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Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems

Component Material Performance


and Welding

Technical Report
Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems
Component Material Performance and Welding

1011913

Final Report, December 2005

EPRI Project Managers


D. Gandy
K. Coleman

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE


3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304-1395 • PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303-0813 • USA
800.313.3774 • 650.855.2121 • askepri@epri.com • www.epri.com
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THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN
ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH
INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE
ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM:

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PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT.

ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT

Avery Consulting Associates, Inc.

W. L. Mathay Associates, Inc.

NOTE
For further information about EPRI, call the EPRI Customer Assistance Center at 800.313.3774 or
e-mail askepri@epri.com.

Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power
Research Institute, Inc.

Copyright © 2005 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
CITATIONS

This report was prepared by

Avery Consulting Associates, Inc.


117 Winterwood Drive
Londonderry, New Hampshire 03053

Principal Investigator
R. E. Avery

W. L. Mathay Associates, Inc.


111 Amesbury Drive
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15241-2305

Principal Investigator
W. L. Mathay

This report describes research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner:

Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems: Component Material Performance and Welding. EPRI, Palo
Alto, CA: 2005. 1011913.

iii
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

In many of the operating flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems throughout the world, materials
corrosion leads to considerable costs and downtime. Utilities are often required to maintain,
repair, replace, and/or upgrade existing materials to combat corrosion issues. This document
provides the results of a recent EPRI survey that examined the various types of corrosion and
materials damage in FGD systems.

Results and Findings


This report examines material performance and experience for 12 specific system components
including ductwork, absorbers, recycle tanks, slurry and spray piping, slurry pumps, slurry and
spray valves, spray nozzles, mist eliminators, dampers, agitators, chimney/stacks, and other
ancillary components. Results were compiled from 42 different units around the world and were
examined in terms of corrosion performance.

Challenges and Objectives


This report was designed to assist utility personnel who are responsible for decisions related to
specifying new or replacement materials by examining previous industry experience and
corrosion performance. Additionally, the report provides utility engineering and welding staff
with the information required to monitor the quality of new component installations as it pertains
to the fabrication and welding of metallic components used in FGD systems.

Applications, Value, and Use


This document will be particularly useful to organizations that are planning to install new FGD
systems within the next few years. It provides specific details on industry experience for a
variety of materials and presents comprehensive information for the fabrication and welding of
new systems.

EPRI Perspective
A number of organizations throughout the world are currently installing FGD systems. Several of
these organizations have expressed an interest in developing a better understanding of current
materials and corrosion experience in operating FGD systems. This report provides information
about materials corrosion performance as well as concise welding guidance for those materials to
assist utilities that currently operate systems or will operate systems in the near future.

Approach
The goal of this report is to provide utilities with concise information on welding and materials
corrosion experience so that they can make informed decisions and selections when ordering
new FGD systems or components.

v
Keywords
Flue gas desulfurization
Material corrosion
Welding

vi
ABSTRACT

There are several different flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system designs and associated
materials of construction in use today. Environments below the dew point within the systems are
often quite corrosive and require metallic materials ranging from stainless steels (SS), such as
Type 316L, to nickel alloys, such as Alloy C-276, or various nonmetallics. Nonmetallics involve
a range of materials such as flakeglass coatings, rubber linings, and borosilicate glass blocks.

This document reports on a material performance survey of 42 FGD units in North America and
Asia. The survey examined 12 system component areas including ductwork, absorbers, recycle
tanks, slurry and spray piping, slurry pumps, slurry and spray valves, spray nozzles, mist
eliminators, dampers, agitators, chimney/stacks, and other ancillary components. Related
operational information includes an analysis of the type of fuel and scrubber media used. The
removal efficiency of particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx) is reported for
each of the FGD units.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

There has been national and worldwide concern regarding the control of sulfur dioxide (SO2)
emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels since the early 1970s. Control of these emissions
in the United States has been mandated by law. Therefore, emission control has become a major
concern in coal-fired plants.

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) involving wet or dry processes has become the principal method
for removal of SO2 from flue gases. The most widely accepted approach has been the use of wet
lime/limestone slurries to react with the SO2 to form gypsum that may be either recovered or
ponded. Very corrosive conditions can develop at various locations within the FGD system when
the flue gases are cooled below the dew point and react with the slurries. This has resulted in a
number of material corrosion problems. The corrosive conditions will vary, depending on the
particular system design, the type of coal fired, and the operating conditions used.

Recognizing the need to develop and disseminate information on the FGD material corrosion
experience, the Nickel Institute published a book in January 1987 (with a second edition
published in 1990) entitled Nickel Stainless Steels and High-Nickel Alloys for Flue Gas
Desulfurization. The 1990 edition reported on 39 FGD systems in North America, Europe, and
Japan. However, technology and service experiences have produced a number of changes over
the years, and there is a need for updated information.

To develop current information on power plant FGD component and materials performance,
EPRI contracted for a study of FGD systems. Personnel at 42 installations (41 in North America
and one in Hong Kong) agreed to participate. They subsequently completed a detailed
questionnaire covering operating data, materials, and equipment used in their FGD systems.

The survey showed that fuels used at the plants included subbituminous and bituminous coals,
lignite, and petroleum coke. One installation burns fuel oil. The sulfur content of the fuels ranged
from approximately 0.2% to 4.5%.

With respect to control of emissions from the burned fuel, the electrostatic precipitators generally
remove from 95% to nearly 100% of the particulates. Scrubbing with limestone or lime generally
removed 90% or more of the SO2. Some SO2 removal percentages were in the 80% range.
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal efficiencies varied widely, depending on the equipment used. A
number of the plants, which make use of low-NOx burners and/or overfire air in conjunction with
selective catalytic reduction (SCR), achieve NOx removal percentages of 90%.

A review of the equipment components in the survey revealed that many of the inlet ducts
operating above the dew point (where corrosion is not a problem) were manufactured from
unlined carbon steel. Where corrosion was a concern, nickel alloys such as Alloy C-276 or Alloy

ix
C-22 (either solid or as linings on carbon steel) appear to be preferred. The outlet ducts have
been constructed of carbon steel lined with flakeglass-filled vinyl esters or borosilicate glass
blocks, stainless steels (SS) such as Type 316L or Type 317LMN, and nickel alloys such as
Alloy C-276 or C-22. Some of the organic coatings used have required periodic replacement,
although one was reported to have lasted 25 years. The stainless steels generally performed
satisfactorily, as did the nickel alloys (which were used primarily as linings). On the other hand,
many of the bypass ducts operating at temperatures above the dew point were of unlined carbon
steel or were not being used because of pollution control regulations.

The absorber designs used differ significantly. A number of absorbers made use of venturi
sections for additional particulate removal, while others used trays to increase the contact time
between the scrubbing medium and the flue gas. Most are single-loop systems, but there are four
double-loop systems. Thirty-six of the 42 absorbers make use of stainless steel or nickel alloys
for parts of the absorbers or for internals or trays. The stainless steels used are the 300-series, the
duplex Alloys 255 and 2205, and the 6% molybdenum (Mo) alloys. The majority of the units
report that the stainless steels are performing well, while a few have gone to a nickel alloy
replacement after encountering corrosion. The nickel alloys include Alloy 625, Alloy C-276,
Alloy C-22, and Alloy C-2000.

The only service problems reported related to a few instances of leaks at welds. This is
associated with fabrication problems rather than material deficiencies. Very often, the units use a
combination of materials (such as stainless steels or nickel alloys) for inlets and wet/dry or
quench zones and carbon steel lined with organic coatings (such as flakeglass, vinyl esters, or
rubber) for walls and floors. Of the 13 units with coatings in at least part of the absorber, five
reported good or satisfactory performance, while eight reported variable service or coating
failures requiring a metallic replacement. Two installations use concrete lined with Stebbins tile
for wet/dry zones and walls and floors.

The mist eliminators, which are located at the top of the absorbers to prevent carryover to the
outlet ducts, often present plugging problems. The construction materials used were fiberglass
reinforced plastic (FRP), polypropylene, or polysulfone.

The recycle or reaction tanks are used for the recirculation of the scrubber medium or slurry.
They may be separate vessels or an integral part of the absorber vessel. Many of the recycle
tanks are carbon steel lined with various organic materials such as rubber, epoxy, flakeglass, and
vinyl esters. Two installations that are integral to the absorbers have walls and floors of concrete
lined with Stebbins tile. One installation with a separate vessel has carbon steel walls and floors
lined with Stebbins tile. Others are using the 300-series stainless steels, 6% Mo stainless, and the
duplex stainless steel Alloys 2205 and 255. Two are constructed of Alloy C-276 clad plate.

The agitators or impellers for the recycle or reaction tanks have been cited as major maintenance
problems because many had rubber coverings that failed or blade tips that have shown excessive
wear. However, 16 installations still use rubber-covered agitators. The remainder are using
stainless steels such as Type 316, Type 316L, Type 317L, Type 317LM, Type 317LMN, and a
high-chromium alloy. Alloy C-276 clad plate and solid Alloy C-276 are also used.

Other important components in the FGD systems include spray nozzles, slurry and spray piping,
slurry valves and pumps, and dampers and chimneys. Spray nozzles are somewhat unique in that

x
one system used a metal—Type 317 stainless steel. Sixteen used ceramic spray nozzles, 15 used
silicon carbide nozzles, and 9 used materials such as high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl
fluoride, FRP, or a stellite. Rubber-lined carbon steel is the principal material for slurry piping,
although Types 316, 316L, and 317LMN stainless steels have also been used successfully.

Slurry valves are constructed of rubber-lined carbon steel, stainless steels, or a combination
thereof. For example, some use rubber-lined carbon steel bodies and stainless steel blades.

Slurry pumps generally use rubber- or elastomer-lined carbon steel for pump housings and
proprietary high-chromium materials for the impellers.

Chimneys represent a major component item in the FGD systems that were surveyed. Twenty of
the chimney installations have concrete shells with acid-resistant brick liners. However, there is
increasing use of nickel alloy liners such as Alloy C-276 either as sheet linings or clad plate on
carbon steel. Carbon steel with organic linings and FRP have also proven to be successful in a
number of chimney liner applications, with the latter reportedly receiving increased acceptance.

Fans, dampers, and expansion joints are other components of interest. Inlet dampers and fans
used in dry service are generally of carbon steel. Outlet dampers and fans for wet service are
often constructed of stainless steels with the dampers having Alloy C-276 seals. Expansion joints
utilize elastomers such as Viton.

Wet electrostatic precipitators that require acid-resistant construction were used for fine
particulate and sulfuric acid plume removal at two installations only.

The successful service performance of metallic components is highly dependent upon the use of
good fabrication and welding procedures. Guidelines are provided for use by the utilities in
monitoring the construction and inspection of FGD systems. Good welding practices are
discussed for various welding processes as well as details of clad plate and sheet-lining
(wallpapering) construction. Typical weld acceptance criteria are provided along with post-
fabrication surface requirements. Literature references are included for further details on FGD
fabrication and welding.

xi
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

EPRI and the authors of this report wish to acknowledge the following companies and
individuals for their valuable assistance in providing information for this work:

AES Deepwater, Inc. Karl Guidry


Deepwater Unit 1, Pasadena, Texas Albert Lau

American Electric Power Tom Andress


Conesville Units 5 and 6, Conesville, Ohio Tom Kaforey
Gavin Units 1 and 2, Cheshire, Ohio Tommy Slater
H. W. Pirkey Power Plant, Longview, Texas

Arizona Electric Power Cooperative Jim Andrews


Apache Station Units 2 and 3, Cochise, Arizona Gregg Schobert

Cinergy Steve Alston


Gibson Generating Station Units 4 and 5 Tom McClellan
Owensville, Indiana

Dominion Generation Brett Shelton


Clover Station Units 1 and 2, Clover, Virginia
Mt. Storm Units 1, 2, and 3, Mt. Storm, West Virginia

Edison Mission Energy Rick Sharbaugh


Homer City Generating Station Unit 3
Homer City, Pennsylvania

First Energy Generation Corporation Phil Morgan


Bruce Mansfield Units 1, 2, and 3
Beaver County, Pennsylvania

Great River Energy Greg Heinz


Coal Creek Station Units 1 and 2
Underwood, North Dakota

The Hong Kong Electric Company, Limited F. C. Y. Cheng


Lamma Power Station Unit 6 W. H. Leung
Lamma Island, Hong Kong

xiii
Intermountain Power Service Corporation Dean Wood
Intermountain Generating Station, Delta, Utah

Kansas City Power and Light Company Steve Miller


La Cygne Unit 1, La Cygne, Kansas Frank Moore

Louisville Gas and Electric Company Larry Van Gansbeke


Cane Run Units 4, 5, and 6, Louisville, Kentucky Lois Sparks
Trimble County Unit, Bedford, Kentucky

Lower Colorado River Authority Joe Bentley


Fayette Unit 3, La Grange, Texas Izelda Cassiano

Minnesota Power and Light Company Brandon Krogh


Clay Boswell Unit 4, Cohasset, Minnesota

New Brunswick Electric Power Keith Maclean


Coleson Cove Generating Station Karl McConnell (of
St. John, New Brunswick, Canada Babcock and Wilcox)

Owensboro Municipal Utilities Kevin Frizell


Elmer Smith Station, Owensboro, Kentucky

Power Generating Station A Neil Rowed


Unidentified location George Pessione

PPL Montana Power Paul Shook


Colstrip Units 1, 2, 3, and 4, Colstrip, Montana

Public Service of New Mexico Kent Hoffman


San Juan Generating Station Units 1, 2, 3, and 4
Waterflow, New Mexico

St. Johns River Power Park Robert S. Morrow


St. Johns River Power Park Units 1 and 2
Jacksonville, Florida

Salt River Project Jim Wood


Coronado Generating Station, St. Johns, Arizona

San Antonio City Public Service Cyndi Levesque


J. K. Spruce Station, San Antonio, Texas Robert Pesina

Southern Company Peter M. Honeycutt


Yates Unit 1, Newman, Georgia Marty Sims

xiv
Springfield Water, Light, and Power Company Mark Shea
Dallman Unit 3, Springfield, Illinois

Tampa Electric Company John V. Smolenski


Big Bend Station Units l, 2, 3, and 4
Apollo Beach, Florida

Tennessee Valley Authority Melissa Thompson


Cumberland Station Units 1 and 2, Scott Turnbow
Cumberland City, Tennessee
Paradise Units 1 and 2, Drakesboro, Kentucky
Widows Creek Units 7 and 8, Stevenson, Alabama

Trans Alta Centralia Generation LLC Larry Webster


Centralia Units 1 and 2, Centralia, Washington

Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative Thomas Gilchrist


Escalante Station, Prewitt, New Mexico Mike Marinsek

xv
CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................1-1
1.1 References ..................................................................................................................1-2

2 MATERIALS EXPERIENCE...................................................................................................2-1
2.1 Ductwork ......................................................................................................................2-4
2.1.1 Background .........................................................................................................2-4
2.1.2 Summary of Experience......................................................................................2-4
2.2 Absorbers ..................................................................................................................2-12
2.2.1 Background .......................................................................................................2-12
2.2.2 Summary of Experience....................................................................................2-14
2.3 Recycle Tanks ...........................................................................................................2-24
2.3.1 Background .......................................................................................................2-24
2.3.2 Summary of Experience....................................................................................2-24
2.4 Slurry and Spray Piping .............................................................................................2-31
2.5 Slurry Pumps .............................................................................................................2-32
2.6 Slurry Valves..............................................................................................................2-35
2.7 Spray Nozzles............................................................................................................2-38
2.8 Mist Eliminators .........................................................................................................2-38
2.9 Dampers ....................................................................................................................2-39
2.10 Agitators ................................................................................................................2-40
2.11 Chimneys/Stacks ..................................................................................................2-40
2.11.1 Background....................................................................................................2-40
2.11.2 Summary of Experience ................................................................................2-42
2.12 Other Components................................................................................................2-47

3 INDIVIDUAL UTILITY RESPONSES .....................................................................................3-1


3.1 AES Deepwater, Inc. Deepwater Unit 1.......................................................................3-1
3.1.1 General Description ............................................................................................3-1

xvii
3.1.2 Chemistry ............................................................................................................3-1
3.1.3 Equipment Manufacturer.....................................................................................3-1
3.1.4 Operating History ................................................................................................3-2
3.1.5 Materials Specifications ......................................................................................3-2
3.2 American Electric Power Conesville Units 5 and 6 ......................................................3-5
3.2.1 General Description ............................................................................................3-5
3.2.2 Chemistry ............................................................................................................3-5
3.2.3 Equipment Manufacturer.....................................................................................3-5
3.2.4 Operating History ................................................................................................3-5
3.2.5 Materials Specifications ......................................................................................3-5
3.3 American Electric Power Gavin Units 1 and 2 .............................................................3-7
3.3.1 General Description ............................................................................................3-7
3.3.2 Chemistry ............................................................................................................3-8
3.3.3 Equipment Manufacturer.....................................................................................3-8
3.3.4 Operating History ................................................................................................3-9
3.3.5 Materials Specifications ......................................................................................3-9
3.4 American Electric Power H. W. Pirkey Power Plant ..................................................3-10
3.4.1 General Description ..........................................................................................3-10
3.4.2 Chemistry ..........................................................................................................3-10
3.4.3 Equipment Manufacturer...................................................................................3-11
3.4.4 Operating History ..............................................................................................3-11
3.4.5 Materials Specifications ....................................................................................3-11
3.5 Arizona Electric Power Cooperative Apache Station Units 2 and 3...........................3-13
3.5.1 General Description ..........................................................................................3-13
3.5.2 Chemistry ..........................................................................................................3-13
3.5.3 Equipment Manufacturer...................................................................................3-13
3.5.4 Operating History ..............................................................................................3-13
3.5.5 Materials Specifications ....................................................................................3-14
3.6 Cinergy Gibson Generating Station Unit 4.................................................................3-15
3.6.1 General Description ..........................................................................................3-15
3.6.2 Chemistry ..........................................................................................................3-15
3.6.3 Equipment Manufacturer...................................................................................3-15
3.6.4 Operating History ..............................................................................................3-16
3.6.5 Materials Specifications ....................................................................................3-16

xviii
3.7 Cinergy Gibson Generating Station Unit 5.................................................................3-17
3.7.1 General Description ..........................................................................................3-17
3.7.2 Chemistry ..........................................................................................................3-17
3.7.3 Equipment Manufacturer...................................................................................3-18
3.7.4 Operating History ..............................................................................................3-18
3.7.5 Materials Specifications ....................................................................................3-18
3.8 Dominion Generation Clover Station Units 1 and 2 ...................................................3-19
3.8.1 General Description ..........................................................................................3-19
3.8.2 Chemistry ..........................................................................................................3-19
3.8.3 Equipment Manufacturer...................................................................................3-20
3.8.4 Operating History ..............................................................................................3-20
3.8.5 Materials Specifications ....................................................................................3-20
3.9 Dominion Generation Mount Storm Units 1 and 2 .....................................................3-22
3.9.1 General Description ..........................................................................................3-22
3.9.2 Chemistry ..........................................................................................................3-22
3.9.3 Equipment Manufacturer...................................................................................3-22
3.9.4 Operating History ..............................................................................................3-22
3.9.5 Materials Specifications ....................................................................................3-23
3.10 Dominion Generation Mount Storm Unit 3 ............................................................3-24
3.10.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-24
3.10.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-24
3.10.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-24
3.10.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-24
3.10.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-25
3.11 Edison Mission Energy Homer City Generating Station Unit 3 .............................3-26
3.11.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-26
3.11.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-26
3.11.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-27
3.11.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-27
3.11.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-28
3.12 First Energy Generation Corporation Bruce Mansfield Units 1 and 2 ...................3-28
3.12.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-28
3.12.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-29
3.12.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-29

xix
3.12.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-29
3.12.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-30
3.13 First Energy Generation Corporation Bruce Mansfield Unit 3 ...............................3-31
3.13.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-31
3.13.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-31
3.13.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-32
3.13.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-32
3.13.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-33
3.14 Great River Energy Coal Creek Station Units 1 and 2 ..........................................3-33
3.14.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-33
3.14.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-34
3.14.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-34
3.14.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-34
3.13.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-35
3.15 Hong Kong Electric Company Limited Lamma Power Station, Hong Kong,
Unit 6 ..............................................................................................................................3-36
3.15.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-36
3.15.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-36
3.15.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-36
3.15.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-37
3.15.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-37
3.16 Intermountain Power Service Corporation Intermountain Generating Station ......3-38
3.16.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-38
3.16.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-38
3.16.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-39
3.16.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-39
3.16.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-40
3.17 Kansas City Power and Light Company La Cygne Unit 1.....................................3-41
3.17.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-41
3.17.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-41
3.17.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-41
3.17.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-42
3.17.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-42
3.18 Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Unit 4 ........................................................3-43
3.18.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-43

xx
3.18.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-43
3.18.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-43
3.18.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-44
3.18.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-44
3.19 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Unit 5 ........................................3-45
3.19.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-45
3.19.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-45
3.19.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-46
3.19.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-46
3.19.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-47
3.20 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Unit 6 ........................................3-47
3.20.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-47
3.20.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-48
3.20.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-48
3.20.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-48
3.20.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-49
3.21 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Trimble County Unit...................................3-50
3.21.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-50
3.21.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-50
3.21.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-50
3.21.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-50
3.21.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-51
3.22 Lower Colorado River Authority Fayette Unit No. 3 ..............................................3-52
3.22.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-52
3.22.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-52
3.22.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-52
3.22.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-53
3.22.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-53
3.23 Minnesota Power and Light Company Clay Boswell Unit 4 ..................................3-54
3.23.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-54
3.23.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-54
3.23.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-55
3.23.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-56
3.23.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-56

xxi
3.24 PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 1 and 2..........................................................3-56
3.24.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-56
3.24.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-57
3.24.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-57
3.24.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-57
3.24.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-57
3.25 PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 3 and 4..........................................................3-59
3.25.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-59
3.25.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-59
3.25.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-59
3.25.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-59
3.25.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-59
3.26 New Brunswick Electric Power Coleson Cove ......................................................3-61
3.26.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-61
3.26.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-61
3.26.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-61
3.26.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-61
3.26.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-62
3.27 Owensboro Municipal Utilities Elmer Smith Station ..............................................3-63
3.27.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-63
3.27.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-63
3.27.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-63
3.27.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-63
3.27.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-63
3.28 Power Generating Station A (Name Withheld)......................................................3-65
3.28.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-65
3.28.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-65
3.28.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-66
3.28.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-66
3.28.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-66
3.29 Public Service of New Mexico San Juan Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 ...............................3-68
3.29.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-68
3.29.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-68
3.29.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-69

xxii
3.29.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-69
3.29.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-69
3.30 St. Johns River Power Park Units 1 and 2 ............................................................3-70
3.30.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-70
3.30.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-70
3.30.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-71
3.30.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-71
3.30.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-71
3.31 Salt River Project Coronado Generating Station...................................................3-72
3.31.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-72
3.31.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-72
3.31.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-73
3.31.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-73
3.31.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-74
3.32 San Antonio City Public Service J. K. Spruce Station...........................................3-75
3.32.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-75
3.32.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-75
3.32.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-76
3.32.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-76
3.32.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-76
3.33 Southern Company Yates Unit 1...........................................................................3-77
3.33.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-77
3.33.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-77
3.33.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-78
3.33.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-78
3.33.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-78
3.34 Springfield Water, Light, and Power Company Dallman Unit 3.............................3-79
3.34.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-79
3.34.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-79
3.34.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-80
3.34.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-80
3.34.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-80
3.35 Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2....................................3-82
3.35.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-82

xxiii
3.35.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-82
3.35.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-82
3.35.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-82
3.35.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-84
3.36 Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 3 and 4....................................3-85
3.36.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-85
3.36.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-85
3.36.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-85
3.36.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-86
3.36.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-86
3.37 Trans Alta Centralia Generation LLC Units 1 and 2..............................................3-87
3.37.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-87
3.37.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-87
3.37.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-87
3.37.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-88
3.37.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-88
3.38 Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative Escalante Station ...............3-89
3.38.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-89
3.38.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-89
3.38.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-89
3.38.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-90
3.38.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-90
3.39 Tennessee Valley Authority Cumberland Units 1 and 2........................................3-91
3.39.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-91
3.39.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-91
3.39.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-92
3.39.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-92
3.39.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-92
3.40 Tennessee Valley Authority Paradise Units 1 and 2 .............................................3-93
3.40.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-93
3.40.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-93
3.40.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-94
3.40.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-94
3.40.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-94

xxiv
3.41 Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 7................................................3-95
3.41.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-95
3.41.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-95
3.41.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-96
3.41.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-97
3.41.5 Materials Specifications .................................................................................3-97
3.42 Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8................................................3-97
3.42.1 General Description .......................................................................................3-97
3.42.2 Chemistry.......................................................................................................3-97
3.42.3 Equipment Manufacturer ...............................................................................3-98
3.42.4 Operating History ...........................................................................................3-99
3.42.5 Material Specifications ...................................................................................3-99

4 FABRICATION AND WELDING OF FGD SYSTEMS............................................................4-1


4.1 Guidelines Applicable to All Alloys...............................................................................4-1
4.1.1 Material Storage and Handling............................................................................4-1
4.1.2 Preparation for Welding ......................................................................................4-2
4.1.3 Welding Processes .............................................................................................4-2
4.1.4 Welding Procedure Specifications and Welding Performance Qualification .......4-3
4.2 Welding FGD System Alloys........................................................................................4-5
4.2.1 AWS D1.6 Structural Welding Code – Stainless Steel........................................4-5
4.2.2 Weld Filler Metals................................................................................................4-6
4.2.3 Other Welding Guide References .......................................................................4-8
4.3 Roll-Bonded and Explosion-Bonded Clad Plate Construction .....................................4-8
4.3.1 NACE Standard RP0199-2004 ...........................................................................4-8
4.3.2 Clad Plate Welding..............................................................................................4-8
4.4 Sheet Lining (Wallpaper) Construction ......................................................................4-11
4.4.1 NACE Standard RP0292-2003 .........................................................................4-12
4.4.2 Substrate Preparation .......................................................................................4-12
4.4.3 Sheet Layout and Attachment...........................................................................4-12
4.4.4 Seal Welds ........................................................................................................4-14
4.5 Weld Acceptance Criteria ..........................................................................................4-14
4.5.1 Solid-Alloy and Clad-Plate Welds .....................................................................4-14
4.5.2 Sheet-Lining Welds ...........................................................................................4-15
4.6 Inspection ..................................................................................................................4-15

xxv
4.6.1 Post-Fabrication Surface Requirements ...........................................................4-16
4.6.2 Shutdown Inspection.........................................................................................4-17
4.6.3 Acid Cleaning and Passivation..........................................................................4-17
4.7 References ................................................................................................................4-18

xxvi
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1 An Example of an FGD System................................................................................2-2


Figure 2-2 Absorbers at Arizona Public Service Company Cholla Unit 1. ...............................2-13
Figure 2-3 Spray Piping and Supports in the Absorber Zone of a Scrubber............................2-32
Figure 2-4 A Vane-Type Mist Eliminator Made from Type 316S Stainless Steel Used at
Reid Gardner Units 1, 2, and 3 ........................................................................................2-39
Figure 2-5 Chimneys/Stacks at Nevada Power Company Reid Gardner Units 1, 2, and 3. ....2-41
Figure 2-6 A Chimney Liner (Wallpaper) Used at Louisville Gas and Electric Company.........2-42
Figure 3-1 AES Deepwater, Inc. Unit 1 Absorber System .........................................................3-3
Figure 3-2 AES Deepwater, Inc. Unit 1 Absorber Tray ..............................................................3-4
Figure 3-3 American Electric Power Conesville Units 5 and 6 FGD System .............................3-7
Figure 3-4 American Electric Power Gavin Units 1 and 2 – Typical Limestone FGD
Open-Spray Forced-Oxidation Absorber and Demister .....................................................3-9
Figure 3-5 American Electric Power Absorber System Used at H. W. Pirkey Power Plant .....3-12
Figure 3-6 Arizona Electric Power Cooperative Apache Station Units 2 and 3 – A
Generic Absorber Open-Spray System............................................................................3-14
Figure 3-7 Cinergy Gibson Generation Station Unit 4 Absorber System .................................3-16
Figure 3-8 Cinergy Gibson Generation Station Unit 5 Absorber System .................................3-18
Figure 3-9 Dominion Generation Clover Units 1 and 2 – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray
System .............................................................................................................................3-21
Figure 3-10 Dominion Generation Mount Storm Units 1 and 2 – A Generic Absorber
Open-Spray System.........................................................................................................3-23
Figure 3-11 Dominion Generation Mount Storm Unit 3 – A Generic Absorber Open-
Spray System...................................................................................................................3-25
Figure 3-12 Edison Mission Energy Homer City Generating Station Unit 3 – A Generic
Absorber Open-Spray System .........................................................................................3-27
Figure 3-13 First Energy Generation Corporation Bruce Mansfield Units 1 and 2 Flow
Diagram for FGD System (Upper Part of Diagram Only) .................................................3-30
Figure 3-14 First Energy Generation Corporation Bruce Mansfield Unit 3 Flow Diagram
for FGD System (Lower Part of Diagram Only)................................................................3-32
Figure 3-15 Great River Energy Coal Creek Station Units 1 and 2 – A Generic Absorber
Open-Spray System.........................................................................................................3-35
Figure 3-16 Hong Kong Electric Company Limited Lamma Power Station, Hong Kong,
Unit 6 FGD System ..........................................................................................................3-37

xxvii
Figure 3-17 Intermountain Power Service Corporation Intermountain Generating Station
Scrubber System..............................................................................................................3-40
Figure 3-18 Kansas City Power and Light Company La Cygne Unit 1 Absorber System........3-42
Figure 3-19 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Units 4 and 5 Absorber
System .............................................................................................................................3-44
Figure 3-20 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Unit 5 Absorber System ...........3-46
Figure 3-21 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Unit 6 Absorber System ...........3-49
Figure 3-22 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Trimble County Unit 1 – A Generic
Absorber Open-Spray System .........................................................................................3-51
Figure 3-23 Lower Colorado River Authority Fayette Unit No. 3 FGD System ........................3-53
Figure 3-24 Minnesota Power and Light Company Clay Boswell Unit 4 Absorber System .....3-55
Figure 3-25 PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 1 and 2 Absorber System.............................3-58
Figure 3-26 PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 3 and 4 Absorber System.............................3-60
Figure 3-27 New Brunswick Electric Power Coleson Cove – A Generic Absorber Open-
Spray System...................................................................................................................3-62
Figure 3-28 Owensboro Municipal Utilities Elmer Smith Station – A Generic Absorber
Open-Spray System.........................................................................................................3-64
Figure 3-29 Power Generating Station A (Name Withheld) – A Generic Absorber Open-
Spray System...................................................................................................................3-67
Figure 3-30 Public Service of New Mexico San Juan Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 FGD System .........3-69
Figure 3-31 St. Johns River Power Park Units 1 and 2 Absorber System ...............................3-71
Figure 3-32 Salt River Project Coronado Generating Station FGD System.............................3-74
Figure 3-33 San Antonio City Public Service J. K. Spruce Station – A Generic Absorber
Open-Spray System.........................................................................................................3-76
Figure 3-34 Southern Company Yates Unit 1 FGD System.....................................................3-78
Figure 3-35 Springfield Water, Light, and Power Company Dallman Unit 3 Absorber
System .............................................................................................................................3-81
Figure 3-36 Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2 Absorber System.......3-83
Figure 3-37 Exterior View of Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2
Absorber System..............................................................................................................3-84
Figure 3-38 Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 3 and 4 Absorber System.......3-86
Figure 3-39 Trans Alta Centralia Generation LLC Centralia Units 1 and 2 Absorber
System .............................................................................................................................3-88
Figure 3-40 Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative Escalante Station – A
Generic Absorber Open-Spray System............................................................................3-90
Figure 3-41 Tennessee Valley Authority Cumberland Units 1 and 2 – A Generic
Absorber Open-Spray System .........................................................................................3-92
Figure 3-42 Tennessee Valley Authority Paradise Units 1 and 2 FGD System .......................3-94
Figure 3-43 Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 7 Absorber System...................3-96
Figure 3-44 Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Absorber System...................3-98
Figure 4-1 Weld Accessible from Both Sides (Root Pass on Alloy Side, Backing Plate
Thickness 0.019 to 0.50 in./4.83 to 12.7 mm) ....................................................................4-9

xxviii
Figure 4-2 Weld Accessible from Both Sides (Steel Side Root Pass, Backing Plate
Thickness 0.019 in. to Less than 1/2 in./4.83 mm to Less than 12.7 mm) .......................4-10
Figure 4-3 Example of Sheet Layout and Attachment .............................................................4-13

xxix
LIST OF TABLES

Table 2-1 Common Alloys Used in FGD Systems .....................................................................2-3


Table 2-2 Inlet, Outlet, and Bypass Ductwork Materials and Experience ..................................2-5
Table 2-3 Absorber Materials and Experience.........................................................................2-15
Table 2-4 Recycle Tank Materials and Experience .................................................................2-25
Table 2-5 Slurry Pump Materials .............................................................................................2-33
Table 2-6 Piping and Valve Materials ......................................................................................2-36
Table 2-7 Chimney/Stack Materials Employed for Breeching, Shells, or Liners ......................2-44
Table 4-1 Selected Alloys for Welding FGD Materials ...............................................................4-4
Table 4-2 Stainless Steel and Nickel Alloy Filler Metals for Similar Metal Welding ...................4-7
Table 4-3 Bare Filler Metals for Welding Clad Plate ................................................................4-11
Table 4-4 Weld Reinforcement and Undercut Acceptance Criteria .........................................4-15

xxxi
1
INTRODUCTION

The emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) from fossil fuel-burning electric utility plants has become
a national and worldwide concern since the early 1970s because of the formation of acid rain.
Most of the emphasis has been placed on the removal of SO2 from flue gases by reaction with
lime/limestone slurries or flue gas desulfurization (FGD). A number of material corrosion
problems have been encountered in FGD systems. The problems can vary, depending on the
particular system design, the type of coal fuel, and operating conditions. This report addresses
the materials used and service performance in the various system designs.

The Nickel Institute (then the Nickel Development Institute) published a book in January 1987
(with a second edition published in 1990) entitled Nickel Stainless Steels and High-Nickel Alloys
for Flue Gas Desulfurization [1]. The 1990 edition reported on 39 FGD systems in North
America, Europe, and Japan. The document was well-received and proved to be a very useful
data source for engineering design organizations, utilities, material suppliers, fabricators, and
constructors. Other reports relating to FGD material performance have also been published in the
interim [2, 3, 4]. However, technology and service experience have produced a number of
changes over the years, and there is a need for updated information.

This report contains the survey findings from 42 FGD units—41 from North America and one
from Hong Kong. The utilities surveyed have been cooperative in furnishing information on their
particular FGD systems and providing operating data including information on the following
topics:
• The type of coal used and coal analysis. The survey returns indicated use of bituminous coal,
subituminous coal, and lignite.
• Particulate control (baghouse), gas temperatures, and the efficiency of particulate removal.
• SO2 control (the number and type of absorbers, scrubbing medium, entering and exiting
temperatures, and efficiency of sulfur oxide removal).
• Nitrogen oxide (NOx) control (the type of burners, selective catalytic reduction [SCR],
selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR], and efficiency of NOx removal).
• Scrubber medium makeup (pH, composition of medium, additions such as dibasic acids, and
forced oxidation where used).
• Diagrams of the absorber systems.

The survey asked for information on materials of construction in different system component
areas from the inlet ducts to the chimneys. The component areas included ducts, absorbers,
reaction/recycle tanks, piping, valves, slurry pumps, fans, expansion joints, dampers, wet

1-1
Introduction

electrostatic precipitators (WESPs) if used, and chimneys. The types of construction material,
temperatures, and corrosion issues or problems are noted for each area.

To meet the often corrosive conditions in areas below the dew point, both metallic and
nonmetallic materials have been used. Metallic materials range from Type 316L stainless steel
(SS) to nickel alloys such as Alloy C-276. Nonmetallic materials include flakeglass coatings,
vinyl esters, rubber linings, and borosilicate glass blocks. The materials used and the
performance of those materials are summarized for each of the system component areas using
data from each of the FGD units surveyed. This analysis provides easy access to information in
areas of particular interest.

This report also reviews the fabrication and welding of metallics in FGD systems. The report
provides monitoring guides for FGD components and presents information in a style and form
most useful to the utilities or users. The alloys included are the 300 series, superaustenitic (6 and
7% Mo), duplex stainless steels, and the nickel-chromium-molybdenum (NiCrMo) alloys. The
fabrication techniques addressed include solid alloy construction, roll-bonded clad plate, and
sheet linings (wallpapering).

1.1 References
1. J. D. Harrington and W. L. Mathay. Nickel Stainless Steels and High-Nickel Alloys for Flue
Gas Desulfurization. Nickel Development Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1987 and
1990.
2. N. C. Johnson and S. Polosek. Corrosion Resistant Alloys at the Lower Colorado River
Authority Fayette Unit #3 Power Station. Inspection Report, August 1996.
3. Materials Guideline Update: Preliminary Results. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2000. 1000453.
4. Flue Gas Desulfurization Materials Update. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2003. 1004284.

1-2
2
MATERIALS EXPERIENCE

The summary results for materials experience obtained from the individual utility responses
(provided in Section 3) are arranged and examined by system component in this report section.
The following 12 specific components are reviewed:
• Ductwork (inlet, outlet, and bypass)
• Absorbers
• Recycle tanks
• Slurry and spray piping
• Slurry pumps
• Slurry and spray valves
• Spray nozzles
• Mist eliminators
• Dampers
• Agitators
• Chimneys/stacks
• Other components

Figure 2-1 is useful in identifying many of the primary components found in an FGD system
including the absorber tower, tower outlet duct, bypass reheat ductwork, indirect reheater, reheat
mix chamber, FGD elevator, absorber feed tank, and main outlet duct.

