researchers have for such rank design, making
ing of future first-line supervi- argued that “obedience social- the levels of sergeant and patrol
sors, could enhance the abilities ization and military command officer more open to leader-
of those in positions of author- supervision across the hierar- ship situations. One study noted
ity to lead the officers in their chal levels appear to distort the that the “quasi-military model
charge.
Examining the Design


When focusing specifi-
cally on organizational design,
law enforcement agencies are Police organizations
highly structured with well- face a changing
defined charts that describe the environment at a faster
roles that accompany the posi- than normal pace and
tion titles set forth. In addition, should have a structure
top-down communication exists flexible enough to
inside these agencies. Some
arguments have highlighted the
handle such situations....


need for this design because of
the severe situations officers en-
counter and the great amount of Professor Hughes, a former police officer, is the director of criminal
liability that accompanies such justice administration at Central Pennsylvania College in Harrisburg
and also instructs at the Harrisburg Area Police Academy.
incidents. These organizations

October 2010 / 11
makes no provision for the business. It suggested that “en- paradoxically links manageri-
situational effects of a leader’s trepreneurial policing is an open alism and conformity to risk-
behavior.”4 Other researchers style of management linked to, taking behavior.”8
echo this by suggesting, “Al- but transcending, individual In addition, some studies
though many agencies appear to leadership styles because it can have reported other perceived
rely on military arrangements be practiced by everyone within leadership styles gathered from
in terms of structure, rank, and the police service irrespective sworn personnel.9 For example,
hierarchies, this model may not of rank. This link between the researchers examined how these
effectively serve police leaders rubrics of entrepreneurship and styles affect officer-integrity
and their respective organiza- leadership is vital because for a violations. Findings identified
tions. Replacing the military practical theory of entrepreneur- three styles as openness, role
model of leadership develop- ial policing to develop, policing model, and strictness, conclud-
ment with behavioral com- ing that “all three aspects of
petency development may be leadership...have a significant


more effectual in leadership and effect on the frequency with
agency performance.”5 which corruption occurs.”10
Many in the police arena Another study revealed that
believe that law enforcement Many in the the most effective perceived
agencies differ greatly from police arena believe style admired by officers was
organizations in the private that law enforcement transformational leadership.11
sector. However, one study agencies differ greatly Finally, another researcher fo-
compared the scores of police from organizations in cused on officers as the “change
leaders on the California Per- the private sector. agents” in police organizations,
sonality Inventory with those arguing that “police depart-
from the business world and ments could be well advised


found that “results indicate very to encourage participatory
similar scores.”6 Is there truly involvement as a vehicle for
a difference in how leadership organizational reform.”12
is applied between the polic- requires the active participation As seen by this variety of
ing and business worlds? Some of future generations of police research, many studies have
in law enforcement will argue leaders.”7 This concept not only identified styles sought by of-
that at their basic cores, the two intertwines the business world ficers of their supervisors. It
differ in followers, motivation, with policing but also exem- appears that through employ-
and desired leadership styles. plifies that leadership should ing these styles, officers may
Many people associate the word be seen at all levels within the have stronger organizational
entrepreneur with the world of police organization. To further commitment. By engaging in
business. One study introduced support this, the study con- these styles, supervisors may
the concept of entrepreneurial nected entrepreneurship and strengthen the integrity and
policing with the basis behind policing by reporting that it “is ethical behavior of the organiza-
such a term being that the lead- action-oriented cognitive human tion. Apparently, strengthening
ership concepts in policing do ability, which guides policing leadership among supervisors,
not differ greatly from those of as an everyday practice and especially first-line ones (e.g.,

12 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


sergeants), would benefit many One of the most difficult indicate that the CPI-260 can
law enforcement agencies and tasks in the promotional pro- be utilized to assess change
their followers. cess is creating standardized through training and that, in this
If police organizations need testing, a system employed in case, the training seemed effec-
more flexibility and incorpo- such areas as collegiate admis- tive at helping the law enforce-
rate leadership at all ranks, sions, government civil service, ment executives develop their
what, then, should change, and psychological measurement, leadership skills, awareness,
who should participate in that and high school academic profi- and abilities.”15 In the current
change? Moreover, Does the ciency. As a means of bringing processes, many candidates
current promotional process fairness and equality to all who never attend, nor are given the
truly select candidates with take them, the exams seek to opportunity to do so, any lead-
these styles, and, if not, how measure, through written words, ership training prior to testing.
can that process be improved a person’s skill or personal- Some attributing factors may be
to do so? ity. Prior to the test, candidates cost, shift coverage, availability
should complete a job-task of training, or simply not view-
Analyzing Promotions © Thinkstock.com ing it as needed.
and Assessment Assessment centers also
These processes can differ have made their place in stan-
from department to department dardized testing and often exist
given the resources and num- in the government and public
ber of employees. Many larger sectors. “Over 62 percent of
agencies usually employ a the respondents in a recent
procedure involving written and survey of police and fire chiefs
oral examinations, performance reported that they use assess-
evaluations, psychological and ment centers, especially for
physical tests, and drug screen- promotion.”16 Further findings
ing created and disseminated by showed that centers “are inap-
a consulting department.13 propriate for selection proce-
Agencies can expand and dures which purport to measure
contract on these steps if they traits or constructs, such as
so choose. However, this can analysis, which offers perfor- intelligence, aptitude, personal-
prove costly for smaller ones mance dimensions needed for ity, common sense, judgment,
that often must rely on years of a certain position. While such leadership.”17 This study sug-
service and performance evalu- testing has served its purpose, gested an alternative to the writ-
ations to promote their officers. recent research has shown some ten assessment. It used the term
With all of this in mind, the flaws.14 For example, research- task-specific centers, defining
question remains, Is the cur- ers administered the California this concept as “exercises (work
rent promotional process truly Psychological Inventory (CPI) samples) and not performance
choosing candidates with the to promotional candidates in dimensions.”18 Given the vari-
wanted leadership styles, and, Texas attending leadership ous differences among organiza-
if not, what improvements training. They gave both a pre- tions, each could design its own
can be made? and posttest, advising “results task-specific assessment using

