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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

HYDRAULICS & HYDROLOGY LABORATORY

LABORATORY REPORT

COURSE CODE BNP 20103

EXPERIMENT CODE & TITLE MKSA – 05- SERIES & PARALLEL PUMP

EXPERIMENT DATE

SECTION/GROUP NO.

1.
2.
GROUP MEMBERS 3.
4.
5.

1.
LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR
2.

SUBMISSION DATE

RECEIVED DATE AND STAMP

EXAMINER’S COMMENTS
Lab Report Assessment Rubrics
Faculty: FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
Programme: BACHELOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY WITH HONOURS
Course/Code: HYDRAULICS & HYDROLOGY LABORATORY LABORATORY/ BNP20103
Experiment
SERIES & PARALLEL PUMP
Title:
Assessed by:
Section:
Student 1.
names: 2.
3.
4.
5.

Very Poor

Excellent
Good
Poor

Fair
CLO 2: To measure the basic concept of hydraulic and hydrology during laboratory sessions. [P4-PLO2]

Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score


Descriptions of the lab work needs P1 4
Perform on-site lab work Correct use of measurement technique
P2 2
and equipments
Report Discussion on the Describe correct and precise data
applications of the lab P2 2
collection
work with measurement
techniques and Analyse and discuss the data trends and
P3 2
equations patterns using correct graphs
Use/adapt appropriate Solve the applications of equations with
P3 3
measurement correct and accurate analyses
Presentation
technique/concept and Investigate, discuss and relate the use of
P4 8
results lab work with real site situation
Total 21
To demonstrate the ability to work in group ethically and effectively in order to solve the given hydraulic and hydrology
CLO 3:
related problems. [A3-PLO5]
Assessment Criteria Sub-criteria Level 1 2 3 4 5 Weight Score
Format of report follows given format A1 1
Convey information in
Report Team work: contribution from all members A1 1
group
Follows the field work instructions A2 1
Demonstrate importance of lab works,
A3 4
able to answers open ended questions
Convey spoken ideas in
Presentation
group Organisation of group presentation A2 1

Support members in Q&A session A2 1

Total 9

Total (%) 30
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

HYDRAULICS & HYDROLOGY LABORATORY

LABORATORY PAPER INSTRUCTION

Subject Code BNP20103

Experiment Code MKSA – 05

Experiment Title SERIES & PARALLEL PUMP

Section 1 2 3 4 5 6
STUDENT CODE OF ETHICS

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

I hereby declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also admit to not
accept or provide any assistance in preparing this report and anything that is in it is true.

1) Group Leader (Signature)


Name :
Matrix No. :

2) Group Member 1 (Signature)


Name :
Matrix No. :

3) Group Member 2 (Signature)


Name :
Matrix No. :

4) Group Member 3 (Signature)


Name :
Matrix No. :
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PAGE NO :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING EDITION : 1
TECHNOLOGY REVIEW NO : 1
HYDRAULICS & HYDROLOGY LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2018
TITLE : SERIES & PARALLEL PUMP AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2018

SERIES & PARALLEL PUMP

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To study the characteristics of pump operation with variable flow rate

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


At the end of the course, students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned
to:
 To demonstrate the basic operation and characteristic of centrifugal pumps.
 To differentiate the performance curve of a single pump and of two identical pumps that are
run in series or parallel.
3.0 THEORY
Pumps are devices that transfer mechanical energy from a prime mover into fluid energy to produce the flow
of liquids. There are two broad classifications of pumps: positive displacement and dynamic.

Dynamic Pumps
Dynamic pumps add energy to the fluid by the action of rotating blade, which increases the velocity of the fluid.
Figure shows the construction features of a centrifugal pump, the most commonly used type of dynamic
pumps.

Figure 1: Construction features of a centrifugal pump

Horizontal Single Stage Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal pumps have two major components:

1. The impeller consists of a number of curved blades (also called vanes) attached in a regular pattern to one
side of a circular hub plate that is connected to the rotating driveshaft.
2. The housing (also called casing) is a stationary shell that enclosed the impeller and supports the rotating
drive shaft via a bearing.

A centrifugal pump operates as follows. When the prime mover rotates the driveshaft, the impeller fluid is
drawn in axially through the center opening (called the eye) of the housing. The fluid then makes a 90 0 turn
and flows radially outward. As energy is added to the fluid by the rotating blades (centrifugal action and actual
blade force), the pressure and velocity increase until the fluid reaches the outer tip of the impeller. The fluid
then enters the volute-shaped housing whose increased flow area causes the velocity to decrease. This action
results in a decrease in kinetic energy and an accompanying increase in pressure.

The volute-shaped housing also provides a continuous increase in flow area in the direction of flow to produce
a uniform velocity as the fluid travels around the outer portion of housing and discharge opening.