2-1
Materials Experience

Figure 2-1
An Example of an FGD System Showing: 1) Absorber Tower, 2) Tower Outlet Duct,
3) Bypass Reheat Ductwork, 4) Indirect Reheater, 5) Reheat Mix Chamber, 6) FGD Elevator,
7) Absorber Feed Tank, and 8) Main Outlet Duct.

The results are presented in this section by providing the background for each individual
component and then summarizing the utility experience reported for each component area.
Information contained in the tables provides a succinct overview of the major components.

Table 2-1 provides a list of the common alloys used in FGD systems and their chemical
compositions. The table lists the following alloys:
• Carbon and low-alloy steels
• Austenitic stainless steels
• Mo (6% to 7%) superaustenitic stainless steels
• Duplex stainless steels
• NiCrMo alloys
• Titanium alloys that are used in FGD systems

2-2
Materials Experience

Table 2-1
Common Alloys Used in FGD Systems

2-3
Materials Experience

2.1 Ductwork

2.1.1 Background

Flue gas in an FGD system is normally transported through inlet, bypass, and outlet ductwork.
Flue gases in the FGD systems that are reviewed in this study are usually carried directly into the
absorbers by the inlet duct after leaving the electrostatic precipitators. The temperatures range
from 250°F to 400°F (121°C to 204°C) with an average absorber inlet temperature of 298°F
(148°C). The temperatures are usually high enough that corrosion of much of the inlet duct is not
a problem. However, in the portion of the duct immediately ahead of the absorber, blowback of
the gas and the scrubbing medium can lead to significant corrosion.

In many instances, a portion of the flue gas enters a bypass duct for reheating the scrubbed gas to
minimize dew point corrosion of the outlet duct or to provide heat for a hot-side precipitator.
There can also be corrosion problems where the bypass gas reenters the ducting system.

The outlet duct, which carries the scrubbed gas ultimately to the chimney for discharge to the
atmosphere, is an area where corrosion can be quite severe. The temperatures range from a low
of 109°F (43°C) to a high of 176°F (80°C) with an average outlet temperature of 132°F (56°C).
The gas is saturated with moisture and may contain varying amounts of sulfuric acids and
possibly hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, depending on coal quality and unit operation.

2.1.2 Summary of Experience

A summary of the materials employed for inlet, bypass, and outlet ductwork as well as the
experience reported by each organization participating in the utility survey is shown in
Table 2-2. The information following Table 2-2 provides a detailed discussion of each utility’s
experience.

A review of the equipment components in the survey revealed that many of the inlet ducts
operating above the dew point (where corrosion is not a problem) were constructed using unlined
1
carbon steel. Where corrosion is a concern, nickel alloys such as Alloy C-276 or Alloy C-22
(either solid or as linings on carbon steel) appear to be preferred.

The survey revealed that most outlet ducts have been constructed of carbon steel lined with
flakeglass-filled vinyl esters or borosilicate glass blocks, stainless steels such as Type 316L or
Type 317LMN, and nickel alloys such as Alloy C-276 or Alloy C-22. Some of the organic
coatings used have required periodic replacement, although one was reported to have been in
service for more than 25 years. The stainless steels generally performed satisfactorily as did the
nickel alloys (which were used predominantly as linings). On the other hand, many of the bypass
ducts operating at temperatures above the dew point were of unlined carbon steel or were not
being used because of pollution control regulations.

1
Alloy C-22 is a trademark of Haynes International, Inc.

2-4
Materials Experience

Table 2-2
Inlet, Outlet, and Bypass Ductwork Materials and Experience

Utility Station Inlet Outlet Bypass Experience

1. AES Deepwater, Carbon steel Carbon steel lined None No problems


Inc. lined with Alloy with vinyl ester except for leaking
C-276 damper seal

2. American Electric Carbon steel, Carbon steel lined Carbon steel No problems
Power (AEP) Alloy C-276 with flakeglass lined with reported
Conesville ahead of borosilicate
5 and 6 absorber glass blocks

3. AEP Gavin Carbon steel Carbon steel lined None No problems


1 and 2 lined with with borosilicate reported
borosilicate glass glass blocks
blocks
4. AEP Pirkey Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined Type 317L SS Corrosion of
steel with Alloy C-276 carbon steel in
outlet duct at
welds

5. Arizona Electric Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined Mixing zone Coating patched
Apache 2 and 3 steel with vinyl ester or rebuilt with Alloy every two years
epoxy C-276
6. Cinergy Gibson Unlined carbon Alloy C-276 clad Carbon steel, Corrosion in inlet
Unit 4 steel carbon steel duct no longer at wet/dry area
used

7. Cinergy Gibson Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined Corroded Corrosion in


Unit 5 steel with Alloy C-276 carbon steel bypass corrected
replaced with with Alloy 255
duplex Alloy 255 lining
SS

8. Dominion Carbon steel, Type 317LMN SS None Serious corrosion


Generation Clover Alloy C-276 in outlet duct,
1 and 2 ahead of lining to be
absorber replaced
9. Dominion Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined Alloy C-276 No problems
Generation steel with Alloy C-276 lined carbon reported
Mt. Storm Units steel
1, 2, and 3

10. Edison Mission Alloy C-276 Alloy C-276 clad None No problems
Energy (EME) carbon steel reported
Homer City

11. First Energy Bruce Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined None Coating on duct
Mansfield 1, 2, steel with vinyl ester lasts 25 years
and 3

2-5
Materials Experience

Table 2-2 (Cont.)


Inlet, Outlet, and Bypass Ductwork Materials and Experience

Utility Station Inlet Outlet Bypass Experience

12. Great River Coal Unlined carbon Type 316L SS High-strength No problems
Creek steel low-alloy steel reported
lined with either
Alloy C-276 or
titanium

13. Hong Kong Resin-lined Resin-lined carbon Unlined carbon Resin lining failing,
Lamma carbon steel steel steel will be replaced

14. Intermountain Unlined High- Carbon steel None Gunite coated


Power strength low-alloy relined with Alloy borosilicate glass
steel C-276 blocks in outlet
duct failed and
replaced

15. Kansas City Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined None Outlet duct coating
La Cygne steel with flakeglass- repaired
filled vinyl ester periodically

16. Louisville Gas and Carbon steel Type 317LM SS None Leakage and
Electric lined with Alloy corrosion at welds
Cane Run 4 C-276 in inlet duct

17. Louisville Gas and Carbon steel Type 317LM SS None Leakage and
Electric lined with Alloy corrosion
Cane Run 5 C-20002 problems in inlet
duct corrected with
Alloy C-2000 lining
18. Louisville Gas and Carbon steel Carbon steel lined None Pitting problems in
Electric lined with Alloy with 6% Mo SS outlet duct
Cane Run 6 C-2000

19. Louisville Gas and Carbon steel Type 317LMN SS None No problems
Electric Trimble lined with Alloy reported
County C-2000

20. Lower Colorado Carbon steel Carbon steel lined Carbon steel No problems
River Authority lined with Alloy with Alloy C-22 lined with Alloy reported
(LCRA) Fayette 3 C-22 C-22

21. Minnesota Power Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined Unlined carbon No problems
Clay Boswell 4 steel with flakeglass steel reported

22. New Brunswick Unlined carbon Type 317LMN SS None No problems


Coleson Cove steel reported

2
Alloy C-2000 is a trademark of Haynes International, Inc.

2-6
Materials Experience

Table 2-2 (Cont.)


Inlet, Outlet, and Bypass Ductwork Materials and Experience

Utility Station Inlet Outlet Bypass Experience

23. Owensboro Alloy C-276 Type 317LMN SS Unlined carbon Some inlet pitting
Utilities Elmer steel eliminated by
Smith water sprays

24. Power Generating Alloy C-22 or Carbon steel lined Unlined carbon Scaling problem in
Station A duplex Alloy 2205 with Alloy C-276 steel bypass
SS
25. PPL Montana Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined None Outlet duct linings
Power Colstrip steel with cementicious under evaluation
Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 and organic
coatings

26. Public Service of Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined Unlined carbon Outlet ducts to be
New Mexico San steel with fiberglass steel relined with Type
Juan Units 1 and 2 316L SS

27. Public Service of Unlined carbon Type 316L SS Unlined carbon No problems
New Mexico San steel steel reported
Juan Units 3 and 4

28. St. Johns River Unlined high- Carbon steel lined Unlined carbon No problems
Power Park strength low-alloy with borosilicate steel reported
steel or Alloy glass blocks
C-22
29. Salt River Project Carbon steel Carbon steel lined Carbon steel No problems
Coronado lined with with hydraulic lined with reported
hydraulic cement cement or fiber- hydraulic
or fiber-reinforced reinforced epoxy cement or fiber-
epoxy reinforced epoxy
30. San Antonio Public Carbon steel- Type 317LMN SS None No problems
Service Alloy C-276 from reported
J. K. Spruce damper to
absorber

31. Southern FRP FRP None No problems


Company Yates reported

32. Springfield Water, Alloy 904L lined Alloy 904L lined None Alloy 904L ducts
Light, and Power with Alloy C-276 with Alloy C-276 corroded, were
Dallman lined with Alloy
C-276
33. Tampa Electric Unlined carbon Alloy C-276 clad None No problems
Big Bend 1 and 2 steel carbon steel reported

2-7
Materials Experience

Table 2-2 (Cont.)


Inlet, Outlet, and Bypass Ductwork Materials and Experience

Utility Station Inlet Outlet Bypass Experience

34. Tampa Electric Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined None Inlet ducts
Big Bend 3 and 4 steel with flakeglass- exhibiting
filled vinyl ester corrosion

35. Tennessee Valley Alloy C-276 lined Carbon steel lined None No problems
Authority (TVA) carbon steel with Type 316L reported
Cumberland SS
1 and 2

36. TVA Paradise High-strength, Carbon steel lined None No problems


1 and 2 low-alloy with Type reported
steel 317L SS

37. TVA Widows Unlined carbon Carbon steel lined None No problems
Creek 7 and 8 steel with Type reported
317L SS
38. Trans Alta Carbon Alloy C-276 Alloy C-276 No problems
Centralia steel/carbon steel lined carbon reported
lined with Alloy steel
C-276 adjacent to
absorber
39. Tri-State Unlined carbon Alloy G Alloy G No problems
Generation and steel reported
Transmission
Cooperative
Escalante

At AES Deepwater Station Unit 1, the inlet ducts are carbon steel lined with Alloy C-276, and
the outlet ducts are lined with vinyl ester. There is no bypass duct.

The inlet, outlet, and bypass ducts at AEP Conesville Station Units 5 and 6 are carbon steel. The
inlet ducts next to the absorber are Alloy C-276, and the outlet ducts from the absorber have a
flakeglass lining. They also have borosilicate glass block linings at the bypass/outlet duct mixing
zone where corrosion may be expected.

AEP Gavin Station Units 1 and 2 have Alloy C-276 inlet duct sections from the dampers to the
absorbers. The outlet ducts are carbon steel lined with borosilicate glass blocks. They have no
bypass ducts.

AEP Pirkey Station uses a mix of materials for the ducts. The inlet duct is uncoated carbon steel,
and the bypass duct is Type 317L stainless steel. The outlet duct is carbon steel lined
(wallpapered) with Alloy C-276 sheet. It is showing pinhole corrosion, which is attributed to
corrosion of the carbon steel substrate at weld areas.

At Arizona Electric Power Cooperative Apache Station Units 2 and 3, the inlet ducts are unlined
carbon steel, but the outlet ducts are lined with either a vinyl ester or an epoxy. Because coating

2-8
Materials Experience

life is short, patching is required every two years. The coating life in the bypass/outlet duct
mixing zone was so poor after three years that the entire area was rebuilt using Alloy C-276.
Since then there have been no problems.

Cinergy Gibson Generating Station Unit 4 has unlined carbon steel inlet and bypass ducts.
Corrosion problems have reportedly persisted at the wet/dry interface in the inlet duct since
startup in 1982. The outlet duct is Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel and is performing satisfactorily.
The bypass duct has been abandoned.

Cinergy Gibson Station Unit 5 has carbon steel inlet and outlet ducts. The outlet duct is lined
(wallpapered) with Alloy C-276 sheets to resist corrosion, particularly in the mixing zone of the
bypass/outlet duct. The carbon steel bypass duct was recently replaced with Alloy 255 duplex
stainless steel.

The inlet duct at Dominion Generating Clover Station Units 1 and 2 is carbon steel up to the
damper. The duct is Alloy C-276 from that point to the absorber. The outlet ducts, which are
Type 317LMN stainless steel, have been exhibiting serious corrosion since startup in 1995 and
will probably need to be replaced. There are no bypass ducts.

Dominion Generating Mount Storm Station Units 1, 2, and 3 have unlined carbon steel inlet
ducts, but the bypass and outlet ducts are lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-276. Performance has
been satisfactory.

Edison Mission Energy (EME) Homer City Station Unit 3 has an inlet duct just ahead of the
absorber that is Alloy C-276 and an outlet duct that is Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel. There is no
bypass duct. No corrosion problems have been encountered.

First Energy Generation Bruce Mansfield Station Units 1, 2, and 3 have carbon steel inlet ducts
and organic-lined carbon steel outlet ducts. There are no bypass ducts. It is of interest to note that
the flakeglass-filled vinyl ester lining on the outlet duct is 25-years old and is just beginning to
fail.

Great River Energy Coal Creek Station Units 1 and 2 have unlined carbon steel inlet ducts. The
outlet ducts are Type 316L stainless steel. The bypass ducts are high-strength low-alloy steel
lined with either Alloy C-276 or titanium depending on the unit. No corrosion problems have
been encountered.

At the Hong Kong Lamma Power Station, the inlet and outlet ducts are resin-lined carbon steel.
The bypass duct is unlined carbon steel. Cracking and deterioration of the resin lining are
continuing problems necessitating frequent maintenance.

Intermountain Power Generating Station has absorber inlet ducts that are of unlined high-
strength low-alloy steel. There are no bypass ducts. The absorber outlet ducts were originally
carbon steel lined with gunite-coated borosilicate blocks. Failure of the blocks led to severe
corrosion of the carbon steel. Much of the carbon steel had to be replaced before lining
(wallpapering) the duct with Alloy C-276. Performance is now satisfactory.

2-9
Materials Experience

At Kansas City Power and Light La Cygne Station, the inlet and outlet ducts are carbon steel.
There are no bypass ducts. The outlet ducts are lined with a flakeglass-reinforced vinyl ester
coating. Recoating is required periodically.

Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Station Units 4, 5, and 6 and the Trimble County Station
Unit differ somewhat in the construction materials for the inlet and outlet ducts. They have no
bypass ducts. Unit 4 has a carbon steel inlet duct lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-276, but
leakage and corrosion are being encountered at welds. Because corrosion and leakage problems
were encountered with unlined carbon steel in the late 1990s, Units 5 and 6 and Trimble County
now have inlet ducts of Alloy C-2000. The outlet ducts in Units 4 and 5 are Type 317LM
stainless steel and are reportedly satisfactory. The outlet duct in Unit 6 is carbon steel lined
(wallpapered) with 6% Mo stainless steel that is reportedly pitting. The Trimble County Unit has
an outlet duct of Type 317LMN stainless steel that is satisfactory.

Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) Fayette Station Unit 3 has inlet ducts that are carbon
steel lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-22 from the transition point to the absorber. The three
outlet ducts that feed into the chimney duct and the chimney duct itself are all carbon steel lined
(wallpapered) with Alloy C-22. Approximately 10% of the flue gas goes into the carbon steel
bypass duct for use in reheating the scrubbed gas.

Minnesota Power and Light Company Clay Boswell Station Unit 4 has unlined carbon steel inlet
ducts. The outlet ducts have flakeglass linings. There is a carbon steel bypass duct that handles
about 5% of boiler flue gas, which goes directly to a hot-side electrostatic precipitator.

The inlet ducts at the New Brunswick Electric Power Coleson Cove Station are unlined carbon
steel. The outlet ducts are Type 317LMN stainless steel. There are no bypass ducts.

The Elmer Smith Station of Owensboro Municipal Utilities has absorber inlet ducts that are
Alloy C-276. Some scale buildup and pitting of the Alloy C-276 duct floor and the absorber inlet
supports occurred soon after startup in 1994. This was eliminated by the use of water sprays at
the inlet. No problems have been encountered with the carbon steel bypass ducts or the Type
317LMN outlet ducts.

Power Generating Station A (not identified) has inlet ducts of Alloy C-22 or Alloy 2205 duplex
stainless steel depending on the unit involved. The outlet ducts are carbon steel lined
(wallpapered) with Alloy C-276, and the bypass ducts are carbon steel. There have been no
problems with the inlet or outlet ducts, but the bypass ducts have been exhibiting scaling after
shutdowns.

The inlet ducts at PPL Montana Power Colstrip Station Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 are unlined carbon
steel and are generally satisfactory. Some fly ash erosion and rust have been reported at the Unit
3 and 4 inlet ducts. The outlet ducts at all four units have been lined with various organic and
cementicious coatings. Evaluations to determine the most suitable coating are continuing. There
are no bypass ducts.

Public Service of New Mexico San Juan Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 were converted from sulfuric acid
recovery units to tray-type forced-oxidation gypsum recovery units in the mid-1990s. The inlet
ducts and bypass ducts are all unlined carbon steel. The outlet ducts for Units 3 and 4, which are

2-10
Materials Experience

Type 316L stainless steel, are satisfactory. As a result, the outlet ducts for Units 1 and 2, which
are currently lined with fiberglass, will be converted to Type 316L stainless steel.

St. Johns River Power Park Station Units 1 and 2 have inlet ducts that are either high-strength
low-alloy steel or Alloy C-22 depending on the unit. The outlet ducts are carbon steel lined with
borosilicate glass blocks, but there has been concern that the use of reheat in the outlet duct could
cause the blocks to explode. There is a carbon steel bypass duct.

The Coronado Station of the Salt River Project has inlet, outlet, and bypass ducts that are carbon
steel lined with either hydraulic cement or a fiber-reinforced epoxy. No problems have been
reported.

San Antonio Public Service J. K. Spruce Station has inlet ducts that are Alloy C-276 from the
damper to the absorber. The outlet ducts are Type 317LMN stainless steel. There are no bypass
ducts.

Southern Company Yates Station, which was built as an FRP demonstration facility, has FRP
inlet and outlet ducts but does not have a bypass duct. Performance has been satisfactory.

Springfield Water, Light, and Power Dallman Station has no bypass duct. However, it did
encounter severe corrosion of the Alloy 904L stainless steel inlet duct, which necessitated
relining of the duct with Alloy C-276. The outlet duct, which was also composed of Alloy 904L
stainless steel, exhibited serious corrosion and was also lined with Alloy C-276. No problems
have been encountered since the replacement of the Alloy 904L stainless steel.

Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2 feed into one large absorber. However,
Units 3 and 4 make use of four absorbers. The inlet ducts for all the units are unlined carbon
steel. The inlet ducts at Units 3 and 4 are exhibiting corrosion. The corrosion is occurring just
ahead of the absorbers and appears to be related to blowback of the scrubbing medium and the
flue gas. There are no bypass ducts. There have been no problems with the outlet ducts for Units
1 and 2, which are Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel plate. The outlet ducts for Units 3 and 4 are
carbon steel lined with flakeglass-filled vinyl ester and are also satisfactory.

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Cumberland Station Units 1 and 2, Paradise Station Units 1
and 2, and Widows Creek Station Units 7 and 8 were all included in the present survey.
Cumberland Station has carbon steel inlet ducts lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-276. The outlet
ducts are carbon steel lined with Type 316L stainless steel sheets. Paradise Station has high-
strength low-alloy steel inlet ducts and outlet ducts of carbon steel lined with Type 317L
stainless steel. Widows Creek Units 7 and 8 have unlined carbon steel inlet ducts and carbon
steel outlet ducts that are lined with Type 317L stainless steel. All are performing satisfactorily.
There are no bypass ducts at any of the stations.

Trans Alta Centralia Station Units 1 and 2 have carbon steel inlet ducts up to the wet/dry
interface (blowback area). They are lined with Alloy C-276 beyond that area. The outlet ducts
are Alloy C-276 and the bypass ducts are carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-276.

2-11
Materials Experience

Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative Escalante Station has inlet ducts that are
unlined carbon steel. The outlet ducts and the bypass ducts are Alloy G. Performance is
satisfactory.

2.2 Absorbers

2.2.1 Background

Absorbers, such as the one shown in Figure 2-2, are the vessels where SO2 is removed from the
boiler flue gas by contact with an alkaline scrubbing medium such as lime or limestone. Since
the introduction of flue gas scrubbing systems, there have been various designs utilized to
increase SO2 removal efficiencies. The present study revealed various types of absorber systems
including spray towers with a venturi quench section, spray towers with sieve trays, open-spray
towers, venturi absorbers, a grid-packed absorber, and a combination of venturi prescrubbers and
horizontal weir-type absorbers. In addition, there are three combination venturi prescrubbers and
3
spray tower systems, four dual-loop spray tower systems, and one jet bubbling reactor (JBR)
system where the gases are sparged into a gypsum and limestone slurry.

3
JBR is a trademark of Chiyoda Corporation.

2-12
Materials Experience

Figure 2-2
Absorbers at Arizona Public Service Company Cholla Unit 1.

Many of the absorbers have only one scrubbing section where the flue gases are quenched by the
scrubbing medium and then passed through the absorption section for SO2 removal. Some use
venturis or venturi sections to aid in particulate removal prior to scrubbing. Others use trays
(which are preferred) or packing to increase the contact time between the scrubbing medium and
the flue gases.

2-13
Materials Experience

The dual-loop systems that are reported in the survey have a quench section and an absorber
section separated by a bowl that collects the scrubbing liquid from the absorber section. The
liquid in the two sections differs in solid content and pH value and may permit the use of less
corrosion-resistant materials in the absorber section. Based on the survey information, however,
there does not appear to be a trend toward any specific type of absorber.

2.2.2 Summary of Experience

A summary of the materials employed for absorbers as well as the experience reported by each
organization participating in the utility survey is shown in Table 2-3. The information following
Table 2-3 provides a detailed discussion of the each utility’s experience.

Of the 42 units covered in this report, 36 use stainless steel and/or nickel alloys in the absorbers
or for internals. One unit uses FRP. Others make use of various organic and inorganic coatings or
linings on carbon steel.

Absorber designs reviewed in this survey differ significantly. A number of stations made use of
venturi sections for additional particulate removal, while others used trays to increase the contact
time between the scrubbing medium and the flue gas. Most systems are single-loop, but there are
four double-loop systems. Of the 42 absorbers, 36 make use of stainless steel or nickel alloys for
parts of the absorbers or for internals or trays.

The stainless steels used include the 300-series, the duplex Alloys 255 and 2205, and the 6% Mo
alloys. A majority of the units surveyed report that the stainless steels are performing well. After
encountering corrosion, a few units have gone to a nickel alloy replacement. The nickel alloys
used include Alloy 625, Alloy C-276, Alloy C-22, and Alloy C-2000. The only service problems
reported related to a few instances of leaks at welds. This is associated with fabrication problems
rather than with material deficiencies. Very often, the units make use of a combination of
materials (such as stainless steels or nickel alloys for inlets and wet/dry or quench zones) and
carbon steel lined with organic coatings (such as flakeglass, vinyl esters, or rubber for walls and
floors). Of the 13 units with coatings in at least part of the absorber, five reported good or
satisfactory performance, and eight reported variable service or coating failures requiring a
metallic replacement. Two installations use concrete lined with Stebbins tile for wet/dry zones
and walls and floors.

2-14
Materials Experience

Table 2-3
Absorber Materials and Experience

Utility Station Inlet/Outlet Walls/Floors Internals Experience

1. AES Chlorobutyl rubber- Rubber-lined Alloy C-276 trays, Some erosion


Deepwater lined carbon steel carbon steel wall polypropylene reported
inlets, quench area and floors, brick demisters
lined with Alloy overlay on floor
C-276

2. AEP Alloy C-276 inlet, Neoprene or Type 316L SS Rubber linings on


Conesville Type 317L SS chlorobutyl rubber- trays vessel replaced
5 and 6 outlet lined carbon steel or to be replaced,
walls/floors, drains originally
Type 317LSS drain lined carbon steel

3. AEP Gavin Alloy C-276 inlet Type 317L SS Type 317L SS Type 317L SS
1 and 2 and quench area, trays turning vanes
Type 317L SS for corroded,
remainder replaced with
Alloy C-276

4. AEP Pirkey Carbon steel inlets Carbon steel lined Type 317L SS No problems
lined with Alloy C- with flakeglass trays reported
276, carbon steel
outlets lined with
flakeglass

5. Arizona Dual-loop, Evaluations Type 317L SS Coating


Electric evaluations continuing on three collector bowl evaluations
Apache continuing on three different coating continuing
2 and 3 different coating systems on carbon
systems on carbon steel, troweled-on
steel coating on floors

6. Cinergy Duplex Alloy 255 Duplex Alloy 255 Alloy C-276 trays, Some spray
Gibson Unit 4 SS inlet, Alloy polypropylene impingement on
C-276 clad outlet demisters walls, tray stress
cracks

7. Cinergy Carbon steel inlet Carbon steel lined None reported Leaking at plug
Gibson Unit 5 area lined with with duplex Alloy welds in outlet
duplex Alloy 255 SS
255 SS, carbon
steel outlet lined
with Alloy C-276

8. Dominion Type 317LMN SS Solid Type FRP demisters Inlet corrosion of


Generation lined with Alloy C- 317LMN SS Type 317LMN SS
Clover 276
1 and 2

2-15
Materials Experience

Table 2-3 (Cont.)


Absorber Material and Experience

Utility Station Inlet/Outlet Walls/Floors Internals Experience

9. Dominion Alloy C-276 inlet Concrete lined with FRP demisters No problems
Generation Stebbins tile reported
Mt. Storm
Units 1 and 2

10. Dominion Alloy C-276 inlet Carbon steel walls FRP demisters Some leakage
Generation and floors lined with lining
Mt. Storm with Alloy C-276
Unit 3

11. EME Homer Solid Alloy C-276 Carbon steel lined Carbon steel No problems
City inlet with alloy C-276 supports covered reported
with Alloy C-276,
FRP demisters

12. First Energy Carbon steel lined Carbon steel lined Polypropylene No problems
Bruce with 13/200-in. with 13/200-in. demisters reported
Mansfield (1.7-mm) flake- (1.7-mm) flake-
1 and 2 filled vinyl ester filled vinyl ester

13. First Energy Carbon steel lined Carbon steel lined None reported Second floor
Bruce with 3/50-in. (1.5- with 3/50-in. (1.5- troughs lined with
Mansfield 3 mm) flake-filled mm) flake-filled Alloy 625
vinyl ester vinyl ester
14. Great River Carbon steel inlet Type 316L SS Polysulfone Corrosion at
Coal Creek lined with 6% Mo demisters wet/dry zone
SS

15. Hong Kong Resin-coated Resin-coated Resin-coated Resin coating


Lamma carbon steel carbon steel carbon steel trays failing, must be
replaced

16. Intermountain Carbon steel inlets Rubber-lined None reported Gunite


Power and outlets lined carbon steel walls, borosilicate
with Alloy C-276 floors carbon steel blocks on inlet
lined with Alloy C- and floors
276 replaced

17. Kansas City Type 316L SS Type 316L SS Type 316L SS Type 316L SS
La Cygne trays, FRP sieve trays failed
demisters and replaced
periodically

18. Louisville Gas Carbon steel inlet Carbon steel walls FRP demisters Some corrosion
and Electric lined with Alloy C- lined with Type two levels at inlet and
Cane Run 4 276, Type 317LMN 317LM SS on top erosion/corrosion
SS outlet and Type 317LM on walls
SS on bottom and
floors

2-16
Materials Experience

Table 2-3 (Cont.)


Absorber Material and Experience

Utility Station Inlet/Outlet Walls/Floors Internals Experience

19. Louisville Gas Carbon steel inlet Carbon steel lined Alloy C-276 spray Pitting corrosion
and Electric lined with Alloy C- with Type 317LM ring installed, and erosion of
Cane Run 5 276 or Alloy C- SS FRP demisters stainless steels,
2000, carbon steel two levels Alloy C-2000
outlet lined with under evaluation
Type 317LM SS

20. Louisville Gas Carbon steel inlet Carbon steel lined Type 317L SS Pitting of 6% Mo
and Electric lined with Alloy C- with Alloy C-2000 trays, FRP SS outlet, C
Cane Run 6 2000, carbon steel and/or Alloys demisters one alloys under
outlet lined with 6% C-276 and C-22 level evaluation
Mo SS

21. Louisville Gas Alloy C-2000 inlet, Type 317LMN SS None reported No problems
and Electric Type 317LMN SS walls, gunite and reported
Trimble outlet urethane
County membrane on floor

22. LCRA Type 317LM SS Type 317LM SS FRP demisters Satisfactory


Fayette 3 inlet lined with walls lined with performance
Alloy C-22 Alloy C-22, Type
317LM SS floor

23. Minnesota Rubber-lined Rubber-lined Type 316L SS Satisfactory


Power Clay carbon steel inlet carbon steel walls, trays performance
Boswell 4 fiberglass-lined
carbon steel floors

24. New Alloy C-276 outlet, Duplex Alloy 2205 Type 317LMN Satisfactory
Brunswick through-wet ESP SS walls support structure performance
Coleson Cove with Alloy C-276, and trays, FRP
6% Mo SS levels demisters
25. Owensboro Alloy C-276 inlet, Type 317LMN SS None reported Corrosion at inlet
Utilities Elmer Type 317LMN SS walls, acid- eliminated by
Smith outlet resistant brick water sprays
floors

26. Power Alloy C-22 inlet, Carbon steel walls None reported Leaks at
Generating carbon steel floors and floors lined wallpapering
Station A lined with Alloy C- with Alloy C-276 welds, injected
276 with epoxy filler
to prevent
corrosion
27. PPL Montana Carbon steel inlet, Coated carbon Type 316L SS Organic and
Power carbon steel outlet steel or Type 316L trays, polysulfone cementicious
Colstrip Units duct lined with SS walls, Type demisters coatings failing,
1 and 2 various coatings 316L SS lined being replaced
carbon steel floors with Type 316L
SS

2-17
Materials Experience

Table 2-3 (Cont.)


Absorber Material and Experience

Utility Station Inlet/Outlet Walls/Floors Internals Experience

28. PPL Montana Unlined carbon Type 317LM SS Type 316L SS Coatings failing,
Power steel inlet walls and floors trays, Type 316L being replaced
Colstrip Units SS demisters with SS
3 and 4

29. Public Carbon steel inlet Walls and floor Type 317L SS Satisfactory
Service of lined with acid- Concrete lined with trays, performance
New Mexico resistant fire brick semplate tile polypropylene
San Juan demisters
Units 1, 2,
3, and 4

30. St. Johns Carbon steel inlet Carbon steel Type 317L SS Satisfactory
River Power lined with Alloy walls/sumps lined trays performance
Park C-22, carbon steel with Alloy C-22
outlet with vinyl
ester lining

31. Salt River Carbon steel inlet Horizontal units Fiberglass Coated carbon
Project with hydraulic with flakeglass demisters steel not
Coronado cement lining, fiber-reinforced performing
stainless steel epoxy floors
outlet

32. San Antonio Type 317LMN SS, Type 317LMN SS Fiberglass No problems
Public wet/dry zones Alloy walls and floors demisters reported
Service J. K. C-276
Spruce

33. Southern FRP Inlets and FRP walls and Fiberglass Satisfactory
Company wet/dry zone floors demisters performance
Yates except for some
abrasion on walls
34. Springfield Dual-loop Alloy Alloy 904L SS Alloy 904L SS Satisfactory
Water, Light, 904L SS inlet lined quench section collection bowl performance due
and Power with Alloy C-276, lined with Alloy C- with polymer to lining with
Dallman Type 316L SS 276, Type 316L SS coated bottom Alloy C-276
outlet absorber section
35. Tampa Alloy C-276 clad Alloy C-276 clad Alloy C-276 tray, Satisfactory
Electric Big carbon steel inlet carbon steel walls polypropylene performance
Bend and outlet and floor demisters since 2000
1 and 2 startup

36. Tampa Dual-loop, Alloy Alloy 625 lower 6% Mo SS Satisfactory


Electric Big 625 inlet quench section, collection bowl, performance
Bend Alloy 904L SS polypropylene
3 and 4 upper absorber demisters
section

2-18
Materials Experience

Table 2-3 (Cont.)


Absorber Material and Experience

Utility Station Inlet/Outlet Walls/Floors Internals Experience

37. TVA Carbon steel inlets Carbon steel walls None reported Generally
Cumberland and outlets lined lined with Type satisfactory,
1 and 2 with Type 316L SS 316L SS, concrete some spray
and Type 317L SS, floors with an impingement on
respectively epoxy coating walls
38. TVA Paradise Type 317L SS Type 317L SS None reported Regular recoating
1 and 2 inlets and outlets walls, high-strength of floors due to
low-alloy steel corrosion
floors with 3/50-in.
(1.5-mm)
flakeglass coating

39. TVA Widows Type 317L SS Type 317L SS None reported Satisfactory
Creek 7 inlets and outlets walls, concrete performance
floors

40. TVA Widows Carbon steel lined Carbon steel lined None reported Satisfactory
Creek 8 with Type 317L SS with 317L SS performance
inlet and Type walls, rubber-
317L SS outlet covered concrete
floors

41. Trans Alta Solid Alloy C-276 Type 317LMN SS Type 317LMN SS Satisfactory
Centralia inlets walls and floors internals, performance
polysulfone since startup in
demisters 2002

42. Tri-State Type 316L SS Type 316L SS Polysulfone Satisfactory


Generation inlets and wet/dry walls demisters performance
and zones, Alloy G
Transmission outlets
Cooperative
Escalante

AES Deepwater Unit 1 has two absorbers that have chlorobutyl rubber-lined carbon steel walls
and floors with a carbon steel quench area that is lined with Alloy C-276. The trays are solid
Alloy C-276, and the floors have a brick overlay to protect against mechanical damage.

AEP Conesville Units 5 and 6 have two absorber spray towers that each have Alloy C-276 inlets,
neoprene-lined carbon steel walls, Type 316L stainless steel trays, and Type 317L stainless steel
drains. AEP Gavin Units 1 and 2 have six absorber spray towers, which each have Alloy C-276
inlets and Type 317L stainless steel walls, floors, outlets, and trays. AEP Pirkey station has four
dual-loop tray tower absorbers with Alloy C-276 lined (wallpapered) inlets and walls, and floors
and outlets that are flakeglass-lined carbon steel.

Apache Station Unit 2 of Arizona Electric Power Cooperative has two dual-loop absorbers. The
inlets, walls, and floors are carbon steel with an organic coating that is currently being evaluated.
The trays are Type 316L stainless steel.

2-19
Materials Experience

Cinergy Gibson Generating Station Unit 4 uses two tray tower absorbers that have inlets and
walls of Alloy 255 duplex stainless steel and Alloy C-276 trays. Gibson Generating Station
Unit 5 uses four horizontal weir-type absorbers that have inlets, walls, and floors of carbon steel
lined with Alloy 255 duplex stainless steel.

The Clover Station Units 1 and 2 of Dominion Generation have three forced-oxidation open-
spray tower absorbers per unit. The absorbers are Type 317LMN stainless steel with wet/dry
zones that are lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-276. Dominion Generation Mt. Storm Units 1
and 2 use one forced-oxidation open-spray tower per unit. The inlets are solid Alloy C-276. The
wet/dry zones, walls, and floors are concrete lined with Stebbins tile. Mt. Storm Unit 3 has two
forced-oxidation tower absorbers, which each have a solid Alloy C-276 inlet and Alloy C-276-
lined (wallpapered) carbon steel wet/dry zones and floors. Reportedly, there have been some
leakage issues with the lining welds.

EME Homer City Generating Station has three steam generating units. Only Unit 3 is equipped
with an FGD system. The system uses a vertical, countercurrent, forced-oxidation spray tower
absorber that has a solid Alloy C-276 inlet and walls of varying thickness of Alloy C-276 roll-
bond clad carbon steel. The internal supports are carbon steel covered with Alloy C-276 to
prevent corrosion. Interestingly, all three units are equipped with SCR systems and low-NOx
burners to minimize emissions.

First Energy Bruce Mansfield Station has three units. Units 1 and 2 have six natural oxidation
scrubber trains per unit, and Unit 3 has five forced-oxidation open-spray absorbers. The
absorbers for Units 1 and 2 have integral recycle tanks and carbon steel inlets, walls, and outlets
that are lined with flakeglass-filled vinyl esters. Unit 3 absorbers, which do not have integral
recycle tanks, have carbon steel floors, walls, inlets, and outlets that are lined with fiberglass-
filled vinyl ester and second floor inlet troughs that are lined with Alloy 625.

Great River Energy Coal Creek Station has four open-spray absorber towers for each of its two
units. The inlets are carbon steel. The walls and floors are Type 316L stainless steel that was
lined with a 6% Mo stainless steel in the wet/dry zones after corrosion problems were
encountered.

Hong Kong Electric Company Lamma Power Station has a grid-packed tower absorber of
Mitsubishi design. The absorber inlet, outlet, and floor/sump are resin-coated carbon steel. The
resin coating has experienced cracking and deterioration since its installation in September 1993.
Repair and/or replacement will be required in the near future.

Intermountain Power Service Generating Station has two units with six forced-oxidation
absorbers per unit. The inlets, wet/dry zones, outlets, and floors are carbon steel and lined
(wallpapered) with Alloy C-276, replacing a protective system comprised of gunite and
borosilicate blocks on a urethane asphalt membrane. Deterioration of the protective system and
corrosion of the carbon steel led to the replacement. For the most part, the walls are carbon steel
with a chlorobutyl rubber lining.

