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Y 0

L IST OF F IGURES

1 Short circuit windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2 A short circuit model of induction machine . . . 3

3 A global stator faulty model in dq frame . . . . 3

4 Broken rotor bar representation . . . . . . . . . . 4

5 Broken rotor bars model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

6 Stator and rotor faulty model of induction motors 5

7 Motor experimental setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

8 Estimation of electrical and faulty parameters at

stator and rotor faulty case . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

9 Estimation of electrical and faulty parameters at

faulty case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

10 Spectral density (dB) of identification residuals . 8

L IST OF TABLES

I Estimation results of stator and rotor faults . . . 8

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 1

rotor faults occurring in induction machines

Smail Bachir, Slim Tnani, Jean Claude Trigeassou and Gérard Champenois

Abstract—In this paper, authors give a new model of squirrel to explain the fault in one phase with a simple short cir-

cage induction motors under stator and rotor faults. Firstly, we cuit element. On the other hand, it is inappropriate in the

study an original model which takes into account the effects of case of simultaneous faults in several stator phases. Thus

inter turn faults resulting in the shorting of one or more circuits

of stator phase winding. We introduce thus additional parameters in this paper, we propose the generalization of this model

to explain the fault in the three stator phases. Then, we propose with the help of a short circuit element dedicated to each

a new faulty model dedicated to broken rotor bars detection. phase [4][6]. In presence of defects in several phases, each

The corresponding diagnosis procedure based on parameter short circuit element allows the detection and localization

estimation of the stator and rotor faulty model is proposed. of inter turn short circuits in the corresponding phase. To

The estimation technique is performed by taking into account

prior information available on the safe system operating in take into account broken rotor bars, a new faulty model is

nominal conditions. A special three-phases induction machine has developed [7]. Electrical parameters and faulty parameters of

been designed and constructed in order to simulate true faulty this model have been identified by Output-Error technique

experiments. Experimental test results show good agreement [4][19][25]. In practice, identification technique should be

and demonstrate the possibility of detection and localization of adapted to the use objectives. In our case, diagnosis is realized

previous failures.

by a parameters follow-up. Then, it is necessary to work in

Index Terms—Induction motors, modeling, short circuit, bro- continuous time representation because all parameters have

ken rotor bars, faults diagnosis, parameter estimation, prior physical significance (resistance, inductance,..). Besides, pa-

information.

rameters monitoring supposes a preliminary learning to know

exactly the electrical parameter values in the healthy case.

I. I NTRODUCTION So it is important to introduce this physical knowledge to

perform parameter estimation for diagnosis purpose. Thus,

Condition monitoring of electric motors has attracted in- parameter estimation with prior information offers an elegant

creasing attention during the last decade, during which a solution [19][26]. It is in this spirit that a new methodology

considerable number of studies on the detection of stator of identification has been adapted recently to introduce in a

and rotor faults have been made [15][19][23][26]. Thus, in realistic way this prior information.

literature, many proposed techniques are based on spectral A special 1.1 kWatt squirrel cage induction motor has been

analysis of stator currents, stator voltage and electromagnetic designed and constructed in order to simulate true inter turn

torque and it has been shown that currents monitoring can be short circuits at several levels. Different rotors, with broken

used to estimate stator insulation degradation and to detect rotor bars, are used to simulate a bar breakage occurring during

broken rotor bars [1][12][15]. operation. Experimental results exhibit the good agreement

These methods are based on detection of sidebands at and confirm the possibility to diagnosis simultaneous stator

certain frequencies using Fourier’s analysis (FFT software). and rotor faults.

For these latter techniques, it is assumed that the current mea-

surements can be modelized like multi-component mixtures

II. A NEW INDUCTION MOTOR MODEL FOR FAULTS

whose magnitudes change when a failure occurs. Moreover,

DETECTION

even in safe conditions, the frequency depends on speed

and power supply frequency. So, the usual techniques, based References [18][19][23] show that it is useless to consider

on spectral analysis, are not well-adapted and only para- an unbalanced two axis Park’s model for diagnosis of induc-

metric methods tackle faults detection for adjustable speed tion motors. The deviation of their electrical parameters is

motor drive. Recently, continuous identification has been used certainly an indication of a new situation in the machine, but

to perform the diagnosis procedure [6][19][23][26]. These this evolution can be due to heating or an eventual change

techniques study the deviation of parameters to detect and in magnetic state of the motor [19]. On the other hand, it is

localize faults. In this paper, we present our results for a new very difficult to distinguish stator faults from rotor ones. The

diagnosis technique of squirrel cage induction motors by off- use of Fast Fourier’s analysis of identification residuals is an

line parameter identification using real data. original method to localize a fault, but estimation of electrical