October 2010 / 13
the officers, administrators, and a behavioral quality which has be at a federal, state, or local
subject-matter experts. This to be demonstrated in everyday level. On a federal level, the
would suggest better participa- contexts.”22 That is the concept FBI maintains the Leadership
tion by officers at all levels. that supports using behavior Development Institute.23 Some
One downside to this concept is observations in task-specific states also may have some type
that “assessors...are not deter- center assessments. of leadership seminars or class-
mining how much leadership or By further investing time es. For example, Pennsylvania,
judgment a subject has; they are into creating a better testing through the Penn State Justice
attempting to measure how well process to observe leadership and Safety Institute, offers nine
the subject handles a specific behavior, law enforcement leadership development cours-
job-related situation.”19 Interest- agencies would improve their es.24 Of these, seven require the
ingly, the study did not say that organizational design. Ultimate- officer to hold the rank of lieu-
leadership may not exist in the ly, they would provide those be- tenant or higher, one requires
behavior while completing the ing led with their chosen leader. the officer to be in the promo-
task. Some situational leader- It also would be a positive step tional process or promoted, and
ship skills could emerge during one has nothing noted about


the performance of the work. “It who may attend. This concept in
would be appropriate, however, offering leadership training does
to have an exercise where the not appear to be in line with that
subject was designated group When discussing of succession planning. Instead
leader and there was an issue the assessment of supplying training to those
to address.”20 Then, it could be of future leaders, choosing or aspiring to be lead-
asked if this assessment mea- leadership is ers, the training occurs after the
sures behavior. The answer observable, thus officer is selected from a list of
is yes. The study included a a behavior. eligible candidates. Educating
component termed behavior in this manner appears to “place


observation in the assessment the cart before the horse.” After
process. When discussing the all, officers seek certain styles
assessment of future leaders, from those who lead them, but
leadership is observable, thus into planning for the future for these styles do not appear to be
a behavior. “Checklists can many agencies because law measured through the current
include a short 8-15 list of items enforcement organizations often written assessment process.
considered important...a method do not consider the concept of One researcher suggested, “The
for recording the subject’s succession planning. quality of police leadership
actions.”21 Revisiting the de- could be improved by more
sired leadership styles of offi- Planning for the Future effective methods to identify
cers, it is suggested this check- The final question to inves- officers in the middle rankings
list be designed specifically for tigate is, How do police orga- posts who had the potential
those behaviors sought by the nizations plan and train future to become chief officers.”25
officers to be led. This would leaders of their departments? He advised that succession
ensure the right person is cho- Many do not invest time or planning can increase overall
sen to lead. Another researcher money into sending officers to police leadership that can be
said it correctly, “Leadership is leadership training. This could accomplished through training

14 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


the right people. His research By law enforcement changing improving the overall leadership
sought to “modernize the police the admission and availability throughout.
workforce, enhancing training of currently offered leadership In this day and age of increas-
and career progression to im- training simultaneously with the ingly complex challenges for the
prove leadership and manage- current promotional processes, law enforcement profession, such
ment skills at all levels of the police organizations can begin changes seem warranted. Con-
service.”26 to assure that they chose the cerning policing in the 21st cen-
Another issue in succes- right leaders. tury, one researcher aptly stated,
sion planning might be that not “Our job now is to go out and
enough individuals want to take garner learning from wherever it
part. This could be for various exists and increase the richness
reasons, such as satisfaction of our leadership culture.... Police
with the current assignment, leadership is not essentially dif-
monetary loss, lack of support ferent from all other forms of
or motivation, poor test-taking leadership.”31
ability, or a disconnect with
current administration values. Endnotes
In one study, officers perceived 1
H. Toch, “Police Officers as Change
their promotional process as Agents in Police Reform,” Policing and
“not picking the best police of- Society 18, no. 1 (2008): 60-71.
2
J.M. Jermier and L.J. Berkes, “Leader
ficers” and “the testing and se- Behavior in a Police Command Bureau-
lection method.”27 Whatever the © Thinkstock.com cracy: A Closer Look at the Quasi-Military
reason, this does not suggest a Model,” Administrative Science Quarterly
lack of those who can lead giv- Conclusion 24, no. 1 (1979): 1-23.
3
en the right tools. Sometimes, as Research has shown that the Ibid.
4
Ibid.
stated in another study, officers current design of police organi- 5
H.A. Miller, R.J. Watkins, and D. Webb,
have the “perception that pro- zations does not support change “The Use of Psychological Testing to Evalu-
motions are not based on merit easily. However, research also ate Law Enforcement Leadership Competen-
and reflect a hidden administra- has demonstrated that officers cies and Development,” Police Practice and
tive agenda.”28 However, in the want improvements in how Research 10, no. 1 (2009): 49-60.
6
Ibid.
same study, “black test takers their future leaders are chosen 7
R. Smith, “Entrepreneurship, Police
indicated leadership as a promi- and the styles these superiors Leadership, and the Investigation of Crime
nent concern.”29 While this is a should exhibit. Making leader- in Changing Times,” Journal of Investigative
positive sign of those focusing ship training available to those Psychology and Offender Profiling 5 (2009):
on leadership, this notion needs aspiring to become leaders and 209-225, http://www.interscience.wiley.com
(accessed May 28, 2009).
to be permeated throughout changing written assessments 8
Ibid.
the organization. Proper suc- to those that measure task 9
L. Huberts, M. Kaptein, and K. Last-
cession planning can make behavior could help bring huizen, “A Study of the Impact of Three
this possible with researchers about these desired advances. Leadership Styles on Integrity Violations
agreeing on “the importance Committed by Police Officers,” Policing: An
Further research could focus on
International Journal of Police Strategies
of creating a seamless continu- leadership training and how to and Management 30, no. 4 (2007): 587-
ity in leadership development build it into an organization’s 607; S.A. Murphy, “The Role of Emotions
and succession planning.”30 succession planning, thereby and Transformational Leadership on Police

October 2010 / 15
26
Culture: An Autoethnographic Account,” Social Behavior and Personality 12, no. Ibid.
27
International Journal of Police Science 5 (1997): 53-62; and Miller, Watkins, and S.A. Murphy, “Executive Develop-
and Management 10, no. 2 (2007): 165- Webb. ment and Succession Planning: Qualitative
15
178; Jermier and Berkes; and Toch. Miller, Watkins, and Webb. Evidence,” International Journal of Police
10 16
Huberts et al. Lowry. Science and Management 8, no. 4 (2006):
11 17
Murphy. Ibid. 253-265.
12 18 28
Toch. Ibid. T.S. Whetstone, “Copping Out: Why
13 19
For example, Pennsylvania depart- Ibid. Police Officers Decline to Participate
20
ments can administer this exam process Ibid. in the Sergeant’s Promotional Process,”
21
for various fees. As of October 15, 2008, Ibid. American Journal of Criminal Justice 25,
22
self-scoring exams would cost $15 per test; Smith. no. 2 (2001): 147-159.
23 29
those scored by the association, $24.50 per For additional information, access Ibid.
30
test; administrator’s guide, $10 per guide; http://www.fbi.gov/hq/td/academy/ldi.htm. Murphy.
24 31
study guide, $4 per guide; examiner’s For additional information, see Penn J.D. Ginger, review of Police
manual, $10 per manual; and proctors, State Justice and Safety Institute, http:// Leadership in the Twenty-First Century:
$200. See, Pennsylvania Chiefs of Police, jasi.outreach.psu.edu/#index.php?lawenf/ Philosophy, Doctrine, and Developments,
http://www.pachiefs.org/testing.aspx (ac- Programs (accessed July 1, 2009). by R. Adlam and P. Villiers, eds.,
25
cessed on June 25, 2009). M. Rowe, “Following the Leader: International Journal of Police Science
14
P.E. Lowry, “The Assessment Center Frontline Narratives on Police Leader- and Management 6, no. 2 (2003):
Process: New Directions,” Journal of ship,” Policing 29, no. 4 (2006): 757-767. 112-114.