2-20
Materials Experience

Kansas City Power and Light Company La Cygne Unit has eight venturi absorber modules that
are constructed of Type 316L stainless steel and are performing satisfactorily. There are also
sieve trays in each absorber that are Type 316L stainless steel. These trays require periodic
replacement because of abrasion and corrosion.

Louisville Gas and Electric Company has four units in the present survey. They are Cane Run 4,
5, and 6 and Trimble County. Cane Run Units 4 and 5 are somewhat similar in that they each
have two spray towers capable of handling 50% of the flue gas. However, the Cane Run 4
absorbers in the wet/dry zones have a solid Alloy C-276 floor with walls lined with Alloy C-276
sheet. Elsewhere, the upper half of the walls is Type 317LM stainless steel, and the lower half is
carbon steel lined with Type 317LM stainless steel.

Cane Run Unit 5 absorbers had inlets, walls, floors, and outlet areas of carbon steel that were
lined with Type 317LM stainless steel after startup in 1986. However, corrosion problems
necessitated the installation of a solid lining of Alloy C-2000 in 1999 as a replacement for the
stainless steel in the inlet wet/dry zones. Within the last year, an Alloy C-276 ring was also
installed in the spray area.

Cane Run Unit 6 has two sieve tray absorbers with inlets and wet/dry zones that are carbon steel
lined with Alloy C-2000. The outlet is carbon steel lined with a 6% Mo stainless steel, but some
pitting is occurring here. The sieve trays are Type 317L stainless steel that are performing
satisfactorily except for occasional plugging.

Trimble County absorbers have solid Alloy C-2000 inlets and wet/dry zones. Walls and outlets
are solid Type 317LMN stainless steel.

LCRA Fayette Unit 3 has three forced-oxidation spray tower absorbers. The absorber inlets and
wet/dry zones are Type 317LM stainless steel lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-22 to prevent
corrosion. Elsewhere, the absorbers and absorber support structures are constructed of Type
317LM stainless steel. The performance of the absorbers has been satisfactory.

Minnesota Power and Light Company Clay Boswell Unit 4 has four venturi prescrubbers and
four spray tower absorbers. The venturis are carbon steel, but they are exposed to temperatures
high enough to prevent corrosion. However, the absorber inlet and walls are rubber-lined carbon
steel, and the floors are carbon steel with a flakeglass lining. All linings are repaired or replaced
periodically.

The newest facility in the survey is New Brunswick Electric Power Coleson Cove Unit, which
has been operating for about one year. It has a WESP located on top of each of the two forced-
oxidation tray-tower absorbers to capture fine particulates and sulfuric acid aerosols after wet
scrubbing. The absorbers themselves have Alloy C-276 in the wet/dry zones with walls and
outlets of Alloy 2205 duplex stainless steel. The wet precipitators have 6% Mo stainless steel
inlets and collectors as well as an initial collector of Alloy C-276.

Owensboro Municipal Authority Elmer Smith Station has two open-spray absorbers. The inlet
and wet/dry zones are solid Alloy C-276. The walls and outlets are Type 317LMN stainless steel.
The absorber floor is lined with acid-resistant brick. Some pitting corrosion of Alloy C-276

2-21
Materials Experience

structural supports at the inlet to the absorber was found early on, but this was eliminated by
installing water sprays at the inlet and eliminating gas deflection boxes.

Power Generating Station A (which asked not to be identified) has two forced-oxidation spray
tower absorbers, one for each of its two scrubbed units. The absorber inlets are solid Alloy C-22.
The walls, floors, and outlets are carbon steel and lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-276.
Numerous leakage problems have been encountered at plug and seam welds used in
wallpapering. The leakage is related to the poor weld bead penetration resulting from the use of
the metal inert gas short-circuiting process instead of the pulsed-arc process. Epoxy filler has
been injected between the carbon steel and the Alloy C-276 lining because of the concern about
leakage at the welds and the resultant corrosion behind the welds. This approach is being
evaluated.

PPL Montana Power Colstrip Station Units 1 and 2 use three venturi/absorbers per unit. The
absorbers have unlined carbon steel inlets. The walls and floors are lined with either Type 316L
stainless steel or cementicious or organic coatings that are continually being evaluated because
of the need for frequent repair and replacement. The walls were originally lined with an organic
coating that is being replaced with the stainless steel. The trays in the absorbers are Type 316L
stainless steel.

Colstrip Station Units 3 and 4 make use of eight venturi absorbers per unit. The absorber inlets
are carbon steel. The walls and the floor are Type 317LM stainless steel, and the trays are Type
316L stainless steel.

Public Service of New Mexico has four generating facilities—San Juan Units 1, 2, 3, and 4.
These units were converted from sulfuric acid recovery to gypsum recovery a few years ago.
There are three forced-oxidation absorbers per unit that have carbon steel inlets lined with acid-
resistant fire brick, and walls and floors of concrete lined with Stebbins tile. The absorber trays
are Type 317L stainless steel. Performance has been satisfactory, and long service lives are
projected.

St. Johns River Power Park has three forced-oxidation dual-loop spray tower absorbers. The
inlets, walls, and sumps are carbon steel with an Alloy C-22 lining. The tower outlet is carbon
steel with a vinyl ester lining. No specific service performance problems have been cited.

Salt River Project Coronado Generating Station is one of two stations surveyed that use
horizontal absorbers. It has two horizontal absorbers per unit. These are constructed of carbon
steel with a hydraulic cement lining at the inlet and a flakeglass fiber-reinforced epoxy lining on
the floor.

The J. K. Spruce Station of San Antonio City Public Service makes extensive use of alloys in its
three open-spray towers. The wet/dry zones are Alloy C-276 and the rest of the absorber’s walls,
floors, and outlet ducts are Type 317LMN stainless steel.

Southern Company Yates Station Unit 1 was built as a demonstration unit. The absorber is a
Chiyoda JBR reactor that is constructed entirely of FRP. Service has been reported as excellent
except for some abrasion on the walls.

2-22
Materials Experience

Springfield Water, Light, and Power Dallman Unit 3 has two forced-oxidation double-loop spray
tower absorbers. The absorber quench section and sump originally were Alloy 904L stainless
steel. They were lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-276 because of pitting corrosion problems.
The walls in the absorber section above the quench area are of Type 316L stainless steel. The
absorber collection bowl in the center of the absorber is constructed of Alloy 904L stainless steel
with a polymeric coating on the bottom to minimize pitting problems. Performance has been
satisfactory since the installation of the lining.

Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Units 1 and 2 use only one forced-oxidation tray tower. It is
constructed entirely of roll-bonded Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel plate except for the tray and
internal piping that are solid Alloy C-276.

Big Bend Units 3 and 4 make use of four forced-oxidation double-loop tray towers. The absorber
vessels are made up of two sections. The lower or quench section is constructed of Alloy 625,
and the upper or absorber section is constructed of Alloy 904L stainless steel. The collection
trays at the center of the towers are of a 6% Mo stainless steel. No corrosion problems have been
reported.

TVA Cumberland Units 1 and 2 each have three forced-oxidation open-spray absorber towers.
The absorber inlets, walls, and outlet are carbon steel lined with Type 316L stainless steel sheets.
The absorber floors are concrete with an epoxy coating. Corrosion has not been a problem,
although there was some concern about spray impingement on the walls.

TVA Paradise Units 1 and 2 have six combined venturi prescrubbers and spray tower absorbers
with forced-air oxidation. The tower absorbers have Type 317L stainless steel inlets, walls, and
outlets that have all performed well. The absorber floors are high-strength low-alloy steel with a
flakeglass coating. Because of corrosive attack service, life is limited, and regular recoating is
necessary.

TVA Widows Creek Units 7 and 8 each have four venturi scrubbers followed by open-spray
tower absorbers. The venturi prescrubbers are constructed of Type 317L stainless steel with
refractory tile linings. The absorber inlets, walls, and outlets are Type 317L stainless steel, and
the floors are concrete with a rubber lining.

Trans Alta Centralia Generation Units 1 and 2 have absorbers that are constructed entirely of
Type 317LMN stainless steel except for the inlets, which are Alloy C-276. Internals and spray
piping are also Type 317LMN stainless steel.

Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative Escalante Station has three countercurrent
spray absorbers. The inlet areas, wet/dry zones, and walls are all Type 316L stainless steel. No
corrosion problems have been reported.

2-23
Materials Experience

2.3 Recycle Tanks

2.3.1 Background

Recycle or reaction tanks may be separate vessels or an integral part of the absorber vessels.
They are used for the recirculation of the scrubber medium and slurry, for the addition of
chemicals such as dibasic acids for increased SO2 removal, and for oxidation (either forced or
natural) of the scrubber slurry for increased gypsum production for recovery and sale.
Alternatively, the slurry may be ponded and/or solidified. Twenty-two of the 42 facilities in the
present study recover gypsum.

2.3.2 Summary of Experience

A summary of the materials employed for recycle tanks as well as the experience reported by
each organization participating in the utility survey is shown in Table 2-4. The information
following Table 2-4 provides a detailed discussion of the each utility’s experience.

As mentioned previously, the recycle or reaction tanks are used for the recirculation of the
scrubber medium or slurry. They may be separate vessels or an integral part of the absorber
vessel.

Various organic materials such as rubber, epoxy, flakeglass, and vinyl esters are commonly used
to line the carbon steel recycle tanks. Two installations surveyed for this report (which are
integral to the absorbers) use walls and floors of concrete lined with Stebbins tile. Another
installation employed a separate vessel with carbon steel walls and floors lined with Stebbins
tile. Others are using the 300-series stainless steels, 6% Mo stainless, and the duplex stainless
steel Alloys 2205 and 255. Two are constructed of Alloy C-276 clad plate.

2-24
Materials Experience

Table 2-4
Recycle Tank Materials and Experience

Utility Station Walls/Floors Agitators Comments

1. AES Deepwater Natural rubber-lined Natural rubber-covered No problems reported


carbon steel walls and carbon steel
floors covered with
acid-resistant brick

2. AEP Conesville Carbon steel walls and Rubber-covered carbon Linings require touch-
5 and 6 floors with flakeglass steel up every two to three
lining years
3. AEP Gavin 1 and 2 Type 317L SS walls Type 317L SS No problems reported
and floors (originally rubber-
covered carbon steel)

4. AEP Pirkey Carbon steel lined with Type 316 SS No problems reported
flakeglass (originally rubber-
covered carbon steel)

5. Arizona Electric Carbon steel with Duplex Alloy 255 No problems reported
Apache 2 and 3 troweled-on coating up (rubber coverings
to 13/50-in. (6.6-mm) sometimes used)
thick

6. Cinergy Gibson Duplex Alloy 255 SS Duplex Alloy 255 SS, No problems other
Unit 4 carbide chips soldered than wear on agitator
to blades to reduce blade tips
wear
7. Cinergy Gibson Carbon steel with Rubber-covered carbon Some wear, minimal
Unit 5 flakeglass lining steel problems

8. Dominion Type 317LMN SS Rubber-covered carbon Agitator material to be


Generation (tanks integral to steel being phased out determined
Clover 1 and 2 absorbers)

9. Dominion Stebbins tile with Cast 27% chromium SS No problems reported


Generation Mt. concrete backing (tanks
Storm Units 1 and 2 integral to absorber)

10. Dominion Stebbins tile with Cast 27% chromium SS No problems reported
Generation Mt. concrete backing alloy
Storm Unit 3 (integral to absorber)

11. EME Homer City Alloy C-276 clad carbon Proprietary NiCrMo Agitator blade tips
steel alloy showing wear
12. First Energy Bruce Carbon steel lined with None No problems reported
Mansfield 3/50-in. (1.5-mm)
1 and 2 flakeglass-filled vinyl
ester

2-25
Materials Experience

Table 2-4 (Cont.)


Recycle Tank Materials and Experience

Utility Station Walls/Floors Agitators Comments

13. First Energy Bruce Carbon steel lined with Rubber-covered carbon No problems reported
Mansfield 3 13/200-in. (1.7-mm) steel
flakeglass-filled vinyl
ester
14. Great River Coal Coated carbon steel Rubber-covered cast Some corrosion of
Creek walls with concrete floor steel walls before coating

15. Hong Kong Lamma Carbon steel with resin Rubber-covered cast Resin lining on walls
coating on walls and steel failing, needs
floors replacement

16. Intermountain Carbon steel with 1/25- Carbon steel covered No problems reported
Power to 3/50-in. (1.0- to 1.5- with chlorobutyl rubber
mm) epoxy coating

17. Kansas City La Natural rubber-lined Unknown alloy No problems reported


Cygne carbon steel composition

18. Louisville Gas and Concrete Rubber-covered carbon Some wear of rubber
Electric Cane Run 4 steel covering on agitators

19. Louisville Gas and Carbon steel lined with Rubber-covered carbon Some wear of rubber
Electric Cane Run 5 Stebbins tile steel casing on agitator,
some leaks around
tiles

20. Louisville Gas and Carbon steel walls lined Rubber-covered carbon Corrosion of walls
Electric Cane Run 6 with 3/100-in. (0.76- steel where coating failed
mm) organic coating,
concrete floor
21. Louisville Gas and Walls are lined with Rubber-covered carbon No problems reported
Electric Trimble Type 317LMN SS, steel
County concrete floors

22. LCRA Fayette 3 Carbon steel walls lined Rubber-lined carbon Corrosion of the
with Type 316L SS, steel shaft with 6% Mo stainless steel walls
acid-resistant brick SS vanes stopped by use of
floors electrochemical
protection

23. Minnesota Power Carbon steel lined with Type 316L SS with a No problems reported
Clay Boswell 4 flakeglass rubber covering

24. New Brunswick Duplex Alloy 2205 SS 6% Mo SS No problems reported


Coleson Cove

2-26
Materials Experience

Table 2-4 (Cont.)


Recycle Tank Materials and Experience

Utility Station Walls/Floors Agitators Comments

25. Owensboro Utilities Type 317LMN SS Type 317LMN SS Corrosion of walls and
Elmer Smith floors stopped with
electrochemical
protection
26. Power Generating Carbon steel lined with No agitator Corrosion at welds
Station A Alloy C-276 walls and because of leakage,
floors injection of epoxy filler
at welds under
evaluation
27. PPL Montana Carbon steel walls lined Type 316L SS Frequent patching of
Power Colstrip with cementicious or the wall coating
Units 1 and 2 organic coatings, necessary, no
carbon steel floors lined problems with floor
with Type 316L SS
28. PPL Montana Type 317LMN SS Type 316L SS No problems reported
Power Colstrip
Units 3 and 4

29. Public Service of 6% Mo SS CD4MCu No problems reported


New Mexico San
Juan Units 1, 2, 3,
and 4

30. St. Johns River Carbon steel lined with Carbon steel lined with No problems reported
Power Park vinyl ester rubber

31. Salt River Project Carbon steel lined with Carbon steel lined with No problems reported
Coronado rubber rubber

32. San Antonio Public Type 317LMN SS Type 317LMN SS with No problems reported
Service J. K. Type 316 SS hub
Spruce

33. Southern Company FRP Carbon steel covered No problems reported


Yates with rubber

34. Springfield Water, Carbon steel lined with No mention of agitators No problems reported
Light, and Power abrasion-resistant vinyl
Dallman ester

35. Tampa Electric Big Alloy C-276 clad carbon Alloy C-276 clad carbon No problems reported
Bend 1 and 2 steel steel

36. Tampa Electric Big Carbon steel walls lined Carbon steel covered No problems reported
Bend 3 and 4 with flakeglass-filled with rubber.
vinyl ester

2-27
Materials Experience

Table 2-4 (Cont.)


Recycle Tank Materials and Experience

Utility Station Walls/Floors Agitators Comments

37. TVA Cumberland Carbon steel walls lined High-chromium alloy No problems reported
1 and 2 with rubber, concrete
floors coated with
epoxy
38. TVA Paradise Carbon steel lined with Solid Type 317L SS No problems reported
1 and 2 3/50-in. (1.5-mm)
flakeglass

39. TVA Widows Carbon steel lined with Type 317L SS No problems reported
Creek 7 rubber, concrete

40. TVA Widows Carbon steel with Type 317L SS No problems reported
Creek 8 flakeglass and tile lining
on walls, carbon steel
floors with rubber and
tile lining

41. Trans Alta Centralia Type 317LMN SS Alloy C-276 No problems reported

42. Tri-State Abrasion-resistant Type 316L SS No problems reported


Generation and epoxy reinforced with
Transmission glass cloth on carbon
Cooperative steel
Escalante

The recycle tanks at AES Deepwater Unit 1 have walls and floors that are carbon steel with
natural rubber lining. The agitators are carbon steel covered with rubber. The floors are covered
with acid-resistant brick for protection against mechanical damage.

AEP Conesville Station Units 5 and 6 use recycle tanks that have carbon steel walls and floors
with a flakeglass lining. The agitators are carbon steel covered with rubber. Touch up of the
linings is required every two to three years.

The tanks at AEP Gavin Station Units 1 and 2 have walls, floors, and agitators that are Type
317L stainless steel. The original rubber-covered carbon steel agitators were replaced with
stainless steel after six months of operation.

The recycle tanks at AEP H. W. Pirkey Power Plant have carbon steel walls and floors lined with
flakeglass. The rubber linings on the carbon steel impellers failed and were replaced with a Type
316 stainless steel lining. There have been no problems reported since this replacement.

The tanks at Arizona Electric Power Cooperative Apache Station Units 2 and 3 are carbon steel
with a trowel-on coating that varies in thickness depending on conditions. The agitators are
duplex Alloy 255 stainless steel with a service life of three to six years.

2-28
Materials Experience

Cinergy Gibson Station Unit 4 has recycle tanks that are constructed entirely of duplex Alloy
255 stainless steel. There have been no problems except for wear on the agitator blade tips.
Carbide chips have been silver-soldered to the blades to extend blade life. The recycle tank walls
and floors at Cinergy Gibson Station Unit 5 are carbon steel with flakeglass linings. Agitators are
carbon steel with a rubber covering.

The recycle tanks at Dominion Generation Clover Station Units 1 and 2 are integral to the
absorbers and are Type 317LMN stainless steel. The agitators, which are being phased out, are
rubber-covered carbon steel. The Mount Storm Station Units 1, 2, and 3 tanks are also integral to
the absorbers with walls and floors of concrete lined with Stebbins tile. Agitators are a cast high-
chromium stainless steel.

EME Homer City Generating Station has one recycle tank that is constructed of Alloy C-276
clad carbon steel plate. The impellers are of a proprietary NiCrMo alloy, but the impeller blade
tips are wearing and require periodic repair.

First Energy Generation Bruce Mansfield Station Units 1 and 2 have recycle tanks that are
integral with the absorbers. The walls and floors are carbon steel with a catalyzed, flakeglass-
filled vinyl ester lining. However, there are no agitators reported. The recycle tanks at Bruce
Mansfield Station Unit 3 are carbon steel with a flakeglass-filled vinyl ester lining similar to that
on Units 1 and 2. The agitators are rubber-covered carbon steel.

The recycle tanks at Great River Energy Coal Creek Station Units 1 and 2 have carbon steel
walls with an unidentified corrosion-resistant coating. The floors are concrete, and the agitators
are rubber-covered carbon steel.

Hong Kong Electric Lamma Power Station Unit 6 has a recycle tank with walls and floors of
carbon steel lined with a resin coating. Repairs will be required due to cracking of the resin
lining and base metal corrosion that are being experienced. The agitators are rubber-covered steel
castings and are satisfactory.

The recycle tanks at Intermountain Power Generating Station have carbon steel walls and floors
lined with epoxy coatings. The agitators are rubber-coated carbon steel.

The recycle tanks at Kansas City Power and Light La Cygne Station have carbon steel walls and
floors that are covered with natural rubber. The impellers are of an unknown composition.

Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Station Unit 4 has recycle tanks with walls and floors of
concrete. The agitators are made of steel covered with rubber, and some wear/erosion of the
rubber coatings has been noted. A service life of 6 to 10 years is expected. Cane Run Unit 5 has
recycle tanks of carbon steel lined with Stebbins tile. The agitators are rubber-covered, but
erosion of the rubber has been noted. Leaks around the tiles have also been observed. The
recycle tanks at Cane Run Unit 6 have carbon steel walls lined with an organic coating, but
corrosion has been noted where the coating has failed. The floors are concrete, and the agitators
are rubber-covered carbon steel. Trimble County has recycle tanks of Type 317LMN stainless
steel with concrete floors. Agitators are carbon steel covered with rubber.

2-29
Materials Experience

LCRA Fayette Station Unit 3 has recycle/reaction tanks that were initially constructed of carbon
steel lined with Type 316L stainless steel. However, serious microbiologically induced corrosion
(MIC) was discovered in one recycle tank in early 1994 and soon became apparent in all three
recycle tanks. Weld repairs proved ineffective, and electrochemical protection was installed in
1996. Corrosion has stopped since then, and performance has been satisfactory. The impellers
are rubber-covered carbon steel with 6% Mo alloy vanes. There have been leaks around the acid
bricks on the floor and erosion failures of the rubber linings. Corrective measures are under
consideration.

Minnesota Power and Light Clay Boswell Station has recycle tanks with walls and floors of
carbon steel lined with flakeglass. The agitators are Type 316L stainless steel with a rubber
lining. Performance is satisfactory.

New Brunswick Electric Power Coleson Cove Station has recycle tanks that are of duplex Alloy
2205 stainless steel and agitators of 6% Mo stainless steel. No problems have been noted to date.

Owensboro Municipal Utilities Elmer Smith Station began to experience severe pitting and
crevice attack in the Type 317LMN recycle tanks of both units about 3 1/2 years after startup in
1994. After analysis showed severe chloride- and fluoride-type pitting in the tank, it was decided
not to weld repair the tank but to have Corrosion Service Company of Canada install an
electrochemical protection system. The electrochemical protection stopped the pitting, and
performance is now satisfactory. There were apparently no problems with the Type 317LMN
stainless steel agitators.

Power Generation Station A (not identified) has recycle tanks that are integral to the absorbers
with walls and floors of carbon steel lined with Alloy C-276 (wallpapered). There is no mention
of the agitators or their materials of construction. However, leakage at welds similar to that
encountered elsewhere in the lined (wallpapered) absorbers has continued, requiring the injection
of epoxy filler between the carbon steel and the alloy lining to minimize corrosion.

PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 1 and 2 have recycle tanks with carbon steel walls that are
lined with cementicious or organic coatings. Frequent patching and repair are necessary. The
floors are carbon steel with a Type 316L stainless steel lining, and performance is satisfactory.
The agitators are also Type 316L stainless steel. PPL Colstrip Units 3 and 4 have not
encountered any problems with their recycle tanks, which have walls and floor of Type 317LM
stainless steel and agitators of Type 316L stainless steel.

Public Service of New Mexico San Juan Station has four units. The recycle tanks are all
constructed of a 6% Mo stainless steel. The agitators are CD4MCu.

St. Johns River Power Park Units 1 and 2 have recycle tanks that are carbon steel with vinyl ester
lining. The agitators are carbon steel with a rubber covering.

The Salt River Project Coronado Generating Station has rubber-lined carbon steel recycle tanks
with rubber-covered carbon steel agitators. Performance is satisfactory.

2-30
Materials Experience

The San Antonio City Public Service J. K. Spruce Station has recycle tanks that are constructed
of Type 317LMN stainless steel. The agitators are Type 317LMN stainless steel with a Type 316
stainless steel hub.

Southern Company Yates Unit 1 has FRP recycle tanks. Agitators are rubber-covered steel. Tank
performance is satisfactory.

Springfield Water, Light, and Power Company Dallman Unit 3 has recycle tanks that are carbon
steel lined with an abrasion-resistant organic coating. There is no mention of agitators. No
problems with the tanks or the lining have been cited.

Tampa Electric Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2 have recycle tanks that are constructed of roll-
bonded Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel plate. Big Bend Station Units 3 and 4 have recycle tanks
of carbon steel lined with flakeglass-filled vinyl ester and agitators of rubber-covered carbon
steel. All are performing satisfactorily.

TVA Cumberland Units 1 and 2 have recycle tanks that are rubber-lined carbon steel. The floors
are concrete coated with epoxy, and the side-mounted agitators are high-chromium alloy.
Performance is satisfactory. Paradise Station Units 1 and 2 have recycle tanks that are carbon
steel with a flakeglass lining and Type 317L stainless steel impellers. TVA Widows Creek
Station Unit 7 recycle tanks are carbon steel with a rubber lining on the walls and the floor. The
agitators are Type 317L stainless steel. Widows Creek Station Unit 8 has recycle tanks with a
flakeglass and tile lining on the walls and a rubber and tile lining on the floor. As with Unit 7, the
agitators are Type 317L stainless steel. All are performing satisfactorily.

Trans Alta Generation Centralia Units 1 and 2 have recycle tanks of Type 317LMN stainless
steel with Alloy C-276 agitators. No problems are reported.

Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative Escalante Station has recycle tanks that are
carbon steel with glass cloth-reinforced, modified abrasion-resistant epoxy lining. The agitators
are Type 316L stainless steel. Performance is satisfactory.

2.4 Slurry and Spray Piping

Both slurry and spray piping in FGD systems can pose problems. Slurry piping such as that
shown in Figure 2-3 has to resist erosion corrosion, while spray piping has to resist corrosion
both on the exterior and interior. The materials used for 37 of 42 slurry pipe applications are
rubber-lined carbon steel and FRP. Rubber-lined carbon steel is used predominately. AEP Pirkey
Station, Great River Coal Creek Station, and PPL Colstrip Station Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 have used
Types 316 and Type 316L stainless steels. One facility, Louisville Gas and Electric Trimble
County Station, uses Type 317LMN stainless steel for internal slurry piping and FRP for external
slurry piping.

2-31
Materials Experience

Figure 2-3
Spray Piping and Supports in the Absorber Zone of a Scrubber

The spray piping used involves a wide array of materials including Types 316, 316L, 317, 317L,
317LM, and 317LMN stainless steels, rubber-lined carbon steel, high-density polyethylene, and
FRP. The stainless steels as a group and FRP were the most widely used (each at 17 locations).

2.5 Slurry Pumps

Pumps move a variety of process liquids within an FGD system such as delivering slurries to the
absorbers or transferring slurries for further processing. Because the slurries have a high solid
content that can cause serious erosion problems with pump components, elastomer-type linings
on the metals have become standard for the pump housings. However, pump impellers that are
solid rather than lined appear to be preferred. Table 2-5 provides a list of slurry pump materials.

Almost all of the 42 installations use rubber or elastomer-lined carbon steel for pump housings,
and 22 of the installations make use of proprietary high-chromium iron for impellers. Others
such as AEP Pirkey Station and Southern Company Yates Station use Type 316 stainless steel
and CD4MCu duplex stainless steel for impellers, respectively. Louisville Gas and Electric Cane
Run Stations 4, 5, and 6 uses abrasion-resistant steel for impellers. Dominion Generation
Mt. Storm Station Unit 3 used a cast steel impeller when rubber-covered impellers failed. Power
Generating Station A uses duplex stainless steels for both the pump casings and the impellers.

2-32
Materials Experience

Table 2-5
Slurry Pump Materials

Utility Station Casing Impellers

1. AES Deepwater Rubber-lined carbon steel Rubber-lined carbon steel

2. AEP Conesville 5 and 6 Rubber-lined carbon steel Rubber-lined carbon steel

3. AEP Gavin 1 and 2 Rubber-lined carbon steel Rubber-lined carbon steel


replaced with alloy replaced with alloy

4. AEP Pirkey Urethane-lined carbon steel Type 316L SS

5. Arizona Electric Apache 2 and 3 Rubber-lined carbon steel Rubber-lined carbon steel and
high-chromium alloy
6. Cinergy Gibson Unit 4 Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium alloy

7. Cinergy Gibson Unit 5 Rubber-lined ductile iron High-chromium alloy

8. Dominion Generation Clover Rubber-lined carbon steel Cast high-chromium alloy


1 and 2

9. Dominion Generation Mt. Storm Rubber-lined cast iron Cast alloy steel
Units 1 and 2

10. Dominion Generation Mt. Storm Rubber-lined cast iron Rubber-lined carbon steel or
Unit 3 cast alloy steel

11. EME Homer City Rubber-lined carbon steel NiCrMo alloy

12. First Energy Bruce Mansfield Urethane-lined carbon steel High-chromium alloy
1 and 2

13. First Energy Bruce Mansfield 3 Rubber-lined carbon steel Rubber-lined carbon steel

14. Great River Coal Creek Rubber-lined carbon steel Nickel-hard alloy

15. Hong Kong Lamma Urethane-lined carbon steel Alloy

16. Intermountain Power Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium alloy

17. Kansas City La Cygne High-chromium alloy High-chromium alloy

18. Louisville Gas and Electric Rubber-lined carbon steel Abrasion-resistant alloy steel
Cane Run 4

19. Louisville Gas and Electric Rubber-lined carbon steel Abrasion-resistant alloy steel
Cane Run 5

20. Louisville Gas and Electric Rubber-lined carbon steel Abrasion-resistant alloy steel
Cane Run 6

2-33
Materials Experience

Table 2-5 (Cont.)


Slurry Pump Materials

Utility Station Casing Impellers

21. Louisville Gas and Electric Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium (27%) alloy
Trimble County

22. LCRA Fayette 3 Rubber-lined carbon steel Rigid urethane elastomer

23. Minnesota Power Clay Boswell 4 Rigid urethane-covered Rigid urethane-covered carbon
carbon steel steel

24. New Brunswick Coleson Cove Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium alloy

25. Owensboro Utilities Elmer Smith Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium alloy

26. Power Generating Station A Duplex SS Duplex SS

27. PPL Montana Power Colstrip Rubber-lined carbon steel Rubber-covered carbon steel
Units 1 and 2 and high-chromium alloy

28. PPL Montana Power Colstrip Rubber-lined carbon steel Rubber-covered carbon steel
Units 3 and 4 and high-chromium alloy

29. Public Service of New Mexico High-chromium alloy High-chromium alloy


San Juan Units 1, 2, 3, and 4

30. St. Johns River Power Park Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium alloy

31. Salt River Project Coronado Rubber-lined cast carbon Rubber-covered cast carbon
steel steel

32. San Antonio Public Service Rubber-covered high- High-chromium (27%) Alloy
J. K. Spruce chromium (27%) alloy

33. Southern Company Yates Rubber-lined ductile iron Duplex Alloy CD4MCu SS

34. Springfield Water, Light, and Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium alloy being
Power Dallman evaluated

35. Tampa Electric Big Bend 1 and 2 Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium alloy

36. Tampa Electric Big Bend 3 and 4 Rubber-lined carbon steel Rubber-covered carbon steel

37. TVA Cumberland 1 and 2 Rubber-lined cast carbon High-chromium alloy


steel

38. TVA Paradise 1 and 2 Rubber-lined cast carbon High-chromium alloy


steel

39. TVA Widows Creek 7 Rubber-lined cast carbon Rubber-covered carbon steel
steel

40. TVA Widows Creek 8 High-chromium alloy High-chromium alloy

2-34
Materials Experience

Table 2-5 (Cont.)


Slurry Pump Materials

Utility Station Casing Impellers

41. Trans Alta Centralia Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium alloy

42. Tri-State Generation and Rubber-lined carbon steel High-chromium (34%) alloy
Transmission Cooperative
Escalante

2.6 Slurry Valves

Most slurry valves used in FGD systems continue to be constructed of rubber-lined carbon steel,
stainless steels, or a combination as identified in Table 2-6. However, while the type of valve
used is mentioned infrequently, gate-type valves are mentioned most often.

Stations that are using only rubber-lined carbon steel or cast iron for slurry valves are Cinergy
Gibson 4, Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run 4 and Cane Run 5, Hong Kong Electric Lamma
Power Station Unit 6, Minnesota Power and Light Clay Boswell Unit 4, Public Service of New
Mexico San Juan Units 1, 2, 3, and 4, and St. Johns River Power Park Units 1 and 2. Cinergy
Gibson Unit 5 is slightly different because the unit uses epoxy-coated ductile iron valves with a
urethane lining.

Some facilities such as Arizona Electric Power Apache Station Units 3 and 4 and PPL Montana
Power Colstrip Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 use either rubber-lined carbon steel or Type 316L stainless
steel. Others such as Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Station Units 4, 5, and 6 and
Springfield Water Light and Power Dallman Station make use of knifegate valves with rubber-
lined bodies and Type 317LM stainless steel blades. Power Station A is also using knifegate
valves with rubber seats and Alloy C-276 blades.

A number of the installations surveyed listed only one material for the slurry valves. Dominion
Generation Clover Station Units 1 and 2 use Type 317L stainless steel, while Dominion
Generation Mt. Storm Units 1, 2, and 3 use Alloy C-276. EME Homer City Station reported the
use of both slide gate and butterfly valves of Alloy C-276.

New Brunswick Coleson Cove Station reported only that duplex Alloy 2205 stainless steel is
used for valve bodies. Owensboro Municipal Utilities Elmer Smith Station is using gate valves
of Type 317LMN stainless steel. TVA Paradise Station Units 1 and 2 and Widows Creek Units 7
and 8 are using gate valves of Type 317L stainless steel.

2-35
Materials Experience

Table 2-6
Piping and Valve Materials

Utility Station Piping – Slurry/Spray Slurry Valves

1. AES Deepwater FRP FRP

2. AEP Conesville 5 and 6 Rubber-lined carbon steel Not identified

3. AEP Gavin 1 and 2 Rubber-lined carbon steel Not identified

4. AEP Pirkey Type 316 SS/Type 317 SS Type 316 SS gate type

5. Arizona Electric | Rubber-lined carbon steel/ Rubber-lined carbon steel and


Apache 2 and 3 Types 304/316L SS Type 316L SS

6. Cinergy Gibson Unit 4 Rubber-lined carbon Rubber-lined cast steel


steel/FRP

7. Cinergy Gibson Unit 5 Rubber-lined carbon steel/ Epoxy-coated ductile iron with
Type 317 SS urethane lining

8. Dominion Generation Clover Rubber-lined carbon steel/ Type 317 SS


1 and 2 Type 317LMN SS

9. Dominion Generation Mt. FRP/FRP Alloy C-276 gate type


Storm Units 1 and 2

10. Dominion Generation Mt. Rubber-lined carbon Alloy C-276 gate type
Storm Unit 3 steel/FRP

11. EME Homer City FRP Alloy C-276

12. First Energy Bruce Mansfield Rubber-lined carbon steel/ Carbon steel rubber- and
1 and 2 Type 316 SS urethane-lined gate and pinch
types

13. First Energy Bruce Mansfield 3 Rubber-lined carbon steel/ SS gate type
Type 316 SS

14. Great River Coal Creek Type 316L SS (replacing Urethane-lined carbon steel
FRP)/ body/ Type 304 SS gate type
Type 316L SS
15. Hong Kong Lamma Rubber-lined carbon Rubber-lined cast iron
steel/FRP
16. Intermountain Power Rubber-lined carbon steel Not identified

17. Kansas City La Cygne Rubber-lined carbon steel/ Not identified


high-density polyethylene

18. Louisville Gas and Electric Rubber-lined carbon steel/ Carbon steel body/Type
Cane Run 4 Type 317LM SS 317LM SS blade gate type,
(failure caused by liner leaks at seals
adhesion loss)

2-36
Materials Experience

Table 2-6 (Cont.)


Piping and Valve Materials

Utility Station Piping – Slurry/Spray Slurry Valves

19. Louisville Gas and Electric Rubber-lined carbon steel/ Carbon steel body/Type
Cane Run 5 Type 317LM SS 317LM SS blade gate type,
(failure caused by liner leaks at seals
adhesion loss)

20. Louisville Gas and Electric FRP/occasional joint failure Carbon steel body/Type
Cane Run 6 317LM SS blade gate type,
leaks at seals
21. Louisville Gas and Electric FRP-lined Type 317LMN Type 317LM SS
Trimble County SS/FRP

22. LCRA Fayette 3 FRP/FRP Type 317LM SS gate type

23. Minnesota Power Clay Rubber-coated and rubber- Rubber-lined carbon steel
Boswell 4 lined carbon steel

24. New Brunswick Coleson Cove FRP/rubber-lined carbon steel Duplex Alloy 2205 SS bodies

25. Owensboro Utilities Elmer Rubber-lined carbon steel Type 317LMN SS gate type
Smith

26. Power Generating Station A Rubber-lined carbon steel and Alloy C-276 knifegate blades
FRP/rubber-lined carbon steel with urethane seats/Alloy C-
and FRP with Alloy C-276 276 disc blades with rubber
shields seats
27. PPL Montana Power Colstrip Rubber-lined carbon steel, Rubber-lined Type 316L SS
Units 1 and 2 Type 316L SS/Type 316L SS

28. PPL Montana Power Colstrip Rubber-lined carbon steel, Rubber-lined Type 316L SS
Units 3 and 4 Type 316L SS/Type 316L SS

29. Public Service of New Mexico Rubber-lined carbon Rubber-lined carbon steel
San Juan Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 steel/FRP

30. St. Johns River Power Park Rubber-lined carbon steel/ Rubber-lined carbon steel
Type 317L SS
31. Salt River Project Coronado Rubber-lined carbon steel Not identified SS

32. San Antonio Public Service FRP/Type 317LMN SS Type 317LMN SS


J. K. Spruce

33. Southern Company Yates FRP/high-density Rubber-lined carbon steel and


polyethylene aluminum, gate type, aluminum
destroyed
34. Springfield Water, Light, and Rubber-lined carbon steel/SS Type 316 SS gate type
Power Dallman

2-37
Materials Experience

Table 2-6 (Cont.)


