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Process Diary

K Lounge Chair
A Place to Relax

Nicholas Tay
K
Lounge Chair

This design aims to be a family with my previous


furniture design, “Z stool”.
It takes inspiration from Deconstructivism &
Parametric design elements that dominates our
modern world. Pieced together by similar shapes,
this chairwould be easy to manufacture and
high repairability rate while mantaining the rigid
strength of the structure.
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DECONSTRUCT -
REUSE/RECYCLE
ASSESSMENT TASK 1
RESEARCH

The research was done by deconstructing an


existing chair and analysing the interior and
exterior of the chair. From that initial data, there
is a need to develop an understanding of
construction methodologies and principles in
manufacture.

Some of the research includes the life cycle of


the materials, cultural relevance and
ergonomic factors.
DECONSTRUCT_ REUSE_RECYCLE
WILMA
DINING CHAIR
DECONSTRUCT_REUSE_RECYCLE
WILMA
DINING CHAIR
ACTONA

Wilma dining chairs are a timeless


mid-century design with contemporary
fabrics. Wilma looks great and has
wonderfully comfortable support.

Upholstered in light grey 100%


polyester Sawana fabric, they are
easy-to-clean and durable.
EAMES
FIBERGLASS SIDE CHAIRS
Charles & Ray Eames
1951

WILMA Dining Chair takes inspirational


design shape from the original version.

The Eames Fiberglass Side Chair was


designed based on the Eiffel Tower base.
Its an intricate and graceful design made of
steel wire and wood that inimitably
combines light, elegant forms with structural
strength.

Eames Fiberglass Side Chair


[http://www.eamesoffice.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/LI_EM-
F_P_20140101_026_P-819x1024.jpg]
DECONSTRUCT
WILMA DINING CHAIR
Disassemble Of Seating Part
[By Author]
SEATING

STAND

FASTENERS

SUB_ASSEMBLY
WILMA DINING CHAIR
CASING BACKING

PARTS_SEATING
WILMA DINING CHAIR
SAWANA
100% Polyester Fabric (PET)
Polymerization
6g

FOAM
Polyurethane (PUR)
600g (0.05 g/cm3)

Factory Workers Using Compression Moulding.


[http://www.customfoam.com/assets/images/general/furniture-process.jpg]

CASING
WILMA DINING CHAIR
VENEER LAMINATING
Poplar Plywood
1958g

Veneer Laminating Over Mould.


[http://eimersguitars.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/steam1.jpg]

BACKING
WILMA DINING CHAIR
FRAME_CAP

FRAME

PARTS_STAND
WILMA DINING CHAIR
TUBE BENDING
Black Anodised Steel

Process Of Metal Tube Bending


[http://www.sharpeproducts.com/Data/Sites/2/media/GalleryImages/294/
WebImages/21pipe_tube-roll-bending.jpg]

SWAGING
Black Anodised Steel

Grand Total
1800g

Mould For Swaging Metal Tube


[http://www.glyne.com/images/swaging5.jpg]

FRAME
WILMA DINING CHAIR
COMPRESSION MOULDING
LDPE POLYETHYLENE
15g (All Caps)

Frame Cap Compression Moulding.


[https://www.camberleyrubber.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Compression-Slider-1-900x500.jpg]

FRAME_CAP
WILMA DINING CHAIR
SCREW

WASHER
PARTS_FASTENERS
WILMA DINING CHAIR
COLD HEADING
STAINLESS STEEL
14g

In Process Of Creating Screw In Cold Head Machines.


[http://www.nationalmachinery.com/images/default-source/default-al-
bum/coldformingprogression.jpg?sfvrsn=0]

SCREW
WILMA DINING CHAIR
METAL STAMPING
STAINLESS STEEL
10g

Metal Stamping Of Stainless Steel Washers.


[https://media.istockphoto.com/photos/old-punching-machine-closeup-picture-id
515788550?k=6&m=515788550&s=612x612&w=0&h=zdfrTYr8VjLudwN5WytX-
QtS5zbszAZRsoEvCDC7lpC0=]

WASHER
WILMA DINING CHAIR
HOW_DID_IT_COME_TOGETHER?
ASSEMBLY
Taking Off Stapler From the Chair Seating
[By Author]
STITCHING

PUR GLUE
HEAVY USAGE
WELDING

SNAP LOCK
BOLT UP
LINEAR_OR_LOOP_EQUATION?
LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS
Plywood Part Of Wilma Dining Chair Placed.
[By Author]
1. Shreds

Bags Of Shredded Polyurethane Foam.