Bulletin Reports

Missing Children Guide


The fourth edition of When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival Guide by the Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention provides parents with the most current informa-
tion on and helpful insights into what families should do when a child is missing. It contains
what to expect when a child is missing, what needs to be done, and where to go for help.
Written by parents and family members who have experienced the disappearance of a
child, the guide explains the role that various agencies and organizations play in the search and
discusses some important issues that parents and family members of missing children should
consider. Beginning with a checklist summarizing the most critical steps to take when a child
first goes missing, the guide continues with seven chapters, each structured to allow readers to
find information quickly and easily. Each chapter explains both the short- and long-term issues
and contains a checklist and chapter summary for later reference. Some recommended readings
and a list of public and private resources appear at the back of the guide.
To obtain a copy of When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival Guide (NCJ 228735),
access the National Criminal Justice Reference Service’s Web site, http://www.ncjrs.gov.

16 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


Family Abductions
Authored by survivors of family abduction, Crime of Family Abduction: A Child’s and
Parent’s Perspective by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention furnishes
the searching family, law enforcement, and mental health professionals with strategies to
build a comprehensive, child-centered approach to recovery and healing. According to
the U.S. Department of Justice, as many as 200,000 children are victims of family abduc-
tion each year. Although the majority are taken not by a stranger but by a parent or family
member, the issue of family abduction remains laden with misconception and myth. Serious
missing-child cases that have devastating effects on the child are too often seen as divorce
and custody matters, something private that the public and law enforcement should not con-
cern themselves with. The truth is that family abduction can be as physically dangerous and
even deadly for the child victims as any other form of child abduction. Most often, however,
the worst damage is imperceptible to the eye, occurring deep within the child and leaving
traces that may last a lifetime.
Written from the perspective of the child and
the searching parent, the publication is designed
to help readers understand the unique character-
istics of family abduction and the nightmare that
these children and parents have experienced.
Although the individual circumstances show the
multifaceted diversity of family abduction, the
one thing they have in common is that they were
all missing child cases. The child victims were
concealed by their abductor, hidden not just
from their searching family, friends, schools,
and community but also from the justice and
child protection systems.
Misperceptions about family abduction can
potentially cause further trauma to the abducted
child. These misperceptions also can lead to an
increase in the incidence and duration of family
abductions.
Readers interested in obtaining this docu-
ment (NCJ 229933) can visit the National
Criminal Justice Reference Service’s Web site,
http://www.ncjrs.gov.
© Thinkstock.com

October 2010 / 17
Perspective
The Need to Promote
Career-Long Vitality
and Wellness in the
Police Profession
By Daniel Mattos

© Thinkstock.com

A fter making the decision to begin a career


in law enforcement, most of us entered the
profession with a reasonably well-developed idea
Major Mattos serves with the
Kootenai County, Idaho,
Sheriff’s Department.
of what we thought we were getting ourselves
into. Some of us had idealistic goals centered
around public service; some wanted to experience
the thrill and challenge of catching crooks; others
came seeking vocational stability and the camara-
derie that the profession offers. Whatever attracted
those of us who took the oath to serve our commu-
nities, it can be reasonably assumed that it did not
include constant exposure to the toxic elements of
policing. Undoubtedly, we did not consider death,
violence, threats, moral depravity, and a host of
other social ills as motivators for entering the law
enforcement profession.

18 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


What happens to those idealistic law enforce- of our professional careers, continue through those
ment professionals after they have become bat- years between the beginning and end of our careers
tered with the reality that their service can take that represent the zenith of our contribution to the
different courses—courses that depend on what profession, and ultimately sustain us as we travel
they learn along the way, how they are mentored, down the road to retirement.
and how they personally choose to live their lives?
To enjoy a fulfilling law enforcement career in The Beginning
conjunction with a personal life filled with vitality When I think of the early years in a police of-
and happiness should be the goal of all of us in the ficer’s career, I cannot help but recall a saying I
profession. Unfortunately, this too often becomes once heard. “When I was 14 years old, I could not
a daunting task for many of- believe how stupid my father
ficers consistently exposed was, and, when I turned 20, I


to the caustic elements of a could not believe how much
career in law enforcement. he had learned.” This says
We issue ballistic volumes about how we learn
CAREER STAGES vests to protect our as we age and has distinct
As a profession, we have officers from bullets, parallels as to how we grow
historically placed a high but what armor do we as police officers.
priority on tactical skills and give them to deflect It seems to me that many
equipment that increase our the caustic events officers in the early years
safety in the field. Defensive they face during of their career are fortunate
driving, firearms training, their careers? enough to have good men-
and hand-to-hand defensive


tors who try to steer them
tactics are heavily focused on a true and correct course.
on at the academy level However, invariably, most
and throughout our careers. new officers arrive at a point
Moreover, we arm ourselves with handguns, rifles, when they actually think they have things figured
and shotguns; wear ballistic vests; and carry other out. Using myself as an example, it was around
equipment with us daily to keep us safe. Sadly, the 2-year mark that I began to develop definite
though, when we look at the amount of time spent opinions of how police work should be done. In
training officers to defend themselves against the fact, I was so impressed with my newfound logic
psychological and emotional traumas they will and reasoning capabilities that I actually thought
face, our profession falls drastically short. We is- that I had better ideas about how to do police work
sue ballistic vests to protect our officers from bul- and run police organizations than those who had
lets, but what armor do we give them to deflect the been in the business for years. More than once at
caustic events they face during their careers? three o’clock in the morning, I found myself “car
Realizing that the people we work with are our to car” with another young officer who had similar
most valuable assets, we have a duty to provide views—someone with 2 years on the job who also
our employees with the necessary training, guid- actually had things figured out. That was over three
ance, and resources throughout their careers to decades ago, and I dare say that my current obser-
enable them to live full, healthy lives. This guid- vations suggest that little has changed in terms of
ance and direction should take place at the onset how officers grow professionally.