Although centrifugal pumps provide smooth and continuous flow, their flow rate output (also called discharge)
is reducing as the external resistance is increase. In fact, by closing a system valve (thereby creating
theoretically infinite external system resistance) even while the pump is running at design speed, it is possible
to stop pump output flow completely. In such a case, no harm occurs to the pump unless this no-flow condition
occurs over extended period with resulting excessive fluid temperature build up. Thus pressure relief valves
are not needed. The tips of the impeller blade merely shear through the liquid, and the rotational speed
maintains a fluid pressure corresponding to the centrifugal force established. Figure 1 shows the cutaway of
a centrifugal pump.

Pump Head versus Flowrate Curves for Centrifugal Pumps

Figure 2 shows pump head versus flowrate curves for a centrifugal pump. The solid curve is for water, whereas
the dashed curve is for a more viscous fluid such as oil. Most published performance curves for centrifugal
pumps are for pumping water. Notice from Figure that using a fluid having a higher viscosity than water results
in a smaller flowrate at a given pump head. If the fluid has a viscosity greater than 300 times that of water, the
performance of a centrifugal pump deteriorates enough that a positive displacement pump is usually
recommended.

Figure 2: Pump head versus flowrate curves of centrifugal pump for water and for a more viscous liquid

The maximum head produced by a centrifugal pump is called pump shutoff head because an external system
valve is closed and there is no flow. As the external system resistance decrease (which occurs when a system
valve is opened more), the flowrate increases at the expense of reduced pump head. Because the output
flowrate changes significantly with external system resistance, centrifugal pumps are rarely used in fluid power
systems. Zero pump head exists if the pump discharge port were opened to the atmosphere, such as when
filling nearby open tank with water. The open tank represents essentially zero resistance to flow for the pump.

Centrifugal pumps are desirable for pumping stations used for delivery water to homes and factories. The
demand for water may go to near zero during the evening and reach a peak during the daytime, but a
centrifugal pump can readily handle these large changes in water demand. Since there is a great deal of
clearance between the impeller and housing, centrifugal pumps are not self priming, unlike positive
displacement pumps. Thus if a liquid being pumped from a reservoir located below a centrifugal pump, priming
is required. Priming is the prefilling of the pump housing and inlet pipe with the liquid so that the pump can
initially draw the liquid. Priming is required because there is too much clearance between the pump inlet and
outlet ports to seal against atmospheric pressure. Thus the displacement of a centrifugal pump is not positive
where the same volume of liquid would be delivered per revolution of the driveshaft.

The lack of positive internal seal against leakage means that the centrifugal pump is not forced to produce
flow when there is a very large system resistance to flow. As system resistance decreases, less fluid at the
discharge port slips back into the clearance spaces between the impeller and housing, resulting in an increase
in flow. Slippage occurs because the fluid follows the path of least resistance.

Centrifugal Pump Connected in Parallel

If a single pump does not provide enough flowrate for a given application, connecting two pumps in parallel,
as shown in Figure , can rectify the problem. The effective two-pump performance curve is obtained by adding
the flowrates of each pump at the same head. As shown, when two pumps are connected in parallel, the
operating points shift from A to B, providing not only increased flowrate as required but also greater head.
Figure 3 shows the characteristics of two identical pumps, but the pumps do not have to be the same.
Figure 3: Two centrifugal pumps connected in parallel

Centrifugal Pump Connected in Series

On the other hand, if a single pump does not provide enough head for a given application, two pumps
connected in series, as shown in Figure 4, can be a remedy. The effective two-pump performance curve is
obtained by adding the head of each pump at the same flowrate. The operating point shifts from A to B, thereby
providing not only increased head as required but also greater flow. Figure 4 shows the characteristics of two
identical pumps, but the pumps do not have to be the same.

Figure 4: Two centrifugal pumps connected in series

Impeller Types
An impeller is a rotating component of a centrifugal pump which transfers energy from the motor that drives
the pump to the fluid being pumped by accelerating the fluid outwards from the center of rotation. The velocity
achieved by the impeller transfers into pressure when the outward movement of the fluid is confined by the
pump casing. Impellers are usually short cylinders with an open inlet (called an eye) to accept incoming fluid,
vanes to push the fluid radially, and a splined, keyed or threaded bore to accept a driveshaft.
Backward-curved Blades
Backward-curved blades use blades that curve against the direction of the pump impeller's rotation.
Centrifugal pumps with backward-curved blades yield higher efficiency compare to the forward-curved blades
because the fluid flows into and out of the blade passages with the least amount of turning. Sometimes the
blades are airfoil shaped, yielding similar performance but even higher efficiency. The pressure rise is
intermediate between radial and forward-curved blades. Backward-curved pumps are preferred for
applications where one needs to provide volume flow rate and pressure rise within a narrow range of values.
Backward curved pumps can have a high range of specific speeds but are most often used for medium specific
speed applications-- high pressure, medium flow applications.

