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– Why do we need dehydrated (Dry) gas?

– What is HYDRATES
– What is Gas Dehydration
– Quality of Dehydrated Gas
– TEG and its advantages
– What is dew point & gas quality requirements
– How do we recover/regenerate the TEG
– Useful terms, definitions & unit conversions
– Design data
– Absorption principles
– Main equipment & functions
– Glycol flow routes-follow PFD
– Follow P&IDs
Why we need Dehydrated (Dry) Gas?
 Presence of free Water will increase corrosion rate.
Corrosion reduces the Thickness of the Pipelines, and it can
cause hazardous for the operation.
Dry gas can increase transport distance; without causing
When we reduce the danger of corrosion, we can go for
cheaper materials for pipelines etc.
 Free water in Gas (Ie, Wet gas) increases the chances of HYDRATE

Hydrate is a crystalline solid; is building blocks consists of a Gas
molecules surrounded by a cage of water molecules.

Thus it is similar to ice.

More about Hydrates:-
Hydrate is a solid compounds,
resembling snow or ice in
appearance, are formed with
Gas components such as Hydrate!!!!
Methane, Ethane, Propane and
Isobutene in the presence of
water at elevated pressure and

The formation of gas hydrates in natural gas pipe lines depends primarily up
on the pressure, temperature and composition of gas-water vapour mixture.

Chances of Hydrate formation increases as:-

 Reduction in gas temp,
 Increased pressure and water content.
Hydrate formation is accelerated by high velocity of gas and pressure
when gas production rates are low, the possibility of hydrate formation is
higher than at relatively high gas flow rates.

Gas dehydration is the most commonly used method for hydrate prevention.
What Is Gas Dehydration?

Gas dehydration is a process to reducing Water content of the gas, in order to

meet the dry gas water Dew point specification (Specification varies with in
the limit of 5.0 lbs/mmscf according to the different installation requirement).

There are two principles of water removal:-

1. Absorption
Using Liquid agents

Absorption is usually carried out by Glycol Dehydration.

Triethylene Glycol (TEG) is using as desiccant in Absorption Process.

2. Adsorption
Using Solid agents
Adsorption is usually carried out solid desiccant like Silica gel or

Note:- Desiccant is a substance which can attract and hold water

TEG is stable at comparatively with high temperature
Will not react with hydrocarbon gas
Miscible with water & not with condensate/oil
Good absorbent for water
Absorbed water can be removed by heating (easy regeneration)
Non- hazardous & non-poisons.
Comparatively cheaper price.

Properties of TEG
Tri Ethylene Glycol is called TEG
 Chemical formula: C6H14O4
Sp gravity: 1.1274 @15 °C
Boiling Point: 285 °C
Degradation start point: 206 °C
Introduction of Gas Dehydration
The Wet gas from Separator is being processed in Dehydration unit
Dehydration is carried out by contacting the wet gas stream with Lean TEG.
When the water content is removed from gas, Dew point temp of gas out
from Contactor moves with in the limit of dry gas specification.

Lean TEG
Water vapour

sep Rich TEG

Gas TEG Regeneration

Export gas/ injection

Dehydrated gas further is being utilized for Gas exporting or Gas Injection.
Lean TEG (99.8 %) is injected to the Dehydration system to absorb water
from Gas
Rich TEG (which contains 4.0 % absorbed water) from Contactor passes to
the TEG regeneration system.
Rich TEG is heated up in Regeneration system, up to 200 C and boiled
water vapors taken off from the system.
Regenerated Lean TEG, further circulated through Gas Dehydration System.
How to determine dehydrated gas are with in the spec?
By monitoring DEW POINT of Dehydrated gas (< 2.5 lbs/mmscfd or Dew point
temp -54 C @ Atmos)

What is Dew point of a Gas?

The dew point is the temperature (at a given pressure) at which the first
drop of water is foamed.

Note: Dew point can either be expressed in temperature or lbs water (content)/mmscf of gas.

•Lower Dew point is better quality.

•Dew point temp varies as gas pressure,(Refer following graph)
•But water content remains same with various gas pressure.