Piping and Valve Materials

Utility Station Piping – Slurry/Spray Slurry Valves

35. Tampa Electric Big Bend High-density Not identified gate-type


1 and 2 polyethylene/Alloy C-276
headers

36. Tampa Electric Big Bend High-density Not identified gate type
3 and 4 polyethylene/Alloy C-276 or
Alloy 904L SS headers

37. TVA Cumberland 1 and 2 FRP/FRP Not identified gate type

38. TVA Paradise 1 and 2 Rubber-lined carbon steel in Type 317L SS


Unit 1
FRP/Type 317L SS in Unit 2

39. TVA Widows Creek 7 FRP/FRP Type 317L SS gate type

40. TVA Widows Creek 8 FRP/Type 316L SS Type 316L SS gate type

41. Trans Alta Centralia FRP/Type 317LMN SS Not identified

42. Tri-State Generation and FRP/FRP Not identified


Transmission Cooperative
Escalante

2.7 Spray Nozzles

Spray nozzles are used to provide the desired contact between the scrubbing media such as lime
or limestone and the incoming flue gas. Obviously, proper nozzle spray overlap is necessary to
minimize the possibility that some portion of the flue gas will not be contacted. The major
problems with spray nozzles appear to be plugging and erosion. However, these can be
minimized by using a fine grind of lime or limestone and proper material selection. In the present
study, Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Unit 6 was the only one that used a sieve tray rather
than spray nozzles. AEP Pirkey Station was the only one using a Type 317 stainless steel. Of the
remainder, 16 used ceramic spray nozzles, and 15 used silicon-carbide nozzles. The remaining
nine used various materials such as high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl fluoride, FRP, urethane,
Stellite, and Carborundum.

2.8 Mist Eliminators

As the name implies, mist eliminators are used to prevent liquid carryover into the outlet duct
after the flue gases are scrubbed. They are located near the top of the absorber. The possible
concerns with mist eliminators are corrosion and plugging. An example of a vane-type mist
eliminator is shown in Figure 2-4. Twelve respondents did not identify any materials for mist
eliminators. FRP was reportedly used at 14 installations, while polypropylene was used at 9
locations. Seven installations used polysulfone.

2-38
Materials Experience

Figure 2-4
A Vane-Type Mist Eliminator Made from Type 316S Stainless Steel Used at Reid Gardner
Units 1, 2, and 3

2.9 Dampers

Dampers are used on the absorber inlet ducts, the absorber outlet ducts, and the bypass ducts if
there are any. Their purpose is to isolate areas for inspection or repair. Some examples of damper
use include AEP Conesville and Gavin Stations, which have carbon steel inlet dampers and

2-39
Materials Experience

outlet dampers of Alloy 825 and Type 317L stainless steel, respectively. AEP Pirkey Station,
however, has inlet dampers of Type 317L stainless steel and outlet dampers of Alloy 825.

Dominion Generation Clover and Mt. Storm Stations have inlet dampers of carbon steel. They
also have bypass dampers of carbon steel (except for Mt. Storm Unit 3, which has a bypass
damper of Alloy C-276). Outlet dampers are Type 317LMN and Type 317 stainless steels and
carbon steel with Alloy C-276 frames at the Clover and Mt. Storm units.

TVA Cumberland Station has carbon steel inlet dampers. The Paradise and Widows Creek
Stations have high-strength low-alloy inlet dampers. Outlet dampers for all the TVA stations are
Type 317L stainless steel. Dampers for the TVA stations as well as for the other stations in the
survey generally have Alloy C-276 seals.

2.10 Agitators

Agitators or impellers were included in the discussion of recycle or reaction tanks, but additional
comments are appropriate because they are reported to be a major maintenance concern. Rubber-
covered carbon steel agitators continue to be used at 14 of the installations surveyed, even
though there are ongoing instances of liner wear and the need for periodic repair. In many
instances, the rubber coverings have failed and have been replaced by other materials.

For example, AEP Gavin and Pirkey Stations replaced their rubber-covered agitators with Type
317L stainless steel and Type 316 stainless steel agitators, respectively. AEP Apache Station and
Cinergy Gibson Station Unit 4 now use duplex Alloy 255 stainless steel (although wear on blade
tips has been reported). PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 1 and 2 are using agitators of
Type 316L stainless steel. Units 3 and 4 are using agitators of Type 317 LM stainless steel.
Minnesota Power and Light Company Clay Boswell Station is also using Type 316L stainless
steel for agitators with a rubber covering.

The only FRP installation in the survey, Southern Company Yates Station, is using a rubber-
covered carbon steel agitator. Performance is reported to be satisfactory.

Other installations such as New Brunswick Coleson Cove Station have been successful with
agitators of 6% Mo stainless steel. Tampa Electric Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2 are using
Alloy C-276 clad plate agitators. Trans Alta Centralia Station is using solid Alloy C-276. No
problems have been reported with the stainless steel or the Alloy C-276 agitators, although
questions have been raised about the erosion or abrasion resistance of these materials.

2.11 Chimneys/Stacks

2.11.1 Background

Chimneys/stacks (see Figure 2-5) are used to discharge the scrubbed flue gases from the FGD
system to the atmosphere. They are usually comprised of a reinforced concrete shell with one or
more liners or flues. The flues may be of acid-resistant brick, carbon steel with a weld-attached

2-40
Materials Experience

alloy lining (wallpapered) as shown in Figure 2-6, carbon steel with a roll-bonded alloy lining
(clad plate), carbon steel with an organic coating or lining, or FRP. In some instances, these
materials are used in combination with one another or with borosilicate glass blocks. The flues
are expected to resist conditions similar to those in the outlet ducts.

Figure 2-5
Chimneys/Stacks at Nevada Power Company Reid Gardner Units 1, 2, and 3.

2-41
Materials Experience

Figure 2-6
A Chimney Liner (Wallpaper) Used at Louisville Gas and Electric Company

2.11.2 Summary of Experience

A summary of the materials employed for chimneys/stacks as well as the experience reported by
each organization participating in the utility survey is shown in Table 2-7. The information
following Table 2-7 provides a detailed discussion of the each utility’s experience.

2-42
Materials Experience

Chimneys represent a major component item in the FGD systems that were surveyed. Twenty of
the chimney installations have concrete shells with acid-resistant brick liners. However, there is
an increasing use of nickel alloy liners such as Alloy C-276 either as sheet lining or clad plate on
carbon steel. Carbon steel with organic linings and FRP have also proven to be successful in a
number of chimney liner applications. The FRPs are reportedly receiving increased acceptance.

2-43
Materials Experience

Table 2-7
Chimney/Stack Materials Employed for Breeching, Shells, or Liners

Utility Station Breeching Shell Liner

1. AES Deepwater Alloy C-276 lined carbon Concrete Acid-resistant brick


steel

2. AEP Conesville Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick


5 and 6 acid-resistant brick

3. AEP Gavin 1 and 2 Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick,
borosilicate glass blocks Alloy C-276 clad
carbon steel on bottom
level
4. AEP Pirkey Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick
acid-resistant brick

5. Arizona Electric Organic-coated carbon Concrete High-strength low-alloy


Apache 2 and 3 steel steel coated with
flakeglass-filled vinyl
ester
6. Cinergy Gibson Unit 4 Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Alloy C-276
7. Cinergy Gibson Unit 5 Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Alloy C-276
8. Dominion Generation Alloy C-276 Concrete Alloy C-276 clad
Clover 1 and 2 carbon steel
9. Dominion Generation Alloy C-276 Acid-resistant brick Alloy C-276
Mt. Storm Units
1 and 2

10. Dominion Generation Alloy C-276 Acid-resistant brick Ceramic


Mt. Storm Unit 3
11. EME Homer City Alloy C-276 clad carbon Concrete Alloy C-276 clad
steel carbon steel
12. First Energy Bruce Carbon steel with a vinyl Concrete Carbon steel with a
Mansfield 1and 2 ester lining filled with vinyl ester lining filled
flakeglass with flakeglass
13. First Energy Bruce Alloy 625 Concrete Alloy 625
Mansfield 3
14. Great River Coal High-strength low-alloy Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Creek steel lined with gunite
15. Hong Kong Lamma Carbon steel lined with Concrete Unlined
resin

2-44
Materials Experience

Table 2-7 (Cont.)


Chimney/Stack Materials Employed for Breeching, Shells, or Liners

Utility Station Breeching Shell Liner

16. Intermountain Power Not indicated Concrete FRP


(carbon steel lined with
Alloy C-276 for outlet
duct)
17. Kansas City La Cygne FRP Concrete Organic-coated carbon
steel
18. Louisville Gas and Type 317LM SS Concrete Carbon steel lined with
Electric Cane Run 4 Alloy C-276
19. Louisville Gas and Type 317LM SS Concrete Carbon steel lined with
Electric Cane Run 5 Alloy C-276
20. Louisville Gas and Carbon steel lined with Concrete Carbon steel lined with
Electric Cane Run 6 6% Mo SS Alloy C-276

21. Louisville Gas and Type 317LMN SS Concrete Carbon steel lined with
Electric Trimble Alloy C-276
County
22. LCRA Fayette 3 Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick
borosilicate glass blocks
23. Minnesota Power Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Clay Boswell 4 flakeglass
24. New Brunswick 6% Mo SS Concrete Carbon steel lined with
Coleson Cove borosilicate blocks
( top 20 feet Alloy C-
276)
25. Owensboro Utilities Alloy C-276 Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Elmer Smith
26. Power Generating Carbon steel lined with Concrete FRP
Station A Alloy C-276
27. PPL Montana Power Carbon steel coated Concrete Carbon steel coated
Colstrip Units 1 and 2 with flakeglass with flakeglass
28. PPL Montana Power Carbon steel lined with a Concrete Carbon steel lined with
Colstrip Units 3 and 4 fluoropolymer vinyl ester a fluoropolymer vinyl
ester

29. Public Service of New Carbon steel Concrete Acid-resistant brick


Mexico San Juan
Units 1, 2, 3, and 4
30. St. Johns River Power Not indicated Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Park (carbon steel lined with
vinyl ester for outlet
duct)
31. Salt River Project Carbon steel lined with Concrete FRP
Coronado hydraulic cement

2-45
Materials Experience

Table 2-7 (Cont.)


Chimney/Stack Materials Employed for Breeching, Shells, or Liners

Utility Station Breeching Shell Liner

32. San Antonio Public Carbon steel lined with Concrete Carbon steel lined with
Service J. K. Spruce Alloy C-276 Alloy C-276
33. Southern Company FRP Steel FRP
Yates
34. Springfield Water, Not indicated, Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Light and Power (Type 316 SS outlet
Dallman duct)
35. Tampa Electric Big Alloy C-276 Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Bend 1 and 2
36. Tampa Electric Big Alloy C-276 Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Bend 3 and 4
37. TVA Cumberland Carbon steel lined with Concrete Carbon steel lined with
1 and 2 Alloy C-276 Alloy C-276
38. TVA Paradise 1 and 2 Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Type 317L SS
39. TVA Widows Creek 7 Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Type 317L SS
40. TVA Widows Creek 8 Carbon steel lined with Concrete Acid-resistant brick
Type 317L SS
41. Trans Alta Centralia Alloy C-276 Concrete Alloy C-276 clad
carbon steel
42. Tri-State Generation Alloy G Concrete Acid-resistant brick
and Transmission
Cooperative
Escalante

In the present study, 20 installations have chimneys with acid-resistant brick liners. AEP Gavin
Station Units 1 and 2 would be included in this group except for the fact that the bottom section
of the liner is roll-bonded Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel and the remainder is acid-resistant brick.
New Brunswick Power Coleson Cove Station uses a combination of materials for the chimney
liner. The final 20-ft (6.1-m) section is lined with Alloy C-276, and the remainder is lined with
borosilicate glass blocks. The Coleson Cove Station began operation in 2004.

There appears to be increasing interest in the use of high alloys for chimney liners either as clad
plate or as sheet lining (wallpapering). For example, Dominion Generation Clover Station Units
1 and 2 and relatively new installations such as EME Homer City Generating Station Unit 3 and
the Trans Alta Centralia Generating Station Units 1 and 2 have all installed Alloy C-276 clad
carbon steel plate chimney liners. The Clover Station liner was a replacement for a failed
titanium-clad liner in the mid-1990s. The Homer City and Centralia liners were placed in service
in 2001 and 2002, respectively.

2-46
Materials Experience

Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Stations 4, 5, and 6 opted for the use of Alloy C-276 lined
(wallpapered) carbon steel for chimney liners in the mid-to-late 1980s. San Antonio J. K. Spruce
Station installed an Alloy C-276 lined (wallpapered) carbon steel liner at startup in 1992. TVA
Cumberland Station installed an Alloy C-276 lined (wallpapered) carbon steel liner in 1994. One
station, First Energy Bruce Mansfield Unit 3, used a solid high-nickel Alloy 625 instead of lined
carbon steel in the early 1980s. All the foregoing installations have performed satisfactorily. The
only complaint is that the inspection of the linings is difficult to perform.

The inception of carbon steel lined with organic coatings occurred with four installations in the
late 1970s. These facilities were First Energy Bruce Mansfield Station Units 1 and 2, Kansas
City Power and Light La Cygne Unit 1, and PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 1 and 2 and
Units 3 and 4.

Louisville Gas and Electric Trimble County Station, Power Generating Station A, Salt River
Project Coronado Station, Southern Company Yates Station, and Intermountain Generating
Station all make use of FRP liners. Installations occurred from 1980 to 1994.

The remaining two installations are somewhat unique in that Dominion Generation Mt. Storm
Station Unit 3 has an acid-resistant brick chimney with a ceramic liner, and Hong Kong Electric
Lamma Station Unit 6 has unlined concrete chimneys. No problems have been reported since
startup in the 1993 to 1994 timeframe.

2.12 Other Components

Other components at the facilities surveyed include fans, expansion joints, and WESPs. Almost
all the fans being used in high temperatures or dry service have carbon steel housings and rotors.
In some instances, high-strength low-alloy or constructional alloy steels are being used for the
rotor blades.

Where wet service is involved, Alloy 625 is widely used for fan rotors and Alloy 825 Type 317L
stainless steel or rubber-lined carbon steel are considered for fan housings.

Expansion joints were infrequently mentioned but are generally constructed of an elastomer such
as Viton.

There were two wet electrostatic precipitators (WESP) reported in the survey, one involving an
older unit at AES Deepwater, and the second, a new unit at New Brunswick Coleson Cove
Station. Both are used for the elimination of the sulfuric acid plume from the chimneys. The AES
Unit is constructed of Allow C-276 and fiberglass coated Balsa wood and the Coleson Cove Unit
has 6% Mo stainless-steel inlets and collectors, and initial collector of Alloy C-276 and a duplex
Alloy 2205 stainless-steel outlet.

2-47
3
INDIVIDUAL UTILITY RESPONSES

3.1 AES Deepwater, Inc. Deepwater Unit 1

3.1.1 General Description

AES Deepwater Unit 1 is a 160-MW facility located in Pasadena, Texas, that uses petroleum
coke as its fuel. The air pollution control system is composed of a dry electrostatic precipitator, a
WESP, two 100% capacity wet limestone absorbers with two spray towers each, a venturi
quencher for particulate removal, and an absorber recirculation tank where forced oxidation
takes place. After the particulates are removed in the venturi quencher, the gas is scrubbed with
either a wet limestone slurry or ammonia for removal of SO2. The scrubbed gas is ducted into a
WESP for the removal of sulfur trioxide (SO3) and then into an acid-resistant, brick-lined 600-ft.
(183-m) chimney. The efficiency of particulate removal is 99% and the efficiency of SO2
removal is 96%. Gypsum is produced as a saleable by-product.

3.1.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is petroleum coke with a sulfur content of 4%, an ash content of 0.4%, and
a heating value of 14,500 BTUs per pound (8,056.2 kg-cal/kg). Although not reported, the
petroleum coke has a high vanadium content.

Scrubber Medium – For absorber A, the scrubber medium is finely ground calcium carbonate,
90% of which will pass through 325 mesh. The pH value is 5.75. A 25% concentration of dibasic
acids is added to increase SO2 removal.

NOx Control – There are no special arrangements for the control of NOx, and the efficiency of
NOx removal is not reported.

3.1.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The dry electrostatic precipitator and the FGD system were designed and built by Babcock and
Wilcox. The WESP was designed and built by Dresser Fluid-Ionic Systems.

3-1
Individual Utility Responses

3.1.4 Operating History

The FGD system began operation in 1986. No major changes have occurred except for internal
modifications to absorber B resulting from the conversion from limestone scrubbing to ammonia
scrubbing. Consideration is now being given to converting back to limestone scrubbing.

3.1.5 Materials Specifications

The primary material of construction for ducts, vessels, and transitions is carbon steel with either
metallic or rubber/elastomeric linings. The ducts are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel. The
inlets ducts are lined with 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick Alloy C-276, and the outlet ducts are lined with
4/25-in. (4.1-mm) thick vinyl ester. There is no bypass duct.

The absorber walls are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick
chlorobutyl rubber lining. The quench areas (wet/dry zones) are lined (wallpapered) with 1/16-in.
(1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276. The floor/sump areas are chlorobutyl rubber lined with an acid-
resistant brick overlay to protect against damage during maintenance. A schematic of the
absorber system used at AES Deepwater Unit 1 is shown in Figure 3-1.

3-2
Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-1
AES Deepwater, Inc. Unit 1 Absorber System

The absorber trays (shown in Figure 3-2) are Alloy C-276, and the demisters are polypropylene.
At the start of the absorber outlet hood, the lining is a resin coating filled with flakeglass. The
interface is covered with chlorobutyl rubber. Absorber internal supports are all chlorobutyl
rubber-covered box beams. However, spray-induced impingement erosion has been encountered
with several box beam areas. Stainless steel shields (Types 409/410) placed over the erosion
areas eliminated the problem.

3-3
Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-2
AES Deepwater, Inc. Unit 1 Absorber Tray

Problems have also been encountered with erosion of the lining on the absorber walls because of
slurry spray and plugging of the demisters. However, the service life of each of the various
components is 6 to 10 years.

The reaction/recycle tank walls and floors are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with
natural rubber. In addition, the floors are covered with acid-resistant brick for protection against
damage during outages.

The slurry and spray piping are FRP with silicon carbide spray nozzles. The valve materials are
not identified, but no problems have been reported. The service life of each component is 6 to 10
years.

The ash pump casings and impellers are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick carbon steel with a 3/4-in.
(19.1-mm) thick covering or lining of natural rubber.

The fan housings are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick ASTM A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel.
Rotor blades are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick carbon steel. They operate at a temperature of 330°F
(166°C). The expansion joints are 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick Viton elastomer. Damper compositions
are not identified. Service lives are reported as 6 to 10 years.

The WESP handles the outlet gases from the absorbers before they enter the chimney. The
collector plates in the WESP are 1-in. (25.4-mm) thick Alloy C-276 for two modules and 1-1/2-
in. (38.1-mm) thick Balsa wood with a 1/100-in. (0.25-mm) coating of fiberglass for the other
10 modules. The only problem appears to be the softening of the Balsa wood over time.

3-4
Individual Utility Responses

The chimney breeching is of 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) Alloy
C-276 lining. The chimney itself is constructed of acid-resistant brick.

3.2 American Electric Power Conesville Units 5 and 6

3.2.1 General Description

AEP Conesville Units 5 and 6 are 375-MW facilities that are located in Conesville, Ohio. Each
unit has a cold-side electrostatic precipitator and two spray towers with perforated trays. After
being scrubbed with magnesium-enhanced lime, the flue gas passes through two sets of chevron
mist eliminators into a dual-flue, 800-ft. (243.8-m) concrete chimney. The chimney is lined with
acid-resistant brick. The efficiency of particulate removal is 99.65% and the efficiency of SO2
removal is 91%. The NOx removal efficiency is not noted.

3.2.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is bituminous coal with a chloride content of 0.18%, a sulfur content of
3.15%, an ash content of 11%, and a heating value of 11,500 BTUs per pound (6,389.4
kg-cal/kg). About 40 parts per million (ppm) of fluorides have been found. Availability is 100%.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is a magnesium-enhanced pebble lime with 94%
available oxides. The recycled scrubber medium has a pH value 6.0 to 6.5, a magnesium content
of about 5000 ppm, a sulfate content of about 20,000 ppm, and a chloride content of about 3500
ppm. Total solids content is 6 to 8%.

NOx Control – Some burners are kept out of service and receive only air to provide overfire air
to reduce NOx.

3.2.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The original Universal Oil Products Turbulent Contacting Absorbers (TCA) were modified to a
Babcock and Wilcox perforated tray tower design. The electrostatic precipitator is manufactured
by Research Cottrell.

3.2.4 Operating History


The absorbers were installed originally in 1978 but were modified in 1988 by the installation of a
perforated tray to improve scrubbing efficiency.

3.2.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet duct is carbon steel except for a section near the absorber (presaturator) that is Alloy
C-276. The bypass and outlet ducts are carbon steel except for the outlet duct section near the

3-5
Individual Utility Responses

absorber which has a flakeglass lining. A section of the outlet duct in the mixing zone near the
bypass duct is lined with borosilicate glass blocks.

The inlets to the absorbers are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Alloy C-276, while the absorber walls are
1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a neoprene rubber lining. The lining in one of the
absorbers was replaced in 1988 when the tray was installed. The linings in the other three
absorbers are still in place but are badly bubbled.

The absorber trays are 14-gage (.08-in./2.0-mm) Type 316L stainless steel, and the absorber
outlet hopper drain to the recycle tank is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 317L stainless steel.

The recycle tank walls and floor are carbon steel lined with flakeglass. The vertically mounted
carbon steel agitator is rubber covered. The flakeglass linings must be touched up every few
years. External absorber recycle piping is Type 316L stainless steel.

The absorber slurry and spray piping are rubber-lined carbon steel. The slurry valves are rubber
pinch plug valves. The slurry pump casings are carbon steel lined with rubber, and the impellers
are carbon steel covered with rubber.

The induced draft-type fans, which operate at approximately 330°F (166°C), are all carbon steel.
The inlet dampers are carbon steel guillotine-type, and the bypass dampers are carbon steel
louver-type. The outlet dampers are Alloy 825 guillotine-type.

The breaching is carbon steel lined with acid-resistant brick, and the chimney is concrete lined
with acid-resistant brick

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-3
American Electric Power Conesville Units 5 and 6 FGD System

3.3 American Electric Power Gavin Units 1 and 2

3.3.1 General Description

The AEP Gavin plant is a 2600-MW facility located in Cheshire, Ohio. It has two 1300-MW
units that each have a cold-side electrostatic precipitator and six spray towers with perforated
Babcock and Wilcox type trays. The flue gases from the two units are scrubbed with magnesium-
enhanced lime and are ducted into two separate 830-ft. (253-m) concrete chimneys.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.3.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is an Eastern bituminous coal containing 3.75% sulfur, 0.05%, chlorides, 40
ppm of fluorides, and an ash content of 9.3%. The heating value is 12,350 BTUs per pound
(6,861.7 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is magnesium-enhanced lime with total available
oxides of 94%. The recirculated scrubber medium contains approximately 200 ppm of calcium,
8000 ppm of magnesium, and a chloride level of about 10,000 ppm. Dissolved solids are 30,000
ppm, and total solids are 100,000 ppm. The SO2 removal design efficiency is 95%.

NOx Control – Riley controlled-combustion venturi burners are used. Following the installation
of an SCR, the NOx removal efficiency with the controlled-combustion venture burners is
expected to be 90%.

3.3.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system was manufactured by Babcock and Wilcox and is shown in Figure 3-4.

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-4
American Electric Power Gavin Units 1 and 2 – Typical Limestone FGD Open-Spray
Forced-Oxidation Absorber and Demister

3.3.4 Operating History

The Gavin facility became operational in 1995.

3.3.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet ductwork is carbon steel up to the damper where it becomes Alloy C-276. The outlet
duct is carbon steel covered by borosilicate glass blocks. There is no bypass duct.

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Individual Utility Responses

The absorbers have a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Alloy C-276 inlet and 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type
317L stainless steel walls, floors, outlets, and turning vanes. The trays are 14-gage (.08-in./2.0-
mm) Type 317L stainless steel. The original demisters were Type 317L stainless steel but were
changed to polysulfone in 1998 and 1999. Some pitting attack is occurring on the absorber walls.
The turning vanes, which corroded in about six months, were replaced with Alloy C-276 vanes
in 2002. Gas temperature into the absorbers is approximately 350°F (177°C), and the outlet
temperature is about 135°F (57°C).

The reaction/recycle tanks have walls, floors, and agitators of 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 317L
stainless steel. The original agitators were carbon steel covered with rubber. They were replaced
with stainless steel after about six months

The slurry piping is rubber-lined carbon steel, and the absorber recirculation spray piping is Type
316L stainless steel. The nozzles are nitride-bonded silicon carbide. The knifegate, plug, and
pinch valves are of unidentified composition

The slurry pumps originally had rubber-lined casings. These were changed to metal after the
rubber linings were badly abraded. The impellers are made of high-chrome alloy. The fans,
which are induced draft, are made of carbon steel. The guillotine-type inlet dampers are carbon
steel. The outlet dampers are also guillotine-type and are Type 317L stainless steel.

The chimney breaching is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel covered with borosilicate glass
blocks. The chimney itself has a concrete shell and, except for the bottom section that is Alloy C-
276 clad carbon steel, is lined with acid-resistant brick. Some corrosion of the breaching is
occurring at corners and at liquid collection points.

3.4 American Electric Power H. W. Pirkey Power Plant

3.4.1 General Description

The AEP H. W. Pirkey Power Plant is a 720-MW facility located in Longview, Texas. The FGD
system comprises two cold-side electrostatic precipitators and four dual-loop tray towers. After
passing through the electrostatic precipitator for particulate removal, the flue gases are scrubbed
with wet limestone slurry and ducted into a 525-ft. (160-m) concrete chimney with an acid-
resistant brick lining. The efficiency of particulate removal is almost 100% and the overall
efficiency of SO2 removal is 97%. The NOx removal efficiency is not reported although the use
of low-NOx burners and overfire air is mentioned.

3.4.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is a lignite containing 1.5% sulfur and 15% ash with a heating value of
6,450 BTUs per pound (3,583.6 kg-cal/kg). The chloride level is 0.01%. Fluorides are not
reported.

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Individual Utility Responses

Scrubber Medium – The scrubbing medium is 98% calcium carbonate. The recirculated
scrubbing medium has a pH value of 6.1, a calcium content of 7.76 ppm, a sulfate content of
0.92 ppm, and a chloride content of 1360 ppm. It also has 25 ppm of fluorides and 0.05 ppm of
magnesium. Dissolved solids and total solids are not reported.

NOx Control – Advanced burner technologies involving low-NOx burners and overfire air are
used to control NOx. However, no efficiency of NOx removal is reported.

3.4.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system was originally designed by Universal Oil Products and is now manufactured by
Wheelabrator Fry.

3.4.4 Operating History

The Pirkey unit began operation in 1985. The flakeglass linings on the absorber components
were replaced in 1997.

3.4.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber inlet duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel, the bypass duct is Type 317L
stainless steel, and the outlet duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with
1/16-in. (1.6-mm) Alloy C-276 sheet. Reportedly, there are pinholes in the outlet duct walls that
are attributed to corrosion of the carbon steel. No corrosion problems have been encountered in
the inlet or bypass ducts. The service temperature of the inlet and bypass ducts is 300°F (149°C),
and the outlet duct temperature is 140°F (60°C). The service life of the ducts is 6 to 10 years.

The absorber inlet is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy
C-276, but the walls, floor, and outlet are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with flakeglass
linings. The trapout trays are 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Type 317L stainless steel. The flakeglass
linings on the absorber walls, floor, and outlet were replaced after 12 years, but there have been
no problems with the Alloy C-276 lined inlet area. The service life of the organic coatings is
estimated at 6 to 10 years. A schematic of the absorber system is shown in Figure 3-5.

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-5
American Electric Power Absorber System Used at H. W. Pirkey Power Plant

The reaction/recycle tank walls and floor are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with flakeglass
linings. The impellers were originally carbon steel covered with rubber. When the rubber lining
failed, a Type 316 stainless steel lining was used, and no further problems have been
encountered.

The slurry piping of 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 316 stainless steel and Schedule 40 Type 317
stainless steel spray piping and nozzles have performed well. Service lives of 6 to 10 years at the
140°F (60°C) temperatures are common.

The gate-type slurry valves are Type 316 stainless steel that have somewhat shortened service
lives of three to six years. The slurry pumps are carbon steel with urethane linings, and the
impellers are Type 316L stainless steel. The urethane linings failed within three years, but the
impellers have lasted up to 10 years.

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Individual Utility Responses

The carbon steel fans present no problems. The expansion joints are made of an unidentified
elastomer. The inlet dampers are Type 317L stainless steel. The outlet dampers are Alloy 825
and are performing well.

The carbon steel chimney breaching and the concrete chimney are lined with acid-resistant brick.

3.5 Arizona Electric Power Cooperative Apache Station Units 2 and 3

3.5.1 General Description

The AEP Cooperative Apache Station is a facility with two 175-MW units located in Cochise,
Arizona. The FGD system is composed of a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and two dual-loop
wet limestone absorbers. Only one absorber is required if the plant is burning compliance quality
coal. The second absorber is a spare available for use depending on coal quality. With this
system, the flue gases are passed through a hot-side precipitator where 99.56% of the particulates
are removed and then scrubbed with a limestone slurry and ducted into a 400-ft. (122-m)
concrete chimney with an organic-coated metallic liner. The efficiency of SO2 removal is 85%.
Gypsum is not recovered.

3.5.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is subbituminous coal with a sulfur content of 0.35% to 1.0%, an ash
content of 5.5% to 17%, and a heating value of 8,700 to 10,500 BTUs per pound (4,833.7 to
5,833.8 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides are 0.01%.

Scrubber Medium - The scrubber medium contains 95% to 97% calcium carbonate; the balance
is insolubles. The recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of 4.5 to 5.0 in the lower loop
and a pH value of 5.6 to 6.0 in the upper loop. The upper loop contains 2340 ppm of calcium,
404 ppm of magnesium, 265 ppm of sulfates, and total solids of 20,400 ppm. Chlorides are low
at 76 ppm.

NOx Control – The burners are of a proprietary design and make use of overfire air. No other
NOx controls are in place, and NOx removal efficiency is not reported.

3.5.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system was manufactured by Research Cottrell.

3.5.4 Operating History

Apache Station Units 2 and 3 began operation in 1978 and 1979, respectively. A major retrofit
program on the two units was begun in 2003 and completed in 2004.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.5.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber inlet ducts are unlined 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick carbon steel, but the 3/16-in. (4.8-
mm) thick carbon steel outlet ducts are lined with 3/100 to 1/25 in. (0.76 to 1.0 mm) of a
catalyzed flake-filled vinyl ester or 3/200 to 1/50 in. (0.38 to 9.51 mm) of a catalyzed, heat-
resistant epoxy. The coating life is generally three to six years, but patching is often required
after about two years. The scrubber bypass/mixing zone area was originally coated carbon steel,
but the entire area was rebuilt with 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Alloy C-276 approximately three
years ago because of major corrosion problems. No further problems have been encountered
since that time, and service life is expected to be about 20 years.

The absorber itself has an uncoated 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick carbon steel inlet that is at a
temperature of 300°F (149°C). However, the absorber walls and floor that are in the wet/dry
zone at a temperature of 125°F (52°C) are coated carbon steel. Metal thickness varies from 3/16
to 3/8 inch (4.8 to 9.5 mm), and coating thickness varies from 1/50 to 13/50 in. (0.51 to 6.6 mm),
depending on the type of coating being used. Three different types of coating have been tried, but
coating life remains at three to six years with patching required approximately every two years.
Type 316L stainless steel trays were installed about two to three years ago. Demisters are
polysulfone. A generic absorber system similar to the one used at Apache Units 2 and 3 is shown
in Figure 3-6.

Figure 3-6
Arizona Electric Power Cooperative Apache Station Units 2 and 3 – A Generic Absorber
Open-Spray System

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Individual Utility Responses

The reaction/recycle tanks are carbon steel with a troweled-on type of coating that varies from
11/200 to 13/50 in. (1.4 to 6.6 mm) in thickness depending on conditions. The agitators are 1/2-
in. (17.7-mm) thick duplex Alloy 255 stainless steel with a service life of three to six years.

Slurry piping is rubber-lined carbon steel, and spray piping is either Type 304L or Type 316L
stainless steel. Nozzles are polyvinyl fluoride. Slurry valves are carbon steel lined with
rubber/elastomer or Type 316L stainless steel. Shutoff problems have been encountered. Slurry
pumps have carbon steel casings lined with rubber/elastomer and either carbon steel covered
with rubber/elastomer or 28% chromium-iron impellers.

Fan housings and rotor blades are carbon steel with service temperatures of about 300°F
(149°C). Expansion joints are of an unidentified elastomeric material. Inlet dampers are ASTM
A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel. Outlet dampers are Alloy 625 clad carbon steel.

The chimney breaching is carbon steel with one of two types of organic coatings. The chimney
itself is concrete with an ASTM A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel liner coated with a
flakeglass-filled vinyl ester.

3.6 Cinergy Gibson Generating Station Unit 4

3.6.1 General Description

Gibson Generating Station Unit 4 is a 650-MW facility located at Owensville, Indiana. The FGD
system is composed of two electrostatic precipitators for particulate control and two Babcock
and Wilcox limestone tray towers for SO2 removal. After the flue gases pass through the
electrostatic precipitators, they are scrubbed with limestone slurry and ducted into a 500-ft.
(152-m) concrete chimney lined with acid-resistant brick. Particulate removal is 99%, SO2
removal is 90% to 92%, and NOx removal efficiency is 90% to 92%. Gypsum is not recovered.

3.6.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 2.93%, an ash content of 8.44%,
and a heating value of 11,402 BTUs per pound (6,335 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 92% calcium carbonate, 4% magnesium


carbonate, and 4% inerts. The recycled scrubber medium has a pH value of 5.2 to 5.5, a
magnesium content of 2000 to 4000 ppm, a sulfate content of 2000 to 10,000 ppm, and a
chloride content of 2000 to 6000 ppm. Total solids are 14% to 25%.

NOx Control – SCR and low-NOx burners are used to achieve a NOx removal efficiency of 85%.

3.6.3 Equipment Manufacturer

Babcock and Wilcox designed the FGD system. The precipitators were manufactured by
Envirotech-Buell.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.6.4 Operating History

The unit began operation in 1982. It has had numerous material changes since then (with the
most recent in 2004). The absorber system used at Gibson Generating Station Unit 4 is shown in
Figure 3-7.

Figure 3-7
Cinergy Gibson Generation Station Unit 4 Absorber System

3.6.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet and bypass ducts are 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick carbon steel. The outlet duct is 3/8-in. (9.5-
mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick cladding of Alloy C-276. Corrosion
problems persist in the inlet duct at the wet/dry interface, but the outlet duct shows no problems.
The bypass duct has been abandoned.

The absorber inlets and walls are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick duplex Alloy 255 stainless steel. The
outlet ducts are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel. The demisters are
polypropylene. There appears to be a spray impingement problem with the Alloy 255 stainless
steel walls. The Alloy C-276 perforated tray (1/16 in./1.6 mm) in the absorber is showing what
appear to be stress cracks.

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Individual Utility Responses

The reaction/recycle tanks are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick Alloy 255 stainless steel, No problems are
being encountered except for wear on the leading edge of the agitators. Carbide chips have been
silver-soldered onto the blades to extend the blade life.

The slurry piping is carbon steel lined with 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick rubber. Spray piping and
nozzles are FRP. Erosion and leakage problems have been encountered with the FRP arms.
Leaks have been encountered with the rubber-lined pipe.

The slurry valves are cast steel lined with rubber. The slurry pumps have rubber-lined cast steel
casings and impellers of a material identified only as HC-34. Service life is yet to be determined.

The fans have ASTM A514 Grade F alloy steel housings and blades. The expansion joints are
not identified but are probably elastomers. The dampers are Alloy 255 stainless steel with Alloy
C-276 seals. The seals have been converted from bellows to leaf type for longer life.

The chimney breaching is 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick A106 carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with
1/16-in. (1.6-mm) Alloy C-276. The chimney is concrete with an acid-resistant brick liner.

3.7 Cinergy Gibson Generating Station Unit 5

3.7.1 General Description

Gibson Generating Station Unit 5 is a 650-MW facility located in Owensville, Indiana. The FGD
system is composed of two electrostatic precipitators for particulate control and four horizontal,
wet limestone absorbers for SO2 control. After passing through the precipitators, the flue gases
are scrubbed with limestone slurry and ducted into a 500-ft. (152-m) concrete chimney lined
with acid-resistant brick. The efficiency of particulate control is 99%, and the efficiency of SO2
removal is 80% to 83%. The NOx removal efficiency is 85%. Gypsum is not recovered.

3.7.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 2.93%, an ash content of 8.35%,
and a heating value of 11,386 BTUs per pound (6,326.1 kg-cal/kg). The chloride content is less
than 0.02%.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 92% calcium carbonate, 4% magnesium, and 4%
inerts. The recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of 5.2 to 5.5, a sulfate content of 8000
to 20,000 ppm, a magnesium content of 3000 to 7000 ppm, a calcium content of 200 to 600 ppm,
and a chloride content of 2000 to 10,000 ppm. Total solids vary from 14% to 25%.

NOx control – Low-NOx burners and SCR are used to achieve a NOx removal efficiency of 85%.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.7.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The horizontal absorbers were designed by M. W. Kellogg. The precipitators were manufactured
by Envirotech-Buell.

3.7.4 Operating History

The unit was installed in 1979. It has had numerous material changes since then (most recently in
2004). The absorber system used at Gibson Generating Station Unit 5 is shown in Figure 3-8.

Figure 3-8
Cinergy Gibson Generation Station Unit 5 Absorber System

3.7.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet and outlet ducts are 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick ASTM A106 carbon steel, but because of
the corrosiveness of the mixture of scrubbed gas and unscrubbed gas from the bypass duct, the
outlet duct is lined (wallpapered) with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276 sheets. The bypass
duct, which was installed in 2004 to replace carbon steel, is duplex Alloy 255 stainless steel. The
inlet and bypass duct temperature is 350°F (177°C), and the absorber outlet temperature is 130°F
(54°C).

