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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD

A. Subject of the Study

The subject of this study was the VII B students of SMP Muhammadiyah 02

Pagelaran 2018/2019. There were 12 male and 22 female students. The

researcher selected this class based on the result of the interview with the

teacher in which most of the students in this class had low ability in reading

comprehension. It could be clearly seen from the participation of the students

in every classroom activities where most of them were bored by reading

technique that has been implemented in every classroom activities especially

in reading.

B. Research Design

This study was aimed at improving the ability of seven grade students in

comprehending reading text through CALL. The study made use of a

classroom action research design. According to Kember (2000:25) the process

of action research is a cyclical or spiral process where each cycle consists of

planning, action, observation and reflection, which usually leads to revise or

totally a new plan and the continuation of the action research process in the

second cycle, and so on until the students‟ achievement have reached a

particular limitation as purposed. In this classroom action research study, the

teaching and learning processes were divided into cycles. Moreover, each

cycle consisted of two sessions. Each session consisted of four interconnected

activities, namely: Planning, Action, Observation, and Reflection. It was


necessary to note that Initial Reflection was a term normally use in classroom

action study, which referred to a pre-test in reading comprehension. The initial

reflection was administered to the seven grade students of SMP

Muhammadiyah 02 Pagelaran in order to measure the real pre-existing reading

comprehension ability of the subjects. The mean score was compared to the

corresponding mean scores of the administered at the end of each session for

the sake of establishing to degree of the increasing reading comprehension

ability

of the

subjects. Further, the results of the post-test in cycle I was used as valuable

input and basis to accordingly revise the planning in cycle II. Therefore, cycle

II was started with revise planning (RP) which was anticipated being much

more effective and conductive than cycle I. The degree of the effectiveness of

improving reading comprehension through Computer assisted language

learning technique was figured out through comparing the score obtained by

the subjects with their corresponding mean score of the post-test in both

cycles, such as cycle I and cycle II . To make it apparent, the design of the

present class action study can be described in the following model (Kemmis

and Taggart):
C. The Model of Action Research

This action research uses a model developed by Kemmis and McTaggart in

Burns (1999: 32). There are four steps in action research, namely plan, action,

observation, and reflection. These four steps are included in procedures of

action research. The procedures of action research in this research are as

follows:

1. Plan

Planning is the first stage in which the researcher and the collaborator

plan the teaching strategy that wants to be applying in this research. At

this stage, the researcher makes some preparations for the action. The

preparations are present below:

.1) Socializing the Research Program

The first activity the researcher was socialized at students in

seven grade at SMP Muhammadiyah 02 Pagelaran In this step,

the researcher met the Head of SMP Muhammadiyah 02

Pagelaran to ask a permission to conduct observation in this

college. Then, the researcher asked to met the students at seven


grade and to asks some information about teaching and

learning English subject in SMP Muhammadiyah 02 Pagelaran.

.2) Designing the Lesson Plan

The lesson plan was designed by the researcher before

conducting the action. It was done in some stages; (1) identify,

(2) Competency standard, (3) Basic competence, (4) Characters

of the students, (5) The objective of learning, (6) learning

material and sources, (7) technique and media, (8) procedure of

teaching learning, and assessment. Those stages of the strategy

that was conducted in implementing lesson plan.

.3) Preparing the Criteria of Success.

The criteria of success in this study want emphasized on the

teaching and learning processes while the research was

running. A criterion of success is set to determine whether the

learning activities in the research are successful or not. The

criterion of success of this study is based on the students’ score

in speaking.

.4) Action

During the action stage, the researcher and the collaborator

lecture work in collaboration to implement the lesson plan and

to observe the activities carry out in the classroom especially

the students’ participation and how the teaching and learning

process. The researcher in this case, takes the position as the


collaborative lecture in implement the technique during the

teaching and learning process. In other that, the collaborative

lecture take rules as the observer who observe and make notes

on how the teaching and learning process focusing on the

activities of the teacher in implement the technique and the

students as the subjects. At the end of the teaching and learning

process, the researcher and the collaborator lecture was

discussed and analyzed the results.

.5) Observation

The researcher observe the activities carry out in the classroom

especially the student’s participation and how the teaching and

learning process. The researcher in this case, takes the position

as the collaborative lecture in implement the technique during

the teaching and learning process. In other that, the

collaborative lecture take rules as the observer who observe and

make notes on how the teaching and learning process focusing

on the activities of the teacher in implement the method and the

students as the subjects. At the end of the teaching and learning

process, the researcher and the collaborator lecture was

discussed and analyzed the results.

.6) Reflection

During the speaking lesson by using computer assisted-

language learning, the researcher must finds out more problems


that encounter during the use of this method. Therefore, the

researcher makes reflection from the action in cycle 1 based on

the observation sheet, to decide and plans the next cycle stage.

The researcher compares the result of the study with criteria of

success.

D. Data Collecting Technique

The data of the research in forms of qualitative and quantitative data, the

qualitative data was gained by gave description of the situation before and

during the teaching and learning process, while the quantitative data is take

from the score of students’ performances. It is then to measure the students’

improvement in the end of the cycles. The researcher used some data

collection techniques as follows:

1. Observation

The lecture and the students’ observations are record in in teaching and

learning process in this study. The purposes of recording the observations

are has a clear description of the existing condition in the classroom and as

sources of reflection for the next cycle.

2. Interview

At the preliminary study, the researcher conducts an informal interview to

the students to find out what kind of English teaching and learning

problems that face by the students and the teacher. When the researcher

did the first observation, before conducting the researcher uses the result

of the interview as the points to focus on speaking skill.


3. Questioner

The questionnaire wants to distribute to thirty two students. The purpose

of questionnaires is to get information about the students’ problem in

learning English subject. It is a written report of the students which is

taken from the questionnaire sheet

4. Photograph Taking

The camera was used to take pictures and videos during the research in the

classroom to saw the situation when the observation . Those pictures are

pivotal evidences to show visible data which support the reliability and

trust worthiness of the research.

E. Research Instrument

The research instruments were tools which were used by the researcher to

collect the required data. The researcher could not collect the data without the

instruments. The valid and reliable data for the study was based on the

instrument that would be used. Therefore, there were some instruments that

were used in this study in obtaining the data, namely: test and questionnaire.

F. Setting of the Research

This research was conducted at SMP Muhammadiyah 02 Pagelaran in the

Academic year 2017/2018. The researcher was taken at the students seven

grade at SMP Muhammadiyah 02 Pagelaran as the subject of the study. The

researcher chose this class because some considerations as follows; 1.) the

students have less of vocabulary in learning speaking process. 2.) Students


met several difficulties related to the speaking practice 3.) The interesting

teaching media were rarely used during the instructional process. 4.) Students

felt difficult for generate ideas to speak. 5.) The method used by the lecturer

was less draw students’ participant. It means that the material was gave

without involve students actively.

G. Data Analysis Technique

The process of teaching and learning reading comprehension is analyzed by

investigating the data collected during the process of action research. They are

the qualitative data and the quantitative data. The qualitative data include:

research diaries, observation report, field notes, questionnaires, and

photographs of teaching and learning process. The quantitative data includes

pre test and post test score. Then, the quantitative data result is analyzed by

comparing the mean score of pre-test and post-test to know whether there is an

improvement of students’ reading comprehension or not. Finally, by analyzing

the observation result and test result, the conclusion can be made whether or

not reciprocal teaching can improve students’ reading comprehension.