Forward-curved Blades
Forward curved blades, which curve toward the direction of pump impeller’s rotation. Centrifugal pumps with
forward-curved blades produce pressure rise that is nearly constant, albeit lower than that of radial and
backward-curved blades, over a wide range of volume flow rates. Centrifugal pumps with forward-curved
blades generally have a lower maximum efficiency. Forward-curved pumps are for high flow, low pressure
applications.

Figure 5: Forward and backward-curved blades


Formula for Calculation of Variables

𝑃𝑂𝑊𝐸𝑅𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑
1. Pump Efficiency ∏ 𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 = × 100%
𝑃𝑂𝑊𝐸𝑅𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙

𝑃2 − 𝑃1
𝐻(m) =
𝜌𝑔
2.Pump Head
Pressure unit [P1,P2] is Pascal
Unit conversion : 1 bar = 100000 Pascal
𝟏𝒎𝟑 𝟏 𝒎𝒊𝒏
𝑷𝒇𝒍𝒖𝒊𝒅 = 𝝆𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 . 𝒈. 𝑯. 𝑸 × ×
𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝑳 𝟔𝟎𝒔
3. Power (fluid)
Q in LPM
H in mH2O
A = π radius2
4.Area
Where internal diameter=0.0256m
5.Velocity at Venturi U (m/s) = Q/A
(2 x π x N x T)/60
6.Brake Power N = Motor Speed (Average) in RPM
T= Torque (Average) in Nm

Venturi Meter

The venturi meter consists of a venturi tube and differential pressure gauge. The venturi tube has a converging
portion, a throat and a diverging portion as shown in the Figure 6. The function of the converging portion is to
increase the velocity of the fluid and lower its static pressure. A pressure difference between inlet and throat
is thus developed, in which pressure difference is correlated with the rate of discharge. The diverging cone
serves to change the area of the stream back to the entrance area and convert velocity head into pressure
head.

Figure 6:The Venturi Tube

Assume incompressible flow and no frictional losses, from Bernoulli’s Equation,


2 2
p1 v1 p v
  Z1  2  2  Z 2
 2g  2g (3.1)

Using the continuity Equation Q = A1V1 = A2V2, equation (3.16) becomes


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PAGE NO :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING EDITION : 1
TECHNOLOGY REVIEW NO : 1
HYDRAULICS & HYDROLOGY LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2018
TITLE : SERIES & PARALLEL PUMP AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2018

p1  p 2  22  
2
A 
 Z1  Z 2  1   2  
 2 g   A1  
 (3.2)

Ideally,

1 / 2
  A 2 
1/ 2
  p1  p 2 
Qi  A2V2  A2 1   2   2 g   Z1  Z 2 
  A1       (3.3)

However, in the case of real fluid flow, the flow rate will be expected to be less than that given by equation
(3.3) because of frictional effects and consequent head loss between inlet and throat. Therefore,

1 2
  A 2 
12
  p1  p 2 
Qa  C d  A2  1   2   2 g   Z1  Z 2 
  A1       (3.4)

In metering practice, this non-ideality is accounted by insertion of an experimentally determined discharge


coefficient, Cd that is termed as the coefficient of discharge. With Z 1 = Z2 in this apparatus, the discharge
coefficient is determined as follow:

Qa
Cd 
Qi (3.5)
4.0 EQUIPMENT
i) Series and Parallel Pump Apparatus

8 4

2
9
1

10

Figure 7: Equipment assembly

1. Pump, P1
2. Pump, P2
3. Water Tank
4. Pressure Indicator
5. Flow Indicator
6. Venturi
7. Valve
8. Inverter
9. Differential Pressure Transmitter (DPT)
10. Load Cell
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PAGE NO :
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING EDITION : 1
TECHNOLOGY REVIEW NO : 1
HYDRAULICS & HYDROLOGY LABORATORY EFFECTIVE DATE : 28/01/2018
TITLE : SERIES & PARALLEL PUMP AMENDMENT DATE : 26/01/2018

Figure 8: Process diagram for Serial / Parallel Pump Test Rig


5.0 PROCEDURE
Experiment 1 - Single Pump Operation

Objective: To study the characteristics of single pump operation with variable flow rate.

Equipment Set Up:

Fully Closed Fully Opened Variable


Pump ON
Valve Valve Parameter
V2 & V3 V1 & V4 V5 Pump 1

Procedures:

1. Follow the basic procedure as written in section 4.1.

2. Ensure that all setting follows the equipment set up.

3. Test the pump characteristics under the following conditions and record the data.

i. Maximum motor speed with varied V5 opening.

ii. V5 fully opened with varied motor speed.

4. Record the DPT reading in mbar. The velocity of the fluid at the venturi can be

calculated with equation 4 and 5.