Gas Quality requirement

Every offshore installation will have a particular Dew Point specification
Quality of Dehydrated Gas
Dehydrated gas shall be able to achieve specific Dew point requirement as per below
graph and that will explain about Dew point temp corresponding with different
pressure when achieving the water content <2.5lbs/mmscf (specification).
If the Gas pressure is 400 Barg, Dew point temp corresponding to 2.5lbs/mmscfd water
content is -5.0 0C.
If the Gas pressure is 110 Barg, Dew point temp corresponding to 2.5 lbs/mmscfd water
content is -11.0 0C.
Dew point temp @ Atmospheric pressure is -54.0 0C, which corresponding to 2.5lbs/mmscfd
water content.
Note:- The Graph
Water content per mmscf Gas; Lbs/mmscf

Indicates, Dew point
7.0 temp will vary
6.0 corresponding to
different pressure,
while water content is
4.0 constant.
Dew point Limit

Dew point
In means of water content

1.0 2.5 lbs/mmscf













Temp 0 C Dew point temp @ 400barg; -5 0C.

Dew point temp @Atmosphere press; -54 0C

Dew point temp @110Barg; -11 0C.

98 C
46 C
TEG Overview 60 C
Reflux condenser
Reflux column
Wet gas condenser
Dry gas and stripping gas

Flashing gas 200 C
Rich TEG N2 to LP Flare
Lean TEG

Carbon filter
Flash drum
Water Vapour

Stripping gas
Heavy hydrocarbon condensate

Rich TEG
Surge drum
Rich TEG for Regeneration

Water vapour
198 C
Cartridge 160 C
Rich/ Lean TEG
58 C
48 C
Gas/ TEG 85 C
Lean TEG

83 C
Gas to LP
TEG Circulation Flare

Vent condenser
35 C condenser


Water/ condensate

TEG to drain

Wet Gas from Separator

Contactor Inlet Scrubber (Filter)
Gas from HP Sep first passes to the Contactor inlet Scrubber.

What is Inlet Scrubber?

Contactor Inlet Scrubber is simply a vertical vessel where the liquid (Water and
Liquid hydrocarbons) will knock from Gas.

Liquid will be taken out to Separation unit.

Gas out to Contactor
The vessel is equipped with a Demister at Gas outlet
which will prevent any Liquid carry over to the Demister

Why should we knock out liquids before Contactor?

Knocking out of condensate will reduce chances of Inlet scrubber
condensation In Contactor, thus reducing the chances of
Gas In
FOAMING. Foaming will cause Glycol loss and instability of
the system.
Knocking out of the water will reduce the load in
Gas Dehydration and TEG Regeneration System. Liquid out
Thus it results better Dew point.
Gas passes through inlet Scrubber and then to the Glycol Contactor for dehydration
Free Liquid from gas is being Gas out from
dropped out in scrubber Dehydrated gas will be
achieved Dew point with in
Dehydrated gas taken out. the required spec.
Gas passes through exchanger Lean TEG to
Shell and
and then move for export Contactor
Tube type
Regenerated high temp Lean TEG/Gas
TEG pumped to Contactor TEG Contactor
through TEG/Gas exchanger Packing

(where the heat from TEG is

exchanged to gas) & TEG is Gas to TEG Dehydrated gas out

being cooled down to 5-7 C upward Downward

Lean TEG to heat

Water in Rich TEG is
more than feed gas temp. being vaporised from

In Contactor, wet particle regeneration system.
from the gas is being
attracted by Lean TEG. Water

Rich TEG (TEG+Water)
accumulated at the
bottom of Contactor Gas to


Gas from
Separator Rich TEG from Contactor is being processed in
Regeneration system absorbed water in Rich TEG will
Liquid evaporated by high temp provided by steam or Heater.

Feed gas inlet temperature shall be maintained between 40-45 oC

and higher temperatures must increase the amount of water vapor
to be removed, as well as require very pure lean glycol to meet the
required dehydration specification

TEG dehydration units yield a higher dew point depression with

an increase in temperature and correspondingly a lower dew
point depression with a decrease in inlet gas temperature.

