Você está na página 1de 5

International Seminar on Emerging Technologies & Strategies for Energy Management in Railways

AN UNIQUE HOG EXPERIMENT ON SAPTHAGIRI EXPRESS IN SOUTHERN RAILWAY

M.Vijayakumar, CEWE Perambur, Southern Railway

ABSTRACT

A large fleet of second class coaches and air-conditioned coaches on the Indian

Railways work on self-generation (SG) system through axle-driven alternators and

rectifier-cum-regulator units for feeding light, fan and air-conditioning loads. In this system the electric power of the AC electric locomotive is first converted into mechanical power; the mechanical power is then converted into electric power by the alternators provided in the individual coaches. These energy conversions involve considerable energy loss of the order of about 40%. The Carriage Workshop, Perambur, Southern Railway has implemented the Head-on-Generation (HOG) scheme for second class coaches (light & fan loads) and air-conditioned coaches. In this scheme the electric power from the locomotive is taken through suitable power cables provided in the different second class coaches and the AC coaches.The power

is suitably converted for usage in the second class coaches and the AC coaches.This

scheme has been provided in ten second class chair car coaches since 1994 and in one AC chair car coach since March, 2008 in the Sapthagiri Express in Southern Railway.The scheme is working satisfactorily.

The HOG scheme for the AC coach uses 25 kVA Converters which convert single- phase AC to three-phase AC. There is no battery back up for the Converters to take care of 25 kV supply failures/ locomotive failures. An alternative scheme is proposed using a single-phase rectifier-cum-regulator unit which can retrofit in the existing self- generation AC coaches. This scheme is very simple and can be implemented easily within a short period of time leading to considerable energy saving.

INTRODUCTION

There is a large fleet of second class and air-conditioned coaches on the Indian Railways provided with self-generation system for feeding Train Lighting and Air-Conditioning loads. In this system the electric power from the AC electric locomotive is first converted into mechanical power; the mechanical power is then converted into electric power by axle-driven alternators provided in the individual coaches. The second class coaches are provided with an alternator of 4.5 kW capacity, while the AC coaches are provided with two alternators of 25 kW capacity each.The existing system is not energy efficient because of the conversion losses. By feeding electric power directly from the locomotive through suitable power cables to the individual coaches (called head-on-generation (HOG) scheme), it is possible to save considerable energy to the extent of about 40% depending upon the conversion efficiencies involved in the existing self-generation system.

As such Railway Board directed Southern Railway to carry out conversion of one self-generation AC coach to operate on HOG system.This conversion work was taken up in the year 2007 and completed successfully. The train, Sapthagiri Express, operates between Chennai Central and Tirupati and is provided with the HOG scheme in all second class coaches and in one AC coach. The details are discussed below.

International Seminar on Emerging Technologies & Strategies for Energy Management in Railways

POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT IN SECOND-CLASS COACH

Sapthagiri Express, a push-pull rake, works between Chennai and Tirupati, a distance of 151 km. It has ten second class chair car coaches and one air-conditioned chair car coach. Power supply for light & fan circuits is derived from AC electric-locomotive through double feeders. The electrical schematic is shown in Annex-A. This has been in service since 1994. The AC coach was however operating on self-generation system.

In this arrangement, 380 V, 50 Hz, 1-ph supply is fed from AC electric locomotive (WAM-4) to the second class coaches through power cables and inter-vehicle-couplers (IVC). The first two coaches

have isolating transformers of 62.5 kVA capacity to provide galvanic isolation between the locomotive and the coaches. Each coach is provided with a 380V/110V, 2.5kVA, 1-ph constant voltage transformer (CVT) and a 380V/110V, 2 kVA, 1-ph transformer. The CVT has two outputs, one 110V

DC (which feeds the emergency lights and charges a battery of 110V 120Ah), and another 110V AC

(which feeds a portion of lights and fans). The 2 kVA transformer feeds a portion of lights and fans.

The

2

feeder circuit wiring is done using 50 mm copper cable.

POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT IN AIR-CONDITIONED COACH

As per the directive of Railway Board, conversion of the self-generation AC coach for head-on-

generation (HOG) operation was taken up in 2007. The existing self-generation scheme as also the

modified HOG scheme for AC coach is shown in Annex-B. The HOG scheme uses a step-up transformer of 420V/750V, 50 kVA, 1-ph. Since the supply voltage available from the locomotive is 380

V, 50 Hz, 1-ph (that corresponds to 22.5 kV voltage on the catenary system), the ratio of 420V/ 750V is

chosen for the step-up transformer so as to keep the input voltage variation to the Power Converter within its design range (i.e. 525 V to 825 V) for catenary voltage variation between 17.5 kV and 27.5 kV.