The absorber inlets, walls, and floors are 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick ASTM A106 carbon steel lined
with 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) duplex Alloy 255 stainless steel. The absorber outlets and the outlet ducts
are 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy
C-276. Welding difficulties, wear, and cracking problems have been encountered with the
wet/dry interface at the inlet. Additionally, plug welds tend to break loose from duct walls and
cause leakage.

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Individual Utility Responses

The reaction/recycle tank walls and floors are 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick ASTM A106 carbon steel
with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick flakeglass linings. The agitators are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick carbon
steel with a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) rubber covering.

The slurry and spray piping are also of A106 carbon steel with a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) inch rubber
lining. The spray nozzles are ceramic. The mist eliminator spray piping was FRP but was
replaced with Type 317L stainless steel in 2004. Slurry valves are epoxy-coated ductile iron with
a 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick urethane lining. Slurry pump casings are ductile iron with a minimum
rubber lining thickness of 1-1/4 in. (31.8-mm). The impellers are 34% chromium-iron alloy. The
service life is three to six years for the impellers and 6 to 10 years for the other components.

The fan housings have alloy-steel wear plates and ASTM A517 alloy-steel rotor blades.
Reportedly, the wear plates become loose, allowing buildup of material between the plates and
the housing. The dampers have 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick duplex Alloy 255 stainless steel framing
and Alloy C-276 seals. The frames and seals were replaced in 2004, and service lives are yet to
be determined.

The chimney breaching is 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick ASTM A106 carbon steel with a 1/16-in.
(1.6-mm) thick lining of Alloy C-276 (wallpapered). However, the problem of plug welds
coming loose has not been resolved. The chimney itself has a concrete shell with an acid-
resistant brick lining.

3.8 Dominion Generation Clover Station Units 1 and 2

3.8.1 General Description

The Dominion Generation Clover Station is a facility located in Clover, Virginia, with two 424-
MW units. The FGD system is composed of a baghouse fabric filter and three limestone, forced-
oxidation open-spray tower absorbers per unit. The flue gases are passed through the baghouse
fabric filter where more than 99% of the particulates are removed. After the particulates are
removed, the gases enter the absorber towers where they are scrubbed with wet limestone for the
removal of SO2. After scrubbing, the gases are ducted into a 450-ft (137-m) concrete chimney
with an Alloy C-276 roll-bonded clad carbon steel plate liner. The SO2 removal efficiency is
greater than 94%, and gypsum is produced as a by-product.

3.8.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is Eastern bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 0.7 to 1.7%, an ash
content of 8 to 13%, and a heating value of over 12,000 BTUs per pound (6,667.2 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 94% calcium carbonate with less than 2%
magnesium carbonate. The recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of approximately 5.4, a
chloride content of 10,000 to 40,000 ppm, and total solids of 13% by weight. Calcium,
magnesium, sulfates, and dissolved solids are not determined.

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Individual Utility Responses

NOx Control – The Clover Station Units 1 and 2 have low-NOx burners and SNCR systems. NOx
removal efficiency is reported as 25%.

3.8.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system designer is ABB (which is now Alstom).

3.8.4 Operating History

The FGD systems for Clover Units 1 and 2 began operation in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The
titanium lining in the stack was replaced with Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel in the mid-1990s.

3.8.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet duct to the absorber upstream of the inlet damper is unlined carbon steel. The section of
inlet duct downstream of the inlet damper up to the absorber breeching is Alloy C-276. The
absorber vessel, including the reaction tank, is Type 3l7LMN stainless steel. The wet/dry zones
(that is, above the reaction tank) have experienced serious corrosion problems, especially near
the inlet to the absorber, and have been lined with Alloy C-276.

The absorber outlet ducts are Type 317LMN stainless steel. Similar to the absorber vessel,
serious corrosion problems have been encountered. The absorber system used at Clover Station
Units 1 and 2 is shown in Figure 3-9.

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-9
Dominion Generation Clover Units 1 and 2 – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray System

The agitators are rubber-covered carbon steel or an unidentified cast alloy. The rubber coverings
require frequent repairs and are being phased out.

The slurry piping is rubber-lined carbon steel; however, the rubber is blistering after
approximately nine years of service. The spray piping is Type 317LMN stainless steel with
ceramic nozzles. The Type 317LMN stainless steel is exhibiting significant corrosion here as
well as elsewhere.

The slurry valves are Type 317 stainless steel. Slurry pumps have rubber-lined carbon steel
casings and cast 28% chromium-alloy impellers. Service performance was not reported for the
slurry valves or pumps.

The induced draft fan housings and rotor blades are carbon steel. The expansion joints are an
unreported elastomer. The inlet dampers are carbon steel, and the outlet dampers are Type
317LMN stainless steel. The bypass dampers are carbon steel.

The chimney breaching is Alloy C-276, and the chimney itself is concrete with a 1/8-in. (3.2-
mm) thick Alloy C-276 roll-bonded clad carbon steel liner. This clad plate replaced a brazed,
intermittent-bonded clad plate liner after approximately one year of service.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.9 Dominion Generation Mount Storm Units 1 and 2

3.9.1 General Description

The Dominion Generation Mount Storm Station is a facility located in Mount Storm, West
Virginia, with three 550-MW units. Units 1 and 2 have been completely redesigned. Unit 3
utilizes its original design and is treated separately. The FGD system for Units 1 and 2 is
composed of an electrostatic precipitator and a forced-oxidation open-spray tower absorber for
each. The flue gases are passed through the electrostatic precipitators for the removal of more
than 99% of the particulates and are then scrubbed in the tower absorbers with a wet limestone
slurry for the removal of SO2. After being scrubbed, the flue gases are ducted into a 590-ft.
(180-m) acid-resistant brick chimney with Alloy C-276 flues. The efficiency of SO2 removal is
greater than 95%. Gypsum is produced as a by-product.

3.9.2 Chemistry

Fuel - The fuel used is Eastern bituminous coal with 1.0% to 2.5% sulfur, an ash content of 13%
to 16%, and a heating value greater than 12,000 BTUs per pound (6,667.2 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides
vary from 0.05% to 0.25%. Fluorides are not determined.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium contains greater than 95% calcium carbonate.
Dibasic acids are added for increased removal of SO2 and are maintained at a concentration of
300 to 600 ppm. The recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of 5.0 to 5.8, chlorides from
15,000 to 50,000 ppm, and total solids of 15% to 17 wt%. Calcium, magnesium, and sulfate
levels are not reported.

NOx Control – Mount Storm Units 1 and 2 have low-NOx burners and SCR systems for NOx
control. The efficiency of NOx removal is 90%.

3.9.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD designer was Marsulex.

3.9.4 Operating History

The FGD systems for Mt. Storm Units 1 and 2 began operation in 1965 and 1966, respectively.
The tower absorbers were converted from metals to concrete with tile linings when they were
redesigned in 2002. The absorber system used at Mount Storm Units 1 and 2 is shown in Figure
3-10.

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-10
Dominion Generation Mount Storm Units 1 and 2 – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray
System

3.9.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet ducts to the absorbers are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel, but the bypass and outlet
ducts are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) Alloy
C-276. The absorbers themselves have Alloy C-276 inlets, but the wet/dry zone, the walls, and
the floors are concrete lined with Stebbins tile. The demisters are FRP. The inlet temperature is
near 300°F (149°C), and the outlet temperature is 120°F (49°C).

The reaction/recycle tanks are integral to the absorbers. The agitators are a cast high-chromium
stainless steel.

The slurry piping and spray piping are FRP, and the nozzles are ceramic. The slurry valves have
Alloy C-276 bodies and gates. The slurry pumps are cast iron with either an alloy or a rubber
lining. The impellers are cast alloy.

The booster fans, which are at approximately 300°F (149°C), are carbon steel. The expansion
joints are made of an elastomer such as ethyl-propyl diamine, Texflex, or Viton. The inlet
dampers are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick carbon steel gate type. The outlet and bypass dampers are
1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick carbon steel gate-type with Alloy C-276 frames and seal boxes.

The chimney breaching is Alloy C-276, and the chimney is acid-resistant brick with Alloy C-276
flues.

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3.10 Dominion Generation Mount Storm Unit 3

3.10.1 General Description

The Dominion Generation Mount Storm Station Unit 3 is a 550-MW facility located in Mount
Storm, West Virginia. The FGD system is composed of an electrostatic precipitator for
particulate removal and two forced-oxidation wet limestone tower absorbers that are each
capable of handling 50% of the gases. The flue gases are passed through the electrostatic
precipitator for the removal of greater than 99% of the particulates. They are then scrubbed with
a wet limestone slurry in the absorber towers and ducted into a 590-ft. (180-m) ceramic-lined
acid-resistant brick chimney. The efficiency of SO2 removal is greater than 95%. Gypsum is
produced as a by-product.

3.10.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is Eastern bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 1.0% to 2.5%, an ash
content of 13% to 16%, and a heating value greater than 12,000 BTUs per pound (6,667.2 kg-
cal/kg). Chlorides are 0.05% to 0.25%. Fluorides are not determined.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 95% calcium carbonate. Dibasic acids are added
for increased SO2 removal, and an acid concentration of 300 to 600 ppm is maintained. The
recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of 5.0 to 5.8, a chloride level of 15,000 to 50,000
ppm, and total solids of 15% to 17 wt%. Calcium, magnesium, and sulfate levels are not
reported.

NOx Control – Mount Storm Unit 3 has low-NOx burners and an SCR system for NOx control.
The efficiency of NOx removal is 90%.

3.10.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system designer is General Electric Environmental Services.

3.10.4 Operating History

The FGD system for Mount Storm Unit 3 began operation in 1994. Major material changes were
made in 1995. The type of absorber system used at Mount Storm Unit 3 is shown in Figure 3-11.

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-11
Dominion Generation Mount Storm Unit 3 – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray System

3.10.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet duct to the absorber is unlined 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel. Both the outlet duct
and the bypass duct are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with 1/16-in.
(1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276. The inlet temperature is 300°F (149°C), and the outlet temperature
is 120°F (49°C).

The absorber itself has a solid Alloy C-276 inlet, and the wet/dry zone is 7/16- to 3/8-in. (11.1-
to 9.5-mm) thick carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick Alloy C-276 sheet.
The floor is also carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick Alloy C-276.
Interestingly, the comment was made that there were leakage issues with the vessel lining, which
made leak detection and repairs difficult.

The demisters are now fiberglass with 11/100-in. (2.8-mm) thick blades. The original design
involved thermoplastic materials that fell occasionally, were prone to sagging, and were difficult
to wash.

The reaction/recycle tank, which is of the same material as the absorber, is integral to the
absorber. The agitators are a cast high-chromium stainless steel.

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The slurry piping is rubber-lined carbon steel, and the spray piping is FRP with ceramic nozzles.
Problems involving liner failures have been encountered at the recycle pump discharge probably
because of turbulence. The pigtail nozzle design is also prone to plugging. The slurry valves,
which have Alloy C-276 gates and bodies, are performing satisfactorily.

The slurry pumps have cast iron casings that are either rubber- or alloy-lined. The impellers were
originally rubber-covered carbon steel that did not perform well and were replaced with either
rubber-covered carbon steel or a cast alloy material. All recycle pump impellers have been
replaced with a cast alloy material.

The booster fans are carbon steel at temperatures of approximately 300°F (149°C). The
expansion joints are ethyl-propyl diamine, Teflex, or Riton.

The inlet dampers are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick carbon steel gate type, and the outlet dampers are
1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick Type 317 stainless steel gate type. The bypass damper is 1/2-in. (12.7-
mm) thick Alloy C-276 gate type.

The chimney breaching is Alloy C-276, and the chimney is acid-resistant brick with a ceramic
liner.

3.11 Edison Mission Energy Homer City Generating Station Unit 3

3.11.1 General Description

The EME Homer City Station is an 1884-MW coal-fired generating facility located in Indiana
County, approximately 45 miles northeast of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The station consists of
three generating units, one coal preparation facility, the Two Lick Dam, and associated support
facilities. Unit 3 is rated at 650 MW with an FGD system that was placed in service in 2001.
Immediately upstream of the FGD are two induced draft fans and an electrostatic precipitator.
The FGD system uses forced-oxidation with a single 100%-capacity limestone absorber tower.
The flue gases are scrubbed with a limestone slurry for removal of SO2 and ducted into an 853-ft.
(260-m) concrete chimney with an Alloy C-276 roll-bonded clad carbon steel plate liner. The
efficiency of particulate removal is almost 100%, and the minimum design SO2 removal is 98%.
All three units at the station have installed SCR systems. The removal efficiency has varied
between 70% and 90%. Gypsum is produced as a by-product.

3.11.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is bituminous coal with a sulfur content that varies from 1.4% to 4.5%. The
ash content varies from 19% to 27%, and the heating value varies from 10,400 to 13,700 BTUs
per pound (5,778.2 kg-cal/kg to 7,611.7 kg-cal/kg) as received. Chlorides and fluorides are
present in small amounts, varying from 0.09% to 0.22% and 50 to 175 ppm, respectively.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 96% to 98% calcium carbonate with 1% to 2%
quartz and the remainder inerts. The recycled scrubber medium has a pH value of 5.3 to 6.0, a
calcium content of 2000 to 20,000 ppm, a magnesium content of 2000 to 6000 ppm, and a sulfate
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Individual Utility Responses

content of 93.5% to 95.5%. Dissolved solids are 36,000 to 41,000 ppm, and total solids are
140,000 to 180,000 ppm. Chloride levels are 15,000 to 20,000 ppm, but fluorides are only 35 to
45 ppm. Dibasic acids (450 to 500 ppm) are being used to increase SO2 removal efficiency.

NOx Control – Babcock and Wilcox early generation low-NOx burners, Riley overfire air, and an
Alstom SCR system are used to obtain a NOx removal efficiency of 70% to 90%.

3.11.3 Equipment Manufacturer

Alstom was the FGD designer, and ZBD was the chimney designer. Shop and field fabrications
were handled by PSP Industries and Chicago Bridge and Iron (CB&I).

3.11.4 Operating History

The Unit No. 3 FGD system began operation in 2001. The type of absorber system used at
Homer City Generating Station Unit 3 is shown in Figure 3-12.

Figure 3-12
Edison Mission Energy Homer City Generating Station Unit 3 – A Generic Absorber Open-
Spray System

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Individual Utility Responses

3.11.5 Materials Specifications

The 10-ft. (3-m) section of inlet duct immediately upstream of the absorber is constructed of
3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Alloy C-276. The remainder of the inlet duct is unlined A-36 carbon
steel. The absorber does not have a bypass duct. The absorber outlet duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm)
thick roll-bonded Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel plate.

The absorber itself has walls of carbon steel clad with varying thicknesses (1/4 to 9/16 in./6.4 to
14.3 mm) of Alloy C-276. The floor of the absorber vessel is constructed of 3/16-in. (4.8-mm)
thick Alloy C-276 plate. Mist eliminators are FRP, and the mist eliminator supports are carbon
steel covered with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276 sheets. Temperatures range from 300°F
(149°C) at the inlet to 120°F (49°C) at the outlet.

The reaction/recycle tank is constructed of Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel plate. The agitator
impellers are of a proprietary NiCrMo alloy. However, the impeller blade tips have seen some
repair.

The slurry and spray piping are FRP, and the nozzles are carborundum. The slurry slide gate and
butterfly valves are Alloy C-276. The slurry pumps, which were manufactured by Warman, are
rubber-covered steel casing. The impellers are made of a proprietary NiCrMo alloy.

The fans have carbon steel housings and carbon steel rotor blades. The expansion joints are made
of an unidentified elastomer. There are no dampers at the inlet and outlet of the absorber vessel
because the system does not have a bypass.

The chimney breaching and the liner for the concrete chimney are constructed of 1/4-in. (6.4-
mm) thick Alloy C-276 roll-bonded clad carbon steel plate. The chimney inlet temperature is
about 120°F (49°C).

3.12 First Energy Generation Corporation Bruce Mansfield Units 1 and 2

3.12.1 General Description

The First Energy Bruce Mansfield Station is a 2580-MW facility located in Beaver County,
Pennsylvania. Each of its three coal-fired 860-MWgross units has an FGD system. The FGD
systems for Units 1 and 2 that are discussed here have six natural-oxidation fixed-throat venturi
scrubbers. The flue gases for Units 1 and 2 enter the venturi sections of the scrubbers for the
removal of particulates and some SO2, then pass through the absorber where they are scrubbed
with a thiosorbic lime slurry for the further removal of SO2. The scrubbed gases are ducted into a
950-ft. (290-m) concrete chimney with four organic-coated carbon steel flues (two for each unit).
The overall efficiency of particulate removal is 99.6%, and the overall SO2 removal is 92.1%.
Gypsum is recovered as a by-product in an ex situ process.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.12.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is Eastern bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 2.5% to 4.0%, an ash
content of 7% to 13%, and a heating value of 11,450 to 13,000 BTUs per pound(6,361.6 kg-
cal/kg to 7,222.8 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is thiosorbic lime with an available calcium oxide
level greater than 84% and a magnesium oxide level of 6.0% to 9.0% available as calcium oxide.
In addition, emulsified sulfur (70%) is added to aid in SO2 removal. The recirculated scrubber
medium has a pH value of 6.2 to 7.0, a sulfate level of 10,000 to 15,000 ppm, a magnesium level
of 2000 to 5000 ppm, a calcium level of less than 200 ppm, and a chloride level of 1000 to 1500
ppm. Dissolved solids are 20,000 to 25,000 ppm, and total solids are 5% to 10%. Oxidation of
the calcium sulfite to calcium sulfate (gypsum) occurs in a separate vessel.

NOx Control – Bruce Mansfield Units 1 and 2 have Babcock and Wilcox DRB-XCL low-NOx
burners. An SCR system was added recently for increased NOx removal. The design efficiency of
NOx removal is 90%. The actual long-term NOx removal is approximately 83%.

3.12.3 Equipment Manufacturer

Bruce Mansfield Units 1 and 2 were designed by Chemical Construction Company (Chemico).

3.12.4 Operating History

Units 1 and 2 began operation in 1976 and 1977, respectively. SCR systems were added in 2003.
A flow diagram depicting the FGD layout is shown in Figure 3-13. (Refer only to the upper part
of the diagram showing Units 1 and 2.)

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-13
First Energy Generation Corporation Bruce Mansfield Units 1 and 2 Flow Diagram for
FGD System (Upper Part of Diagram Only)

3.12.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet ducts to the absorbers are unlined 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick carbon steel at a temperature
of 320°F (160°C). They have been replaced one time since they were first installed. The absorber
outlet ducts are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel protected with 3/50 in. (1.5 mm) of a
catalyzed, flakeglass-filled vinyl ester lining. There is no bypass duct.

The absorber inlets and walls are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel protected with the
catalyzed, flakeglass-filled vinyl ester lining on the outlet duct. The demisters are two-pass
polypropylene with an overall height of 7 in. (17.8 cm).

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The reaction/recycle tanks, which are integral to the absorbers, have 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick
carbon steel walls and floors lined with 3/50 to 2/25 in. (1.5 to 2.0 mm) of a catalyzed,
flakeglass-filled vinyl ester. There are no agitators.

The slurry piping is carbon steel with a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick rubber lining. The spray piping is
Type 316 stainless steel, and the nozzles are FRP with 4/25 in. (4.1 mm) of a proprietary
abrasion-resistant lining.

The knifegate-type slurry valves have a rubber seat. Other valves are double pinch-type with a
urethane/rubber lining. The slurry pumps are cast carbon steel with urethane-lined casings and
high-chrome impellers.

The fan housings and rotor blades are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Alloy 625. The inlet dampers are
louver-type with a Type 316 stainless steel composition.

The chimney breaching is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 3/50-in. (1.5-mm)
catalyzed, flakeglass-filled vinyl ester lining. The chimney is concrete with a 3/16-in. (4.8-mm)
thick carbon steel liner protected with 3/50 in. (1.5 mm) of catalyzed, flakeglass-filled vinyl
ester.

3.13 First Energy Generation Corporation Bruce Mansfield Unit 3

3.13.1 General Description

The First Energy Bruce Mansfield Station is a 2580-MW facility located in Beaver County,
Pennsylvania. It has three coal-fired 860-MW gross units that each have an FGD system. Unit 3,
which is discussed here, has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate removal and five natural-
oxidation open-spray absorbers for SO2 removal. The flue gases enter the electrostatic
precipitator that removes most of the particulates. The gases are then scrubbed with a thiosorbic
lime slurry for the removal of SO2. After scrubbing, the flue gases are ducted into a 650-ft.
(198-m) concrete chimney with an Alloy 625 flue. The efficiency of particulate removal is 95%,
and the overall efficiency of SO2 removal is 92%. Gypsum is recovered as a by-product in an ex
situ process.

3.13.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is an Eastern bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 2.5% to 4.0%, an ash
content of 7% to 13%, and a heating value of 11,450 to 13,000 BTUs per pound (6,361.6 to
7,222.8 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides are quite low, ranging between 0.05% and 0.1%.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is thiosorbic lime with an available calcium oxide
content of 84.0% and an available magnesium oxide content of 6.0% to 9.0% as calcium oxide.
In addition, emulsified sulfur (70%) is added to control oxidation.

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Individual Utility Responses

NOx Control – Bruce Mansfield Unit 3 has Babcock and Wilcox DRB-XCL low-NOx burners
with separated overfire air. An SCR system was added recently to aid in NOx removal. The
design efficiency of NOx removal is 90%; the actual long-term NOx removal is approximately
83%.

3.13.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system was designed by Pullman-Kellogg.

3.13.4 Operating History

The FGD system for Unit 3 began operation in 1980. An SCR system was installed in 2004. A
flow diagram depicting the FGD layout is shown in Figure 3-14 (refer only to the lower half of
the diagram showing Unit 3).

Figure 3-14
First Energy Generation Corporation Bruce Mansfield Unit 3 Flow Diagram for FGD System
(Lower Part of Diagram Only)

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Individual Utility Responses

3.13.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber inlet duct is of unlined 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel exposed to a
temperature of 325°F (163°C). Reportedly, some insulation is missing, and condensation may be
causing a corrosion problem. The absorber outlet duct is of 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel
lined with 13/200 in. (1.7 mm) of a catalyzed, flakeglass-filled vinyl ester. Reportedly, the
original coating is 25-years old and is now beginning to fail. There is no bypass duct.

The absorber inlets, walls, and outlets are all 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick carbon steel lined with
13/200 in. (1.7 mm) of flakeglass-filled vinyl ester. Some areas are now beginning to fail after 25
years of service.

The absorber floor is carbon steel except for the second floor trough inlet, which is Alloy 625.
The carbon steel is lined with flakeglass-filled vinyl ester that has given good service except for
some spray erosion on the floor from plugged nozzles.

The reaction/recycle tank walls and floors are 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick carbon steel lined with
13/200 in. (1.7 mm) of flakeglass-filled vinyl ester. The agitators are rubber-covered carbon
steel.

The slurry piping is rubber-lined carbon steel with Drisco pipe headers. The spray piping is
rubber-lined carbon steel with ceramic Bete fog nozzles and Stellite nozzles. The slurry valves
are stainless steel, and the slurry pumps have rubber-lined carbon steel casings and impellers.

The fan housings and rotor blades are unlined carbon steel. Although not mentioned in the
survey, the expansion joints are probably of an elastomeric material such as Viton. The inlet
dampers are unlined carbon steel that did not require replacement until after approximately 23
years. The isolation dampers have stainless steel blades (not identified). The service life is not
mentioned.

The chimney breaching is Alloy 625, and the chimney itself is concrete with an Alloy 625 flue.

3.14 Great River Energy Coal Creek Station Units 1 and 2

3.14.1 General Description

The Coal Creek Station is a facility with two 550-MW units located in Underwood, North
Dakota. The FGD system is composed of two electrostatic precipitators and four open-spray
towers per unit. The flue gases pass through the electrostatic precipitators for particulate control
and are scrubbed with wet lime slurry for SO2 removal prior to being ducted to a 650-ft. (198-m)
concrete chimney with an acid-resistant brick liner. The particulate removal efficiency is 99.5%,
and the SO2 removal efficiency is 90%. The NOx removal efficiency is not reported.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.14.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is lignite with a sulfur content of 0.60%, an ash content of 10.76%, and a
heating value of 6,298 BTUs per pound (3,499.2 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubbing medium is pebble lime containing 95.4% calcium oxide,
2% silicon dioxide, 0.3% iron oxide, 0.6% aluminum oxide, 0.8% magnesium oxide, and 0.1%
sulfur. The recirculating scrubber medium has a pH value of 6.5, a sulfate content of 33,000
ppm, a magnesium content of 6700 ppm, and total solids of 15%. Calcium and chloride contents
are 500 ppm and 1500 ppm, respectively.

NOx Control – NOx reduction procedures are limited to the use of close coupled burners and a
separate overfire air system. The effects of their use are not reported.

3.14.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system was designed by Combustion Engineering (now Alstom Power), and the
precipitators were designed by Wheelabrator Air Pollution Control.

3.14.4 Operating History

Coal Creek Unit 1 was built in 1979 and Unit 2 was built in 1980. The FRP piping currently is
being replaced. The type of absorber system used at Coal Creek Station Units 1 and 2 is shown
in Figure 3-15.

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-15
Great River Energy Coal Creek Station Units 1 and 2 – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray
System

3.13.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber inlet ductwork is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel and the outlet ductwork is of
7-gage (.18-in./4.5-mm) Type 316L stainless steel. The bypass duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick
carbon steel, but there is a reheat section that is constructed of 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick ASTM
A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel sheet lined with either 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy
C-276 or titanium grade 7, depending on the unit. The inlet, bypass, and reheat temperatures are
350°F (177°C), and the outlet temperature before reheat is 140°F (60°C).

The absorber inlets are carbon steel, but the walls and floors in the wet/dry zone are Type 316L
stainless steel that has been lined with a 6% Mo stainless steel because of corrosion problems.
The demisters, which are polysulfone, experience occasional plugging.

The reaction/recycle tank walls are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with an unidentified
coating. The coating was applied to resist corrosion. The floors are 2-ft. (0.6-m) thick concrete,
and the agitators are rubber-covered carbon steel. The slurry piping was originally FRP but is
being replaced with Type 316L stainless steel. The spray piping is Type 316L stainless steel, and
the nozzles are silicon carbide.

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Individual Utility Responses

The fans are induced-draft and have 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel housings and 1/16-in.
(1.6-mm) thick ASTM A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy rotor blades. The expansion joints
are elastomeric and ASTM A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel. The inlet dampers are
1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick ASTM A242 Type 1 low-alloy steel. The outlet dampers were originally
Type 316L stainless steel. They are being replaced with a 6% Mo stainless steel damper because
of pitting corrosion.

The breaching is constructed of 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick ASTM A242 Type 1 high-strength low-
alloy steel that has been gunite-lined. The chimney itself is concrete with an acid-resistant brick
lining.

3.15 Hong Kong Electric Company Limited Lamma Power Station,


Hong Kong, Unit 6

3.15.1 General Description

The Lamma Power Station is located on Lamma Island, Hong Kong. Unit 6 is a 350-MW coal-
fired unit that came on-line in March 1992. The FGD system is a wet limestone gypsum system
with a horizontal dry-type electrostatic precipitator. The absorber is a vertical cocurrent grid-
packed tower designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The flue gases are scrubbed with
limestone slurry and ducted into a 690-ft. (210-m) concrete chimney. The efficiency of
particulate removal is greater than 99%, and sulfur removal is greater than 90%. No information
was provided on NOx control other than that it is controlled at the burners. Gypsum is produced
as a by-product.

3.15.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The coal has a high ash content of up to 19% and a minimum heating value of 10,260
BTUs per pound (5,700.5 kg-cal/kg). The chloride content is 0.1% maximum, and sulfur is 1.0%
maximum.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium contains 95% to 97% calcium carbonate, and the
balance is insolubles. The recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of 4.5 to 5.0 in the lower
loop and a pH value of 5.6 to 6.0 in the upper loop. The upper loop contains 2340 ppm of
calcium, 404 ppm of magnesium, 265 ppm of sulfates, and total solids of 20,400 ppm. Chlorides
are low at 76 ppm.

NOx Control – NOx control is reported only at the burners.

3.15.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The scrubbing system and precipitator are manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.15.4 Operating History

The FGD system became operational in September and is shown schematically in Figure 3-16.

Figure 3-16
Hong Kong Electric Company Limited Lamma Power Station, Hong Kong, Unit 6 FGD
System

3.15.5 Materials Specifications

The FGD system is predominantly carbon steel with resin coatings. The ductwork is 1/4-in. (6.4-
mm) thick carbon steel. The inlet and outlet ducts have a resin coating 1/10 to 4/25-in. (2.5 to
4.1-mm) thick, and the bypass duct is unlined. The inlet temperature is 250°F (121°C), and the
outlet temperature at the chimney is 200°F (93.3°C). There has been a problem of cracking and
deterioration of the resin lining.

The most frequent problem has been damage because of the movement of the grid pack. At
times, the damaged area can be quite large. Another area of frequent damage is the duct just
below the gas-to-gas heat exchanger support. Overall thinning of the resin has not been
significant, however.

The absorber inlet, outlet, and walls are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a resin coating
1/10 to 4/25-in. (2.5 to 4.1-mm) thick. The floor/sump is 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick. The temperature
is 250°F (121°C) at the inlet and 175°F (79.4°C) at the vessel walls. All absorber areas
experience deterioration and cracking of the resin lining, causing slurry corrosion to the base
metal.

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Individual Utility Responses

The reaction/recycle tank wall and floor are carbon steel, 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) and 3/8-in. (9.5-mm)
thick, respectively. Cracking of the resin lining and base metal corrosion was experienced in this
area. The agitators are rubber-coated steel castings with no reported service problems.

The slurry piping is 4/25-in. (4.1-mm) thick rubber-lined carbon steel pipe. The spray piping and
nozzles are reported to be FRP. The slurry valves are rubber-lined gray cast iron. The
temperature in the piping system is 140°F (60°C). No corrosion or service problems have been
reported.

The slurry pump casings and impellers were originally rubber-lined carbon steel. The lining
deteriorated resulting in corrosion of the base metal. The casings have been retrofitted with a
bolted-in urethane liner, and the impellers are now a high-chromium alloy.

The fans operate at 250°F (121.1°C). The housing and rotor blades are carbon steel. The only
problem reported is related to aging and hardening of the grease inside the bearing housing.

The inlet, outlet, and isolation dampers experience temperatures between 175°F and 250°F
(79.4°C and 121.1°C). The blades are a proprietary high-strength low-alloy steel that require a
protective coating to resist flue gas corrosion. There have been no reports of trouble at the Alloy
625 seals.

The unlined concrete chimneys are 690-ft. (210.3-m) tall.

3.16 Intermountain Power Service Corporation Intermountain Generating


Station

3.16.1 General Description

The Intermountain Generating Station is a 1900-MW facility located in Delta, Utah. It has two
950-MW coal-fired units. The FGD system is composed of a baghouse with three casings per
unit and six wet limestone forced-oxidation absorbers (two are spares). The flue gases pass
through the baghouse fabric filters for the removal of 99% of the particulates and are then
scrubbed with a wet limestone slurry for the removal of SO2. After scrubbing, the gases are
ducted into a 710-ft. (216.4-m) concrete chimney with separate fiberglass reinforced plastic
(FRP) flues. The efficiency of SO2 removal averages 92.5%. Gypsum is produced as a by-
product.

3.16.2 Chemistry

Fuel - The fuel used is a Utah bituminous coal with an average sulfur content of 0.55%, an
average ash content of 12.85%, and a heating value of 11,200 BTUs per pound (6,222.7
kg-cal/kg). Chlorides and fluorides are 0.02% and 0.007%, respectively.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 96% calcium carbonate, 0.46% magnesium
carbonate, 0.21% iron oxides, and 2.94% acid insolubles on average. The recirculated scrubber

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Individual Utility Responses

medium has a pH value of 5.8, a sulfate content of 12,340 ppm, a magnesium content of 3845
ppm, and a chloride content of 14,685 ppm. The dissolved solids are 60,000 ppm, and the total
solids are 170,000 ppm. The calcium content is 913 ppm, and the fluoride content is 90 ppm.

NOx Control – Intermountain Generating Station was originally equipped with low-NOx burners.
The boiler was retrofitted with an overfire air system to help control NOx due to declining coal
quality.

3.16.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD designer was G. E. Environmental Services.

3.16.4 Operating History

The FGD systems for Intermountain Units 1 and 2 began operation in 1986 and 1987,
respectively. The scrubber towers have been retrofitted with wall rings to improve SO2 removal
efficiency since that time. A forced-oxidation sparger system has been added to the reaction
tanks to improve gypsum purity. The scrubber system used at Intermountain Generating Station
is shown schematically in Figure 3-17.

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-17
Intermountain Power Service Corporation Intermountain Generating Station Scrubber
System

3.16.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet duct to the absorber is of unlined 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick ASTM A242, Type 1 high-
strength low-alloy steel. A lining is unnecessary because of the high temperature (approximately
320°F/160°C) and dry conditions.

The 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel inlets and floors were originally lined with borosilicate
blocks on a urethane asphalt membrane. However, in the so-called inlet dry areas of each unit,
the gunite-coated blocks failed and have been replaced (wallpapered) with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm)
thick Alloy C-276 sheets. Before the relining was done, as much as 12,000 ft.2 (1115 m2) of
carbon steel had to be replaced because of corrosion. The parts of the inlets that are flooded
continue to be protected with the gunite-coated borosilicate blocks.

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Individual Utility Responses

The absorber outlet has just been lined (wallpapered) with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276
to replace the borosilicate blocks. The borosilicate block system is failing on the turning vanes
and structural-steel supports and is being replaced with a fiber-reinforced epoxy coating.
Considerable weld repair was required before the recoating.

The reaction/recycle tanks are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 3/50 in. (1.5 mm) of
an epoxy coating on the walls and 3/50 in. (1.5 mm) of another epoxy on the floors. The agitators
are carbon steel covered with 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick chlorobutyl rubber.

The slurry and spray piping are carbon steel lined with 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick natural rubber. The
spray nozzles are ceramic. The slurry pump casings are rubber-lined carbon steel with impellers
of a 28% chromium-iron alloy. The materials of construction for fans and expansion joints were
not identified.

The chimney is concrete with separate 1-1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick FRP flues for each operating
unit.

3.17 Kansas City Power and Light Company La Cygne Unit 1

3.17.1 General Description

The Kansas City Power and Light Company La Cygne Unit is a 750-MW facility located in La
Cygne, Kansas. The FGD system has eight scrubber modules, each with a fixed-throat venturi
for particulate control and a two-stage sieve tray absorber. The flue gases enter the venturi
sections where most of the particulates are removed and are then scrubbed with a limestone
slurry and ducted into a 700-ft. (213.4-m) concrete chimney with an organic-coated carbon steel
liner. Particulate control efficiency is not reported. The SO2 removal efficiency is 95%.

3.17.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is a mixture of 85% Powder River Basin coal and 15% bituminous coal.
The coal mixture has a sulfur content of about 1.2%, an ash content of about 10%, and a heating
value of 12,000 BTUs per pound (6,667.2 kg-cal/kg). Chloride and fluoride levels are not
determined.

Scrubber Medium – The recirculated scrubber medium is limestone with a pH value of 5.7, a
chloride level of 1600 ppm, and a total solids content of 15%. Other components were not
reported.

NOx Control – The burners are cyclone type with overfire air, but there are no other NOx
controls. The NOx removal efficiency is not reported.

3.17.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system was designed by Babcock and Wilcox.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.17.4 Operating History

The FGD system started up in 1973.

3.17.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet duct to the venturi absorbers is unlined carbon steel. The outlet duct is carbon steel
lined with a flakeglass-reinforced vinyl ester coating. Recoating of the outlet duct is required
periodically. There is no bypass duct.

The venturi absorbers are constructed of 1/4-in (6.4-mm) thick Type 316L stainless steel and the
sieve trays are also Type 316L stainless steel. The demisters are chevron-style FRP. The
absorber system for the La Cygnet Unit 1 plant is shown schematically in Figure 3-18.

Figure 3-18
Kansas City Power and Light Company La Cygne Unit 1 Absorber System

The reaction/recycle tank walls and floor are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/4-in.
(6.4-mm) thick natural rubber lining. The impellers are made of an unidentified metal.

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Individual Utility Responses

The slurry piping is carbon steel with a rubber lining. The spray piping and nozzles are high-
density polyethylene. The slurry pumps have high-chromium iron casings and impellers, but the
service life is only three to six years.

Fans have 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 317 stainless steel housings and rotor blades. Inlet and
outlet dampers are uncoated carbon steel. The outlet rotor blades are coated with a flakeglass-
reinforced vinyl ester. Periodic recoating is required.

Expansion joints are rubber, and the chimney breaching is FRP. The chimney is reinforced
concrete with an organic-coated carbon steel liner that requires frequent recoating.

3.18 Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Unit 4

3.18.1 General Description

Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Unit 4 is a 170-MW facility located in Louisville,
Kentucky. The FGD system is composed of two electrostatic precipitators and two 50%-capacity
single-alkali absorbers. The flue gases pass through the electrostatic precipitators where 99.2%
of the particulates are removed. They are then scrubbed with a chemical lime slurry for SO2
removal and ducted into a 250-ft. (76.2-m) concrete chimney with an Alloy C-276 lined carbon
steel flue. The efficiency of SO2 removal is 84.3%.