Because it requires a model suited for fault modeling, a parameters is unable to obtain the fault level [18].

new stator and rotor faulty model is proposed. Firstly, the A good solution is the introduction of an additional model

short circuit model proposed by [23] has been extended to to explain the faults [7][6]. The parameters of this differential

the general case. This very simple model makes it possible model allow detection and localization of the faulty windings.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 2

us : stator voltage

In order to take into account the presence of inter turns

is , ir and icc resp. stator, rotor and short circuit currents

short circuit windings in the stator of an induction motor, an

φs , φr and φcc resp. stator, rotor and short circuit flux

original model was proposed in reference [23]. It is composed

of an additional shorted winding in three phases axis. Fig. 1

shows a three phases, 2-poles, induction machine in case of [Rs ] = Rs · Identity(3) : stator resistance

short circuit winding at phase b. This faults induces in stator [Rr ] = Rr · Identity(3) : rotor resistance

a new windings Bcc short circuited and localized according to Rcc = ηcc Rs : short circuit resistance

first phase by the angle θ cc = 23π rad. ⎡ ⎤

L L

Lp + Lf − 2p − 2p

⎢ ⎥

[Ls ] = ⎣ − 2

Lp

Lp + Lf

L

− 2p ⎦,

S ta to r fa u lts (in ter tu rn s sh o rt circu it

Lp L

w in d in g s a t p h a se b ) F irst p o le o f

⎡ −⎤2 − 2p Lp + Lf

p h a se a

L L

Lp − 2p − 2p

a

⎢ L ⎥ 2

[Lr ] = ⎣ − L2p Lp − 2p ⎦, Lcc = ηcc (Lp + Lf )

L L

c − 2p − 2p Lp

⎡ ⎤

cos(θ) cos(θ + 2π 2π

3 ) cos(θ − 3 )

[Msr ] = Lp ⎣ cos(θ − 2π 3 ) cos(θ) cos(θ + 2π3 )

⎦,

2π 2π

θ cc S h o rt circu it cos(θ + 3 ) cos(θ

⎡ ⎤ − 3) cos(θ)

Bcc

w in d in g

cos(θcc )

[Mscc ] = ηcc Lp ⎣ cos(θcc − 2π 3 )

⎦,

2π

cos(θcc + 3 )

S eco n d p o le o f ⎡ ⎤

p h a se a cos(θcc − θ)

[Mrcc] = ηcc Lp ⎣ cos(θcc − θ − 2π3 )

⎦

b

cos(θcc − θ + 2π3 )

Fig. 1. Short circuit windings [Mrs ] = [Msr ]T , [Mccr ] = [Mrcc]T , [Mccs ] = [Mscc ]T

Two parameters are introduced to define the stator faults ncc Number of inter turns short circuit windings

ηcc = =

• The localization parameter θ cc which is a real angle ns Total number of inter turns in healthy phase

between the short circuit inter turn stator winding and the (2)

first stator phase axis (phase a). This parameter allows the θ is rotor angular position. L p and Lf are respectively princi-

localization of the faulty winding and can take only three pal and global leakage inductance referred to the stator.

values 0, 2π 4π

3 or 3 , corresponding respectively to a short 2) Two-phases stator faulty induction model: To minimize

circuit on the stator phases a, b or c. the number of model variables, we use Concordia transforma-

• The detection parameter η cc equal to the ratio between tion which gives αβ values of same amplitude as abc ones.

the number of inter turn short circuit windings and the Thus, we define three to two axis transformation T 23 as:

total number of inter turns in one healthy phase. This

parameter allows to quantify the unbalance and to obtain xαβs = T23 xs : stator variables

(3)

the number of inter turns in short circuit. xαβr = P (θ) T23 xr : rotor variables

1) short circuit model: In the stator faulty case, an ad-

ditional shorted circuit winding B cc appears in stator. This where xαβ is projection of x following α and β axis. Matrix

winding creates a stationary magnetic field H cc oriented transformations are defined as:

according to the faulty winding [4][23]. Thus, we define the

short circuit current i cc into inter turn short circuit winding at 2 cos(0) cos( 2π ) cos( 4π )

[T23 ] = 3 3 3

origin of a short circuit flux φ cc . Voltage and flux equations sin(0) sin( 2π3 ) sin( 4π

3 )

for faulty model of induction machine with global leakage

inductance referred to the stator can be written as: cos(θ) cos(θ + π2 )