The electrical schematic diagram for the AC coach is shown in Annex-C.The 380V, 1-ph supply (from

a

25 kVA Power Converters as shown.The 25 kVA Converters were supplied by M/s Autometer Alliance Ltd.The Converter output (3-ph) is given to the AC control panel through a one-minute ON-delay timer contactor. This timer is to avoid the problem of chattering that may arise during supply interruptions while the locomotive passes neutral sections in the catenary system. Before entering the neutral section, the locomotive circuit breaker (DJ) is tripped and there will be no supply to the 25 kVA Converter. After passing the neutral section, the DJ is closed resuming supply to the 25 kVA Converter. The voltage starts building up in the Converter; the building up process takes about 20 seconds, and hence the one-minute ON-delay timer contactor has been introduced in the RMPU control panel to ensure that the control panel is switched ON only after the Converter output voltage is built up to the set level.

a winding of WAM4 loco transformer) feeds the step-up transformer; the step-up transformer feeds

o

1

The difference between self-generation AC coach and HOG AC coach is that HOG coach does not require 1100 Ah battery, pre-cooling transformer, alternators, rectifier regulator units and 25 kVA Inverters (that convert 110V dc to 415V, 3 ph AC), but it requires power cables, inter-vehicular couplers, 25 kVA Converters (for converting 750V 1ph AC to 415 V 3 ph AC), 420V/750V 1 ph 50kVA transformer and 110 V 120 Ah battery.

TESTING AND COMMISSIONING

Initially, the step-up transformer provided had a voltage ratio of 380V/750V. With this arrangement, service trials were conducted in the Sapthagiri Express during the period from 15.08.07 to 06.09.07. The Converter was found to be tripping very frequently; because of frequent tripping the cooling was also not effective. On detailed examination, it was found that when the catenary voltage is 27kV, the input voltage to the Converter exceeds 900V; whereas the maximum permissible voltage to the Converter is only 900V (the set value for tripping of the Converter). By carrying our slight modification

International Seminar on Emerging Technologies & Strategies for Energy Management in Railways

in the existing step-up transformer the voltage ratio was changed to 410V/750V and the same was put

into service trial from 12.11.2007 onwards. There was no tripping of the Converter and the performance was found to be satisfactory. The AC coach is now in regular commercial service since March, 2008 and is performing satisfactorily.

ALTERNATIVE HOG SCHEME FOR UNIVERSAL ADAPTABILITY

The scheme provided in the AC coach uses a separate 25 kVA Converter for feeding Roof-Mounted- Package-Unit (RMPU) type AC coaches.The Converter converts 1-ph AC power to 3-ph AC power. Its design, reliability and maintainability are yet to be established by long service trials. In case of power interruptions as also loco failures, there is no standby power supply arrangement in the coaches -- which is a drawback of the present scheme.The work involved in the conversion of SG coach to HOG coach is also quite large. Further, sources for the Converters are to be developed in case of extending this scheme to other coaches.

To make the HOG scheme simpler and to take advantage of the proven design of the 25 kVA Inverter that now feeds the RMPU in self-generation AC coaches, it would be beneficial to replace the Alternator and its associated Rectifier-Regulator-Unit (RRU) by a suitable Rectifier-Regulator-Unit to operate off the HOG 1-phase supply through an appropriate step-down transformer. The electrical schematic diagram proposed is shown in Annex-D.The battery should be retained to feed the Inverter in case of power supply/ locomotive failures -- that is analogous to the Alternators of the self- generation coaches not generating voltage below the cut-in speed. The failure of catenary supply/ locomotive is very limited, and hence it would be adequate to provide a battery of 110V 525 Ah capacity; further, since the number of charge-discharge cycles in a given period will be much less in case of HOG system, the battery will have a life of about 12 years as compared to 4 years in the SG system.

CONCLUSION

As compared to self-generation system, the HOG system is more energy efficient and needs to be

considered seriously for converting the existing fleet of coaches operating on self-generation system.

A simpler scheme that makes use of the existing equipment to a large extent is desirable from the

point of view of economy and reliability. The scheme proposed in Annex-D is an option worth

consideration for implementation through a carbon credit project.

 

ANNEX-A

SCHEMATIC

POWER

SUPPLY

ARRANGEMENT

FOR

TRAIN

LIGHTING

COACHES

(SECOND-CLASS CHAIR CARS)

SCHEMATIC POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT FOR TRAIN LIGHTING COACHES (SECOND-CLASS CHAIR CARS) 74

International Seminar on Emerging Technologies & Strategies for Energy Management in Railways

ANNEX-B

EXISTING SELF-GENERATION SCHEME FOR AC COACH

for Energy Management in Railways ANNEX-B EXISTING SELF-GENERATION SCHEME FOR AC COACH MODIFIED HOG SCHEME FOR

MODIFIED HOG SCHEME FOR AC COACH

for Energy Management in Railways ANNEX-B EXISTING SELF-GENERATION SCHEME FOR AC COACH MODIFIED HOG SCHEME FOR

International Seminar on Emerging Technologies & Strategies for Energy Management in Railways

ANNEX-C

SCHEMATIC POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT IN HOG SCHEME FOR AC COACH

SCHEMATIC POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT IN HOG SCHEME FOR AC COACH ANNEX-D ALTERNATE HOG SCHEME PROPOSED FOR

ANNEX-D

ALTERNATE HOG SCHEME PROPOSED FOR AC COACH

SCHEMATIC POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT IN HOG SCHEME FOR AC COACH ANNEX-D ALTERNATE HOG SCHEME PROPOSED FOR

****