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1.

0 INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, construction industry is a fast growing sector and main resources of a


country’s economy. The construction sector from the past up to now has been through many
changes and progress.

The unique and highly fragmented nature of the industry requires numerous design firms,
consultants, contractors, subcontractors and suppliers be involved in almost any project.
Debatably, a significant challenge currently facing the construction industry is that of inaccurate
and untimely communications amongst project team members, inevitably resulting in costly
delays to the progress of any construction project. Currently, information is often “lost” in the
sense that vital information is not retained for easy re-use and must be re-entered, or bulky
manuals and drawing folios must be carried, to ensure the employees working out of the office
have rapid access to the information needed to perform some of their tasks.

The industry is faced with the ongoing challenge of changing and improving current work
practices in order to become more client-orientated; more competitive as well a productive.
These factors including globalization of the economy, greater performance expectations from the
clients, increased competition between local contractors, continued between local contractors,
continued restructuring of work practices, industrial relations and industry’s increase need (due
to client demand and expectations) to implement innovative information and communication
technology (ICT) and recognize its potential benefits on projects [1].

2.0 CURRENT IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT

Information technology (IT) and ICT have recently been identified as essential tools for
improving communication in construction processes and for creating new construction business
opportunities. ICT technologies such as the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW), could
open up more opportunities for construction businesses to operate globally [2]. The World Wide
Web has become an efficient medium to advertise services and products offered [3].

From one research made by Sarshar M. and Isikdag U. in Turkish construction industry
determined that majority of the organizations (95%) use PC’s. Microsoft Window OSs are
dominant in the industry (90%) and most of the firms are planning to upgrade to Microsoft
Window 2000/XP in the near future. Besides, the majority of the organizations (90%) have LAN
and 37% of them also have WAN that helps them to communicate with their construction sites
and offices around Turkey. Nearly all of the respondents (95%) are currently using client/server
as network architecture. In addition, they also agree with using E-mail as communication tool in
construction with 81% of the firms [4].

In December 2007 the General Office of Building Supervision completed the project e-Building
Supervision, co-financed by EU Sectoral Operational Programme –Improvement of the
Competitiveness of Enterprises, Years 2004-2006. The project aimed at establishing on-line
access to public services for businessmen and citizens and at improving the circulation of
information between various construction-related public administration authorities. In particular,
the project covered six areas; the supervision of a construction products market [5];

• The register of building permit’s applications and decisions;

• The central register of persons who have building license, building experts and
persons subject to penalty under professional liability;

• The document management system;

• The register of mandatory controls;

• The register of construction catastrophes.

Wi-Fi is just one wireless technology. It sits in the middle of the spectrum of wireless
technologies. To one side there are other wireless technologies that cover shorter distances such
as Bluetooth, Zigbee and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). On the other side covering
greater distances are technologies such as WiMAX, Satellite, Free Space Optics (FSO) and 3D
[6].

In construction, role of estimators are very important. Many tools have been developed to help
the estimator get the job done quicker and more accurately. Those tools range from color
markers, digitizers, and two-dimensional (2D), on-screen takeoffs, to the latest Building
Information Modeling (BIM) software. BIM tool have addressed the significant limitations of 2D
drawings that lack the rich three-dimensional (3D) context which estimators need in order to
identify important cost-sensitive developers [7].

In additional, some technology like Virtual Reality (VR) that enables interactive real-time
viewing of three-dimensional data and such it is also a state-of the-art communication tool [8].

3.0 INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR ICT IMPLEMENTATION

From research made by to Oladapo A.A [9], there are two main factors for ICT
implementation, internal factors and external factors.

Research made by Brewer G.J et al. (2010) identified several factors influence ICT adopter, such
as management style, technological considerations including ICT capability, causal conditions
for implementation, shared protocols and perceived benefits, resource management within the
supply chain including logistics, purchasing, implementation issues and attitude to strategic
relationships, competitive position including formation and maintenance of strategic
relationships, and competitive advantage, communication channels, both intra and inter
organizational and so on [10].

