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THE EFFECT OF TEAM GAME TOURNAMENT (TGT) COOPERATIVE

LEARNING METHOD APPLICATION TOWARDS LEARNING MOTIVATION AND


ACHIEVEMENT

Linda Juwita1, Ni PutuWulanPurnama Sari2, Yurike Septianingrum3


1
Faculty of Nursing, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya, Jl. Raya Kalisari
Selatan 1, Pakuwon City, Surabaya, Indonesia
2
Faculty of Nursing, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya, Jl. Raya Kalisari
Selatan 1, Pakuwon City, Surabaya, Indonesia
3
Faculty of Nursing, NahdlatulUlama University, Jl. Raya Jemur Sari No.57, Surabaya,
Indonesia

Correspondence Email Addres:lindajuwita73@gmail.com


Faculty of Nursing, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya,
Jl. Raya Kalisari Selatan 1, Pakuwon City, Surabaya, Indonesia,
lindajuwita74@gmail.com, Mobile: +6285237476892, Fax. +623199005278

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Learning method of Team Game Tournament (TGT) has student-centered learning
characteristic focuses on students’ knowledge construction in which they could find important information
useful for constructing their own knowledge. The continuous weak comprehension of neurology system
anatomy and physiology resulted in the application of TGT for constructing students’ knowledge in this
study. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of TGT application for improving learning motivation and
achievement in studying neurology system anatomy and physiology among nursing students. Methods: This
pre-experimental study used the one group pretest post-test design approach. Target population was all
nursing students in two institutions around Surabaya in the even semester of 2016/2017 academic year.
Inclusion criteria were passed the course of Biomedical II or Nursing Basics I. Sample size was 143 chose by
total sampling. Independent variable was TGT application and dependent variables were learning motivation
and achievement. Study instruments were motivation questionnaire and objective test. Data analysis used
paired t test and Mann-Whitney test with α ≤ 0.05. Ethical clearance was issued (number: 449-KEPK).
Results: Most respondents were 19 years old single female who chose nursing major because of their dream,
and majority still live with parents in their own house. Only learning motivation data that were normally
distributed. TGT application could increase learning motivation and achievement of nursing
studentssignificantly (p=0.000 and p=0.028 respectively). Conclusions: TGT application could increase
learning motivation and achievement in studying neurology system anatomy and physiology among nursing
students. Further implementation could be broad, other subjects in nursing could be the target in which
difficult subject would be underlined.

Keywords: team game tournament, learning motivation, learning achievement, nursing


education, learning method

INTRODUCTION elements of game and reinforcement


(Hamdani, 2011). Learning using the TGT
The cooperative learning model of model begins with class presentation, group
team game tournament (TGT) is one of the learning, games, matches and group awards
easy-to-apply cooperative learning models (Rusman, 2012). The TGT learning model
involving the activities of all students without has a student center characteristic focused on
any degree of status, involving the role of constructing student knowledge, where
students as peer tutors, and containing the students are expected to find important

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The Effect of Team Game Tournament... (Linda Juwita et.al)

information for constructing their own on learning motivation, and 2) Identifying,