https://www.puerdayi.com/wp-content/uploads/24(3).jpg

2. Carpet Underlaying

Detailed Final Carpet Underlay.


https://i.pinimg.com/originals/80/40/d6/8040d68cb943fcb81bd6b3dc8b098ebc.jpg
1. Plywood
Boards of Plywood Stacked.
https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54d95c4ce4b0b3595f748f29/t/
5a5c50ce24a694da4abb758d/1515999448614/plywood-stack.jpg

2. Wood Chips
Handful Of Wood Chips.
http://www.ljmtreecare.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Wood-Chip.
jpg

3. MDF Boards
Detailed View of MDF Board.
https://sc01.alicdn.com/kf/UTB8fp8ec9nEXKJk43Ubq6zLppXap/Ve-
neer-Block-Board-MDF-Board-Laminated-Wood.jpg_350x350.jpg
1. Molten Steel

Molten Steel In Furnace.


https://www.insidermedia.com/uploads/news/molten-met-
al-571823_960_720.jpg

2. Steel Sheets

Sheets of Stainless Steel.


https://i.ebayimg.com/images/g/PjoAAOSwXYtYzXMC/s-l300.jpg
1. Plastic Shreds

Plastic Being Shredded Into Strips.


https://i.ytimg.com/vi/XyAzp08jAkY/maxresdefault.jpg

2. Plastic Pellets

Plastic Pellets.
http://admiral.market/en/images/products/1_grade_lldpe.jpg
Wilma Dining Chair Flipped Over.
[By Author]
ECO_SCORE
ECO_INDICATOR_CALCULATOR
BY_LIFE_CYCLE_STAGES
ECO_INDICATOR_CALCULATION
BY_MANUFACTURING_PROCESS
ECO_INDICATOR_CALCULATION
Acmecompanies.com, 2018. Cold Headed Parts - Wheaton, Illinois. [online] Available at:
http://www.acmecompanies.com/cold-headed-parts.html [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Actona Company, 2018. ACTONA. [online] Available at:


http://www.actonacompany.com/products/actona/ [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Anon, 2018. [online] Available at:


https://www.snowymonaro.nsw.gov.au/DocumentCenter/Home/View/4877 [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Brownrecycling.co.uk, 2018. [online] Available at:


https://www.brownrecycling.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/steel-recycling-infographic.jpg [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Craftech Industries, 2018. How is Polyester Made? - Craftech Industries - High-Performance Plastics - (518) 828-5001. [online] Available at:
http://www.craftechind.com/how-is-polyester-made/ [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Eames Office, 2018. Eames Plastic Armchairs | Eames Office. [online] Available at:
http://www.eamesoffice.com/the-work/eames-plastic-armchairs/ [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

eBay, 2018. Round Plastic Blanking End Cap Caps Tube Pipe Inserts Plug - Round Tube Plugs | eBay. [online] Available at:
https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/Round-Plastic-Blanking-End-Cap-Caps-Tube-Pipe-Inserts-Plug-Round-Tube-Plugs-/232800417092 [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Euromoulders.org, 2018. What is polyurethane foam? | Euro-Moulders. [online] Available at: https://www.euromoulders.org/polyurethane-foam/what-is-polyurethane-foam [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

LEAFtv, 2018. What Types of Foam Can Be Recycled? | LEAFtv. [online]


Available at: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/what-types-of-foam-can-be-recycled/ [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Nottinghamshire.gov.uk, 2018. [online] Available at:


http://www.nottinghamshire.gov.uk/planningsearch/DisplayImage.aspx?doc=cmVjb3JkX251bWJlcj01ODE2JmZpbGVuYW1lPVxcbnMwMS0wMDI5XGZpbGVkYXRhMiRcREIwMy0wMDMwXFNoYXJlZEFwcHNcZGx-
nc1xwbGFuc1xwbGFubmluZ1xmLTI4NDhcMjU5MS1iIHdyYXAgd29vZCByZWN5Y2xpbmcgZ3VpZGUucGRmJmltYWdlX251bWJlcj05JmltYWdlX3R5cGU9cGxhbm5pbmcmbGFzdF9tb2RpZmllZF9mcm9tX2Rpc2s9M-
jUvMDYvMjAxMyAxNDoyOTozOQ== [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Plastics Make It Possible, 2018. Professor Plastics: Highlights of Low-Density Polyethylene. [online] Available at:
https://www.plasticsmakeitpossible.com/about-plastics/faqs/professor-plastics/professor-plastics-highlights-of-low-density-polyethylene/ [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Sciencing.com, 2018. [online] Available at:


https://sciencing.com/ldpe-recycled-6360593.html [Accessed 11 Aug. 2018].