3.18.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is Eastern bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 3.4%, an ash content of
12% (of which 20% is iron), and a heating value of 11,321 BTUs per pound (6,289.9 kg-cal/kg).
Chlorides are present to the extent of 860 ppm.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is chemical hydrated lime. The recirculated scrubber
medium has a pH value of 7.0 to 8.0, a sulfate content of 4306 ppm, a calcium content of 743
ppm, and a magnesium content of 985 ppm. The chloride content is 2843 ppm and total solids
are 12.5%.

NOx Control – The burners used are modified front-fire combustion engineering burners with
overfire air. There are no NOx controls, and NOx removal efficiency was not reported. However,
an artificial intelligence system is used to monitor and determine operational changes for NOx
control.

3.18.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system was originally designed by American Air Filter but was later redesigned by
Burns and McDonald.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.18.4 Operating History

The Cane Run 4 FGD system started up in 1976 and was rebuilt in 1988. Since then there have
been minor system modifications and replacement of the wet/dry interface and rubber-lined pipe.

3.18.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber inlet ducts are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 1/8-in. (3.2-mm)
Alloy C-276 sheets and 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Alloy C-276 floor. The absorber outlet duct is
1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 317LM stainless steel. There is no bypass duct.

The absorbers in the wet/dry zone have a solid 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Alloy C-276 floor and 1/4-
in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel roof and walls lined with 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) Alloy C-276 sheet.
The top portion of the absorber walls is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) Type 317LM stainless steel, and the
bottom portion is carbon steel lined with 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) Type 317LM stainless steel. The
absorber floor is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 317LM stainless steel. The demisters, which are
two-level FRP, are experiencing damage from plugging and water washing. The absorber system
used at Cane Run Unit 4 is shown in Figure 3-19.

Figure 3-19
Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Units 4 and 5 Absorber System

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Individual Utility Responses

There is reportedly a problem of pitting corrosion and leakage at welds in the inlet ducts.

The walls and floor of the reaction/recycle tanks are concrete, and the agitators are rubber-
covered carbon steel. Some wear/erosion of the rubber on the impeller blades was noted. The
service life is six to ten years.

The slurry piping is carbon steel lined with 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick natural rubber. However, there
have been problems with loss of adhesion between the rubber lining and the carbon steel pipe
leading to plugging of the pipe and eventual pipe failure. Spray piping is Type 317LM stainless
steel, and the nozzles are a ceramic composite. Some plugging and erosion of nozzles is also
occurring.

Slurry valves are knifegate with a rubber-lined carbon steel body and Type 317LM stainless steel
blades. Slurry pumps have rubber-lined carbon steel casings and abrasion-resistant steel
impellers. The erosion of pump casings has been a problem.

The fans are induced draft, and the housings and rotor blades are carbon steel. Even though
temperatures are 325°F (162.8°C), annual repairs are required because of pitting. Expansion
joints are made of Viton elastomer.

The chimney breaching is Type 317LM, and the chimney is concrete with a 3/16-in. (4.8-mm)
thick carbon steel flue lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276.

3.19 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Unit 5

3.19.1 General Description

Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Unit 5 is a 181-MW facility located in Louisville,
Kentucky. The FGD system comprises two electrostatic precipitators with two spray towers that
are each capable of handling 50% of the flue gas. The flue gases pass through the electrostatic
precipitators where 99.6% of the particulates are removed. They are then scrubbed with chemical
hydrated lime for SO2 removal and ducted into a 250-ft. (76.2-m) concrete chimney with an
Alloy C-276 lined carbon steel flue. The efficiency of SO2 removal is 84.9%.

3.19.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is Eastern bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 3.4%, an ash content of
12% (of which 20% is iron), and a heating value of 11,321 BTUs per pound (6,289.9 kg-cal/kg).
Chlorides are reported to be 860 ppm.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is a chemically hydrated lime. The recirculated
scrubber medium has a pH value of 7.0 to 8.0, a sulfate content of 1324 ppm, and calcium and
magnesium contents of 408 ppm and 200 ppm, respectively. The chloride level is 793 ppm and
the total solids are 11.1%.

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Individual Utility Responses

NOx control – The burners used are Babcock Borsig controlled-combustion, low-NOx front-fire
burners. There are no other NOx controls, and NOx removal efficiency was not reported.
However, an artificial intelligence system is used to monitor and determine operational changes
for NOx control.

3.19.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The electrostatic precipitators and the spray tower absorbers were designed and built by
Combustion Engineering.

3.19.4 Operating History

The Cane Run Unit 5 FGD system started up in 1977 and was rebuilt in 1986. Since that time
there have been further material changes and system modifications. The absorber system used at
Cane Run Unit 5 is shown in Figure 3-20.

Figure 3-20
Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Unit 5 Absorber System

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Individual Utility Responses

3.19.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber inlet duct was fabricated of solid 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Alloy C-2000 after pitting
and leakage problems occurred. There is no bypass duct. The outlet duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm)
thick Type 317LM stainless steel. Some scale buildup is reported.

Because of corrosion problems, the absorbers in the wet/dry zones were lined with 3/16-in. (4.8-
mm) thick Alloy C-2000 in 1999. The remainder of the absorber walls, floors, and outlet areas
are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) and 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick
Type 317LM stainless steel. However, there has been erosion in the spray area. Recently a 1/4-
in. (6.4-mm) Alloy C-276 ring was installed to minimize corrosion problems.

The demisters in the absorbers are FRP. Infrequent plugging problems have been encountered,
and a retractable pressure wash system was installed to minimize the plugging problems.

The reaction/recycle tanks are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with Stebbins tile. The
agitators are rubber-covered carbon steel, but erosion of the rubber has occurred. There have also
been leaks around the wall tiles.

The slurry piping is carbon steel with a natural rubber lining. The spray piping is Type 317LM,
and the spray nozzles are a ceramic composite.

The knifegate-type slurry valves have a rubber-lined carbon steel body and Type 317LM
stainless steel blades. Performance has generally been satisfactory. The slurry pumps have
rubber-lined casings and abrasion-resistant steel impellers. Some erosion of the rubber linings
has been observed.

The fans are induced-draft with carbon steel housings and rotor blades. They are exposed to
temperatures of 325°F (162.8°C). Because of the dry conditions, service life expectancy is quite
long.

The expansion joints are made of Viton elastomer. No information was provided on damper
materials. All dampers have been welded shut or open and sealed on the inside.

The chimney breaching is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 317LM stainless steel. The concrete
chimney has a 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick carbon steel flue that is lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick
Alloy C-276.

3.20 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Unit 6

3.20.1 General Description

Louisville Gas and Electric Cane Run Unit 6 is a 262-MW facility located in Louisville,
Kentucky. The FGD system is composed of two electrostatic precipitators for particulate
removal and two sieve-tray absorbers for SO2 removal. After the flue gases pass through the
precipitators (where 99.3% of the particulates are removed), they are scrubbed with a dual alkali

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Individual Utility Responses

mixture of lime and sodium carbonate and ducted into a 518-ft. (157.9-m) chimney with an
Alloy C-276 lined carbon steel flue. The efficiency of SO2 removal is 84.9%.

3.20.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is an Eastern bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 3.4%, an ash content
of 12% (of which 20% is iron), and a heating value of 11,321 BTUs per pound (6,289.9
kg-cal/kg). Chlorides are present to the extent of 860 ppm.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is a dual alkali, which is a mixture of chemical lime
and sodium carbonate. The recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of 12.8, a total sulfate
content of 32,551 ppm, a chloride content of 5699 ppm, and a total solids content of 31.3%.
Calcium and magnesium contents are 161 ppm and 34 ppm, respectively.

NOx Control – The burners used are Babcock Borsig controlled-combustion, low-NOx, corner-
fired burners. There are no other NOx controls, and NOx removal efficiency is not reported.
However, an artificial intelligence system is being used to monitor and determine operational
changes for NOx control.

3.20.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The electrostatic precipitators were designed by Buell, and the FGD system was designed by
Combustion Equipment Associates.

3.20.4 Operating History

Cane Run Unit 6 FGD system began operation in 1979. Major materials and equipment changes
were made in 1998. The absorber system used at Cane Run Unit 6 is shown in
Figure 3-21.

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-21
Louisville Gas and Electric Company Cane Run Unit 6 Absorber System

3.20.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber inlet ducts, which were of 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick carbon steel, have been replaced
with 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Alloy C-2000 because of corrosion problems. The absorber outlet
ducts are 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick 6% Mo
stainless steel. There have been scale buildup problems in the inlet ducts and pitting problems in
the outlet ducts.

The absorber inlets and wet/dry zones are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/8-in.
(3.2-mm) lining of Alloy C-2000. The absorber walls are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel
lined with either 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276/C-22 or 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick Alloy
C-2000. The absorber outlet is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm)
thick 6% Mo stainless steel. All the areas were relined with the indicated alloys and are
performing well except for the outlet, which is exhibiting pitting. The sieve trays in the absorbers
are 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick Type 317L stainless steel and reportedly encounter plugging
problems. The only reported problem with the absorber demisters, which are FRP, is plugging.

The reaction/recycle tank walls are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) carbon steel lined with 1/40 to 3/100 in.
(0.64 to 0.76 mm) of an unidentified organic coating. The floors are concrete, and the agitators
are rubber-covered carbon steel. The only problem reported is corrosion of areas where the
coating fails.

The slurry piping is FRP. There are no spray nozzles because of the use of the sieve trays. The
slurry valves are knifegate with a carbon steel body and Type 317LM stainless steel blades. The

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Individual Utility Responses

slurry pumps are rubber-lined carbon steel with abrasion-resistant steel impellers. Some erosion
takes place with the slurry pumps.

The dry forced-draft fans have carbon steel housings and rotor blades that operate at 325°F
(162.8°C). Annual repair is required. The inlet and outlet dampers are 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick
Type 317LM stainless steel. The bypass damper is carbon steel. The expansion joints are made
of Viton elastomer.

The chimney breaching is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick
6% Mo stainless steel. Pitting repair is necessary with each outage. The chimney is 3/16-in.
(4.8-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276. The only reported
problem is that the lining is difficult to inspect.

3.21 Louisville Gas and Electric Company Trimble County Unit

3.21.1 General Description

The Louisville Gas and Electric Trimble County Unit is a 546-MW facility located in Bedford,
Kentucky. The FGD system is composed of one electrostatic precipitator (where 98% of the
particulates are removed from the flue gas) and four open-spray towers (where the flue gases are
scrubbed with wet limestone for SO2 removal). The scrubbed gases are then ducted into a 760-ft.
(231.6-m) concrete chimney with a FRP liner. The SO2 removal efficiency is 90%.

3.21.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is an Eastern bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 3.5%, an ash content
of 12.46% (of which 22.9% is iron), and a heating value of 12,828 BTUs per pound (7,127.2
kg-cal/kg). Chlorides are 542 ppm.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 92% calcium carbonate. The recirculated scrubber
medium has a pH value of 5.81, a dissolved solids content of 14%, and a total solids content of
21%.

NOx Control – The Trimble County unit has low-NOx burners and an SCR system. NOx removal
in the SCR exceeds 90%.

3.21.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system was designed by Combustion Engineering.

3.21.4 Operating History

The FGD startup date for the facility was 1990. There have been material changes since then, but
no major retrofits.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.21.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber inlet duct and wet/dry zone are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Alloy C-2000. Beyond the
wet/dry zone, the absorber walls, outlets, and outlet ducts are 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Type
317LMN stainless steel. The absorbers have five spray levels that are Type 317LMN stainless
steel. The type of absorber system used at Trimble County Unit 1 is shown in Figure 3-22.

Figure 3-22
Louisville Gas and Electric Company Trimble County Unit 1 – A Generic Absorber Open-
Spray System

The reaction/recycle tanks have Type 317LMN stainless steel walls and concrete floors. The
agitators are rubber-covered.

Slurry piping internal to the modules is Type 317LMN stainless steel. Slurry piping external to
the modules is FRP. The slurry valves are Type 317LMN stainless steel. The slurry pumps have
urethane-lined casings and 31% chromium-iron impellers.

The fans have carbon steel housings and rotor blades that are exposed to 300°F (149°C)
temperatures. There have been some corrosion problems with the fan housings.

The expansion joints are made of Viton or Kevlar elastomer. The original inlet dampers have
been taken out of service.

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Individual Utility Responses

The chimney breaching is 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Type 317LMN stainless steel. The chimney
itself is concrete with an FRP liner.

3.22 Lower Colorado River Authority Fayette Unit No. 3

3.22.1 General Description

LCRA of Texas is a conservational, tax-free district that provides various public services
including the provision of power for a number of cities and rural electric cooperatives. The
LCRA Fayette Power Project consists of three units, two of which are jointly owned by LCRA
and the City of Austin, Texas. Only Fayette Unit 3, owned solely by LCRA, has an FGD system.
Fayette Unit 3 is a 440-MW coal-fired facility. The emission control system is made up of two
electrostatic precipitators for particulate control and three wet limestone, forced-oxidation spray
tower absorbers for SO2 removal. The flue gases pass through the electrostatic precipitators for
removal of an unspecified amount of particulates. They are then scrubbed with wet limestone
slurry and ducted into a 535-ft. (163.1-m) concrete chimney lined with acid-resistant brick. The
efficiency of SO2 removal is 85%. Gypsum is recovered as a saleable by-product.

3.22.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is Powder River Basin coal with a sulfur content of 0.33%, an ash content
of 6%, and a heating value of 8,400 BTUs per pound (4,667 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is limestone with 51.7% calcium oxides, 40.6%
carbon dioxide, 4.7% silica, and 3.0% free moisture. The recirculated scrubber medium has a pH
value of 6.0, a sulfate content of 22,900 ppm, a magnesium content of 2950 ppm, a calcium
content of 630 ppm, and a chloride content of 15,500 ppm.

NOx Control – The burners used are Alstom aerotip burners with controlled combustion overfire
air. Separated overfire air was added in 2005. There are no other NOx controls, and there are no
plans to add an SCR system. The efficiency of NOx removal was not reported.

3.22.3 Equipment Manufacturer

ABB (now Alstom) supplied the wet FGD system and the precipitators. The FGD system
installed at Fayette Unit 3 is shown in Figure 3-23.

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Individual Utility Responses

Figure 3-23
Lower Colorado River Authority Fayette Unit No. 3 FGD System

3.22.4 Operating History

The FGD system for LCRA Fayette Unit 3 started up in 1988. Electrochemical protection was
installed in the recycle/reaction tanks in 1996.

3.22.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet ducts to the absorbers are carbon steel up to the inlet transition point where blowback
of the scrubbing medium has extended the wet/dry zone into the inlet duct. This area and the
wet/dry zone in the absorber inlet area were lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-22 sheet
to minimize corrosion. Performance has been entirely satisfactory as a result.

The absorber and absorber support structures are constructed of Type 317LM stainless steel. The
outlet ducts and the duct to the chimney into which the three separate outlet ducts feed are
carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-22 sheet. The bypass duct
is carbon steel and handles about 10% of the incoming flue gas, which ties into the duct to the
chimney and is used for reheating purposes.

There are three reaction tanks that were originally carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with Type
316L stainless steel. However, MIC was discovered in one tank shortly after startup. Repairs
were made by welding on Type 316L stainless steel patches, but ultimately all three reaction

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Individual Utility Responses

tanks were affected by MIC. An electrochemical protection system was installed on one tank,
and further MIC damage was stopped. The reaction tank floor, which is constructed of red-shale
acid brick with a FRP mat, continues to exhibit leaks.

The reaction tank agitators are rubber-covered carbon steel with 6% Mo alloy vanes. However,
there have been erosion failures of the rubber coverings.

The slurry and spray piping are FRP. The nozzles are silicon carbide. Performance has been
satisfactory, and a service life of up to 16 years has been projected.

The gate-type slurry valves are constructed of Type 317LM stainless steel. No problems have
been reported. However, the cast steel slurry pumps that have rubber-lined casings have
experienced failures. The impellers, which are a rigid urethane elastomer, are performing
satisfactorily.

The inlet dampers are louver-type and are of ASTM A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel.
The outlet and isolation dampers are Type 317LM stainless steel. The expansion joints are a
fluoroelastomer.

The chimney breaching is carbon steel protected by borosilicate glass blocks. The concrete
chimney is lined with acid-resistant brick.

3.23 Minnesota Power and Light Company Clay Boswell Unit 4

3.23.1 General Description

The Clay Boswell Station located in Cohasset, Minnesota, comprises four units with a total net
generating capacity of 1000 MW. Clay Boswell 4, a 535-MW net unit, came on-line in
September 1980. Its FGD system consists of four variable-throat venturi prescrubbers and four
spray tower absorbers that use a lime/alkaline fly ash slurry for SO2 removal. Only three trains of
venturis and absorber towers are needed for full-load operation. The fourth set is a spare that
allows for required periodic maintenance. The venturis are used for particulate control and also
allow removal of some fraction of the SO2. Approximately 5% of the boiler flue gas bypasses the
venturi/scrubber towers and is sent to a hot-side electrostatic precipitator. The exiting flue gas is
then used to reheat the scrubbed flue gas before it enters the inside diameter (ID) fans and stack.
The SO2 removal efficiency varies between 85% and 90%, which includes the 5% flue gas that is
used for reheating. The scrubbed flue gas passes through a sieve tray and a chevron mist
eliminator before being reheated by the bypass flue gas. The reheated flue gas is then ducted into
a 600-ft. (182.9-m) chimney with an acid-resistant brick lining. Gypsum is not recovered.

3.23.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The coal used is subbituminous with an unreported minimal chloride and fluoride content.
The sulfur content is 0.5%, with an ash content of 7% and a heating value of 9,100 BTUs per
pound (5.056 kg-cal/kg).

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Individual Utility Responses

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is a high-alkaline content fly ash from coal. The pH
is 3.5 to 6.0 with an average of 4.0. Total solids are 5% to 10%.

NOx Control – The burners are low-NOx (circa 1978 vintage type). Other controls such as SCR
and SNCR are not used.

3.23.3 Equipment Manufacturer

Peabody Process Systems was responsible for the venturi prescrubbers and spray tower
absorbers. The precipitator was designed by the Western Precipitation Division of Joy
Manufacturing. A schematic of the absorber system is shown in Figure 3-24.

Figure 3-24
Minnesota Power and Light Company Clay Boswell Unit 4 Absorber System

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Individual Utility Responses

3.23.4 Operating History

When the plant came on-line in 1980, it was designed for a higher sulfur and chloride content
coal than is actually being used. No corrosion problems have been experienced, but there have
been erosion problems. All rubber linings and coatings must be repaired or replaced periodically.

3.23.5 Materials Specifications

To a considerable extent, coated or lined carbon steel is used throughout the system with
stainless steels and nickel alloys used in certain critical areas.

The venturi at the inlet is carbon steel where the temperature is 325°F (162.8°C). The absorber
inlet and walls are rubber-lined carbon steel, and the temperature is 130°F (54°C). The
outlet/demisters are FRP, and the trays are Type 316L stainless steel. The absorber floor or sump
and the absorber outlet are carbon steel with a flakeglass lining and a temperature of 130°F
(54°C). The bypass duct is plain carbon steel, which handles the 800°F (426.7°C) bypass flue gas
directly from the boiler upstream of the air heater.

The walls and floor in the reaction/recycle tank are carbon steel with a flakeglass lining. The
agitators are Type 316L stainless steel with a rubber lining. The absorber floor and the
reaction/recycle tanks are the same.

The slurry piping is rubber-lined, and the spray nozzles are ceramic. The slurry and other valves
are rubber-lined. The casing and impellers of slurry pumps are carbon steel with a urethane
elastomer lining.

The fans operate in wet gas and, therefore, require alloy construction. The rotors are Alloy 625,
and the housings are Alloy 825. The expansion joints are rubber. The isolation damper is of a
steel construction. There are no WESPs in the system.

The chimney breaching is carbon steel with a flakeglass lining. The chimney liner is acid-
resistant brick.

3.24 PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 1 and 2

3.24.1 General Description

The PPL Montana Power Station is a facility with two 333-MW Units (1 and 2) and two 805-
MW Units (3 and 4) located in Colstrip, Montana. Because of the differences in unit size,
installation dates, and materials utilized, the two smaller Units 1 and 2 are discussed separately
from the two larger units.

The FGD system for Units 1 and 2 uses three venturi/absorbers per unit for both particulate and
SO2 removal. The flue gases are passed through the venturi sections where most of the
particulates are removed. They are scrubbed in the absorber sections with a lime/fly ash slurry

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for SO2 removal. The scrubbed flue gases are then ducted into a 500-ft. (152.4-m) concrete
chimney with an organic-coated carbon steel liner. Particulate removal is greater than 99%. The
efficiency of SO2 removal is 70% to 80%.

3.24.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is a subbituminous coal containing 0.6% to 0.8% sulfur with an ash content
of 8% to 10% and a heating value of 8,500 BTUs per pound (4,722.6 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides and
fluorides are not determined.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is a mixture of gypsum and fly ash with a calcium
oxide content of 15% to 20%. The recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of 3.8 to 4.6, a
sulfate level of 25,000 to 55,000 ppm, a dissolved solids level of 40,000 to 70,000 ppm, and a
total solids level of 200,000 to 300,000 ppm. Calcium and magnesium levels are 500 to 600 ppm
and 5000 to 12,000 ppm, respectively. Chlorides are 500 to 1100 ppm.

NOx Control – The burners used are low-NOx burners, but there are no other NOx controls in
use. NOx removal efficiency was not reported.

3.24.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD systems for Units 1 and 2 were designed by Combustion Equipment Associates.

3.24.4 Operating History

Unit 1 began operation in 1975, and Unit 2 began operation in 1976. No retrofits or major
operational changes have occurred since startup.

3.24.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet ducts to the venturi are unlined carbon steel at a temperature of 325°F (162.8°C). There
is no bypass duct. The outlet ducts have been lined with a cementicious coating. However, the
plants recently switched to other types of coating products. Reportedly, coating failures occur
that require frequent patching and repair to the linings. Temperatures vary from 125°F to 195°F
(52°C to 90.6°C).

The absorbers have in-lined carbon steel inlets. The walls and floors are carbon steel lined with
either Type 316L stainless steel or cementicious or organic coatings. Originally, the walls had an
organic coating that failed and was replaced with a stainless steel lining. The demisters are
polysulfone, and the trays are Type 316L stainless steel. A schematic of the absorber system
employed at Colestrip Units 1 and 2 is shown in Figure 3-25.

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Figure 3-25
PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 1 and 2 Absorber System.

The reaction/recycle tanks walls are 7/16-in. (11.1-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 3/100 to
1/25 in. (0.76 to 1.0 mm) of either a cementicious or other type of organic coating. Coating
failures have made frequent patching and repair necessary. The floor is 7/16-in. (11.1-mm) thick
carbon steel with a 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick lining of Type 316L stainless steel. The agitators are
1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick Type 316L stainless steel. The temperature in the tank is 125°F (52°C).

The slurry piping has been rubber-lined carbon steel as well as Type 316L stainless steel and
high-density polyethylene. A determination of the most suitable material has not been made. The
spray piping is Type 316L stainless steel, and the nozzles are ceramic.

The slurry valves are rubber-lined Type 316L stainless steel. The slurry pumps have rubber-lined
casings and rubber-coated 28% chromium-iron impellers.

The fans have carbon steel housings and ASTM A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel
blades. Inlet dampers are carbon steel, and outlet dampers are Type 316L stainless steel.

The chimney breaching is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a flakeglass coating, and the
chimney is concrete with a flakeglass-coated carbon steel liner. The temperature is 195°F
(90.6°C).

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3.25 PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 3 and 4

3.25.1 General Description

The PPL Montana Power Station is a facility with two 805-MW units (3 and 4) and two smaller
units (1 and 2), which were discussed is Section 3.24. All units are located in Colstrip, Montana.

The FGD system for Units 3 and 4 uses eight venturi absorbers per unit for both particulate and
SO2 removal. The flue gases are passed through the venturi sections where most of the
particulates are removed. They are scrubbed in the absorber section with a lime/fly ash slurry.
The scrubbed flue gases are then ducted into a 692-ft. (210.9-m) concrete chimney with an
organic-coated carbon steel liner. Particulate removal exceeds 99%. The efficiency of SO2
removal is 95%.

3.25.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is a subbituminous coal containing 0.6% to 0.8% sulfur. It has an ash
content of 8% to 10% and a heating value of 8,500 BTUs per pound (4,722.6 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is a mixture consisting predominately of gypsum


and fly ash with a calcium oxide content of 15% to 20%. The recirculated scrubber medium is
similar to that used in Colstrip Units 1 and 2 except that it has a higher pH value of 5.2 to 5.8.
The sulfate level is 25,000 to 55,000 ppm, the dissolved solids level is 40,000 to 70,000 ppm,
and the total solids level is 200,000 to 300,000 ppm. The calcium content is 500 to 600 ppm, the
magnesium content is 5000 to 12,000 ppm, and chlorides are 500 to 1100 ppm.

NOx Control – The burners used are Combustion Engineering low-NOx burners. There are no
other NOx controls in use. NOx removal efficiency is not reported.

3.25.3 Equipment Manufacturer

FGD Units 3 and 4 were designed by Bechtel.

3.25.4 Operating History

Unit No. 3 began operation in l983, and Unit No. 4 came on-line in 1985. No retrofits or major
operational changes have occurred since then.

3.25.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber inlet ducts are unlined carbon steel with a temperature of 325°F (162.8°C). Rust
and fly ash erosion have been reported. There is no bypass duct. The outlet carbon steel ducts,
which have been lined at various times with different types of organic coatings, continue to
experience coating failures.

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The absorber inlets are carbon steel, and the walls and the floors are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type
317LM stainless steel. The trays and the demisters are Type 316L stainless steel. A schematic of
the absorber system employed at Colestrip Units 1 and 2 is shown in Figure 3-26.

Figure 3-26
PPL Montana Power Colstrip Units 3 and 4 Absorber System

The reaction/recycle tanks have 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 317LM stainless steel walls and
floors. The agitators are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick Type 316L stainless steel. The slurry piping has
been rubber-lined carbon steel, Type 316L stainless steel, and high-density polyethylene at
various times, but a satisfactory material has not been found. The spray piping is Type 316L
stainless steel with ceramic nozzles. The slurry valves are rubber-lined Type 316L stainless steel.
The slurry pumps have rubber-lined carbon steel casings and 28% chromium-iron impellers.

The fans have carbon steel casings and ASTM A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel blades.
Expansion joints are made of an unidentified elastomer. The inlet and outlet dampers are Type
316L stainless steel.

The chimney breaching is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with a fluoropolymer vinyl
ester, and the operating temperature is 195°F (90.6°C). The chimney is concrete with a 1/4-in.
(6.4-mm) thick carbon steel flue lined with the same type of coating used in the breaching.

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3.26 New Brunswick Electric Power Coleson Cove

3.26.1 General Description

The New Brunswick Coleson Cove Generating Station is a facility with three 350-MW units
located on the Bay of Fundy near St. Johns, New Brunswick. The FGD system is composed of
two 525-MW limestone forced-oxidation tray towers, a WESP for sulphur trioxide (SO3), and
fine particulate removal located on top of each absorber module. The flue gases pass through a
dry electrostatic precipitator for dry particulate removal. After they are scrubbed with a
limestone slurry and passed through the WESP, they are ducted into a 600-ft. (182.9-m) dual flue
concrete chimney. The chimney is lined partly with borosilicate glass blocks and partly with
Alloy C-276. The efficiency of particulate removal is estimated at about 78% and the efficiency
of SO2 removal is 90%. Gypsum is produced as a saleable by-product.

3.26.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The units were designed to burn either Orimulsion (an emulsion of 70% natural bitumen
and 30% water) or No. 6 fuel oil. Depending on the fuel being burned, chlorides are 0.001%,
sulfur varies from 2.85% to 3%, and ash varies from 0.07% to 0.11%. Heating value varies from
12,984 to 18,000 BTUs per pound (7,213.9 to 10,000.8 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is at least 90% calcium carbonate with up to 5%
silicon dioxide, up to 2% magnesium carbonate, up to 1.5% mixed metallic oxides, and small
amounts of sulfur and chlorides. The pH value of the limestone slurry is 9.0 to 10.0 as made up
but is held between 5.0 and 6.0 for scrubbing.

NOx Control – The two units use low-NOx combustion systems, overfire air, and a gas reburning
technique for reducing NOx.

3.26.3 Equipment Manufacturer

Babcock and Wilcox designed and built the FGD system. The WESP was designed by
F. L. Smidt Company.

3.26.4 Operating History

The Coleson Cove power station originally began operating in 1971. The boilers were
subsequently retrofitted with FGD systems. Both units then began operation in 2004. The
absorber installed at Coleson Cove is similar to the one shown in the schematic in Figure 3-27.

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Figure 3-27
New Brunswick Electric Power Coleson Cove – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray System

3.26.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet ductwork and the gas plenum are constructed of carbon steel. The absorber outlet ducts
are constructed of Type 317LMN stainless steel. The absorbers themselves have Alloy C-276
inlet areas and walls and outlets of duplex Alloy 2205 stainless steel. The Babcock and Wilcox
perforated absorber trays are of Type 317LMN stainless steel. The demisters are FRP.

The reaction/recycle tanks have duplex Alloy 2205 stainless steel walls and floors and agitators
of a 6% Mo stainless steel. The slurry piping and spray piping are FRP with silicon carbide
nozzles. The slurry valves have Alloy 2205 stainless steel bodies, and the slurry pumps are
rubber-lined.

The WESPs have 6% Mo stainless steel inlets and collectors as well as an initial collector of
Alloy C-276. The outlet is Alloy 2205 stainless steel.

The chimney breaching is 6% Mo stainless steel. The chimney itself has a concrete shell lined
with borosilicate blocks except for the top 20 ft. (6.1 m) that are Alloy C-276.

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3.27 Owensboro Municipal Utilities Elmer Smith Station

3.27.1 General Description

The Elmer Smith Station, located in Owensboro, Kentucky, comprises two units with a total net
generating capacity of 441 MW. Unit 1 came on-line in 1964, followed by Unit 2 in 1973. The
air pollution control system has two limestone slurry open-spray absorbers and four electrostatic
precipitators (two per blower) with an SCR on Unit 1 and an SNCR on Unit 2. The efficiency of
particulate removal in the precipitators is greater than 98%. SO2 removal efficiency in the
absorbers runs from 90% to 98%. The scrubbed gases are ultimately ducted in a 440-ft. (134.1-
m) brick-lined chimney. Forced oxidation is used to produce commercial-grade gypsum.

3.27.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The coal used has a sulfur content of 3.4% and an ash content of 13.3%. Chloride and
fluoride content are not reported. The heating value is 10,399 BTUs per pound (5,777.7
kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium exceeds 97.0% calcium carbonate. The pH is 5.6 to
5.8 with a sulfate content of 2500 ppm, chlorides of approximately 2000 ppm, and fluorides less
than 5 ppm. Dissolved solids are approximately 10,000 ppm and total solids are 19% to 21%.

NOx Control – Unit 2 has low-NOx burners with a separate overfire air and an SNCR system.
Unit 1 has an SCR system. The NOx removal exceeds 90% in Unit 1 and 50% in Unit 2.

3.27.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The scrubber system is a Wheelabrator design. Sterling Boiler constructed the ductwork and
absorber.

3.27.4 Operating History

The FGD systems began operating in 1994.

3.27.5 Materials Specifications

The FGD systems make extensive use of Alloy C-276 and Type 317LMN stainless steel with
acid brick and rubber linings in selected corrosive areas and carbon steel for areas above the dew
point (that is, greater than 300°F/149°C).

The inlet ducts and absorber vessels at the inlet area are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Alloy C-276. The
temperature in the wet/dry zone areas ranges from 330°F to 130°F (165.5°C to 54°C).
Approximately one year after the start of operations, severe pitting attack occurred to the Alloy
C-276 inlets beneath a heavy scale buildup. Owensboro followed a suggestion to install water

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sprays above the inlet for periodic water injection and to remove the gas deflection boxes from
the Alloy C-276 floor. This eliminated the scaling. Pitting in the Alloy C-276 is no longer a
significant problem.

The absorber installed at Elmer Smith Station is similar to the one shown in the schematic in
Figure 3-28.

Figure 3-28
Owensboro Municipal Utilities Elmer Smith Station – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray
System

The absorber outlets and the absorber walls are Type 317LMN stainless steel. There have been
no problems at the outlet, but serious pitting/crevice corrosion developed in the reaction tank of
both units after approximately three-and-one-half years. The pitting was more severe in absorber
B, but both absorbers required weld repair. The attack was in the lower part of the tank
underneath deposits and below the liquid level line. A scanning electron microscopy/energy
dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis of the liquid from an active pit indicated a chloride
level as high as 90,000 ppm and a fluoride level of 15,000 ppm. Owensboro elected to have an
impressed-current electrochemical protection system installed in the slurry tank area by
Corrosion Service Company of Canada. The system is monitored through a modem connection
to the Canadian company and has been successful in controlling pitting/crevice corrosion.
Similar installations at LCRA and Laramie River have also performed well.

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The inlet duct to the absorber is carbon steel where the temperature is 300°F (149°C). There has
been some limited sulfuric acid attack at condensation points. The absorber floor is acid-resistant
brick, and there have been no problems in this area.

The slurry piping is carbon steel pipe with a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick rubber lining. There has been
erosion to a piping expansion piece requiring replacement. The silicon carbide spray nozzles
have given good service. The slurry gate valves are Type 317LMN stainless steel.

The slurry pump casings are rubber-lined. The original impellers were rubber-covered but have
experienced accelerated wear. The replacements are high-chromium iron impellers.

The fan housings and rotor blades are carbon steel. The only issue has been some acid dew point
corrosion.

The inlet and isolation dampers are carbon steel. The only reported problem is an ash buildup on
the isolation damper blades that has caused some operational difficulties. The outlet damper is
Type 317LMN stainless steel and has been trouble free.

The chimney breaching is Alloy C-276, and the chimney liner is acid-resistant brick. There have
been no problems in this area.

3.28 Power Generating Station A (Name Withheld)

3.28.1 General Description

This power generating station has asked not to be identified. The facility involved is a four-unit,
2000-MW station with two 510-MW scrubbed units. The FGD systems are each composed of an
electrostatic precipitator for dust control and a forced-oxidation spray tower for the removal of
SO2. The flue gases are passed through the electrostatic precipitator where an unreported
percentage of particulates is removed. The gases then enter the spray towers where they are
scrubbed with a limestone slurry for the removal of 92% to 95% of the SO2. After scrubbing, the
flue gases are ducted into a 525-ft. (160-m) concrete chimney with one FRP liner for each of the
two scrubbed units. Gypsum is produced as a by-product.

3.28.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is a bituminous coal with a sulfur content of 2.2% to 3%, an ash content of
8%, and a heating value of 12,925 BTUs per pound (7,181.1 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides are 0.2%.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 98% calcium carbonate, 0.2% silicon dioxide,
1.3% magnesium carbonate, and 0.6% magnesium oxide. The recirculated scrubber medium has
a pH value of 5.0 to 5.6, a sulfate content of 1668 ppm, a calcium content of 3070 ppm, and a
magnesium content of 1818 ppm. Chlorides are 8000 to 12,000 ppm, fluorides are 11 ppm, and
total solids are 14% to 16%.

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NOx Control – The unit has Alstom low-NOx burners and an SCR system. The efficiency of NOx
removal is 90%.

3.28.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system towers are of Bischoff design licensed to Joy Technologies. The plant was
designed and built by Joy MK.

3.28.4 Operating History

The FGD system for this facility began operation in 1994.

3.28.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet duct to the absorber is 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick carbon steel up to the damper. Beyond
the damper, it is either Alloy C-22 or Alloy 2205 duplex stainless steel depending on the unit.
The outlet duct is 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-
276 sheet lining (wallpapered). The bypass duct is carbon steel, which continues to exhibit
severe flaking of scale after a shutdown.

The absorber inlets are Alloy C-22, but the walls, floors, and outlets are carbon steel lined
(wallpapered) with Alloy C-276. Numerous leakage problems were encountered at welds
because of the use of the metal inert gas short-circuiting welding process instead of the pulsed-
arc welding process. After numerous attempts to eliminate leakage and avoid corrosion problems
behind the welds, epoxy filler was injected between the carbon steel base and the alloy lining in
2002. This approach is being evaluated. The absorber installed at Power Generating Station A is
similar to the one shown in the schematic in Figure 3-29.

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Figure 3-29
Power Generating Station A (Name Withheld) – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray System

The reaction/recycle tanks that are integral to the absorbers have walls and floors that are carbon
steel lined with Alloy C-276 sheet (wallpapered). Leakage at welds similar to that found in the
absorbers was also found here. Accordingly, epoxy filler was injected between the carbon steel
and the alloy lining in the tanks. There are no agitators in the Bischoff-designed tanks.

Rubber-lined carbon steel and FRP piping are used for slurry pipe. The spray headers are rubber-
covered carbon steel, the spray header laterals are FRP, and the nozzles are Stellite. Wear and
penetration of the rubber lining and the FRP at areas beneath the spray nozzles have led to the
use of Alloy C-276 and FRP shields over the piping. This approach appears to have minimized
the penetration problems. However, corrosion is a problem with the nozzles, and wear continues
to be a problem where shields have not been installed.

The main limestone feed valves that are ceramic ball valves have given good service as have the
knifegate valves that have Alloy C-276 blades and urethane seats. Butterfly valves with an Alloy
C-276 disc and rubber seats have had the rubber severely damaged. Diaphragm valves have
given poor service.

The slurry pumps have duplex stainless steel casings, impellers, and suction sidewear rings as
well as some silicon carbide sidewear rings. There has been heavy wear on the alloy impellers
and wear rings, but the results are mixed with the silicon carbide wear rings. The impellers and
the wear rings require replacement every two to three years.

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The wet booster fan downstream of the absorbers, which has rubber-lined carbon steel housings
and alloy impellers, is performing satisfactorily.