knowledge (Slavin, 2010). Somestudy results analyzing, and explaining the effect of TGT
show that active learning can improve implementation on learning achievement.
student academic performance (Michael,
2006; Freeman, et al., 2007; Chaplin, 2009; METHOD
in Hamdan, 2013); improve the ability of
critical thinking and attachment of students The population was all freshmen at
with the field of science, as well as develop a nursing institutions in Surabaya. The
positive attitude in learning (O'Dowd & affordable population was all nursing
Aguilar-Roca, 2009; in Hamdan, 2013). students of class 2015/2016 at FoN of Widya
Based on evaluation of clinical Mandala Catholic University Surabaya and
practice in the hospital, clinical instructor FoN& Midwifery of Universitas Nahdlatul
(CI) expressed that the students of our Ulama Surabaya Population size in April
institution show weak mastery of anatomy 2017 was 208. Inclusion criteria was students
and physiology of human body. Based on the who have received the study material of
results of a survey conducted on the faculty nervous system anatomy and physiology
of nursing (FoN) of our institution in which (through Biomedical II or Nursing Basics
the students have been exposed to all course) and active enrollment in the even
materials of anatomy and physiology semester of 2016/2017 academic year.
(BiomedicalII and Nursing Basics I), most Exclusion criteria were resigned in the
students reported that it was difficult to middle of data collectionm period, did not
understand the anatomy and physiology of attend all the face-to-face meeting sessions in
the nervous system. Students expressed their classroom. After the selection process, only
difficulties in understanding those subject 143 student who were eligible to become
because the complexity of the study study respondents.
materials. Independent variable was TGT
Nur & Wikandari (2000) explained application, while the dependent variable
that TGT has already implemented in various was learning motivation and
subjects. The most effectiveness was found in achievement. Data collection was
a subject which learning purpose was conducted in June 2017, after final
formulated sharply with one correct answer.
examination period. Before conducting
Saptono, 2008 (in Judge, 2009) states that
cooperative learning is a lesson that focuses the study, researcher team gave an
on grouping students with different levels of explanation about the purpose and
academic ability into collaborative small technical implementation of the study
groups whose members consist of 4-6 people intervention and the benefits of study for
with heterogeneous group structure. Through freshmen. After all students understood
the TGT method students will actively and were willing to be study respondent,
communicate, think further, and allow the researcher team then distributed the
students to learn more relaxed as well as informed concent sheet to be signed.
foster responsibility, cooperation, healthy Pretest was conducted at the first
competition and learning involvement meeting. Research team member were
(Shoimin, 2014). The advantages of this
being facilitator by the time of data
learning method include increased student
learning motivation and achieved better collection. The motivation questionnaire
learning outcomes (Taniredja, 2011). was distributed to be filled
The general purpose of this research simultaneously. After completion,
was to explain the effect of TGT application facilitator divided the respondents in
towards the learning motivation and groups of 6-8 students. Facilitator then
achievement among nursing students, presented the study materials and the
especially in the subject of nervous system respondents studied about it
anatomy and physiology. Specific objectives independently in groups for the next
were: 1) identifying, analyzing, and meeting. The facilitator then distributed
explaining the effect of TGT implementation
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Jurnal INJEC Vol. 2 No. 2 Desember 2017: 154-163

the task description sheet and gave a brief they could increase positive mind, sensitivity,
explanation of the expected outcomes, and tolerance toward others.
outcomes of individual or group learning. Motivation of learning is assessed by
Respondents were given the opportunity learning motivation questionnaire made by
to ask to clarify the facilitator statements Aryanti with Cronbach’s alpha = 0,940
that felt less clear. At the second meeting, (UNNES, 2010) used Likert scale with
the respondents were given group details: strongly agree (score 5), agree (score
assignment of the results of group 4), neutral (score3), disagree (score 2), and
strongly disagree (score 1). This
discussions about the study materials that
questionnaire consists of 25 items by element
had been presented and discussed with of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to learn,
the facilitator. The face-to-face meeting namely: the level of discipline to follow the
lasted for 100 minutes for each, 3 times a learning process, the level of diligence to do
week. At the third meeting, facilitator the task, the frequency of independent
conducted a game between groups learning in doing the task, the impulse to
according to teaching plan. Playing learn and achievement. Each item is rated on
process included: 1) the students sat a Likert scale and scored according to the
based on groups, 2) facilitator determined guideline stated in the variables operational
the students’ number and placed them in definition and summed to get the total score
the tournament table (equal competency): which then put into statistical test (paired t
test). The research hypothesis will be
in each table, there was one game sheet,
accepted if the significance of data less than
one answer sheet, one box of number α (0.05).
card, and one sheet of game score; 3) one The result of the students' learning
student withdrew a card to determine 1 st achievement was evaluated from the
reader (highest number), and other objective test developed by the researcher
students would be the challenger; 4) 1st team which amounted to 50 multiple choice
reader shuffled the card and took the questions based on the anatomy and
topmost card, 5) 1st reader read the physiology theory of the nervous system by
question based on number on the card scoring one if respondent got the score 2 and
and tried to answer, if he gave wrong scoring one if he got the score 0. The score of
answer there was no punishment and the learning achievement was summed, then put
into statistical test (Mann-Whitney test). The
card was returned, but if he gave right
research hypothesis will be accepted if the
answer then the card was saved as score significance of data less than α (0.05).
evidence; 6) if the 1st and 2nd challenger The researched team followed ethical
had different answers, they could answer assessment in the FoN of Airlangga
in turn, 7) if the challenger answer was University to obtain ethical clearance
wrong, he would be fined by returning (number: 449-KEPK). Other ethical aspects
the right answer card (if present); 8) then in this study were informed concent,
students changed position (in turn) with anonimity, confidentiality, freedom, justice,
the same game procedure. baneficence, and non-maleficence.
The facilitator then performed an
assessment based on teaching plan and
selected one of the best groups and rewards
them. By the end of the fourth meeting, post-
test was conducted by distributing motivation
questionnaire and performed individual
objective test for gaining the data of learning
achievement. TGT result was all students
actively involved in the learning process,