October 2010 / 19
In truth, it takes years to fully grasp the reali- It is during these early steps along their career
ties of being a police officer and appreciate that the path that new officers acclimate to the culture of
work is fluid, that change affects everything, and their respective agencies, adapt to their cowork-
that several different ways exist for approaching ers, and develop the professional personality they
issues. In reality, new police officers face the same likely will keep for their entire careers. Also during
challenges as those of us who have been doing the this initial part of new officers’ careers, the seeds
job for years, yet they do not have the benefit of the of professional integrity, ethical hygiene, and per-
professional wisdom and understanding that only sonal wellness are developed. At this vital stage,
experience teaches. In dealing with the emotional new officers are looking for guidance and role
and psychological hurdles faced by new officers, models, essentially seeking to be like those they
this lack of experience can have devastating and admire. During this impressionable period, police
long-lasting effects that impact all facets of their managers must concern themselves with imprint-
lives. It is with this thought in mind that police ing upon these officers the need to develop skills
managers and leaders must to enhance their emotional and
move forward toward focusing psychological wellness equally
on the overall health and vital- as much as the other profes-
ity of new officers by engag- sional skills they have been
ing in practices that foster an taught.
institutional climate of health, Wellness and vitality in the
wellness, and understanding. early phases of their careers
Moreover, wellness programs are not typically focused on
for equipping new officers with heavily by these officers, par-
“emotional armor” prior to re- ticularly those not only young
leasing them from their respec- in professional years but in
tive training programs should actual ones as well. For most
be developed. © shutterstock.com
new officers, the excitement
Looking at the cultural and and challenge of their new pro-
professional evolution of new fession is intoxicating. Few of
officers in a somewhat clinical fashion, I note us in the profession for any amount of time would
that new police officers enter the profession after not admit that we found it nearly impossible to
the traditional battery of applicant tests, academy stay away from the job in the early years of our
training, and field instruction by experienced police careers. With this in mind, police managers must
officers. The premise of the testing is to assess of- make the effort to get the attention of the new of-
ficers’ fitness for the career that lay ahead of them; ficers during the beginning of their careers and
typically, this includes some sort of psychological impress upon them that staying emotionally fit is
testing designed to gauge how well they will be just as important as catching crooks and doing all
able to cope with the rigors of police work. Once the “fun” stuff that new cops are drawn to. Again,
selected, new officers complete training and then while most agencies do a good job of taking care
are essentially set free to perform their duties in a of their personnel when a problem surfaces, many
relatively loosely supervised atmosphere—one in do not have a developed program that addresses
which they are forced to cope with many situations the emotional welfare of their officers at the start
as part of an ongoing learning experience. of their careers.

20 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


Without a doubt, all law enforcement orga- also occurred to me that my most productive years
nizations need to address the issue of emotional professionally took place after the 5-year mark
wellness and vitality at the earliest phases of their and continued at varying degrees throughout my
officers’ careers. Making it evident that emotional career, now spanning over three decades. Having
health is directly tied to their professional prowess talked to uncounted police officers over the years, I
should be one of the fundamentals incorporated again find that this is a pattern that seems to present
into the orientation phases of new police officers. itself among career officers.
Approaching the issue of emotional well-being Unfortunately, the productivity and success
by linking it to their professional success creates also comes with a price best exemplified by an
an interest that otherwise may go undeveloped. experience I had several years ago. While in an of-
Simply put, new officers want to succeed in their fice with several seasoned detectives, we discussed
careers, so tying their suc- who had been divorced and
cess to emotional wellness who had not. After a role
can go a long way toward call of eight detectives—all
helping them understand the
importance of this issue.
Specific emphasis on
programs addressing vitality
“ To ensure the
wellness and
emotional vitality
successful and dedicated to
the profession—all but two
had been divorced at least
once. Nationally, the divorce
and wellness for new offi- of our officers, police rate among police officers
cers should be incorporated organizations need to is shown to be as high as 70
at the academy level, during adopt an institutional percent in a society that has
field training, and through character that a divorce rate of around 50
an ongoing interagency dis- percent. Volumes have been
cipline aimed at gaining and
promotes well-being. written on why the divorce
maintaining emotional well- rate is high among police
ness and career-long vitality
for personnel. It is through
the timely incorporation of
” officers; however, I use this
example simply as a way of
conveying that we constantly
programs that address emotional well-being that walk in murky waters, which often devastates our
agencies will have the opportunity to provide their personal lives.
employees with the seeds of emotional fitness that The residue from these toxic waters creates
will help them survive the challenges of the career the perfect conditions for marital discourse, de-
ahead. pression, substance abuse, and other maladaptive
behaviors that ultimately can wreak havoc on the
The Primary Years physical and emotional vitality and wellness of
Looking at my career, I see that I spent the first police officers. It is during the primary years of our
5 years learning the basics of my job. During this career—years in which we have become commit-
time, I chose those I wanted to emulate and learned ted to the profession and have a vested stake in our
values that ultimately have stayed with me. Essen- careers—that we are most consistently exposed to
tially, I forged my law enforcement character and the caustic elements of society. And, because of
formed my decision on how I would travel through this consistent exposure to those harmful elements
my career. I believe that most of us in the profes- of our jobs, our vitality and wellness become
sion follow this pattern or a very similar one. It imperiled.

October 2010 / 21
How many of us who have been in the law the basic tenets of managing human beings: treat
enforcement profession can honestly say we have them with dignity and respect. Then, the charac-
not been touched by grief, sadness, shock, and the ter of the organization is further built upon by its
countless other emotions that we have experienced leaders demonstrating a genuine, consistent, and
as a result of being exposed to the multitude of permeating attitude of care and concern for those
situations we are called upon to deal with? By who work there; this character is built mostly by
thinking of what we are continually exposed to, deeds and actions and not by words—police of-
it is not difficult to realize that most people in our ficers, as a whole, often are suspicious and not
society rarely, if ever, see or experience even one easily disposed to what may be regarded as a pass-
horrific event in a lifetime—let alone be exposed ing fad. Finally, once these organizational char-
to these events sometimes daily. acteristics are melded together
With this in mind, it is certainly © shutterstock.com whereby they are understood
not difficult to understand why to be the actual culture of the
police officers often struggle to institution, employees will feel
live with some degree of nor- comfortable and safe when
malcy. The reality of what we do realizing they need to address
is this: we live daily in a vastly personal issues that could af-
different world than the rest of fect their emotional or physical
our society and are exposed well-being.
to a constant barrage of forces Most important, institu-
that challenge our ability to live tional programs and safeguards
happy, healthy lives. And, this must encourage employees
concept applies most heavily to to seek help for issues they
those in the in-between years, may face. These programs or
those who represent the most safeguards can simply ensure
productive and visible years of our careers. officers that they can talk to a supervisor about an
Taking all of this into account, police admin- issue troubling them and perhaps, to seek profes-
istrators need to accept the fact that the days of sional assistance through programs sponsored by
telling seasoned officers with work-related emo- their agency.
tional difficulty to “buck up and get to work” are The seeds of employee wellness are directly
long gone. In an era in which our ranks are being linked to an organizational atmosphere that clearly
filled with employees who have been raised in a values employees and promotes their vitality and
generational atmosphere where mental and physi- wellness. This mind-set creates an imperative
cal health are routinely focused upon as a priority, for police managers to set a tone for their orga-
police administrators must take a leading role in nizations that will promote overall health and
assuring that those needs are not only addressed wellness.
but also for the right reasons because the welfare
of our employees is singularly the most vital issue The Finish Line
that we are responsible for. Without a doubt, unique stressors in the law en-
To ensure the wellness and emotional vitality forcement profession make it necessary to monitor
of our officers, police organizations need to adopt how officers live their professional and personal
an institutional character that promotes well- lives and to ensure their emotional and physical
being. To begin with, this culture is fostered by health are not being adversely impacted. But, what