5. Tabulate the overall efficiency and the velocity at the venturi.

Experiment 2 – Pumps-in-Series Operation

Objective: To study the characteristics of pump-in-series operation with variable flowrate.

Equipment Set Up:

Fully Closed Fully Opened Variable


Pump ON
Valve Valve Parameter

V2 & V4 V1 & V3 V5 Both Pump


Procedures:

1. Follow the basic procedure as written in section 4.1.

2. Ensure that all setting follows the equipment set up.

3. Test the pump characteristics under the following conditions and record the data.

i. Maximum motor speed with varied V5 opening.

ii. V5 fully opened with varied motor speed.

4. Record the DPT reading in mbar.

5. Tabulate the overall efficiency and the velocity at the venturi.

Experiment 3 – Pumps-in-Parallel Operation

Objective:

1. To study the characteristics of pump-in-parallel operation with variable flowrate.

2. To determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter.

3. To measure flowrate with venturi meter.

Equipment Set Up:

Fully Closed Fully Opened Variable


Pump ON
valve Valve parameter

V3 V1, V2 & V4 V5 Both Pump

Procedures:

1. Follow the basic procedure as written in section 4.1.

2. Ensure that all setting follows the equipment set up.

3. Test the pump characteristics under the following conditions and record the data.

i. Maximum motor speed with varied V5 opening.

ii. V5 fully opened with varied motor speed.

4. Record the flow indicator and DPT reading.

5. Tabulate the overall efficiency and the velocity at the venturi.


Venturi

1. Used condition i to obtain the result.

2. Obtain the actual flowrate,Qa from flow indicator.

3. Calculate the ideal flowrate,Qi from DPT reading using Equation 3.3.

4. Plot Ideal flowrate versus actual flowrate and obtain discharge coefficient,Cd which is the

slope.

5. Calculate the venturi meter flowrate of each data by applying the discharge coefficient

obtained.

6. Compare the actual flowrate with venturi meter flowrate.


6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATIONS

Experiment 1: Single Pump Data sheet

Flow Rate Pressure Pressure Pressure Electrical Torque 1 Pump DPT


(FI) Gauge 1 Gauge 2 Gauge 3 Power (W) (TQ1) Speed (mBar)
LPM (PI1) (PI2) (PI3) Nm (SPD1)
bar abs bar abs bar abs rpm
40
50
60
70
80
90

Experiment 2: Pumps in series Data sheet

Flow Rate Pressure Pressure Pressure Electrical Torque Torque Average Speed Speed 2 Average DPT
(FI) Gauge 1 Gauge 2 Gauge 3 Power (W) 1 (TQ1) 2 (TQ2) Torque 1 (SPD2) Pump (mBar)
LPM (PI1) (PI2) (PI3) Nm Nm (Nm) (SPD1) rpm Speed
bar abs bar abs bar abs rpm (rpm)
40
50
60
70
80
90
Experiment 3: Pumps in parallel Data sheet

Flow Rate Pressure Pressure Pressure Electrical Torque 1 Torque 2 Average Speed 1 Speed 2 Average DPT (mBar)
(FI) Gauge 1 Gauge 2 Gauge 3 Power (W) (TQ1) (TQ2) Torque (SPD1) (SPD2) Pump
LPM (PI1) (PI2) (PI3) Nm Nm (Nm) rpm rpm Speed
bar abs bar abs bar abs (rpm)
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
7.0 QUESTIONS
Experiment 1 - Single Pump Operation
For condition i
1. Plot pressure difference pump head (m) vs. flowrate.
2. Plot pump efficiency vs. flow rate.
3. Plot a pump head vs. velocity graph.
For condition ii
1. Plot pump speed vs flowrate.
2. Plot brake power vs pump speed.

Experiment 2 – Pumps-in-Series Operation


For condition i
1. Plot pressure difference pump head (m) vs. flowrate.
2. Plot pump efficiency vs. flow rate.
3. Plot a pump head vs. velocity graph.
4. Plot the comparison for the pump performance between single pump and series pump
operation.
For condition ii
1. Plot pump speed vs flowrate.
2. Plot brake power vs pump speed.

Experiment 3 – Pumps-in-Parallel Operation

For condition i
1. Plot pressure difference pump head (m) vs. flowrate.
2. Plot pump efficiency vs. flow rate.
3. Plot a pump head vs. velocity graph.
4. Plot the comparison for the pump performance between single pump and parallel pump
operation.
5. Plot the comparison for the pump performance between single pump, series pump and
parallel pump operation.
For condition ii
1. Plot pump speed vs flowrate.
2. Plot brake power vs pump speed.
Prepared by: Nur Aini Mohd Arish Approved by: Prof Madya Dr Nor Haslina Hashim

Signature: Signature:

Date: 26 August 2018 Date: 26 August 2018