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The Effect of Team Game Tournament... (Linda Juwita et.al)

RESULTS (100%), living with parents (67.8%), in their


own home (67.1%). In this study, the
Sample size was 143. Demography majority of nursing students chose nursing
characteristic of responmdents were shown in major because it was their dream (23.8%).
Table 1 below. The result of Shapiro-Wilk test
showed that pretest and posttest learning
Table 1. Demography characteristic motivation data were normally distributed (p
= .197). Learning motivation data before and
Characteristic Frequency Percentage after study was shown in Table 2 below.
(n=143) (%)
1. Age (years old)
a. 17 4 2,7
b. 18 29 20,3
c. 19 95 66,4
d. 21 5 3.5
e. 20 8 5,7
f. 23 2 1,4
2. Gender
a. Female 122 85,3
b. Male 21 14,7
3. Marital Status
Single 143 100
4. Living with
a. Extended 10 7
family
b. Parents 97 67,8
c. Sibling 5 3,5
d. Alone 24 16,8
e. Friend 7 4,9
5. Housing Status
a. Yearly rent 5 3,5
b.Monthly rent 42 29,4
c. Owner 96 67,1
6.Reasons for
choosing nursing
major
a. Dream 34 23,8
b. Curious 9 6,3
c. Parental advice 23 18,2
d. Personal desire 25 18,2
e.Parental motivation 4 2,8
f.Siblings’ 1 7
motivation
g. Inner motivation 1 7
h.Getting job easily 3 2,1
i.Scholarship 2 1,4
program
j. Caring to others 21 14,7
k.Personal preference 14 9,8
l.Unaccepted in 2 1,4
desiring college

Of the 143 respondents, most were


19 years old (58%), females (85.3%), single
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Table 2.Laerning Motivation Cross-tab

Posttest
Total
Pretest 20-35 36-51 52-67 68-83 84-100
f % f % f % f % f % F %
20-35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
36-51 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
52-67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
68-83 0 0 0 0 0 0 59 41,3 48 33,6 107 74,8
84-100 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1,4 34 23,8 36 25,2
Paired Mean ± Std. Error Mean (SEM) Paired t test Sig. (2-tailed)
SD 0.55 p = 0,000
6.82 ± 6.57