22 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


happens when our career is nearing its end and agencies should develop and monitor a system
eventually comes to a conclusion? that tracks those who are within 2 to 3 years of
Much—if not most—of the transition to retire- retirement and implement programs that address
ment is dictated by the mind-set of the retiring what these officers should expect.1 These types of
officers. Are they still happy in their careers? Are programs are not new by any means; however, the
they miserable and just want out at all costs? Do concept of instituting them as a viable part of an
they have outside interests developed? Are their agency’s overall personnel policy is not routinely
families and marriages intact? Are their careers practiced. The programs should be tailored to law
their lives? Officers approaching retirement must enforcement and should include an oral presenta-
examine such questions. tion by retired officers who can address issues that
One idea should permeate any discussion they faced upon retiring. Experience has shown
about police retirement: the thoughtful consid- that cops will listen to other cops—even more so
eration of how retirement when they know each other.
affects officers when one In addition, the programs
day they are an active part should include financial
of a viable law enforcement
community and the next are
“out the door.” This may
seem like a relatively simple
“ Experience, as
well as common
sense, suggests that
planning and information on
physical fitness and health.
Agencies should seek the
guidance and direction of
thought to grapple with, but transparency within professionals within their
whether retiring officers are police organizations community when putting
happy or sad about their re- together these programs. An
tirement and whether they
leads to the overall view toward retire-
have a life planned for when development of ment that includes the retir-
they are no longer a cop, the trust. ing officer’s mind-set, emo-
fact remains that what they
have done day after day for
decades has just come to a
” tional and physical health,
and financial future should
be at the core of any in-
halt. This means the commander who had respon- house program that seeks to make the transition to
sibility for dozens or hundreds of employees is no retirement successful.
longer the commander; the officer who was looked As a final thought, I note that those officers
to for guidance at the scene of a tragedy is no lon- who are retiring have in one form or another men-
ger looked at in this light; the daily meetings for tored many new recruits and experienced officers
coffee and conversation with coworkers no longer along the way. With this in mind, who mentors
take place. those who have retired and left their extended law
In the final analysis, career officers who make enforcement family? An observation that I believe
the transition into retirement must face the fact holds true throughout our law enforcement com-
that much of life as they have come to know it will munity is the fact that once many officers retire,
change. And, like it or not, they have to change they “fall off the radar screen” and are forgotten
with it. In the spirit of promoting wellness and vi- about. Instead, why not institute “reverse mentor-
tality within our soon-to-retire personnel, we must ing”? Keeping the names of retired officers on
take organized steps in preparing these employees an active list that agencies can monitor to ensure
for the reality of retirement. In accomplishing this, those officers receive invitations to social events

October 2010 / 23
and periodic contact from others in the organi- very nature, police officers become suspicious
zation could work wonders for those who may about what they do not know about. For instance,
struggle with retirement. I can recall several discussions that took place
between myself and other officers during my early
COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES years about my department’s budget. The budget
Police officers do not come completely formed process and the actual information regarding the
and ready to deal with the host of issues inherent in budget never was made available to the rank and
the law enforcement profession. Rather, they come file, hence immediate suspicion arose. When the
from the civilian world and are soon exposed to budget came out with no raises or needed equip-
events that necessarily harden them into what they ment, suspicion grew stronger. The bottom line on
must become to function in their role as a police the issue of transparency is to share what you can
officer. This conditioning results from exposure to and be up front about it. Although police managers
horrific events and constant contact with people are not obliged to share everything with the rank
who routinely choose not to and file, they can benefit
conform to accepted rules from keeping their officers


and standards. Not surpris- informed.
ingly, police officers become Leaders also can build
naturally suspicious, cynical, Openness, good many trust-related bridges
and often uncompromising in communication skills, through the willingness to
some of their views. There- sincerity, and frankness share some of their per-
fore, police managers must all work together to form sonal experiences. What this
realize that to effectively a general sense of trust means is not being afraid
relate to their officers, a level and comfort in police to discuss mistakes you
of trust that promotes com- organizations. have made to show those
munication and safety within you work with that you are
the organization has to exist.
How then should police
agencies develop trust and ” human and certainly not
perfect. What managers or
supervisors choose to share
comfort that will allow for the development of is up to them—obviously, it is not necessary to
programs that promote officer wellness? No doubt, discuss intrinsically personal issues. However, by
the idea of promoting trust within law enforcement allowing others to know what you have learned
organizations has been a subject of conversations through your mistakes promotes an underlying
since the days of the Roman Legions. However, tone of humility—which, in turn, promotes trust
with the idea in mind that the goal behind programs and understanding.
that will enhance officer wellness is to create a Openness, good communication skills, sincer-
transition between unhealthy habits that officers ity, and frankness all work together to form a gen-
have developed or fallen into at various stages of eral sense of trust and comfort in police organiza-
their careers into those that promote emotional and tions. It is within the context of these traits that the
physical wellness, some clear-cut paths can lead to road is paved for police officers to willingly come
trust and cohesion within police organizations. to the table and learn about themselves and the
Experience, as well as common sense, sug- fact that they must develop skills throughout their
gests that transparency within police organizations careers that will allow them to remain healthy and
leads to the development of trust. Because of their ultimately transition to retirement.

24 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin
Author Guidelines
CONCLUSION
By the very nature of what we do as police
officers, we are unavoidably exposed to a host Length: Manuscripts should contain
of toxic elements that can be likened to grains of 2,000 to 3,500 words (8 to 14 pages, dou-
emotional sand that ever so gradually are placed ble-spaced) for feature articles and 1,200
on our psychological backs. As time goes on, the to 2,000 words (5 to 8 pages, double-
sand increases in volume. Without the proper spaced) for specialized departments, such
tools to remove it, the weight can become unbear- as Police Practice.
able. In fact, in some cases, the sand becomes Format: Authors should submit three
so heavy that it can collapse officers. The result copies of their articles typed and double-
of the sand’s weight takes a heavy toll on us; spaced on 8 ½- by 11-inch white paper
substance abuse, anxiety, depression, failed mar- with all pages numbered, along with an
riages, and other emotional and physical ailments electronic version saved on computer
that rise well above societal averages plague our disk. Articles also can be e-mailed.
profession. Criteria: The Bulletin judges articles
Law enforcement managers in modern law on relevance to the audience, factual accu-
enforcement are faced with the challenge of ac- racy, analysis of the information, structure
knowledging that because officers are exposed to and logical flow, style and ease of reading,
the caustic elements in our society, they run the and length. It generally does not publish
risk of becoming victims themselves—victims articles on similar topics within a 12-
whose lives can lack wholeness and vitality month period or accept those previously
because of what they deal with. Acknowledg- published or currently under consider-
ing this to be the case, police agencies need to ation by other magazines. Because it is a
take a proactive role in promoting physical and government publication, the Bulletin can-
emotional wellness within their organizations. not accept articles that advertise a product
The benefits are many and can be looked at clini- or service. To ensure that their writing
cally in terms of increased productivity, enhanced style meets the Bulletin’s requirements,
interaction with the public, reduced use of sick authors should study several issues of the
time, and many other bottom-line factors. How- magazine and contact the staff or access
ever, in the end, the best reason for sponsoring an http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/leb.
organizational atmosphere that promotes physi- htm for the expanded author guidelines,
cal and emotional hygiene, as well as a clearly which contain additional specifications,
recognizable attitude of institutional care and detailed examples, and effective writ-
concern, is that it is the right thing to do and what ing techniques. The Bulletin will advise
we owe to those who help us form the “thin blue authors of acceptance or rejection but
line.” cannot guarantee a publication date for
accepted articles, which the staff edits for
length, clarity, format, and style.
Endnotes
Submit to: Editor, FBI Law En-
1
For additional information, see Carl B. Caudill and Kenneth forcement Bulletin, FBI Acade-
J. Peak, “Retiring from the ‘Thin Blue Line’: A Need for Formal
Preretirement Training,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October
my, Outreach and Communications
2009, 1-7; and Part Two, November 2009, 12-18. Unit, Quantico, VA 22135; telephone:
703-632-1460; fax: 703-632-1968;
e-mail: leb@fbiacademy.edu.