When the water content is removed from gas, Dew point temp
(Hydrate formation temp) moves to lower side.

Contactor Demister is designed for not to exceed TEG loss

beyond the limit in accordance with the gas is being processed.
Glycol Contactor
Wet gas from inlet scrubber is send to Contactor which is designed for
operating at certain pressure and 40-45 C.
TEG Contactor is a vertical vessel where Water
in wet gas will be Absorbed by TEG in a counter Gas out from
current flow. Contactor
TEG/ Gas
Packing is provided in Contactor to achieve exchanger
more effective contact between Gas and TEG
TEG down wards
Water in Gas film is being attracted by TEG. Packing
Refer below picture

Contactor Gas from

Gas up wards Scrubber

TEG out
Absorbed water
condensate out
TEG/ Gas Exchanger

Gas Glycol Exchanger mostly is a Shell

and Tube type heat exchanger. Lean Gas out
Glycol from the Glycol Recirculation
Pumps to Shell side of Gas Glycol 48°C

85 0C Lean TEG
in to Exch
In Exchanger, Lean TEG is
cooled down to 50°C by the out Contactor
going gas from Contactor, prior Gas out
to enter in to Contactor.

Feed gas
Dry Gas from Gas Dehydration Column is @ 45 C
used as a cooling medium for Lean TEG.

Note: Efficiency of Dehydration system is increases with increased operating

pressure and reduced operating temp.
Glycol Contactor

Amount of water which is removed out from gas in the contactor depends
mainly on:

 The gas flow rate, pressure

 Gas inlet temperature
 Lean Glycol inlet temperature
 Packing
 Glycol flow ,glycol concentration & pH

Note:- It is important to knock out free water as much as possible at the

inlet scrubber to avoid more load on Contactor as well as in Regeneration
system. Feed gas temperature (Low) need to be maintained in order to
knocking out more liquid in Inlet Scrubber.

It is the process of regenerating Lean Glycol (purity 99.41% wt) by

heating up Rich Glycol. This Regenerated Lean Glycol is used for
gas dehydration of Exported Gas and Gas Lift streams, and is then
recycled back to the Regeneration package as rich TEG.

Regeneration system is a semi closed system and Absorbed water

from Rich TEG will be heated up in Reboiler and send to LP Flare.

TEG Regeneration system consists of:-

 Flash drum  Circulation pump

 Filters (Carbon/ Cartridge type)
 TEG Reboiler
 Surge drum
 Reflux Condensor
 Filters (Carbon/ Cartridge type)
 Vent condensor and drum
 Rich/ Lean TEG exchanger
Rich TEG from Contactor is Flash drum Rich TEG out of 97C
Reflux condenser 50C
being routed through Reflux
Rich TEG
Condenser, Where the Rich from Cont
TEG gains from raising hot
gas comes from Reboiler Reboiler
200 0C
Reflux temp will be maintained 200 C
@ 97C, by operating bypass To Filters
Rich TEG from Reflux condenser, then moves
to Flash Drum and light hydrocarbons from
TEG will be removed by flashing.
Flashing is taking place due to high differential
pressure between Contactor and Flash drum.
Surge drum
Liquid Hydrocarbon condensate will be floating top of the
TEG layer further collected automatically in the Bucket.
Removal of the heavy H/C prevents any fouling, foaming and
flooding upsets with down stream regeneration system.
NOTE: Glycol Flash Drum level control valve is located downstream of the Hot
Lean / Rich Exchanger in order to maintain back pressure on the exchanger and
minimize vapor generation within the tubes.
Flash Drum
The Glycol Flash Drum is a three phase separator and is sized for nominally
20-30 minutes retention time while operating at 60% full.

In the Glycol Flash Drum the dissolved hydrocarbons are separated from the TEG. Then
the gas is sent to LP flare header under back pressure control valve.

A fuel gas blanket line with PCV arrangement is provided to supplement the gas
flow if necessary to maintain the vessel pressure.