Score Learning Achievement


There were 48 respondents (33.6%) n %
who experienced an increase in the score of 63-66 3 2.1
learning motivation, from 68-43 to 84-100. In 67-70 14 9.8
addition, there were 2 respondents (1.4%) 71-74 27 18.9
who experienced a decrease in learning 75-79 12 8.4
motivation score, from 84-100 to 68-83. 34 80-100 4 2.8
respondents (23.8%) whose learning Mean ± SD SEM Mann-
motivation score remained at the value of 84- 58.2 ± 14.55 1.22 Whitney test :
100. p = .028
The result of paired t test showed that
the paired mean value was 6.82 with SD The score of the most dominant post-
6,57. The mean value of pretest and post-test test learning achievement was in the 45-54
was 79.3 and86.1 respectively. SD value less range (29.3%). Respondents who got high
than meanindicates a low deviation from the score in range of 80-100 was 4 students only
observed data. The SEM value of 0.55 (2.8%). Respondentswho got low score in
indicates that mean was representative for range of ≤ 44were 25 students (17.5%). The
describing the overall data. results of descriptive statistic showed that
The result of paired t test test showed mean value was 58.2 with SD 14.55. SD
that TGT application has a significant effect values which less than mean indicates a low
toward learning motivation among nursing deviation from the observed data. The SEM
students (p = .000), especially in the subject value of 1.22 showed the value of mean was
of nervous system anatomy and physiology. representative for describing the overall
This learning method was proved to be learning achievement data.
effective forincreasing learning motivation. Mann-Whitneystatistical test was
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test used because the data was abnormally
results showed that post-test-only learning distributed. TGT application has a
achievement data was abnormally distributed significant effect toward learning
(p = .004). Learning achievement data before achievement (p = .028). This learning method
and after study is presented in Table 3 below. was proved to be effective for improving
learning achievement among nursing
Table 3. Learning Achievement students, especially in the subject of nervous
system anatomy and physiology.
Score Learning Achievement
n % DISCUSSION
≤ 44 25 17.5
45-54 42 29.3 1. Apllication of TGT learning method
55-58 8 5.6 towards Learning Motivation
59-62 8 5.6
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The Effect of Team Game Tournament... (Linda Juwita et.al)

Study results showed that there was learning. This study results also supported by
sisgnificant effect of TGT application Rahmawati (2016) who studied about the
towards learning motivation among nursing factors affecting the learning motivation of
students, especially in learning about nervous high school students on the economic
system anatomy and physiology (p = .000). subjects. One of her research conclusions is
In this study, researchers argue that high that family environment has a positive and
motivation in after learning by TGT method significant impact on students' learning
because students are involved in the learning motivation.
process actively. The TGT learning method Researcher team concluded that
was fun because of the games that make other factor determined the increase in
students active. This is consistent with the learning motivation of students is because
results of the interviews when conducting the TGT is a cooperative learning method
data collection that students feel energized like Student Team Achievement Division
and prefer the kind of learning that involves
(STAD). Cooperative learning shows
games.Students who receive knowledge with
joy in their studies will develop an increase activities and interaction among students
in learning motivation that ultimately to be motivated by each other. This is
affected their study achievement. One of the congruent with the study of Wyk (2012).
fun things in learning is doing it through Wyk stated that cooperative learning
playing game. If this activity made the method by utilization of STAD method
students relaxed, conducive, not too stressed resulted in better learning achievement
or tired, and educational games can be and highest motivation to learn about
accepted by the students, their motivation in There were also 2 respondents
learning will increase, because of the increase (1.4%) who experienced a decrease in
in metabolic work of the students' brains learning motivation. This possibly happened
(Serevina, 2009).According to Suprijono due to their reason for entering nursing
(2010), by creating a positive learning department was because of their parents’
environment it will foster motivation and wishes. This signifies being a nurse rather
interest of students to follow the learning than the respondent's interest. Interest is the
process. Especially in cooperative feeling of liking to a thing or activity without
learningenvironment that is very influential the coercion of its work (Slameto, in Djaali,
on achievement of learning outcomes. This 2008). Good interest and self-awareness to
opinion is in line with the results of research the field of learning will keep the students
from Warmansyah (2016) about the influence engage to the learning activities so that they
of cooperative learning methods and learning can master the lessons and in the end they
motivation in the topic of learning can achieve good learning outcomes (Djaali,
mathematics. His conclusionwas there was 2008). Interest that can support learning is an
significant effect of interaction between interest to the study material / subject and to
learning method and learning motivation the teacher/facilitator who teaches/delivers it.
learning mathematics. If the students are not only uninterested with
In this study there were 48 the materials / subjects but also to the
respondents (33.6%) who experienced an teacher, then the students will not want to
increase in the value of learning motivation. study. This opinion is in line with Hidayat's
This increase might be supported by the fact research (2015) about the correlation between
that the majority of respondents living with students’ interest and aspirations with the
their parents. According to Ahmadi (2007) learning motivation among nursing students
family is a small social group consisting at Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta.
mostly of father, mother, and children with His study results showed that interest and
relatively fixed social relationships based on aspirations affected learning motivation.
blood or adoption bonds. Wirowidjojo (in
Slameto, 2010) statedthat family is the first 2. Apllication of TGT learning method
and foremost educational environment. The towards Learning Achievement
way parents educate is the effort that parents
do in treating and making their child
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Jurnal INJEC Vol. 2 No. 2 Desember 2017: 154-163