October 2010 / 25
Legal Digest

Investigating and Prosecuting


Hidden-Compartment Cases
By TODD F. PROUGH, M.A., and ROBERT VEIGA, J.D.

Photos courtesy DEA

he trafficking of illegal Beyond the sale to a cus- the time between manufacture

T drugs can be viewed


within the paradigm
of legally traded commodities,
tomer, many other and, unfortu-
nately, often ignored activities
aid or assist this illegal activity.
and use) being transferred along
the chain of distribution. For ex-
ample, after their manufacture
such as televisions or automo- These can include diverting in foreign countries, heroin and
biles, which follow a similar precursor chemicals to manu- cocaine are transported to the
process—manufacture, ship- facture drugs, renting hotel U.S. border, smuggled across,
ment to wholesalers, transfer to rooms to conduct transactions, transferred from wholesale to
retailers, and sale to consumers. or laundering drug proceeds to retail dealers, and then sold
In the world of illegal narcot- legitimatize profits. Although to customers. Even domesti-
ics, the progression from drug the synthesis of drugs can be a cally produced drugs, such as
creation to drug use is known as lengthy process, they spend the pharmaceuticals, marijuana,
the chain of distribution. majority of their lifespan (i.e., and methamphetamine, must be

26 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


transported among various links airplanes.1 Such compartments appear as part of the vehicle
in the distribution chain. can be built into almost any part to inhibit the ability of law
Drugs as commodities of a vehicle, including seats, gas enforcement to discover them.
possess two specific charac- tanks, trunks, spare tires, and Upon a cursory or even thor-
teristics: they are illegal and dashboards. ough examination, officers may
expensive. These characteristics overlook the hidden compart-
pose special transportation Hidden Compartments ment because of its disguise as
problems for drug traffickers. Hidden compartments can an unaltered component of the
Because they are illegal, drugs vary in size and complexity. vehicle. However, the actual
must be transported in a man- Some are designed to hold a compartment is covered by a lid
ner that avoids detection by single handgun while others can or built as a drawer. The lid or
law enforcement. And, as they contain hundreds of pounds of drawer is powered open by an
are valuable, drugs must be drugs. In addition, the sophisti- electronic or pneumatic motor
transported securely to ensure cation of a hide is only limited that can be triggered by activat-
that they will not be lost, stolen, by the creativity and technical ing a complex series of switch-
or seized. How can traffickers knowledge of its designer or es, such as turn signals, power
satisfy these requirements? installer. Rudimentary compart- windows, or the defroster.
Traffickers can smuggle ments consist of a very basic Beyond the difficulty of actually
drugs in numerous ways. Hu- design with little or no altera- detecting the hide, officers often
man couriers move drugs by tion of the vehicle. Examples cannot determine the proper
concealing them with their include using the space behind series of switches needed to
bodies either by hiding them the center of the steering wheel open it. This provides an added
in or under their clothing or by or cutting away part of the rear level of protection for the illegal
inserting or ingesting them into bumper and adding a lid with contents hidden inside the
their persons. Some traffick- hinges. More elaborate hides compartment.2
ers use go-fast boats or small
planes to smuggle drugs into the
country. Others simply ship the
drugs in parcels via the postal
service or retail shippers and
hope law enforcement will not
interdict the packages.
Another popular technique
is to store the drugs within
a hidden or concealed com-
partment in a vehicle. These
compartments, also known
as hides, traps, or clavos, are
designed to disguise their
existence by blending into the Special Agent Prough is Assistant U.S. Attorney Veiga is
normal elements found in many assigned to the DEA's the deputy criminal chief for the
New England field division. U.S. Attorney's Office for the
means of transportation, such District of New Hampshire.
as cars, trucks, vans, boats, or

October 2010 / 27
Techniques For instance, the undercover its components for serial num-
Unlike drug transactions, operative could negotiate with bers. By researching those num-
which can transpire in hotel the installer and specify that bers through the manufacturer,
rooms, alleys, or parking lots, the hide should hold kilos of a auto parts dealer, or junkyard,
the installation of hides almost drug, provide easy access to a investigators may identify who
always occurs in some type of firearm, or ensure that it will not purchased the components used
garage. Depending on the so- be discovered by law enforce- in the construction of the hide.
phistication of the hide, equip- ment. The undercover operative These steps could yield evidence
ment, such as acetylene torches also could request references crucial to the identification or
to cut metal and hydraulic lifts from satisfied customers of prosecution of installers.
to get access to the undercar- the installer, thereby gathering In addition, an often un-
riage of the vehicle, may be derused technique is to exploit
necessary. Because hide install- the benefits of an off-line Na-


ers use specific work spaces, tional Crime Information Center
tools, and mediums (i.e., vehi- (NCIC) query. This is a special
cles), investigators can employ Law enforcement search conducted by certified
several techniques to investigate agencies should personnel for information not
hidden compartment cases. available in online queries,
investigate individuals such as those using incom-
Officers can use typical
techniques employed in tradi-
or organizations plete information, like a partial
tional drug investigations. Law constructing hides for license plate number or VIN.
enforcement officers can pri- numerous reasons. Investigators also can request
marily identify those engaged a search of transaction logs to


in installing hides through the determine if another agency has
use of cooperating defendants queried the person or vehicle.3
perhaps arrested in possession Officers should request off-line
of such a hide, from established more evidence and identify- NCIC searches on license plates
confidential sources, or from ing other drug traffickers. The or VINs from vehicles contain-
anonymous tipsters. Investiga- undercover operation should be ing hides. The results will show
tors can employ an undercover coupled with surveillance that what police agencies, if any,
operation to infiltrate the busi- could identify coconspirators, as queried the vehicle, thereby
ness and gather intelligence or well as other drug traffickers or creating a travel timeline for the
evidence. For example, a con- vehicles containing hides. vehicle, which may create new
fidential source or undercover Investigators also may seize leads. For example, the hides
agent may solicit the installer to a vehicle containing a hide. In may be installed in one state,
sell a vehicle already equipped those instances, they should but the vehicles may be used in
with a hide or to install a hide research the ownership records. other states to transport drugs.
in a vehicle provided by law en- Officers may find a pattern of In addition, further research into
forcement. Investigators should “straw” owners, thereby provid- the results of off-line searches
attempt to elicit statements that ing leads to other vehicles of by contacting the inquiring
clearly demonstrate the in- interest owned by the same per- agencies may identify the driv-
staller knows the compartment son. Upon dismantling the hide, ers or passengers of vehicles.
will be used for illegal items. investigators should check all of Off-line searches can provide