Thompson, R, 2011. The manufacturing Guides: Product and furniture design.


Pg 14, 52, 76, 84, 90

Thompson, R, 2011. The manufacturing Guides: Prototyping and low-volume production.


Pg 88

RESEARCH_DOCUMENTATION
REFERENCES
Detailed Shot Of Chair Overall Construction.
[By Author]
INITIAL_DESIGN_DIRECTION
ASSESSMENT TASK 2
SEATING SCENARIOS

From the previous research paper, the


design of the chair would embrace value
that would be able to be used in both public
and private spaces, ergonomically
comfortable and sustainability aspect.

The design of the chair has to bare characteristic with the Z


stool. The section of the process shows the flow of design-
ing the chair from daily encounter with the surroundings to
the ideas surrounding the concept.
INITIAL_DESIGN_DIRECTION
Fabric Pattern of Wilma Dining Chair [Author Own Image - August 2018]

[http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3023/2543729859_ef788e8021.jpg] Palace Cinema’s Premium Class Deco [Author Own Image - September 2018]

Inspirations of the chair design started from Deconstructivism & Parametric design elements that dominates our
modern world.
Incorporating Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture surfaced in the 1980s, that provides the image that the
product/ building was only constructured partially. It is well known for the lack of harmony, continuity,
or symmetry in its shapes or design. Interlocking the idea of Parametric Design makes the design have its own freedom where the
design intent and design response depends on the set of rules and framework to construct the design elements.
This design is made to be special however it should away be ergonomically stable in the product lifespan.
The aim of this K lounge chair was to elevate traditional design rules and modernise into the future.

Pieced together by similar shapes, this chair would be easy to manufacture and high repairability rate while maintaining the rigid
strength of the structure.

Initial Artist Impression of the Chair Brief [Author Own Image - September 2018]
FIRMING_DESIGN_ASPECTS
ASSESSMENT TASK 2
SEATING SCENARIOS

Designing a chair starts from complying to the standards


related to the sitting ergonomics of a chair. Therefore this
part detailed the level of research that gone through to give
substance toward the design of the chair.
There is also a need to test out the various designs of the
chair concept before settling with the final interpretation.
FIRMING_DESIGN_ASPECTS
As the design of the chair revolved around
creating a lounge chair, the accurate dimensions
for the ergonomic schemetics become
undoubting essential towards the comfortability
of the targeted user on the chair inclination. The
need to design a chair that could support 150kg
means that the final design needs to consider the
distribution of the body weight.

The allocated angles for each portion of the chair


is displayed on the right side. The chair need to
also put in place the arm rest and also the back
rest.

Left: Ergonomic Illustration


for Lounge Chairs [https://
gharpedia.com/wp-content/
uploads/2018/08/0504010001
-02-Chair-Anthropometrics.
jpg]

Right: Ergonomic 2D Angles


of K Chair [Author’s Own Im-
age - Sept 2018]
After consulting various focus group, the design of the arm rest was reconsidered to match the overall design elements. The design pathways
is either to have the chair more Geometrical or to have the overall design more Deconstructivism & Parametric.

Coming to conclusion, the design was branched into a total of 3 patterns. After doing some analysis into the options, my dilemma was to create
a chair that either actually be a geometrical object or to be alittle playful in the design but still fitting with the Z stool that i have done previously.
Due to the current design being more eccentric, it fits the bill of being more quicky and more modern. Therefore, the final design remains and
there was no changes to the design.

Top: Various Design Patterns of ‘K’ Chair[Author’s Own Image - Sept 2018]
K Lounge Chair
A Place to Relax
The design of the K chair was to be conceptualised as a furniture that could
be easily replaced if one of the parts is broken or needs switching out.

The main material that would be used in this chair would be


plywood. To fit the previous project, i would need to use a 32mm hoop pine plywood.
The wood piece would then be secure in place by a dowel and fastened with multple countersunk timber screws at the end.
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

H H

G G

8x PART: CHAIR v2 2
F 1x PART: CHAIR v2 1 O1 F

TOP VIEW 2x PART: CHAIR v2 1


ISOMETRIC VIEW
A 1x PART: CHAIR v2 1 O2 564

E E

D 63x PART: CONNECTOR D


10

815
°
100

57°

C COUNTERSUNK SCREW C

°
135 DOWEL

B B

A SIDE VIEW
SECTION A-A Material: Plywood & Stainless Steel
This drawing and any information or descriptive
material set out on it are part of SDES2411
Description:
Object Typologies in University of New South K Lounge Chair aims to be more sustainable and
Wales and MUST NOT BE more easy for repair while having the same design