4.0 Barg
5.5 barg
Blanketing gas
To LP Flare Rich TEG in

Condensate out
Rich TEG To Filters
Removing solid impurities over 5 dim from Rich TEG. These Rich TEG from Cont
particles will damage the Glycol Circulation Pump, liquid 97C
trims, plug, Glycol Still Column packing and cause foaming in
the Gas Dehydration Column..

Carbon Filter
Rich TEG being filtered for Aromatic hydrocarbons and 200 C
canister shall be replaced every 3 months or according to
differential pressure across the filter. H L/R EXGR


Particle Filter Particle Filter Carbon Filter

Surge drum

Flow (20 %) across the Filter

is maintained by bypass
flow and bypass flow is
Rich TEG from F/D monitored by a flow meter
Rich TEG to C L/R exch.
Rich TEG from Cont
After passing Carbon filter, Rich TEG entering to
Flash drum level 97C
Lean/Rich TEG exchanger.
Control valve
L/R Exchanger
Prior to enter Rich TEG in Reboiler, Rich TEG gaining
some temp from incoming Hot TEG from Reboiler
58 C to 160 C
160 C
Before entering Rich TEG to Reboiler, some temperature Hot Lean TEG @200 C
has been gained in different stages and that gives better
life for TEG
58 C
Rich TEG gained heat from:- 85
1. Reflux Condenser 14 C Carbon Filter
2. L/R Exchanger 100 C
Surge drum
Reboiler:- Glycol Reboiler is a Horizontal Vessel which is Flare
used to boil off water from the Rich TEG by using heat source Reflux
from Electric Heater or steam to regenerate rich TEG. Condenser

Warm Rich TEG from L/R exchanger enter Still Column

in Reboiler Through Still Column.

202 C or steam
The TEG flows downward across the
packing (of Still Column) and TEG partially Stripping gas
regenerated in the Glycol Still Column to preheating
Lean TEG
through contact with rising vapors
generated by the Glycol Reboiler.
Rich TEG

Reboiler temp is maintained @ 200 C by

steam bundle or Electric heating coil to
boil off all absorbed water from Rich TEG..
Reflux Condenser To LP 97 C
Reflux Condenser temp is maintained @ 97 C by adjusting Rich Flare
TEG bypass flow Reflux
Rich TEG Condenser
If reflux Temp is maintained at lower, rising vapours from Cont
from Reboiler will condense back and the purity of
Lean TEG will be affected. If Temp is maintained Still
higher side, the result will be excess TEG Carry over. Column

The regenerated TEG flows by gravity across the Electric

202 C heater or
length of the Glycol Reboiler and enters the Glycol Steam

Stripping Column
Gas to
Stripping gas
to preheating
to preheating

The use of stripping gas is to reduce the water L/R EXGR

content of the regenerated TEG by counter
current contact with hot fuel (stripping) gas
flowing upward through the Stripping Column.

Surge Drum
Lean/Rich Exchanger

Rich/ Lean exchanger can a plate type cross exchanger or
Shell and tube type depends up on the offshore installations.
Gas to Stripper
200 C Lean TEG

165 C Lean/Rich Exchanger

Lean TEG from Stripping Column is being cool Rich TEG 67 C
down in L/R Exchanger (by Rich TEG from Flash 85 C
drum) from 200C to 90 C while Rich TEG is
warmed up from 67 C to 165 C.

Surge Drum

Later Lean TEG is accumulating in Surge Vessel, where it

is used for the Reservoir for Lean TEG Circulation pump.
TEG Circulation pump Reflux

During Cold circulation, TEG Contactor and TEG/Gas

circulation line)
exchanger will be bypassed from TEG circulation

Warm up (Cold
Surge Vessel
and flow will be diverted through warm up line to
Reflux Condenser. Restricted Orifice also provided Recirculation
on Warm up line. valve

Pump RO

During Cold circulation, Pump discharge pressure To TEG/Gas

FI Exchanger
can be adjusted by operating Recirculation valve

Once Temp is restored in Reboiler, TEG flow will line up through

Contactor (TEG/GAS exchanger) and isolate warm up line to Reflux
condenser. FI is provided on the line and adjust the required flow rate by
adjusting Recirculation valve