Results showed that there was a areunderstand better through cooperative


significant effect of TGT application towards learning activities and exchanging
learning achievement among nursing information that takes place during the
students, especially in learning about nervous learning process through TGT learning
system anatomy and physiology (p = .028). method. This is in line with research
This result could occur because of the nature conducted by Lovieana (2014) on the
of TGT learning method which was application of TGT learning method as an
tournament and fun, thus making the students effort to increase learning activity on basic
to be more motivated in following the competence of vocational high school
learning process. In the TGT learning process students. Study results showed that TGT can
each student in the group has the increase student activity in groups
responsibility to get the highest score in the cooperation and give each other
tournament. Each student competes to make encouragement among students by using
her group wins. According to Sardiman skills that have been trained in learning
(2004), high motivated students will always process.
be eager to learn and will always increase the This study results showed that the
intensity of their learning effort. This opinion most dominant posttest study result of
is in line with the research conducted by learning achievement was in score of 45-54
Putra et al (2013) about the effect of as many as 42 respondents (29,3%). Based on
cooperative learning model type TGT the results of post-intervention interviews
towards students’ learning outcomes. The towards them, we believed that the
results of their study indicate that there was respondents have considered the subject
an increase in students’ learning outcomes in matter of nervous system anatomy and
the classroom by using cooperative learning physiology was a difficult lesson, so that they
model type TGT. have less interest in it. As stated by Nasution
Researchers believed this results are also (1997): "interest influences the learning
influenced by student activities. TGT which process and outcomes, it is not to be
is a type of cooperative learning method questioned that if someone is not interested in
improves student learning activity and their learning something then it cannot be
activeness during the learning process. This expected that he will work well in learning it;
is congruent with the study of Wyk (2011), on the contrary if someone learns with
he stated that the intervention group’s result interest, it can be expected that the results are
was better than the control group. good."This opinion is in line with the study
Slavin in Rusman (2011) presented of Kurnia et al (2015) about the effect of
two reasons why cooperative learning facilities and interest in learning on the
strategies should be encouraged. Several results of learning subjects of marketing in
study results proved that: (1) the use of vocational high school students. The study
cooperative learning can improve student's results concluded that there was a significant
learning achievement and simultaneously can effect of the students’ interest on their
improve social relationship, cultivate learning outcomes.
tolerance and attitude, and appreciate the There were 4 respondents (2,8%) got
opinion of others, (2) cooperative learning score in the range of 80-100. Based on
can fulfill the requirement of student in demographic data, these 4 respondents chose
critical thinking, and integrate their the department of nursing because of ideals,
knowledge with experience. This is in preference, and desires alone. This can
accordance with the opinion of Damon and explain that the personal determinant is a part
Murray (in Slavin, 2008) that the clever of one's interests. Interest in learning showsa
student interaction with the less intelligent high tendency to learn, gain information,
students in a group of students can make knowledge, proficiency, through effort,
them work together, explain and listen to teaching or experience. Learning with
each other so that they get better interest will encourage learners to learn better
understanding about the study material. than learning withoutit,Interest arises when
Students who do not understand the subject students are interested in something because
matter can be helped by their friends who it suits their needs or feel that something they
160
The Effect of Team Game Tournament... (Linda Juwita et.al)

will learn is meaningful to themselves other subjects. Other researchers could do


(Setiabudi, 2008). advance study by using the paradigm of
Surya in Sudrajat (2011)stated that mixes-methods to overcome the weakness of
interest in something learned and influences methodology in this study. Study limitation
of subsequent learning will influence the was by using big sample size and many
acceptance of new interests. So interest in groups played TGT in one time, there was a
something is the result of learning and possibility that some students were not
encourages further learning. This opinion actively involved in the learning process.
was in line with a study conducted by
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