The expansion joints are Viton elastomer and the guillotine inlet dampers have ASTM A242
Type 1 blades and frames. The seals are Alloy C-276. The bypass damper also has an ASTM
A242 Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel frame and Alloy C-276 seals.

The chimney breaching is carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with Alloy C-276. There were
reportedly problems getting the original welds gas-tight, and some corrosive attack has been
found on the turning vanes. The chimney itself has two FRP flues.

There were major fabrication problems with the FRP flues initially, and since then, there have
been high maintenance and repair costs. One FRP flue failed as a result of fabrication issues.

3.29 Public Service of New Mexico San Juan Units 1, 2, 3, and 4

3.29.1 General Description

The San Juan Generating Station is a facility with 350-MW Units 1 and 2 and 550-MW Units 3
and 4 located in Waterflow, New Mexico. The FGD system is composed of one hot-side
electrostatic precipitator per unit and three Babcock and Wilcox limestone forced-oxidation
absorbers per unit. After passing through the precipitators for particulate removal, the gases are
scrubbed with wet limestone slurries and ducted into 400-ft. (121.9-m) chimneys. The efficiency
of particulate removal is 99.5% for Units 1 and 2 and 99.93% for Units 3 and 4. The efficiency
of SO2 removal is 90%, but the efficiency of NOx removal is not reported. Gypsum is produced
as a by-product.

3.29.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is a subbituminous coal with 0.80% sulfur, 18% ash, and a heating value of
9,800 BTUs per pound (5,444.9 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides and fluorides are 0.03% and 0.01%,
respectively.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is limestone with a minimum of 90% calcium
carbonate and a minimum of 2% magnesium carbonate. The recirculating scrubber medium has a
pH value of 5.8, a sulfate level of 115,000 ppm, a calcium level of 50,000 ppm, and a
magnesium level of 5000 ppm. Chlorides are 10,000 ppm, fluorides are 1000 ppm, dissolved
solids are 20,000 ppm, and total solids are 190,000 ppm.

NOx Control – All four units have low-NOx burners, but no other equipment or processes for
NOx removal. The efficiency of NOx removal is not reported.

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3.29.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The absorbers were originally designed by SWECO. They were redesigned and replaced by
Babcock and Wilcox. The hot-side precipitators were designed by Western Precipitation. The
FGD system installed at the four San Juan units is shown schematically in Figure 3-30.

Figure 3-30
Public Service of New Mexico San Juan Units 1, 2, 3, and 4 FGD System

3.29.4 Operating History

The startup date for Units 1 and 2 was 1978. The startup dates for Units 3 and 4 were 1980 and
1982, respectively. However, all units were converted from Wellman Lord sulfuric acid recovery
units to Babcock and Wilcox tray-type forced-oxidation gypsum units in the mid-1990s.

3.29.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet ducts and bypass ducts for all four units are unlined 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel
The outlet ducts for Units 1 and 2 are carbon steel lined with 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) fiberglass, but
plans are being made to convert them to Type 316L stainless steel (the same as the outlet ducts
for Units 3 and 4). The outlet duct temperature is 125°F (52°C).

The absorber inlets are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with fire brick. The walls and
floors are 2-ft. (0.61-m) thick concrete lined with Stebbins tile. The demisters are polypropylene,
and the perforated absorber trays are Type 317L stainless steel.

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The flue gases enter the absorber at a temperature of about 350°F (177°C), which drops to 125°F
(52°C) in the outlet duct. The service life for the ductwork and absorbers is estimated at 30 years.

The reaction/recycle tanks have 6% Mo stainless steel walls and floors. The agitators are
CD4MCu. Except for the agitators, the recycle tanks are expected to have a life expectancy of 30
years. The slurry piping is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick rubber-lined carbon steel, and the spray piping
is FRP with ceramic nozzles. The slurry valves are rubber-lined carbon steel, and the slurry
pumps have casings and impellers identified only as high-chromium. Piping and pumps have life
expectancies of 6 to 10 years.

All fans have carbon steel housings and rotor blades. The inlet and outlet dampers are Type 316L
stainless steel. The control dampers are carbon steel with operating temperatures of 250°F to
350°F (121.1°C to 176.7°C). The outlet dampers are at a temperature of 125°F (52°C). The
service life for all unit components is 30 years or more.

The bypass breaching is carbon steel. The chimney has a concrete shell lined with acid-resistant
brick.

3.30 St. Johns River Power Park Units 1 and 2

3.30.1 General Description

The St. Johns River Power Park facility has two 650-MW units and is located in Jacksonville,
Florida. Each of the units has an FGD system that involves three limestone forced-oxidation
dual-loop spray towers. Two of the towers are used to treat the flue gas, and the third is normally
kept as a spare (although the design permits the three towers to be operated simultaneously).
There is an electrostatic precipitator for each unit that is used for particulate control. After the
flue gases pass through the precipitator, they are scrubbed with limestone in the dual-loop spray
towers (except for the gas that is bypassed). The gases are ducted into a 650-ft. (198-m) concrete
chimney lined with acid-resistant brick. Particulate removal efficiency is 99% and SO2 removal
efficiency is 90%. Gypsum is produced as a by-product.

3.30.2 Chemistry

Fuel –The fuel used is typically low-sulfur coal and petroleum coke. An analysis of the fuel
shows that it contains 1.0% sulfur, 10% ash, and 0.15% chlorides. The fuel has a heating value of
12,500 BTUs per pound (6,945 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The recycled scrubbing medium is a 12% solids slurry containing from
8% to 12% limestone and 2000 to 5000 ppm chlorides at a pH value of 5.7 to 6.2. Other
components were not identified.

NOx Control – Both units have low-NOx burners. NOx removal efficiency is not reported.

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3.30.3 Equipment Manufacturer

Research Cottrell had complete responsibility for design, engineering, construction, and startup
of the two FGD units. A schematic of the absorber system used at St. Johns River Power Park
Units 1 and 2 is shown in Figure 3-31.

Figure 3-31
St. Johns River Power Park Units 1 and 2 Absorber System

3.30.4 Operating History

Unit 1 began operation in December 1986, and Unit 2 started up in March 1988. Recycle piping
was replaced in 1994.

3.30.5 Materials Specifications

The St. Johns River Power Park FGD inlets are either 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick high-strength low-
alloy steel (ASTM A242 Type 1) or 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Alloy C-22. The service temperature
is 330°F (165.5°C). The outlet duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with borosilicate
glass blocks. However, there is a concern that reheating the gas from 129°F to 330°F (53.9°C to

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165.6°C) could cause the wet blocks to explode. The bypass duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick
carbon steel and conveys unscrubbed gas back into the chimney to raise the gas temperature.

The spray tower inlets, walls, and sumps are carbon steel lined with 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick Alloy
C-22. There are two-stage demisters at the top of the towers that are polypropylene. The tower
outlet is carbon steel with a 1/40-in. (0.64-mm) thick vinyl ester lining. The contact trays in the
towers are Type 317L stainless steel.

The recycle tank is 1/2- to 3/8-in. (12.7- to 9.5-mm) thick carbon steel lined with a 1/40-in.
(0.64-mm) thick vinyl ester. The agitators are carbon steel with a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) rubber
covering.

The slurry piping is carbon steel with a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick rubber lining. The spray piping
and oxidation headers are Type 317L stainless steel. The slurry valves are rubber-lined carbon
steel. The slurry pumps have rubber-lined carbon steel casings and a 28% chromium-iron
impeller. In general, the service lives of valves and pumps tend to vary from three to six years.

The fans are at room temperature and have 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel housings and
rotor blades.

The expansion joints are of rubber and fabric construction, and the chimney is of acid-resistant
brick construction.

3.31 Salt River Project Coronado Generating Station

3.31.1 General Description

The Salt River Project Coronado Generating Station is a facility with two 425-MW units located
in St. Johns, Arizona. The FGD system is composed of two horizontal absorbers and a hot-side
electrostatic precipitator per unit. The hot-side precipitator is used because of the low
conductivity of the fly ash at normal operating temperatures. If the precipitator temperature is
raised to about 700°F (371.1°C), the conductivity of the fly ash is increased to the point where it
is effectively removed in the precipitator. Accordingly, the flue gas passes through the hot-side
precipitator for particulate removal, after which it is scrubbed with limestone. It is then ducted to
a 470-ft. (143.3-m) concrete chimney with two 500-ft. (152.4-m) FRP flues. The efficiency of
particulate removal is 99.875%, and the efficiency of SO2 removal is 90%.

3.31.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The coal used is a subbituminous coal with 0.35% to 0.45% sulfur, 3% to15% ash, and a
heating value of 8,700 to 9,700 BTUs per pound (3,166.9 to 5,389.3 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides and
fluorides are 0.11% and 80 micrograms per gram, respectively.

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Scrubber Medium – The scrubbing medium is comprised of 100% limestone. As for the
recycled medium, only the pH value of 5.8 to 6.1 and the total solids of 10 to 15 ppm were
reported.

NOx control – The station has not made any provision for NOx reduction, and there are no NOx
controls except for burner controls.

3.31.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The equipment manufacturer was not identified.

3.31.4 Operating History

Unit 1 was built in 1979, and Unit 2 was built in 1980. A schematic of the FGD system
employed at the Coronado Generating Station is shown in Figure 3-32.

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Figure 3-32
Salt River Project Coronado Generating Station FGD System

3.31.5 Materials Specifications

The ductwork and the absorber components are constructed of carbon steel with various types of
coatings or linings such as flakeglass, calcium aluminate hydraulic cement, or ceramic fiber-
reinforced epoxy.

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The inlet, outlet, and bypass ducts are carbon steel lined with either the hydraulic cement or the
fiber-reinforced epoxy. Usually the fiber-reinforced epoxy is used in conjunction with a
flakeglass coating. The absorbers are also constructed of carbon steel but with a 2-in. (50.8-mm)
thick hydraulic cement lining at the inlet and a flakeglass fiber-reinforced epoxy lining on the
floor. Stainless steels are being evaluated for outlet ducts after frequent failures of the linings on
carbon steel.

The reaction tank and the agitators are rubber-lined or rubber-covered carbon steel. The slurry
piping is of carbon steel with a synthetic urethane lining. The slurry valves are made of an
unidentified stainless steel, and the slurry pumps make use of rubber-lined cast steel casings and
impellers.

The expansion joints are stainless steel and rubber-lined carbon steel. The inlet dampers are
carbon steel, and the outlet dampers are stainless steel. The types of stainless steel used for the
various components are yet to be identified.

The chimney breaching is hydraulic cement-lined carbon steel, and the chimney is concrete with
two flues of FRP.

3.32 San Antonio City Public Service J. K. Spruce Station

3.32.1 General Description

The J. K. Spruce Station is a 590-MW facility located in San Antonio, Texas. The FGD system
has two baghouses and three wet limestone open-spray towers with three spray levels. The flue
gases pass first through the baghouse fabric filters for particulate removal. They are then
scrubbed with a limestone slurry for SO2 removal and ducted into a 525-ft. (160-m) concrete
chimney with an Alloy C-276 sheet-lined (wallpapered) flue. The efficiency of particulate
removal is 99%, and the efficiency of SO2 removal is 72%. The efficiency of NOx removal is not
reported.

3.32.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is subbituminous Wyoming coal with 0.31% sulfur, 5.5% ash, and a heating
value of 8,450 s per pound (4,694.8 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides are not reported, but fluorides are
shown as 59 ppm.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is essentially pure calcium carbonate. The
recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of 5.54, a calcium content of 21.35%, a sulfate
content of 54.71%, and a magnesium content of 0.32%. Chlorides are 10,791 ppm, dissolved
solids are 4.78%, and total solids are 17%.

NOx control – The units have low-NOx burners with overfire air and controlled concentrated
firing. NOx removal efficiency is not reported.

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3.32.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD designer is Alstom Power. An absorber system similar to the one shown in Figure 3-33
is employed at J. K. Spruce Station.

Figure 3-33
San Antonio City Public Service J. K. Spruce Station – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray
System

3.32.4 Operating History

The startup date for the FGD facility was 1992, and there have been no major changes since
then.

3.32.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet duct from the damper to the absorber and into the absorber wet/dry zone is Alloy C-
276. The rest of the absorber’s walls, floors, and outlet ducts are Type 317LMN stainless steel.
The demisters are FRP. The inlet temperature is 310°F (154.4°C), and the outlet temperature is
139°F (59.4°C).

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The reaction/recycle tanks are constructed of Type 317LMN stainless steel, and the agitators are
Type 317LMN with a Type 316 stainless steel hub. The slurry piping is FRP. The spray piping is
Type 317LMN stainless steel with silicon carbide spray nozzles. The slurry valves are Type
317LMN stainless steel.

The slurry pumps have a carbon steel casing with a rubber lining and impellers that are a 28%
chromium-iron alloy. The fans are carbon steel with ASTM A514 alloy steel blades. The
expansion joints are made of an elastomeric material.

The inlet and outlet dampers are 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick Type 317LMN stainless steel.
Information on the service lives of the various components is not available. The breaching is
3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) Alloy C-276 sheet. The
chimney is concrete with a 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick carbon steel flue with a 1/16-in. (1.6-mm)
thick Alloy C-276 sheet lining.

3.33 Southern Company Yates Unit 1

3.33.1 General Description

Southern Company Yates Unit 1 is a 100-MW facility located in Newnan, Georgia. The FGD
system is composed of one electrostatic precipitator for the removal of particulates and a forced-
oxidation Chiyoda JBR for the removal of SO2. In this system, the flue gases are passed through
the electrostatic precipitator for the removal of 99.9% of the particulates. They are then sent
through a gas-to-gas heater and a gas cooler prior to being sparged into a gypsum and limestone
slurry in the bottom of the JBR for the removal of the SO2. The scrubbed flue gases are ducted
into a 258-ft. (78.6-m) steel chimney with an FRP liner. The efficiency of SO2 removal is 90% to
99%. Gypsum is stacked and sold as a by-product.

3.33.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is subbituminous coal with an operating sulfur content of 0.5% to 1% and a
design content of 2.8%. The ash content is 9% to 10%, and the heating value is 10,000 to 12,000
BTUs per pound (5,556 to 6,667.2 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides are 0.05%, and fluorides are 10 to 20
ppm.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 95% calcium carbonate (of which 90% is less
than 200 mesh). The recirculated scrubber medium has a pH value of 3.0 to 5.0, a sulfate level of
5 to 10 ppm, a calcium level of 200 to 500 ppm, and a magnesium level of 30 to 70 ppm.
Chlorides range from 10,000 ppm to a maximum of 68,000 ppm with dissolved solids of 120,000
ppm and total solids of 5% to 25%.

NOx Control – The Yates unit has low-NOx burners. The efficiency of NOx removal is not
known.

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3.33.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The JBR was designed by Chiyoda, the FRP units were designed by Ershigs, and the balance of
the plant was designed by Southern Company.

3.33.4 Operating History

The Yates FGD unit started up in 1993, and there have been no major changes in equipment or
materials since then. Figure 3-34 provides a schematic of the Yates Unit 1 FGD system.

Figure 3-34
Southern Company Yates Unit 1 FGD System

3.33.5 Materials Specifications

Most of the major components (except for items such as pumps, valves, and fans) are constructed
of FRP. For example, the inlet ducts are 1-1/4-in. (31.8-mm) thick FRP, and the outlet ducts are
1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick FRP. There is no bypass duct. The FRP absorber has a 1-1/4-in. (31.8-
mm) thick inlet, 1- to 2-in. (25.4- to 50.8-mm) thick walls, 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick floors, and
3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick demisters. Operating temperatures range from 300°F (149°C) at the inlet

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to 130°F (54°C) at the outlet. Except for some abrasion on the absorber walls from the absorber
sprays, service has been reported as excellent.

Recycle tanks are FRP with rubber-covered agitators. The slurry piping is FRP with some small
diameter piping of high-density polyethylene. The spray nozzles are silicon nitride with bonded
carbide. Prequench nozzles are Alloy C-276 with some corrosion occurring after 10 years of
service.

Two different types of slurry knifegate valves are in use. The Warman valves are natural rubber-
lined carbon steel and have performed well. The Nucon valves are aluminum-lined with natural
rubber, but the aluminum body has been destroyed.

The slurry pumps have rubber-lined ductile iron casings and CD4MCu impellers. The
performance of the impellers is 6 to 10 years, but the casings last about one-half as long.

The fans have unlined carbon steel housings. The rotor blades are carbon steel with chromium-
carbide coverings. Performance has been good for these components as well.

The expansion joints are Teflon-lined. The inlet dampers are carbon steel. No outlet or isolation
dampers are used.

The chimney breaching is 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick FRP, and the steel chimney has a 1/2-in.
(12.7-mm) thick FRP liner.

3.34 Springfield Water, Light, and Power Company Dallman Unit 3

3.34.1 General Description

Dallman Unit 3 is a 192-MW facility located in Springfield, Illinois. The FGD system is
composed of a cold-side electrostatic precipitator for particulate control and a double-loop
limestone forced-oxidation system with two spray absorber towers. After the flue gas passes
through the electrostatic precipitator, it is scrubbed with a limestone slurry with added organic
dibasic acids to increase SO2 removal. It is then ducted into a 496-ft. (151.2-m) concrete chimney
lined with acid-resistant brick. The efficiency of particulate removal is 99.5%, and the efficiency
of SO2 removal is 95%. The NOx removal efficiency is 92%. Gypsum is recovered as a by-
product.

3.34.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is an Illinois bituminous coal with a sulfur content of about 3%, a chloride
content of about 0.11%, an ash content of 8.5% to 10%, and a heating value of 10,200 to 10,500
BTUs per pound (5,667.1 to 5,833.8 kg-cal/kg).

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Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 96% limestone. It has a pH value between 4.5 and
6.1, a chloride level of 10,000 to 15,000 ppm, and small amounts of calcium (96 ppm) and
magnesium (2 ppm). The quenched slurry solids concentration is about 15,000 ppm.

NOx Control – SCR is used to assist in achieving a NOx removal efficiency of 92%.

3.34.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The spray towers were designed by Research Cottrell and the electrostatic precipitator was
designed by Belco Corporation.

3.34.4 Operating History

The Dallman unit started up in late 1980. A forced-oxidation unit was installed in 1993. Design
changes as well as the installation of Alloy C-276 linings and SCR took place in 1998.

3.34.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet ducts are carbon steel to the damper. From the damper to the absorber, the ducts were
of Alloy 904L stainless steel, which experienced severe corrosion. As a result, it was decided to
line that portion of the duct with Alloy C-276 sheet, which performed satisfactorily. In addition,
the duct was sloped to avoid buildup.

A similar pitting corrosion problem was also encountered with the Alloy 904L stainless steel
quench section and the sump. The quench section and the sump were lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-
mm) thick Alloy C-276, and no further corrosion problems have been encountered.

The absorber walls above the quench area are Type 316L stainless steel and are satisfactory. The
absorber collection bowl located in the center of the absorber is constructed of Alloy 904L
stainless steel with a polymeric coating on the bottom to minimize pitting problems. The
absorber system for Dallman Unit 3 is shown schematically in Figure 3-35.

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Figure 3-35
Springfield Water, Light, and Power Company Dallman Unit 3 Absorber System

The absorber outlet is of Type 316L stainless steel, which appears to be performing
satisfactorily. The outlet duct (which was of Alloy 904L stainless steel) exhibited pitting attack
and was lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276.

The slurry valves are butterfly-type with rubber linings and knifegate valves with Type 316L
stainless steel blades. Some valves are rubber-lined plug valves. The Type 316L stainless steel
knifegate valves are preferred.

The slurry pumps have rubber-lined casings and impellers. Alloy impellers are being evaluated.
The fans are forced-draft and dry, so carbon steel performs satisfactorily.

The expansion joints are elastomeric, but some failures have occurred. The inlet dampers are
carbon steel, and the outlet dampers are Alloy 904L stainless steel.

The chimney is reinforced concrete with an acid-resistant brick lining.

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3.35 Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2

3.35.1 General Description

Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2 are located in Apollo Beach, Florida, and consist of two 445-
MW boilers. Each of the boilers is equipped with a two-chamber electrostatic precipitator for
particulate removal. The FGD system utilizes one large limestone forced-oxidation tray tower for
the removal of SO2 from the flue gases from both units. After being scrubbed with a limestone
slurry, the flue gas is ducted to a 490-ft. (149.4-m) concrete chimney with an acid-resistant brick
liner. The efficiency of particulate removal is above 98%, and the SO2 removal efficiency is 95%
on a 30-day rolling average. The NOx removal will be accomplished by way of an SCR, which is
in the process of being retrofitted to the units.

3.35.2 Chemistry
Fuel – The fuel used is bituminous coal with an average chloride content of 0.10%, a sulfur
content of 3%, an ash content of 10%, and a heating value of 11,500 BTUs per pound (6,389.4
kg-cal/kg).
Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 98% calcium carbonate, and the recycled medium
has a pH value of 5.0, a sulfate content of 95%, a chloride level of 30,000 ppm, and a total solids
content of 25%. Dibasic acids are added to increase SO2 removal efficiency, and forced oxidation
is used to produce commercial grade gypsum.

NOx Control – Standard burners are used, and there is no other form of NOx control. However,
projects have been started to retrofit the units with SCR in 2009 and 2010 for increased NOx
removal.

3.35.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The Washington Group was responsible for engineering. Wheelabrator designed the
absorber/scrubber.

3.35.4 Operating History

The FGD system began operation in 2000. A schematic of the absorber system employed at Big
Bend Units 1 and 2 is shown in Figure 3-36. A photograph of the system is shown in
Figure 3-37.

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Figure 3-36
Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2 Absorber System

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Figure 3-37
Exterior View of Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 1 and 2 Absorber System

3.35.5 Materials Specifications

The Big Bend Units 1 and 2 absorber is one of the largest limestone forced-oxidation tray towers
built for FGD. It is constructed entirely of roll-bonded Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel plate (1/16-
in./1.6-mm cladding) except for the tray and internal piping (which are solid Alloy C-276) and
the demisters (which are polypropylene).

The inlet duct to the absorber is of unlined carbon steel, but the outlet duct is of roll-bonded
Alloy C-276 clad plate with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) cladding. Temperatures are 305°F (151.7°C) in
the absorber and 125°F (52°C) out of the absorber.

The reaction tank walls, floors, and agitators are also constructed of roll-bonded Alloy C-276
clad carbon steel plate. The slurry piping is high-density polyethylene, and the spray nozzles are
silicon carbide with Alloy C-276 Victaulic couplings.

The slurry valves are knifegate but are not further identified. The slurry pumps were
manufactured by Warman and have rubber-covered casings and alloy impellers.

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The fans have carbon steel housings and blades. The guillotine dampers and valves are of carbon
steel construction. The chimney has a concrete shell with an Alloy C-276 breaching and an acid-
resistant brick lining.

3.36 Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 3 and 4

3.36.1 General Description

Big Bend Station Unit 3 is a 465-MW facility and Unit 4 is a 485-MW facility. Both units are
located in Apollo Beach, Florida. The FGD system is composed of four limestone forced-
oxidation double-loop tray towers. The flue gases are scrubbed with a limestone slurry with
forced-oxidation for gypsum recovery. They are ducted to two 490-ft. (149.4-m) concrete
chimneys. The efficiency of particulate removal is 99.8%, and the overall efficiency of SO2
removal is 95%. The NOx removal of approximately 90% will be accomplished through the use
of an SCR, which is presently being retrofitted to the units. Gypsum is produced as a saleable by-
product.

3.36.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is bituminous coal and up to 20% petroleum coke. The fuel has a chloride
content of 0.1%, a sulfur content of 3.0%, an ash content of 10%, and a heating value of 11,500
BTUs per pound (6,389.4 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 98% calcium carbonate. The recycled medium has
a pH value of 5.1 in the upper loop and a pH value of 4.0 in the lower loop. The chloride level is
15,000 ppm in the upper loop and 30,000 ppm in the lower loop. Total solids are 15% in the
upper loop and 20% in the lower loop.

NOx Control – Unit 3 has low-NOx burners and uses overfire air for NOx control. Unit 4 has
regular burners. Plans are being made to retrofit Unit 4 with SCR in 2007 and Unit 3 with SCR
in 2008. The efficiency of NOx removal is presently70% on Unit 4 and 90% on Unit 3.

3.36.3 Equipment Manufacturer

Stone and Webster was the engineering firm, and Research Cottrell was the absorber/scrubber
designer. The absorber system employed at Big Bend Units 3 and 4 is shown in Figure 3-38.

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Figure 3-38
Tampa Electric Company Big Bend Station Units 3 and 4 Absorber System

3.36.4 Operating History

The FGD system was installed on Unit 4 in 1985 and on Unit 3 in 1996. Unit 4 was refurbished
after a fire in 1988. Units 3 and 4 were changed from packed towers to tray towers by
Wheelabrator Air Pollution Control in 2002.

3.36.5 Materials Specifications

The absorber vessels are made of two sections. The lower or quench section is constructed of
Alloy 625, and the upper section is constructed of Alloy 904L. The collection trays located near
the center of the towers are a 6% Mo alloy. The inlet temperature to the absorbers is 300°F
(149°C), and the outlet temperature is 125°F (52°C).

The inlet ducts to the absorbers are unlined carbon steel. They are encountering acid dew point
corrosion in the section ahead of the absorbers. The problem is being corrected by lining the
affected areas with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) Alloy C-276 sheet. The carbon steel outlet ducts are lined
with a flakeglass-filled vinyl ester, and there have been no problems to date.

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The recycle tanks are carbon steel lined with an abrasion-resistant flakeglass-filled vinyl ester.
The agitators are rubber-covered.

The external slurry piping is high-density polyethylene, and the nozzles are silicon carbide with
either Alloy C-276 or Alloy 904L headers. The knifegate valves are of unidentified composition.
The slurry pumps were manufactured by Warman with 3-in. (76.2-mm) thick rubber-lined
casings. The impellers have a 3-in. (76.2-mm) thick rubber covering.

The fan housings and rotor blades are carbon steel.

The breaching to the chimney is Alloy C-276, and the chimney itself has a concrete shell and an
acid-resistant brick lining. The service temperature is about 125°F (52°C).

3.37 Trans Alta Centralia Generation LLC Units 1 and 2

3.37.1 General Description

The Centralia Plant is a 1400-MW facility located in Centralia, Washington. It was originally
owned by PacifiCorp but was sold to Canadian firm Trans Alta. The FGD system has two 700-
MW limestone forced-oxidation spray towers. Each tower has four spray levels. The flue gases
are scrubbed with limestone slurry with forced-oxidation for gypsum recovery and are ducted
into two 470-ft. (143.3-m) Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel chimney flues. The efficiency of
particulate removal is 99.5% using two electrostatic precipitators, and the efficiency of sulfur
oxide removal is 91%. The NOx removal is approximately 35%. Gypsum is produced as a
saleable by-product.

3.37.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is subbituminous coal with a chloride content of 148 ppm, a sulfur content
of 1.0%, a fluoride content of 20 ppm, an ash content of 22%, and a heating value of 7,850 BTUs
per pound (4,361.5 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 95% calcium carbonate with a pH value of 5.35
and a magnesium content of 2800 ppm. The chloride level is about 1500 ppm, and total solids
are about 15%.

NOx Control – The burners are low-NOx Alstom burners.

3.37.3 Equipment Manufacturer

Stone and Webster is the general contractor, and Alstom is the FGD design firm. One
electrostatic precipitator is from Koppers, and the second precipitator is from Lodge-Cottrell.

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3.37.4 Operating History

The FGD system on Unit 2 began operation in 2001, and the system on Unit 1 began operation in
2002. A schematic of the absorber system employed at Centralia Units 1 and 2 is shown in
Figure 3-39.

Figure 3-39
Trans Alta Centralia Generation LLC Centralia Units 1 and 2 Absorber System

3.37.5 Materials Specifications

The Centralia Units 1 and 2 absorbers are constructed entirely of Type 317LMN stainless steel
except for the absorber inlets, which are Alloy C-276. Internals and spray piping are Type
317LMN stainless steel with ceramic nozzles. The demisters are polysulfone.

The inlet ducts are carbon steel up to the wet/dry interface, after which they are Alloy C-276.
The outlet ducts are Alloy C-276, and the bypass duct is carbon steel lined (wallpapered) with
Alloy C-276. Flue gas inlet temperatures are about 320°F (160°C), and outlet temperatures are
about 130°F (54°C). The slurry piping is FRP. The slurry pumps have rubber-lined casings with
impellers of stainless steel of an unknown composition. However, it appears that Warman pumps
may have been used. If that is the case, the impellers could be of a cast 28% chromium-iron
alloy.

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The recycle/reaction tanks are Type 317LMN stainless steel with Alloy C-276 agitators. The fans
are carbon steel, and the dampers are carbon steel with Alloy 625 seals.

The chimney itself has a concrete shell with two roll-bonded Alloy C-276 clad carbon steel flues.
The breaching is Alloy C-276.

3.38 Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative Escalante Station

3.38.1 General Description

The Escalante Station of Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative is located in


Prewitt, New Mexico. It is a 250-MW facility with an FGD system that is composed of a
baghouse fabric filter and three countercurrent wet limestone absorbers. The flue gases pass
through the baghouse for the removal of 99.5% of the particulates. They are then scrubbed with a
limestone slurry for SO2 removal. The scrubbed gas is ducted into a 450-ft. (137.2-m) concrete
chimney that is lined with acid-resistant brick. The efficiency of SO2 removal is 95%.

3.38.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is subbituminous coal with a sulfur content of 0.84%, an ash content of
18.5%, and a heating value of 9,200 BTUs per pound (5,111.5 kg-cal/kg). Chlorides are almost
nonexistent but are reported as 0.01%.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 90% to 95% calcium carbonate and 2.5%
magnesium carbonate with the balance composed of inerts. The recycled scrubber medium has a
pH value of 5.6, a sulfate content of 100,000 ppm, a calcium content of 24,000 ppm, and a
magnesium content of 3400 ppm. The chloride content is 6000 ppm, the dissolved solids are
70,000 ppm, and the total solids are 20%.

NOx Control – The burners are controlled-combustion type with overfire air. There are no other
items of equipment that are used for NOx control, and NOx removal efficiency is not reported.

3.38.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD designer/supplier was Burns and McDonald. An absorber design similar to the one
shown in Figure 3-40 is employed at Escalante Station.

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Figure 3-40
Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative Escalante Station – A Generic
Absorber Open-Spray System

3.38.4 Operating History


The Escalante Station FGD system began operation in 1984. Equipment changes included
replacement of some slurry piping, mist eliminator washer changes, and the installation of
performance enhancement plates (PEP) in the absorbers to avoid channeling of the flue gas. All
changes were made in 2002.

3.38.5 Materials Specifications

The inlet duct to the absorber is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) unlined carbon steel, and the absorber outlet
duct is 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Alloy G. The bypass duct is also 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Alloy
G.

The absorber inlet area, which includes the wet/dry zone and the walls, is 3/16-in. (4.8-mm)
thick Type 316L stainless steel. The demisters are polysulfone. No corrosion problems have been
reported in the ductwork or the absorber. Service lives are projected at 6 to 10 years.

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The reaction/recycle tank walls and floor are carbon steel lined with 3/20 in. (3.81 mm) of a
glass-cloth reinforced, modified, and catalyzed abrasion-resistant epoxy. The agitators are Type
316L stainless steel. Corrosion has not been a problem. Service lives are projected to be 6 to 10
years.

The slurry and spray piping are FRP. The slurry valve compositions are not identified, but the
slurry pumps have natural rubber-lined cast iron casings that are noted to be performing
satisfactorily.

The materials used for fan housings and rotor blades are not identified, but it is believed that they
are carbon steel. Expansion joints are probably elastomers such as Viton. The inlet dampers are
Type 316L stainless steel, and the outlet dampers are Alloy G.

The chimney breaching is 3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick Alloy G, and the chimney is concrete lined
with acid-resistant brick.

3.39 Tennessee Valley Authority Cumberland Units 1 and 2

3.39.1 General Description

TVA Cumberland Station is a 2600-MW facility located at Cumberland City, Tennessee. It is


composed of two 1300-MW units. Each unit has an electrostatic precipitator and three modules
that are equipped with a limestone forced-oxidation open-spray tower for FGD. After the flue
gases are scrubbed with limestone, they are ducted into a 640-ft. (195.1-m) concrete chimney
with an Alloy C-276 liner. The efficiency of particulate removal is almost 100%, and the
efficiency of SO2 removal is 96%. The NOx removal efficiency is 90%. Gypsum is recovered as a
by-product.

3.39.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The bituminous coal used has the average characteristics of 2.8% sulfur, 9.5% ash, a
heating value of 12,500 BTUs per pound (6,945 kg-cal/kg), and very low chloride and fluoride
levels of 0.015 ppm and 0.002 ppm, respectively.

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 93% calcium carbonate, 4% magnesium


carbonate, and 3% silicon dioxide. The recycled medium has a pH value of 5.9 and contains
2400 ppm of sulfates, 1100 ppm of chlorides, dissolved solids of 6400 ppm, and total solids of
15%. Calcium, magnesium, and fluoride levels are 700 ppm, 350 ppm, and 10 ppm, respectively.

NOx Control – The unit is equipped with low-NOx burners and an SCR system that results in
NOx removal efficiencies of 90%.

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3.39.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD designer was Raytheon.

3.39.4 Operating History

The TVA Cumberland Station units started up in 1994 and 1995. An absorber system similar to
the one shown in Figure 3-41 is employed at Cumberland Units 1 and 2.

Figure 3-41
Tennessee Valley Authority Cumberland Units 1 and 2 – A Generic Absorber Open-Spray
System

3.39.5 Materials Specifications

The flue gas enters the absorber at a temperature of 315°F (157.2°C) through a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm)
thick carbon steel inlet duct that is lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Alloy C-276. The absorber
inlet, walls, and outlet are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with Type 316L stainless
steel sheets. The thickness of the sheet lining on the walls was increased from 1/16 to 1/8 in. (1.6
to 3.2 mm) because of a possible problem of abrasion from impingement of the scrubber slurry.
The absorber floors are concrete with a 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick epoxy coating. The service
temperature is 130°F (54°C) with a life expectancy of at least 10 years.

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The recycle tanks have 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel walls lined with 1/4-in. (6.4-mm)
thick rubber. The concrete floors are coated with 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) of epoxy. The impellers,
which are side-mounted, are solid Alloy G-304.

The slurry and spray piping are FRP, and the slurry valves are knifegate of an unidentified
composition. Slurry pumps are cast with a rubber lining. The impellers are a 28% chromium-iron
alloy.

The fan housings and the rotor blades are ASTM A514, a high-strength constructional alloy
steel. The inlet dampers are high-strength low-alloy steel ASTM A242 Type 1. The outlet
dampers are duplex stainless steel Alloy 255. The damper thickness is 3/4 in. (19.1 mm). The
expansion joints are a patented Darlyn CB 1100 elastomer. The chimney breaching and the
chimney liner are constructed of 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/16-in. (1.6-mm)
sheet lining of Alloy C-276.

3.40 Tennessee Valley Authority Paradise Units 1 and 2

3.40.1 General Description

TVA Paradise Units 1 and 2 are 700-MW facilities located in Drakesboro, Kentucky. The FGD
system for each unit is composed of six combined venturi prescrubbers and spray tower
absorbers with forced-air oxidation. There are no electrostatic precipitators. Both particulate
removal and limestone slurry scrubbing to remove SO2 take place in the venturi absorbers. The
scrubbed gas passes through mist eliminators and into a 600-ft. (182.9-m) chimney. The SO2
removal efficiency is 84%. Gypsum is ponded as a by-product.

3.40.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The fuel used is Western Kentucky bituminous coal with the average characteristics of
sulfur content of 2.6%, an ash content of 8.5%, chloride content of 0.03%, fluoride content of
0.26%, and a heating value of 11,400 BTUs per pound (6,333.8 kg-cal/kg).

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 95% calcium carbonate and 2 to 3% magnesium
carbonate; the remainder is acid insolubles. The recirculated medium has a pH value of 5.8, a
sulfate content of 2500 ppm, calcium content of 750 ppm, magnesium content of 400 ppm,
chloride content of 670 ppm, and fluoride content of 6.7 ppm. Dissolved solids are 5000 ppm
and total solids are 13%.

NOx Control – Overfire air and SCR are used to obtain a NOx removal efficiency of 90%.

4
Alloy G-30 is a registered trademark of Haynes International, Inc.

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Individual Utility Responses

3.40.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The original FGD designer was Chemico. The designer later became Advatech. Figure 3-42
provides a schematic of the FGD system employed at Paradise Units 1 and 2.

Figure 3-42
Tennessee Valley Authority Paradise Units 1 and 2 FGD System

3.40.4 Operating History

The FGD systems began operation in 1983. The SCR systems were added in 2001 and 2002.

3.40.5 Materials Specifications

The flue gases enter the venturi absorbers through 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick ASTM A242, Type 1
high-strength low-alloy steel ducts and inlets at a temperature of approximately 280°F (137.8°C).
After the flue gases are quenched, the temperature in the absorbers drops to about 125°F (52°C).

The venturi absorbers have Type 317L stainless steel inlets, wall, outlets, and demisters, all of
which have performed well. The absorber floors are 5/16-in. (7.9-mm) thick ASTM A242, Type
1 high-strength low-alloy steel with a 3/50-in. (1.5-mm) thick flakeglass coating. However,
attack does occur on the absorber floors with the service life varying from as little as 3 years or

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Individual Utility Responses

less to 10 years or less. In general, the absorbers do not exhibit much corrosion and have a
service life expectancy of about 25 years. By contrast, the outlet duct is constructed of 1/4-in.
(6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Type 317L stainless steel lining. It
lasted approximately 10 years before it was replaced.