FRONT VIEW
Finish: Oil Based Matte Coating elements as SDES2410 Object Design Dialogues.
DISCLOSED, COPIED, LOANED in whole or part
or used for any purpose without the
Unless Otherwise Stated: written permission of Author.
Linear Tol.: 0.2, Angular Tol.: 0 15' Document Type: Drawn by: Drawn Date:
807 Surface Finish: 0.8µm
All Dimensions: mm General Assembly Cao Yuqin
27 Aug 17
Drawing Scale:
1:5 Final Presentation Boards Checked/Approved by: Checked/Approved Date:
A
A Approx Weight: Owner:
Part Number:

K
Drawing Produced In
15 Kg Accordance With: AS1100 K Lounge Chair
Drawing Number: Sheet:
Lounge Chair K Chair
A2
Sheet Size:
1 of 7 -
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

H 807 H

632

406
87

G G

TOP VIEW

32
22
F
B F

R3
0

E E
0
R3

ISOMETRIC VIEW

D D
R3
0

23
23

308
367
526
594
764
814
C C
287
40

R30
R3
B B 45 0 B

112
SECTION B-B SIDE VIEW
FRONT VIEW 293
This drawing and any information or descriptive Description:
Material: Plywood & Stainless Steel material set out on it are part of SDES2411
474 Object Typologies in University of New South
Wales and MUST NOT BE
K Lounge Chair aims to be more sustainable and
more easy for repair while having the same design
Finish: Oil Based Matte Coating elements as SDES2410 Object Design Dialogues.
DISCLOSED, COPIED, LOANED in whole or part
604 Unless Otherwise Stated:
or used for any purpose without the
written permission of Author.
Linear Tol.: 0.2, Angular Tol.: 0 15' Document Type: Drawn by: Drawn Date:
704 Surface Finish: 0.8µm
All Dimensions: mm Chair v2 1 O1 Cao Yuqin 27 Aug 17
734 Drawing Scale:
1:5 Final Presentation Boards Checked/Approved by: Checked/Approved Date:
A
A Approx Weight: Owner:
Part Number:

K
Drawing Produced In
807 15 Kg Accordance With: AS1100 K Lounge Chair
Drawing Number: Sheet:
Lounge Chair K Chair
A2
Sheet Size:
2 of 7 -
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

H H

807

G G

TOP VIEW

32
E
F 12 F

E E

ISOMETRIC VIEW
D D

43
23
287
308

367
526
764
814
C C
259
275
40

E 45
B
112 SECTION E-E SIDE VIEW B

FRONT VIEW 293


474
This drawing and any information or descriptive
604 Material: Plywood & Stainless Steel material set out on it are part of SDES2411
Description:
K Lounge Chair aims to be more sustainable and
Object Typologies in University of New South
Wales and MUST NOT BE more easy for repair while having the same design
Finish: Oil Based Matte Coating
704 DISCLOSED, COPIED, LOANED in whole or part
or used for any purpose without the
elements as SDES2410 Object Design Dialogues.

Unless Otherwise Stated: written permission of Author.


Linear Tol.: 0.2, Angular Tol.: 0 15' Document Type: Drawn by: Drawn Date:
734 Surface Finish: 0.8µm
All Dimensions: mm Chair v2 2 Cao Yuqin
27 Aug 17
Drawing Scale:
807 1:5 Final Presentation Boards Checked/Approved by: Checked/Approved Date:
A
A Approx Weight: Owner:
Part Number:

K
Drawing Produced In
15 Kg Accordance With: AS1100 K Lounge Chair
Drawing Number: Sheet:
Lounge Chair K Chair
A2
Sheet Size:
5 of 7 -
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
The creation of numerous technical drawings was essential
towards the production of the full product in the 1:1 scale.
Detailed lineworks and actual dimensions would be plucked
out by the various operators that would be assisting the
product to be laser cutting or Computer-Numerical Control
Routing of the plywood sheet.
Assembly of the product would also need the technical
drawings for exact precise and the purchase of screws,
dowel with the same dimensions.