28 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


a much broader picture of the An analysis of the federal hidden trap case, the following
illegal activity and uncover statute demonstrates at least elements must be established
actionable leads or valuable two significant drawbacks to beyond a reasonable doubt:
intelligence that investigators its effective use in cases in- 1) The perpetrator sold or of-
may not otherwise possess. volving hidden compartments. fered drug paraphernalia
First, as set forth in the overall for sale.
Legal Tools prohibition of Section 863(a),
Unfortunately, the legal 2) The hidden trap was equip-
the statute only applies in those
tools available in charging cases ment or a product primarily
instances where a person sells
involving hidden compartments intended or designed for use
or offers for sale an item of
are fairly limited. There is no in concealing a controlled
drug paraphernalia. Second, the
federal statute specifically ad- substance.
drug paraphernalia definition
dressing the design, manufac- contains only one reference to a 3) The perpetrator acted
ture, or use of a trap, or, in the category that could be construed knowingly.
slang, clavo. Instead, charges at as covering a hidden trap: “Any As a result, Section 863
the federal level must be ad- equipment...which is primarily cases are limited to situations
dressed through a statute deal- intended or designed for use where an undercover officer or
ing with drug paraphernalia. in...concealing...a controlled informant solicits a suspect to
That statute, Title 21, substance, the possession of build a hidden trap for a fee.
U.S. Code, Section 863(a) which is unlawful.” (Emphasis This type of investigation would
(1), provides in pertinent added.) necessarily involve not only the
part: Therefore, to establish a development of evidence as to
a) It is unlawful for any violation of Section 863 in a construction of the device but
person
1) To sell or offer for sale
drug paraphernalia.
The term drug parapher-
nalia is further defined in
Section 863(d) to mean:
Any equipment, product,
or material of any kind which
is primarily intended or
designed for use in manufac-
turing, compounding, con-
verting, concealing, produc-
ing, processing, preparing,
injecting, ingesting, inhaling,
or otherwise introducing into
the human body a controlled
substance, possession of
which is unlawful under this
subchapter.4

October 2010 / 29
also the collection of recorded number of state legislatures possessors and users more
conversations between the law have considered this signifi- leniently than designers and
enforcement agent and the tar- cant problem and addressed it builders. Under the California
get in which the target is placed with legislation specific to the scheme, those engaging in pos-
on notice that the device will be possession and use of hidden sessory conduct face the pros-
used for concealing a controlled traps for transporting persons, pect of imprisonment for up to 1
substance. Unfortunately, this controlled substances, and other year, while manufacturers face
appears to be the only way that contraband. The California up to 3 years of confinement.7
the required elements may be legislature appears to be the first An Illinois statute that took
proven. to address the issue. In 1993, it effect in 2000, False or secret
A recent case in the U.S. passed Section 11366.8 of the compartment in a motor ve-
District Court for the District of California Health and Safety hicle, took a somewhat differ-
New Hampshire is illustrative. Code titled, Construction, ent approach. Section 12-612
In United States v. DeLeon, the possession or use of a false of Chapter 625 of the Illinois
defendants were charged with Vehicle Code makes it unlawful


conspiracy to sell drug para- for a person to “own or oper-
phernalia, aiding and abetting ate any motor vehicle he or she
the sale of drug paraphernalia, knows to contain a false or se-
and substantive drug offenses. Hidden cret compartment” or to “install,
The charges arose from an un- compartments create, build or fabricate a false
dercover investigation in which can vary in size and or secret compartment.”8
an informant solicited DeLeon complexity. As originally enacted, the
and others to construct a hidden statute specified that the inten-
compartment in two separate tion of the person to use the


vehicles, which were supplied false compartment to conceal
by law enforcement. During the its contents from a law enforce-
investigation, the informant en- ment officer could be inferred
gaged in several conversations compartment with intent to con- from a variety of factors, includ-
in which he made clear that he ceal a controlled substance. The ing the discovery of a person,
planned to use the clavos to statute addresses two primary firearm, controlled substance,
transport controlled substances. types of conduct: 1) those who or other contraband within the
Despite these assertions, the possess, use, or control a false false compartment or from the
targets nevertheless agreed to compartment; and 2) those who discovery of evidence of the
construct the devices, thereby design, build, alter, install, or prior placement of those items
demonstrating the necessary fabricate a false compartment within such compartment. How-
intent to prove a violation of within a vehicle. Of course, the ever, in People v. Carpenter,
the statute.5 conduct contemplated by the 368 Ill. App. 3d 299 (2006), that
Surprisingly, in light of the statute must be in connection portion of the statute was held
absence of an effective federal with “the intent to store, con- to violate due process because it
response for criminalizing the ceal, smuggle, or transport was overly broad and potentially
possession or use of a hide, a a controlled substance.” 6 punished innocent behavior.9
survey of existing state stat- The statute proscribes two An amendment to the statute
utes reveals that only a small potential penalties, treating effective in 2010 addressed

30 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


the constitutional violation The Georgia statute clearly sets California, Utah’s statute, which
and criminalized two specific out the factors to be considered, took effect in 2008, punishes
acts: 1) to own or operate with including the knowing posses- manufacturers more severely,
criminal intent any vehicle the sion of a false compartment making it a third-degree felony
perpetrator knows to contain that is concealing a person for for a person to facilitate the
a false or secret compartment an unlawful purpose, conceal- storage, concealment, or
that is used or has been used to ing a controlled substance or transportation of contraband
conceal a firearm or controlled other contraband, or showing by designing, constructing,
substances; and 2) to install, evidence of previous conceal- building, altering, fabricating,
create, build, or fabricate in any ment of the same. However, in installing, creating, or attach-
vehicle a false or secret com- light of the Illinois ruling, it is ing a hidden compartment to
partment, knowing that an- unclear whether the statute will or within a vehicle. As in the
other person intends to use it to survive if it is challenged in initial version of the Illinois
conceal a firearm or controlled court. statute and the current version
substance.10 A violation of this Finally, Section 76-10-2801 of the Georgia statute, Utah also
statute results in the imposition of the Utah Criminal Code employs inference language for
of a consecutive sentence to the titled, Vehicle compartment for determining the existence of
underlying controlled substance contraband – penalties, makes criminal intent.13
or firearms offense.11 it a class A misdemeanor for
By contrast, the reach of a a person “to knowingly pos- Goals
Georgia statute, Vehicles con- sess, use, or control a vehicle Law enforcement agencies
taining false or secret compart- which has a compartment with should investigate individuals or
ments; owning or operating the intent to store, conceal or organizations constructing hides
prohibited, exceeds that of transport contraband.” Like for numerous reasons. First,
both the California and Illinois
laws. Section 16-11-112(c)(1)
of the Georgia Code Annotated,
which carries a penalty of up to
2 years imprisonment, makes it
unlawful for persons to “own
or operate any vehicle contain-
ing a secret compartment, to
knowingly install, create, build,
or fabricate the same in any
vehicle, and to knowingly sell,
trade, or otherwise dispose of
a vehicle containing a secret
compartment.12
The Georgia law, which
took effect in 2006, employs a
criminal intent inference simi-
lar to that used in the original,
unconstitutional, Illinois statute.