The reaction/recycle tanks are carbon steel with a 3/50-in. (1.5-mm) thick flakeglass coating and
Type 317L stainless steel impellers. However, as with the flakeglass coatings on the absorber
floor, the service life of the coatings is quite variable depending on the location in the module.
The slurry piping for Unit 1 is rubber-lined carbon steel and for Unit 2 is FRP. The spray nozzles
on both units are silicon carbide. The slurry valves are Type 317L stainless steel, and the slurry
pumps have rubber-lined cast metal casings with impellers of a high-chromium iron alloy. The
service life of the casings is approximately 10 years, but the impeller life varies depending on the
scrubber module.

The fans are induced draft and have 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick Type 317L stainless steel housings
with 1/2-in. (12.7-mm) thick Alloy 625 rotor blades. They operate at a temperature of about
125°F (52°C) and have given very good service for about 25 years.

The inlet dampers are ASTM A242, Type 1 high-strength low-alloy steel. The outlet dampers are
Type 317L stainless steel. Material thickness is 3/4 in. (19.1 mm), and performance has been
very good with a service life of about 25 years. Expansion joints are patented Darlyn 1100 CB
elastomer and a Viton elastomer.

The breaching is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick lining of
Type 317L stainless steel. The chimney has a concrete shell and is lined with acid-resistant brick.
The stainless steel and brick linings should last about 10 years before replacement is necessary.

3.41 Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 7

3.41.1 General Description

TVA Widows Creek Unit 7 is a 500-MW facility located in Stevenson, Alabama. The FGD
system has four venturi scrubbers followed by open-spray tower absorbers. The flue gas passes
through electrostatic precipitators and is scrubbed with a limestone slurry. The flue gas is then
ducted into a 500-ft. (152.4-m) concrete chimney lined with acid-resistant brick. The efficiency
of particulate removal is 75%, and the efficiency of SO2 removal is 88%. The NOx removal
efficiency is 90%.

3.41.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The bituminous coal used contains 2.8% sulfur and 10% ash. It has a heating value of
12,500 BTUs per pound (6,945 kg-cal/kg). It also contains small amounts of chlorides (0.015%)
and fluorides (0.002%).

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Individual Utility Responses

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is 92% calcium carbonate with 4% magnesium
carbonate and 4% silicon dioxide. The recycled medium has a pH value of 5.8 and contains 2400
ppm of sulfates, 1000 ppm of chlorides, dissolved solids of 5000 ppm, and total solids of 12%.
Calcium, magnesium, and fluoride levels are 800 ppm, 350 ppm, and 100 ppm, respectively.

NOx Control – The unit is equipped with low-NOx burners and an SCR which results in NOx
removal efficiencies of 90%.

3.41.3 Equipment Manufacturer

Alstom is the absorber/scrubber designer. Western Precipitator (Joy) provided the electrostatic
precipitators. A schematic of the absorber system employed at Widows Creek Unit 7 is shown in
Figure 3-43.

Figure 3-43
Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 7 Absorber System

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Individual Utility Responses

3.41.4 Operating History

The FGD unit began operation in 1981. The SCR was added in 2003.

3.41.5 Materials Specifications

The venturi prescrubbers are constructed of Type 317L stainless steel with refractory tile linings.
The absorber inlet, walls, and outlet are constructed of 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 317L
stainless steel. The floor is concrete. The inlet duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel, and the
outlet duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel lined with 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) thick Type 317L
stainless steel. The absorber inlet temperature is 295°F (146.1°C), and the absorber outlet
temperature is 130°F (54°C) with reheat to 175°F (79.4°C) to minimize corrosion.

The recycle/reaction tank is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a rubber lining on the walls
and a concrete floor. The agitator is Type 317L stainless steel. The slurry and spray piping are
FRP, and the nozzles are silicon carbide. The slurry valves are gate-type and are Type 317L
stainless steel. The slurry pump casings are rubber-lined, and the impellers are rubber-covered
castings.

The fans have ASTM A514 alloy steel housing and Alloy 255 duplex stainless steel rotor blades.
They operate at 175°F (79.4°C). The expansion joints are made of a patented elastomer (Darlyn
1100 CB) and a Viton elastomer. The inlet dampers are 3/4-in. (19.1-mm) thick high-strength
low-alloy steel (ASTM A242 Type 1), and the outlet dampers are 3/4-in. (19.1-mm) thick Type
317L stainless steel.

The chimney breaching is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) thick Type
317L stainless steel lining. The chimney is lined with acid-resistant brick.

3.42 Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8

3.42.1 General Description

TVA Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 500-MW facility located near Stevenson, Alabama. The FGD
system has four variable-throat venturi scrubbers followed by open-spray tower absorbers. In the
absence of a precipitator, the venturi prescrubbers remove particulates from the flue gas before it
enters the absorbers. In the absorbers, the flue gas is scrubbed with a limestone slurry and ducted
into a 500-ft. (152.4-m) brick-lined concrete chimney. The efficiency of particulate removal is
75%, and the efficiency of SO2 removal is 95%. The NOx removal efficiency is 90%. Gypsum is
not recovered.

3.42.2 Chemistry

Fuel – The bituminous coal used contains about 2.8% sulfur and 10% ash. It has a heating value
of 12,500 BTUs per pound (6,945 kg-cal/kg). It also contains small amounts of chlorides
(0.015%) and fluorides (0.002%).

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Individual Utility Responses

Scrubber Medium – The scrubber medium is about 92% calcium carbonate with approximately
4% magnesium carbonate and 4% silicon dioxide. The recycled scrubber medium has a pH value
of 5.8 and contains about 2400 ppm of sulfates, 1000 ppm of chlorides, dissolved solids of 5000
ppm, and total solids of 12%. Calcium, magnesium, and fluoride levels are 800 ppm.

NOx Control – The unit is equipped with low-NOx burners and an SCR system that results in
NOx removal efficiencies of about 90%.

3.42.3 Equipment Manufacturer

The FGD system was originally designed by TVA. It was later retrofitted by Advatech. A
schematic of the absorber system employed at Widows Creek Unit 8 is shown in Figure 3-44.

Figure 3-44
Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Absorber System

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3.42.4 Operating History

The FGD unit began operation in 1978. It was retrofitted with SCR in 2004.

3.42.5 Material Specifications

The venturi prescrubbers are constructed of Type 317L stainless steel with refractory tile liners.
The absorber inlet and walls are 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/16-in. (1.6-mm)
thick sheet lining of Type 317L stainless steel. The outlet is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick Type 317L
stainless steel. The floor is concrete with a rubber lining. The inlet duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick
carbon steel, and the outlet duct is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/16-in. (1.6-mm)
thick Type 317L lining. The absorber inlet temperature is 295°F (146.1°C), and the outlet
temperature is 130°F (54°C). It is reheated to 175°F (79.4°C) to minimize corrosion.

The reaction/recycle tank is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a flakeglass and tile lining
on the walls and a rubber and tile lining on the floor. The agitator is Type 317L stainless steel.
The slurry piping is FRP, and the spray piping is Type 316L stainless steel. The nozzles are
silicon carbide. The gate-type slurry valves are Type 316L stainless steel. The slurry pump
casings and impellers are a cast 28% chromium-iron alloy (Warman).

The fans have ASTM A514 alloy-steel housings and rotor blades. They operate at 175°F
(79.4°C). The expansion joints are of a patented Darlyn 1100 CB elastomer and a Viton
elastomer. The inlet dampers are 3/4-in. (19.1-mm) thick ASTM A242 Type 1 high-strength low-
alloy steel. The outlet dampers are 3/4-in. (19.1-mm) thick Type 317L stainless steel.

The chimney breaching is 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) thick carbon steel with a 1/8-in. (3.2-mm) Type 317L
stainless steel lining. The chimney itself is lined with acid-resistant brick.

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4
FABRICATION AND WELDING OF FGD SYSTEMS

A discussion on the fabrication and welding of FGD materials is most beneficial when it directly
addresses the users’ interests and experiences. The approach used in this section considered the
following points:
• While most readers will be utility engineers with broad FGD system responsibilities and a
working knowledge of welding, they are not usually fabrication or welding specialists.
• Engineers may become involved in monitoring the quality of new component installation.
Guidance is provided on important things to look for in the fabrication, welding, and
inspection of fabricated metallic components.
• Engineers also frequently become involved in the repair or retrofit of components during the
service life of a system. Guidelines and procedures are offered to support that work.

4.1 Guidelines Applicable to All Alloys

4.1.1 Material Storage and Handling

Stainless steel and nickel alloy sheets and plates are usually received in a clean condition, free of
embedded iron, oxide scales, oil, grease, or other surface conditions that could impair welding or
reduce corrosion resistance. The shop or field constructors should have procedures in place to
prevent surface contamination during fabrication, but the utility is well-advised to check that
those procedures are being followed. Some good practices for material identification, storage,
and handling include the following points:
• It is essential to have an alloy identification system, and it is preferable to maintain heat
identity so that every sheet or plate can be traced to a particular mill heat. The constructor
should have a marking system that does not damage the alloy mechanically and does not
contain compounds that could cause defects during welding or contribute to corrosion of the
alloy.
• Free iron embedded on stainless steel surfaces can cause pitting corrosion in many
environments. Nickel alloys are much less affected by free iron and other contaminants, but it
is still important to apply good practices to all alloys. In the storage, handling, and fabrication
of sheets and plates, the use of iron tools and handling fixtures, iron-contaminated abrasive
wheels, wire brushes, or other objects that could embed iron should be avoided.

4-1
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

• Sheets and plates should be stored in vertical racks. Flat storage invites abuse from foot
traffic and contamination from debris that might accumulate on the surface. Carbon steel rack
surfaces that will touch the alloys should be covered with wood, plastic, stainless steel, or
other protective materials to prevent embedding free iron.

4.1.2 Preparation for Welding

The conventional cutting methods for the stainless steels and nickel alloys listed in Table 4-1 are
shearing for sheet and thin plate, sawing and abrasive cutting, machining, plasma arc for both
cutting and gouging the back side of a weld, and carbon arc gouging. Other than good
workmanship in cut edges, the major inspection checkpoint should be removal of dross or oxides
from the thermal process used in cutting edges. This is most efficiently done by light abrasive
grinding with a flapper wheel or rotary disk to remove the oxide without removing a significant
amount of parent metal. Power wire brushing is not effective in removing the tenacious oxides
from these alloys. There is no need to specify a certain amount of metal to be removed from a cut
edge for metallurgical or corrosion considerations.

All oil, grease, dirt, or other foreign substances should be removed prior to welding using a
suitable solvent. Failure to remove contaminants can result in reduced corrosion resistance or, in
extreme instances, embrittlement cracking.

The various fabrication designs to be discussed call for different weld joint designs, but a general
comment can be made regarding tack welds for all joints. Tack welds should be sized and spaced
to minimize distortion during welding. Because of the relatively high thermal expansion of
stainless steel, approximately twice as many tack welds are used for stainless steel compared to
carbon steel. Nickel alloys with thermal expansion close to that of carbon steel require fewer tack
welds than those needed for stainless steel. An essential point is that tack welds should be free of
cracks and oxidation and should be of a size suitable for incorporation into the final weld.

4.1.3 Welding Processes

The three welding processes that are most extensively used to fabricate FGD systems are gas
metal arc welding (GMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), and shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW). Each process has advantages and limitations for the particular type of welding to be
done. GMAW is the process used most extensively for welding sheet and plate components.
GTAW is used mainly for welding pipe and tubular components. Flux-cored arc welding
(FCAW) is starting to be used more often in place of GMAW by some fabricators. SMAW is
used infrequently in FGD systems. A discussion of each of these processes follows.

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Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

GMAW – Most sheet linings are welded by GMAW to take advantage of high welding speeds
and high-quality welds that are free of weld slag. The process offers the same advantage for solid
alloy and roll-bonded clad plate welding. The pulsed-arc (GMAW-P) process has proved to be
excellent for sheet lining and for making heavier section weldments. Some weld parameters
include the following:
• Electrode diameters should be 7/200 and 9/200 in. (0.89 and 1.1 mm).
• Shielding gas for stainless steel is often a gas mixture such as 90% He, 7.5% Ar, and 2.5%
CO2, although other properly qualified mixtures are acceptable.
• Shielding gas for nickel alloys is usually an Ar-He mixture (either 75% Ar-25% He or the
reverse).

Short-circuit gas metal arc welding (GMAW-S) has been used for sheet lining applications with
variable results. The most notable feature can be the tendency for a high-profile (ropey) weld
contour. As is discussed later in this section, high welds or any protrusion can contribute to
deposit buildups that may lead to under-deposit or crevice corrosion. Newer GMAW-S power
sources with waveform control produce more desirable weld contour.

GTAW – High-quality stainless steel and nickel alloy welds are made using the GTAW process,
but the process is considerably slower than GMAW. Two FGD applications in which GTAW is
commonly used are the repair of sheet lining welds and pipe welding. With rare exception, the
root pass for pipe welds should be made by GTAW, and the weld is often completed by GTAW.
Argon is the normal shielding gas and backing gas in pipe welding.

SMAW – SMAW or stick welding is seldom used in FGD construction. In addition to being
slower than GMAW, slag removal and weld cleanup are extra operations. Failure to remove weld
slag invites corrosion in FGD environments. An important advantage SMAW can offer is that
the arc is not affected by air currents or drafts that can blow away the shielding gas in the
aforementioned gas welding processes.

FCAW – The FCAW process offers an alternative to GMAW, particularly in welding thicker
sheets and plate. The Type 316L and 317L flux-cored products are well-established and covered
by AWS A5.22. There is currently no AWS filler metal specification for nickel alloy flux-cored
wires, but there are a number of available proprietary products for Alloys 625, C-22/622, and C-
276. Because there are no filler metal specifications, it is good practice to conduct an individual
welding procedure test for each welding product (for example, a test for each Alloy C-276 cored
wire from each filler metal producer). High-quality welds are obtainable, but all flux must be
removed from the welds that will be exposed to FGD environments.

4.1.4 Welding Procedure Specifications and Welding Performance Qualification

All utility engineers involved in high-pressure components are quite familiar with ASME
welding procedure specifications (WPS) and welding performance qualification (WPQ). While
FGD systems normally do not fall under an ASME Code requirement, it is good practice to
employ ASME Section IX or AWS B2.1 for work to be done by general contractors or
subcontractors or for in-house work. The WPS are useful in ensuring that the weldment proposed

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Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

for construction has the required properties for the intended service. The WPS also have
information that is essential for the engineer and necessary for WPQ.

The alloys listed in Table 4-1 are grouped principally by composition. With some notable
exceptions, the alloys within a group are of the same AWS B2.1 Material Number or ASME
Section IX P-No.

Table 4-1
Selected Alloys for Welding FGD Materials

Material ASME
P-Number

Austenitic stainless steels Material No. 8

• (Except N08904 is Material No. 45)

6 to 7 % Mo superaustenitic stainless steels

• S31254 and S31277 Material No. 8

• N08367 Material No. 45

Duplex stainless steels Material No. 10H

NiCrMo alloys Material No. 44

• (Except N06030 is Material No. 45)

Titanium (unalloyed) Material No. 51

It is important to consider the skill of welders who will be using the previously mentioned
welding processes. Carbon steel welders will observe that there are differences in welding these
alloys compared to carbon steel. Additionally, there are differences between stainless steel and
nickel alloys. The following list highlights a few points of difference:
• The weld contour should be slightly convex to minimize center line cracking in thicker
sections and higher restraint welds.
• An arc-stopping technique must be employed to minimize crater cracks, particularly in nickel
alloy welds.
• The welder must become accustomed to the more sluggish characteristics of the molten
nickel alloy weld metal and should adjust techniques accordingly.

Capable welders generally adjust to these differences if they take time for some practice welding
before undertaking a challenging production weld.

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Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

4.2 Welding FGD System Alloys

The alloys used most widely in FGD systems are shown in Table 2-1 (see Section 2). The carbon
and low-alloy steels are not used in corrosive areas, but rather in noncorrosive applications such
as structural members or hot flue gases above the dew point.

The fabrication and welding techniques used in the construction of stainless steel and nickel
alloy FGD equipment are essentially standard industry practices used for many industrial
components. In simplest terms, the alloy plate and pipe welds must be structurally sound, and the
weldments (welds and base metals) must be finished to meet the service environment. This
report cites and summarizes some noteworthy references for solid alloy welding. Special
techniques for roll-bonded and explosion-clad plate and for sheet lining are contained in the
subsections that follow.

4.2.1 AWS D1.6 Structural Welding Code – Stainless Steel

Because most of the FGD components are structural (rather than pressure-containing)
components, the provisions of AWS D1.6 make an excellent guide for austenitic and duplex
stainless steels [1]. While nickel alloys are not included, welding design aspects for stainless
steels are equally applicable. The code allows the austenitic stainless steels in Table 2-1 (except
alloy 904L) to be prequalified for a large number of weld joints, eliminating the need for a
qualification test weld. The fabricator is required to have a written WPS for the particular welds,
even though a test weld is not made. AWS D1.6 also contains weld acceptance standards
covering weld defects, weld profiles, and weld sizes.

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Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

4.2.2 Weld Filler Metals

The weld filler metals commonly used for similar metal welding of stainless steels and nickel
alloys are shown in Table 4-2. While many of the alloys are welded with essentially matching
composition filler metals, there are two notable exceptions:
• Stainless steel molybdenum-containing welds are subject to microsegregation upon
solidification. This results in areas that are lean and other areas enriched in chromium and
molybdenum. This in turn reduces resistance to pitting corrosion in many environments
including FGD environments. This microsegregation effect is most evident in molybdenum-
containing alloys Type 317L (3.5% Mo) to the 6% to 7% Mo superaustenitic stainless steels
where the reduced corrosion resistance is most pronounced. It is for this reason that the
NiCrMo filler metals such as ERNiCrMo-3 (Alloy 625 9% Mo) and ERNiCrMo-10 (Alloy
C-22/622 13% Mo) have become standard. Opinions vary on the choice of Type 625 vs. C-
22/622; however, both have performed well, and even the higher Mo Alloy C-276 (16% Mo)
has been used.
• A second example of an overalloyed filler metal is the duplex stainless steels, but for quite
another reason. The preferred ferrite to austenite balance of duplex steels is generally 40 to
60, and for some applications, the range is extended. However, welds made with matching
composition filler metal may have quite a high percentage of ferrite and reduced mechanical
and corrosion-resistant properties. Additions of nickel in ER2209 with 9% nickel compared
to 5% in Alloy 2205 stainless steel base metal changes the amount of austenite in the weld to
a lower level, thereby obtaining the desired weld properties.

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Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

Table 4-2
Stainless Steel and Nickel Alloy Filler Metals for Similar Metal Welding

Base Metal Filler Metal

GMAW and GTAW SMAW

AWS A5.9 AWS A5.4

Type 316 ER316 E316

Type 316L ER316L E316L

Type 317L ER317L E317L


Type 317LM (1) (1)

Type 317LMN (1) (1)

Alloy 2205 ER2209 E2209

Alloy 255 ER2553 E2553


Alloy 100 (2) (2)

100 Casting (2) (2)


CD-4MCu (casting) ER2209 E2209

AWS A5.14 AWS A5.11

Alloy 904L ERNiCrMo-3 or 10 ENiCrMo-3 or 10

Alloy AL-6XN ERNiCrMo-3 or 10 ENiCrMo-3 or 10

Alloy 254SMO ERNiCrMo-3 or 10 ENiCrMo-3 or 10


Alloy 27-7Mo ERNiCrMo-3 or 10 ENiCrMo-3 or 10

Alloy G-30 ERNiCrMo-11 ENiCrMo-11


Alloy 625 ERNiCrMo-3 ENiCrMo-3

Alloy C-22/622 ERNiCrMo-10 ENiCrMo-10

Alloy C-276 ERNiCrMo-4 ENiCrMo-4

Alloy 686 ERNiCrMo-14 ENiCrMo-14


Alloy 59 ERNiCrMo-13 ENiCrMo-13

Alloy C-2000 ERNiCrMo-17 ENiCrMo-17

(1) There are no matching composition filler metals of types 317LM and 317LMN base metals in AWS A5.4 or A5.9,
although there may be proprietary products available. A NiCrMo filler metal such as ERNiCrMo-3 or -10 is often
used to provide a weld with equal or higher corrosion resistance than the base metal for FGD environments.

(2) There are no AWS filler metal designated products. The manufacturer recommends filler metals available for
Lincoln Electric and Metrode Products, Ltd. Consumables for welds left in the as-deposited condition are
designated as “X” grades (for example, Zeron 100X). The Lincoln products are Lincoln Norweld Tig/Lincoln
Norweld Mig for bare wire and Jungo for the SMAW electrode. The designation for metrode bare wire is Zeron
100X, and the designation for the covered electrode is XKS.

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Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

4.2.3 Other Welding Guide References

There have been many technical papers published on the welding and fabrication of FGD
systems. Most notable are a number of NACE papers dating back to the 1980s and a number of
Air Pollution Control (AIRPOL) Conferences. The nickel alloy producers Special Metals,
Haynes International, and ThyssenKrupp VDM all have published literature on welding nickel
alloys. Guidelines by the Nickel Institute for welding of stainless steels and nickel alloys are also
available on-line or in hard copy [2, 3].

4.3 Roll-Bonded and Explosion-Bonded Clad Plate Construction

Clad plate material has been used quite extensively in FGD construction. The economics usually
favor clad material over solid alloy for the more expensive nickel alloys, while alloys such as
those containing 6% and 7% Mo may be borderline economically between clad and solid
material. Because clad plates are larger than solid alloy plates, there can also be a reduced
amount of total weld lengths. NACE International published an excellent guide for clad plate
installation [4] that is summarized in the following subsection.

4.3.1 NACE Standard RP0199-2004

NACE Standard RP0199-2004, Installation of Stainless Chromium-Nickel Steel and Nickel-Alloy


Roll-Bonded and Explosion-Bonded Clad Plate in Air Pollution Control Equipment, [4] was
developed specifically for FGD applications and is an excellent guide for recommended
practices. The handling and storage of clad plate follows many of the practices for solid plate and
sheet material (such as vertical off-the-ground storage and clean handling equipment to prevent
contaminating the alloy side). In addition, care must be taken to avoid contacting the carbon steel
side of one clad plate with the alloy side of another to prevent iron contamination on the alloy
side.

When welding structural attachments to the alloy side of clad plate, the attachment should be
made directly to the backing steel after the alloy cladding is removed by any appropriate means.
After the structural attachment weld is made, the exposed backing steel is overlaid using the
appropriate alloy filler metal to provide corrosion protection. This procedure need not apply to
attachment clips or low-stress attachments.

4.3.2 Clad Plate Welding

The following two points are basic rules for clad welding:
• A carbon steel filler metal weld should never penetrate into an alloy liner or alloy weld. Such
off-composition welds may have cracks and usually have very questionable mechanical
properties.
• Alloy side welds should be made with an overalloyed filler metal when possible to
compensate for dilution from the carbon steel backing.

4-8
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

The weld joint and joint fit-up have an important influence on the alloy side-weld metal
chemistry as a result of penetration into the steel backing. There are a variety of acceptable weld
joint designs, but two that are applicable to most FGD clad welds are shown in Figures 4-1 and
4-2 from NACE RP0199-2004 [4]. They are used for plates where the backing is up to 1/2-in.
(12.7-mm) thick and the weld is accessible from both sides (which is typical of most FGD
component welds). Also, as noted in Figures 4-1 and 4-2, the standard practice in welding clad
plates of this thickness is to use alloy filler metal for the complete weld (that is, welds made on
both the alloy and backing steel side). The suggested bare filler metals are shown in Table 4-3.

Figure 4-1
Weld Accessible from Both Sides (Root Pass on Alloy Side, Backing Plate Thickness 0.019
to 0.50 in./4.83 to 12.7 mm)

4-9
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

Figure 4-2
Weld Accessible from Both Sides (Steel Side Root Pass, Backing Plate Thickness
0.019 in. to Less than 1/2 in./4.83 mm to Less than 12.7 mm)

4-10
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

Table 4-3
Bare Filler Metals for Welding Clad Plate

Common Name of Clad Alloy Bare Filler Metal


AWS A5.14

Note: Any of the filler metals listed on the right are suitable for
welding the clad alloys listed on the left.

317L ERNiCrMo-3 (Alloy 625)


317LMN ERNiCrMo-4 (Alloy C-276)
Alloy 254 SMO ERNiCrMo-10 (Alloy C-22/622)

Alloy 27-7Mo ERNiCrMo-13 (Alloy 59)


Alloy AL-6XN ERNiCrMo-14 (Alloy 686)

Alloy 625 ERNiCrMo-17 (Alloy C-2000)

Note: Any of the filler metals listed on the right are suitable for
welding the clad alloys listed on the left.

Alloy C-22/622 ERNiCrMo-4 (Alloy C-276)

Alloy C-276 ERNiCrMo-10 (Alloy C022/622)

ERNiCrMo-13 (Alloy 59)

ERNiCrMo-14 (Alloy 686)

ERNiCrMo-17 (Alloy C-2000)

Alloy 59 Use ERNiCrMo-13


Alloy 686 Use ERNiCrMo-14

Alloy C-2000 Use ERNiCrMo-17

4.4 Sheet Lining (Wallpaper) Construction

Sheet lining construction has been used extensively on FGD components such as ductwork,
absorbers, and slurry tanks. It has been used on new construction, for retrofit, and to repair
selected areas. A number of different alloys can be applied by sheet lining, but 1/16-in. (1.6-mm)
Alloy C-276 sheet has been used far more than any other. Other NiCrMo alloys and the 6% Mo
stainless steels have also been used in sheet lining. One attraction of sheet lining construction is a
considerable savings over solid alloy construction with the more expensive nickel alloys.

4-11
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

4.4.1 NACE Standard RP0292-2003

NACE Standard RP0292-2003, Installation of Thin Metallic Wallpaper Lining in Air Pollution
Control and Other Process Equipment [5], is an excellent guide for the installation and
inspection criteria for FGD sheet lining construction. The document addresses four different
alloy/techniques:
• Nickel alloy linings
• Stainless steel linings (including the superaustenitic stainless steels)
• Weld-attached titanium composite lining
• Mechanically fastened/bolted titanium lining

The titanium linings have seen very limited use and are not discussed in detail in this report. The
techniques for nickel alloys and stainless steel sheet linings are very similar, and except where
noted, the following discussion applies to both alloy groups.

4.4.2 Substrate Preparation

The substrate (which is usually carbon steel) must be cleaned and free of oxide or mill scale,
corrosion products, oil, grease, or other foreign matter that might affect the attachment weld
quality. Cleaning is done normally by abrasive blasting or grinding and is particularly important
in retrofit construction where the surfaces have been exposed to FGD operating conditions. Plate
and sheet storage guides previously discussed apply equally to these alloy sheets.

4.4.3 Sheet Layout and Attachment

The sheets are applied in a staggered pattern, similar to that of ordinary brick construction as
shown in Figure 4-3. It is important that the sheets fit tight against the substrate and that some
portion has not pulled away. This is controlled by sequencing the attachment or tack welds.
Attachment welds are usually about 1-in. (25.4-mm) long, on 6-in. (152.4-mm) centers, and as
flat as possible to preclude a gap between the overlapping sheets. The sheets are further secured
to the backing by intermediate sheet attachment welds or plug welds. Plug welds have been
found useful in preventing the sheets from fluttering if there is a pressure fluctuation in the
system. Precut or prepunched holes from plug welds normally have a diameter of 3/8 to 1 in. (9.5
to 25.4 mm). The standard practice is to cap the attachment plug welds with a domed cap or disk
so that a plug weld with dilution from the substrate is covered. The preferred overlap of the
covering sheet is about 1 in. (25.4 mm) and never less than 1/4 in. (6.4 mm).

4-12
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

Figure 4-3
Example of Sheet Layout and Attachment

4-13
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

4.4.4 Seal Welds

The seal weld (that is, the lap fillet weld between the sheets) is critical because it is the barrier
between the corrosive slurry and the steel substrate. The GMAW process is used almost
exclusively for seal welds. Short-circuiting gas metal arc welding (GMAW-S) was used some
years ago, but nickel alloy welds made with this transfer arc mode tend to have a high-contour
ropey bead. A high weld with a high reinforcement can lead to downstream deposit buildups,
which in turn can promote under-deposit corrosion. There are some GMAW-S welding units that
give a flatter bead contour, but the GMAW-P process seems more reliable in producing a flatter
weld bead. However, regardless of the process, the main goal for the end user is the desired low-
profile weld bead. Weld bead contours are discussed with weld acceptance criteria in Section
4.5.

There are varying opinions on the desirability of weep holes through the backing steel to detect
leaks through the seal welds. The practice has generally been not to employ weep holes. Where
weep holes have been used, a valve is often installed at the hole and kept closed except for
periodic checks. Contrary to the logically expected high corrosion rates to the backing steel when
there is a leak, it has been found that the corrosion is much less than might be expected and
possibly would not cause a dangerous premature failure [6].

Another option in sheet lining construction has been to separate the lined areas into sections of a
few sheets and make a leak-tight seal weld around each section. The thinking is that any leak
could be confined to a smaller area rather than the whole vessel or structure. One minor problem
is that the continuous seal weld between the alloy sheet and backing steel (a dissimilar weld) is
more difficult than an alloy-to-alloy seal weld. However, the sector welding approach has been
used when specified.

One practice that has been found useful is the development of seal and plug weld preconstruction
weld samples. The samples should be representative of a range of weld profiles (including some
of minimally acceptable quality) as mutually agreed upon by concerned parties. This approach
has been used to evaluate the acceptability of questionable production welds.

4.5 Weld Acceptance Criteria

4.5.1 Solid-Alloy and Clad-Plate Welds

Widely used acceptance values for solid-alloy and clad-plate FGD system welds are those shown
in NACE Standard RP0199 [4]. These values are summarized here:
• All butt welds should be full penetration welds unless otherwise approved.
• All fillet welds or lap-type joints should be welded for the complete length to avoid any
crevices on the surfaces exposed to the process environment.
• All welds should be free from cracks, overlaps, and cold laps.

4-14
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

• Undercut on solid alloy welds should be limited to 1/100 in. (0.25 mm) for material less than
3/16-in. (4.8-mm) thick and 1/32 in. (7.94 mm) for material equal to or greater than 3/16-in.
(4.8-mm) and less than 1-in. (25.4-mm) thick.
• Undercut on the alloy side of roll-bonded clad plate welds should be limited to 10% of the
alloy side thickness or 1/100 in. (0.25 mm), whichever is less.
• The weld reinforcement should be 47/500 in. (2.39 mm) maximum.

4.5.2 Sheet-Lining Welds

Seam welds, capped plug welds, and uncapped plug welds should be free from pinholes and
cracks. NACE Standard RP0292-2003 [5] offers two different weld reinforcement and undercut
acceptance criteria—commonly accepted U.S. criteria and European criteria. The criteria are
summarized in Table 4-4.

Table 4-4
Weld Reinforcement and Undercut Acceptance Criteria

U.S. European

Reinforcement 19/100 in. (4.83 mm) maximum 1 t maximum


Undercut 1/100 in. (0.25 mm) maximum 1/250 in. (0.102 mm) maximum

The U.S. reinforcement criterion of 19/100 in. (4.83 mm) maximum is considered by some to be overly
generous, and some utilities have imposed a lower reinforcement limit.

4.6 Inspection

All alloy welds exposed to corrosive FGD system environments should receive a visual
inspection for compliance with weld acceptance criteria and cleanliness requirements.

Liquid penetrant examination is usually used to supplement visual inspection in areas where
linear indications are suspect or, in the case of sheet lining construction, in areas that are not
accessible for leak testing. Liquid penetrant examinations should be performed in accordance
with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 6 or other applicable codes [7].
The acceptance criteria should be reasonable and agreed upon by the involved parties.

Seal welds in sheet-lining construction should be inspected by a suitable leak test procedure. The
most widely used procedure is the vacuum box method performed in accordance with ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 10. The vacuum box test can be quite
effective in determining pinhole leaks when the test is properly performed. A good practice is to
first examine an area using a small vacuum before going to the specified maximum vacuum. A
gage pressure of 10 psi (68.95 kPa) is a widely used maximum value.

4-15
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

4.6.1 Post-Fabrication Surface Requirements

All nickel-containing alloys commonly used in FGD systems give optimum corrosion
performance when a clean uncontaminated metal surface, free of mechanical defects, is exposed
to the service environment [8]. Judgment calls are often necessary, however, because it is not
economically feasible or realistic to expect perfection in commercially constructed components.

It should be recognized that surface defects will most likely be a problem when the service
environment is such that the alloy is near its limit of corrosion resistance. In milder
environments, the same defects may never initiate corrosion.

Common fabrication surface defects that may contribute to accelerated local corrosion and
corrective measures are listed here:
• Surface Contaminants – Crevice corrosion can begin under surface contaminants such as
grease, oil, crayon marks, paint, adhesive tape, and other sticky deposits. The use of a
nonchlorinated solvent is an effective method of removal.
• Embedded Iron – In certain environments, embedded iron can initiate pitting corrosion in
stainless steel alloys. It is best to prevent the problem by excluding contact with mild steel
surfaces. If iron is present, it can be removed by acid pickling or an abrasive means. The
effect of iron contamination in simulated FGD environments has been studied using three
alloys: Type 316L, a 6% Mo alloy, and Alloy C-22 [9]. The findings showed that iron
contamination was detrimental on the surface of Type 316L stainless steel, that the 6% Mo
stainless steel was affected to some extent by iron contamination, and that iron particles did
not lead to pitting corrosion in Alloy C-22.
• Weld Spatter – Weld spatter creates a condition conducive to crevice corrosion and should
be removed by grinding with fine grit abrasives.
• Heat Tint – It was found in one study that heat tint does not reduce the corrosion resistance
of NiCrMo alloys in FGD environments, but that heat tint can be a factor in reduced
corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels [10]. Stainless steel heat tint, particularly the
dark colored type, should be removed, especially when the alloy is being used near its limit
of corrosion resistance.
• Mechanical Defects – Mechanical defects in the form of gouges, deep scratches, arc strikes,
and similar defects should be removed by fine grit abrasive grinding provided minimum wall
thickness can be maintained. Such defects can be a site for crevice and/or pitting corrosion.

4-16
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

4.6.2 Shutdown Inspection

At the time of shutdown, the FGD system is normally inspected for possible corrosion of the
interior surfaces [8]. There are general guidelines regarding what to look for, but probably the
best advice is to take the time to observe all surfaces, particularly welds, and to investigate
suspect areas. The following list provides some guidance:
• Upon entering the interior (ducting, absorbers, chimneys, or stacks), carefully look around
the opening for signs of corrosion. The framework projections around openings often create
high stress and conditions more corrosive than those in broad surface areas where clean metal
is exposed.
• Look for signs of surface etching or attack. Thickness measurements should be made when it
appears that there has been a significant reduction in alloy thickness.
• Look for flow line pattern indications resulting from gas or liquid flow that could result in
selective thinning by corrosion or erosion.
• Examine discolored areas. They can be an indication of localized corrosion. Expose the metal
surface, and look for signs of pitting corrosion using a low-power magnifying glass.
• Look for signs of corrosion where there are pools of liquid on the floor particularly near
damper or dead space areas. Caution should be used to avoid personal injury—the liquid
could be concentrated acid. It is often useful to take samples of the liquid for later analysis.

4.6.3 Acid Cleaning and Passivation

The need for acid cleaning and passivation for FGD services is often questioned. Practices vary
depending upon the alloy. It is best to address the 300 series stainless steels such as Type 316L
and 317LMN as one group and the NiCrMo alloys as another. The 6% Mo stainless steels can be
marginally placed with the 300 series although they are considerably more corrosion-resistant.

Acid cleaning with nitric-hydrofluoric acid mixtures in accordance with ASTM A380 is a very
effective procedure for removing heat tint and surface contaminants such as embedded iron. Acid
cleaning must be followed by a complete and thorough rinse. While stainless steels often receive
a nitric acid passivation treatment when used in various other services, it is not the usual practice
for FGD service. The requirement for acid cleaning and passivation treatments should be agreed
upon by the involved parties.

Acid cleaning of NiCrMo alloys for the removal of heat tint or surface contamination removal is
not considered necessary nor is it recommended. Also, passivation treatments are not required
for NiCrMo alloys.

4-17
Fabrication and Welding of FGD Systems

4.7 References
1. Structural Welding Code: Stainless Steel, AWS D1.6. American Welding Society, Miami, FL,
1999.
2. Guidelines for the Welded Fabrication of Nickel-Containing Stainless Steels for Corrosion
Resistant Services. Nickel Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1992. 11007.
3. Guidelines for the Welded Fabrication of Nickel Alloys for Corrosion-Resistant Services.
Nickel Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1994. 11012.
4. Installation of Stainless Chromium-Nickel Steel and Nickel-Alloy Roll-Bonded and
Explosion-Bonded Clad Plate in Air Pollution Control Equipment. NACE International,
Houston, TX. Standard RP0199-2004.
5. Installation of Thin Metallic Wallpaper Lining in Air Pollution Control and Other Process
Equipment. NACE International, Houston, TX. Standard RP0292-2003.
6. D. L. Caudill and G. H. Koch. Corrosion of Carbon Steel Substrate Under Alloy C-276
Wallpaper. CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc. Corrosion 96 Paper No. 450.
7. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V. American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, New York, NY, 2004.
8. R. E. Avery. Fabrication Options for Nickel-Containing Alloys in FGD Service: Guidelines
for Users. Nickel Institute. Corrosion 93 Paper No. 428.
9. W. L. Silence et al. “The Effect of Surface Iron Contamination on the Corrosion Resistance
of Alloys in Simulated FGD Environments.” Haynes International, Inc. Corrosion 98 Paper
No. 482.
10. W. L. Silence and L. H. Flasche. “The Effect of Heat-Tint on Corrosion Resistance of Alloys
Used in FGD Systems.” Haynes International, Inc. Corrosion 86 Paper No. 358.

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