The following photo on the right shows how the product is


placed into a template for laser cutting. Different linework
would enable to communincate to the laser cutting machine
on how deep or how much the laser should cut in order for
the accurate shape and size of the entire chair.
SCALE_MODEL_MAKING
ASSESSMENT TASK 2
SEATING SCENARIOS

Right after sending all the design to the laser cutting


operators, I would need to produce the work also in 3D
printing. This is to ensure consistency of the 3D models in
1: 5 scale. However there would be a need to edit the model
due to the fitting of the different part being alot more tighter.
This section would showcase the differences in 3D printing
and laser cutting.
SCALE_MODEL _MAKING
3D Printing of Connector
[Author’s Own Image - Sept 2018]
Disassembly of Chair
[Author’s Own Image - Sept 2018]
Placement of K Chair In Progress
[Author’s Own Image - Sept 2018]
Laser Cut of 1:5 Model
[Author’s Own Image - Sept 2018]
Glueing and Placing the 1:5 Chair
[Author’s Own Image - Sept 2018]
Final Model
[Author’s Own Image - Sept 2018]
PRODUCTION_JOURNEY
ASSESSMENT TASK 3
NEW TYPOLOGIES

This part shows the process in creating the ‘K’ Chair and
close the loop from conceptualise to display.
The plywood goes through CNC operation to sanding to
finally coating the chair.
PRODUCTION_JOURNEY
Photo: Big City Production Workshop
[Author’s Own Image - Oct 2018]
Cut Boards Of K Chair
[Author’s Own Image - Oct 2018]
K Stool’s Parts
[Author’s Own Image - Oct 2018]
Product Eco‐Indicator Calculation Report

The Eco‐indicator calculation shows the environmental impact of the product throughout its life cycle. The higher the Eco‐indicator value is, the bigger the impact it 
has to human health, ecosystem quality and natural resources. 
The table and graphs below indicate the Eco‐indicator distribution of the anaysed product in its three life cycle stages i.e. Production, Use and End‐of‐life.

No. Life Cycle Stage Eco‐Indicator Score


1 Production 1398.11
2 Use 140
3 End‐of‐Life ‐33.392
Total 1504.718

Eco-Indicator Distribution by Life Cycle Stages Eco-Indicator Distribution by Life Cycle Stages

1500
9% -2%
Eco-indicator (milipoint)

1000

500 89%
140
0 -33.392
1398.11
-500
Production Use End-of-Life Production
Life Cycle Stage Use
End-of-Life

The detail Eco‐indicator distribution at each process throughout the life cycle is shown in the table and graphs below.

No. Process Eco‐Indicator Score


1 Material Extraction 1171.72
2 Manufacturing Process 0.46
3 Material Transportation 225.93
4 Product Transportation 140
5 Energy Consumption 0
6 Disposal Process ‐49.4
7 Disposal Transportation 16.008
Total 1504.718

Eco-Indicator Distribution by Process Eco-Indicator Distribution by Process


1200
Eco-Indicator (milipoint)

1000
800
600 -3%
400 1%
225.93 9% 0%
140 14%
200 16.008
0.46 0 0% 73%
0 1171.72
-200 -49.4 Material Extraction
Material Transportation
Material Extraction

Manufacturing Process

Disposal Transportation
Disposal Process
Product Transportation

Energy Consumption

Manufacturing Process
Material Transportation
Product Transportation
Energy Consumption

Process
Disposal Process
Disposal Transportation
Sanding Of K And Connectors
[Author’s Own Image - Oct 2018]
The summary of Eco‐indicator calculation results highlights the life cycle stages and processes that contribute most to the overall product environmental impact. 
The results reflect areas where improvement is most needed and show the right direction to work towards.
EPILOGUE _OF _ ‘K’
ASSESSMENT TASK 3
NEW TYPOLOGIES

This project to produce the chairs are immersely long and


detailed. The design and look of the chair in different
floorings shows different feel to the design of the chair.

It just shows how versatile the chair could well be and be


able to fit into the various environments.
EPILOGUE _OF _ ‘K’
Photo Taken At UNSW Villages
[Author’s Own Image - Oct 2018]
Photo Taken At UNSW Walkway
[Author’s Own Image - Oct 2018]
Photo Taken At UNSW Villages
[Author’s Own Image - Oct 2018]
Strange, Yet Conventional.
This piece defines itself as an art collection but also as a comfort-
able seating product.
As ‘Z’ Stool is veratile and could both act as a stool and a side
table, the entrance of this chair could well be a splitting image or
part of the product family.
Created using Australian Marine Plywood: Hoop Pine ‘BB -
Grade’, this piece is strong structurally and therefore have full
hope that it would stand against the test of time.
With this, I therefore close the chapter on the end of the
K Lounge Chair.

Simplicity Design, Built For Life

K Lounge Chair
A Place to Relax