October 2010 / 31
even if prosecution is unlikely, an otherwise routine traffic stop Forensic Sciences, “Common Vehicle
investigating hide installers or other investigation. Concealment Methods Used in the United
States,” Microgram, December 2003;
can provide vital intelligence available at http://www.justice.gov/dea/
regarding drug trafficking Conclusion
programs/forensicsci/microgram/mg1203/
organizations. Knowing which Investigating and prosecut- mg1203.html (accessed August 2, 2010).
vehicles may contain hides af- ing hidden compartment cases 3
U.S. Department of Justice, Federal
fords law enforcement person- can enhance officer safety, pro- Bureau of Investigation, CJIS Division,
vide valuable intelligence, and The Off-Line Search, available at http://
nel the opportunity to focus gcicweb.gbi.state.ga.us/cjis/ori/tacconf/
their attention on individuals lead to the seizure of evidence TACConfRef/NCIC%20Offline%20
or organizations using those or illegal items. As such, police Search-2005.pdf (accessed August 2,
cars. This targeted approach administrators should imple- 2010).
4
ment policy that incorporates 21 U.S.C. § 863 (2010).
allows for the better applica- 5
District of New Hampshire,
tion of scarce police resources. these types of investigations
06-cr-218-JD (2007).
Second, investigating and into their agency’s anticrime 6
Compartment includes any box, con-
prosecuting installers can tainer, space, enclosure, false or altered


contribute to the dismantling fuel tanks, or factory installed equip-
ment that is modified or altered or any
of drug trafficking organiza- compartment added to or created from an
tions. Like money launderers, existing space. The term vehicle is given
hide installers provide a vital …investigating and the broadest possible meaning, including
service to drug traffickers. Not prosecuting installers cars, trucks, buses, aircraft, boats, ships,
having the ability to securely can contribute yachts, and vessels. West’s Ann. Cal.
Health & Safety Code § 11366.8 (2009).
conceal their wares may deter to the dismantling 7
Ibid.
drug dealers from engaging of drug trafficking 8
625 I.L.C.S. § 5/12-612 (2010).
in the enterprise. In addition, organizations. 9
People v. Carpenter, 888 N.E.2d 105
with a lack of adequate hides, (Ill. 2008).


10
law enforcement is more 625 I.L.C.S. § 5/12-612 (2010).
Similar to the California statute, the term
likely to discover contraband, vehicle is given the broadest possible
thereby increasing the chance meaning, while the definition of false
to make arrests. compartment is limited to an enclosure
and antidrug efforts. In addi-
Third, and most important, integrated into a vehicle that is a modifi-
tion, prosecutors should analyze cation of the original design of
hides can be constructed to not
extant laws and develop legal the manufacturer.
only conceal drugs but also
strategies that can be employed 11
Ibid.
firearms, explosives, and even 12
Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-112(c).
to investigate and charge such
people. Therefore, investigat- (2010).
cases. A successful investigation
ing hidden compartment cases 13
U.C.A. 1953 § 76-10-2801 (2010).
can greatly inhibit those crimi-
contributes to officers’ safety
nal elements who use hidden
by educating them as to the ex- Law enforcement officers of other than
compartments to further their
istence and location of hides. federal jurisdiction who are interested
criminal activity.
Being aware of hidden com- in this article should consult their legal
partments, how they function, advisors. Some police procedures ruled
Endnotes permissible under federal constitutional
and what they contain allows 1
Clavo is the Spanish word for nail. law are of questionable legality under
officers to operate more safely 2
U.S. Department of Justice, Drug state law or are not permitted at all.
during what they may consider Enforcement Administration, Office of

32 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


Bulletin Notes
Law enforcement officers are challenged daily in the performance of their duties; they face each
challenge freely and unselfishly while answering the call to duty. In certain instances, their actions
warrant special attention from their respective departments. The Bulletin also wants to recognize
those situations that transcend the normal rigors of the law enforcement profession.

One morning, Officer Nathan McDonald of the


Grand Prairie, Texas, Police Department was dis-
patched to a residential fire. The first to arrive at the
scene, Officer McDonald saw that the fire already had
fully engulfed the house and that flames were shooting
through the roof. He soon was joined by Lieutenant
Randy Wills, a certified peace officer and an arson in-
vestigator with the Grand Prairie Fire Department. The
two officers learned that an elderly man was trapped
Officer McDonald Lieutenant Wills inside. After rushing to the rear bedroom, they saw that
he was physically unable to leave his bed. Immediately,
Officer McDonald and Lieutenant Wills broke the window, entered, and extracted the incapaci-
tated man. Shortly thereafter, the ceiling collapsed, and the room was fully engulfed.

Officer Ben Kelly of the Seattle, Washington, Police Department was


investigating an unoccupied stolen vehicle parked with its hood up and
engine running. He looked in his side mirror and saw a man wearing a
hooded sweatshirt that covered his head approaching the rear of the patrol
car. Officer Kelly exited his vehicle and immediately recognized the man as
the suspect wanted for ambushing and killing four Lakewood, Washington,
Police Department officers just 3 days earlier. The man had both hands in
his sweatshirt pockets and then began to pull out a pistol while approaching
Officer Kelly. The suspect ignored repeated verbal commands to show his
Officer Kelly hands and continued to move in a threatening manner. Officer Kelly, recog-
nizing the grave danger he was in, fired his service weapon and killed the
suspect, ending the confronta-
tion. It was later determined that
the individual’s pistol belonged Nominations for the Bulletin Notes should be based on either the rescue of
to one of the murdered officers. one or more citizens or arrest(s) made at unusual risk to an officer’s safety.
Submissions should include a short write-up (maximum of 250 words), a
separate photograph of each nominee, and a letter from the department’s
ranking officer endorsing the nomination. Submissions should be mailed
to the Editor, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA
22135 or e-mailed to leb@fbiacademy.edu.
U.S. Department of Justice Periodicals
Federal Bureau of Investigation Postage and Fees Paid
Federal Bureau of Investigation
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin ISSN 0014-5688
935 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20535-0001

Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300

Patch Call

The patch of the Paducah, Kentucky, Police The Berlin, Wisconsin, Police Department
Department depicts Chief Paduke of the Chicka- patch features the outline of the state with its
saw Indians, who lived and hunted in the location beautiful hills and sunsets. The city calls itself the
of the city. Legend has it that he met with George “Fur and Leather Capital” because it serves as the
Rogers Clark when the famous soldier visited the home to many such stores, as represented by the
area. large buck.