4.0 BENEFITS OF ICT IMPLEMENTATION

Refer to journal write by [11] Ahuja V., benefits of ICT adoption for managing building
projects and improving overall organizational efficiency are richer information to aid decision
making, project information obtained quicker, improved communication, closer relationships,
improved information flow, and greater management control (supported by Hendrickson and Au,
1989; Root and Thorpe, 2001; Love et al., 2004).
Egbu et al. (2001) have discussed that in a survey, the majority of interviewees regarded
information technology (IT) as speeding up communication and enabling greater dissemination
of written data. Indirectly, this is important for overall organizational efficiency and for
increased motivation among the team members [11].

Benefits of using internet as a communication tool and workspace for managing construction
projects have been widely discussed (Alshawi and Ingirige, 2002; Chan and Leung, 2004).
Besides that, some of the discussed benefits are increased speed of information transfer, cost
effectiveness and requirement to transfer high volume of information across sites, the head office
and between other firms. Specific internet-based tools have also been discussed and highlighted
as effective communication management tools [11].

Refer to Oladapo A.A journal; several benefits were identified through one study case. The most
important benefits derived from the use of ICT are improved quality of work, the ease of doing
complex tasks, time saving and increased productivity [9].

Refer to journal writing by Sun M and Oza T., they state benefits of ICT into three categories,
first; those capable of quantification and valuable in monetary term, second; those generally
quantifiable but difficult to value and three; those identifiable but not quantifiable [12].

Refer to Perkinson C.L et al. (2006), that there are several benefit when using ICT in the
construction industry such as communicate performance requirements and flag subsequent action
needed by others, coordinate with other team members n making decisions, monitor decision and
actions to ensure that interim conditions for meeting all of the project’s performance goals will
prevail and check for a certified compliance with stated performance requirements [13].
Rapid evolution of ICT offers opportunities to enhance communication between participants in
construction projects and to enable more effective and efficient communication [14].

With using simulation optimization in off-site pre-cast concrete production can improve
workflow was achieved by reducing the process-waiting time of a number of production
processes by using the proposed allocation system, which led to a guaranteed improvement in
workflow to enable concrete sleeper products to be delivered to the construction site on time[15].

5.0 CHALLENGES OF ICT IMPLEMENTATION

Refer to research made by master student at UiTM Shah Alam, they have determined that cost is
main constraint of implementing ICT in daily operations for small companies [16].

Furthermore, refer from research made by Peansupap V. and Walker D.H.T (2006), they listed
several constraint ICT implementation including construction organization’s internal and
external environment, limited by the ICT investment budget, commitment from other project
participants, issues of ICT standardization, security problems, level of basic computer
experience, time available to learn, unclear benefits of ICT use, time available to share
information, qualities of personal contact, and geographical distance [17]

Refer to journal made by SOEIRO A. (2010) state that mostly the technical staff is not aware of
the capacities of internet or web. Besides that, they are not made familiar to the interface modes
between users and available ICT tools. They do not have training on efficient use of ICT applied
to construction management. There are also significant changes in communication infrastructures
that in certain cases result in the substitution of a vertical organizational structure, typical in a
traditional construction company, by a structure of horizontal and informal management. This
new form has a matrix characteristic in terms of communication and of information management
[18].

Before ICT is implemented to support communication, more attention has to be devoted to the
actual communication processes in construction projects. Understanding of the nature of the
communication between organizations is an essential prerequisite for analyzing and designing
ICT in an effective way [19].

6.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, using of ICT in the modern era is essential for compete with other construction
companies. Various efforts should be made to achieve efficiency in using of ICT such as send
employees to particular training, methods to take care of equipment, and so on. With using these
tools, ensure that all work in construction will run smoothly, effectively and efficiently. When
competent, had not undertaken the project delays, costs have not increased, the projects are
accepted and protected the good name of the company.

7.0 REFERENCES
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The Implementation of Online Informationa and Communication Technology (ICT) on Remote
Construction Projects. Emerald, 5(16), 327-340.

2. Peansupap V. and Walker D.H.T. (2005). Factors Enabling Information and


Commnunication Technology Diffusion and Actual Implementation in Construction
Organisations. ITcon (10), 193-218.

3. Rivard H. (2000). A Survey on the Impact of Information Technology on the Canadian


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4. Sarshar M. and Isikdag U. (2004). Engineering, Construction and Architectural


Management. A Survey of ICT use in the Turkish Construction Industry. Emerald, 4(11), 238-
247.

5. Sypniewski D.(2010). The role of ICT in improving efficiency of public administration.


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7. Shen Z. and Issa R.R.A (2010). Information Technology in Construction. Quantitative


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