P (θ) = : rotational matrix

⎧ sin(θ) sin(θ + π2 )

⎪ us = [Rs ] is + dt d

φs

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ 0 = [Rr ] ir + dt φr d

⎪

⎨ The short circuit variables are localized on one axis, these

0 = Rcc .icc + dt d

φcc projection on the two Concordia axis α and β is defined as:

(1)

⎪

⎪ φ = [L ] i + [M ] ir + [Mscc ] icc

⎪

⎪ s s s sr

⎪

⎪ φ = [Mrs ] is + [Lr ] ir + [Mrcc ] icc cos(θcc ) cos(θcc )

⎩ r iαβcc = · icc , φαβ = · φcc (4)

φcc = [Mccs ] is + [Mccr ] ir + Lcc icc sin(θcc ) cc sin(θcc )

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 3

Thus, (1) becomes: It is much simpler to work in the rotor reference frame

⎧ because we have only two stator variables to transform. There-

⎪ U = Rs iαβs + dtd

φαβ

⎪ αβs

⎪ fore, in state operation, all the variables have their pulsations

⎪

s

⎪

⎪ 0 = Rr iαβr + dt φαβ − ω P ( π2 ) φαβ

d

equals to s ωs (where s is the slip and ω s is stator pulsation).

⎪

⎪ r r

⎪

⎪ 0 = ηcc Rs iαβcc + dt

d

φαβ

⎪

⎪

We define Park’s transformation as:

⎪

⎪

cc

⎨ φ = Lm (i +i + 2 ηcc i )

αβs αβs αβr 3 αβcc

(5) xdq = P (−θ) xαβ (9)

⎪

⎪ +Lf iαβs

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ = Lm (iαβs + iαβr ) + 23 ηcc Lm iαβcc

Afterward, the faulty model will be expressed under Park’s

⎪

⎪ φαβ

⎪

⎪

r reference frame. So, short circuit current (8) becomes:

⎪

⎪ = 2

⎪

⎪ φ 3 ηcc Lm Q(θcc ) (iαβs + iαβr ) 2 ηcc

⎩ αβcc

+( 23 Lm + Lf ) ηcc

2

iαβcc idqcc = P (−θ) Q(θcc ) P (θ) U dqs (10)

3 Rs

where 3) Global Stator faulty model: Fundamentally, we show

ω is rotor electrical frequency that in faulty case, an induction machine can be characterized

Lm = 32 Lp : magnetizing inductance by two equivalents modes. The common mode model corre-

sponds to the healthy dynamics of the machine (Park’s model)

cos(θcc )2 cos(θcc ) sin(θcc )

Q(θcc ) = whereas the differential mode model explains the faults. This

cos(θcc ) sin(θcc ) sin(θcc )2

model, very simple to implement because expressed in Park’s

frame, offers the advantage to explain the defect through a

If we neglect L f according to L m in short circuit flux short circuit element dedicated to the faulty winding. On the

expression (5), we can write new flux equations as: other hand, it is unsuitable in case of simultaneous defects on

⎧ several phases. Indeed, this representation is only adapted in

⎪ φαβ = φαβ + φαβ

⎪

⎪ case of single phase defect. In the presence of short circuits

⎨

s f m

= Lf iαβs + Lm (iαβs + iαβr − ĩαβcc ) on several phases, this model translates the defect by aberrant

(6)

⎪ φαβr = φαβm = Lm (iαβs + iαβr − ĩαβcc )

⎪ parameters values, because it takes into account only a single

⎪

⎩ φ̃

αβ

= ηcc Q(θcc ) φαβ winding.

cc m

To remedy it, we generalize this model by dedicating to each

where phase of the stator a short circuit element Q cck to explain a

2 3 possible faulty winding [4][6]. So, in presence of several short

ĩαβcc = − ηcc iαβcc , φ̃αβ = φ (7) circuits, each faulty element allows the diagnosis of a phase

3 cc 2 αβcc

by watching the value of the parameter. This simple deviation

φαβ , φαβ are respectively magnetizing and leakage flux. allows to indicate the presence of unbalance in the stator. Fig.

m f

3 shows the global stator faulty model in dq Park’s axis with

Then, short circuit current equation becomes: global leakage referred to the stator.

2 ηcc d

ĩαβcc = Q(θcc ) φαβ (8) ω .P ( π / 2 ).φ dq

3 Rs dt m i dq

s i'dq

s

Rs Lf

s

i dq

According to this equation, the faulty winding B cc be- i dq

cc1

i dq

cc2

i dq

cc3

r

s Qcc1 Lm Rr

magnetizing inductance. The existence of localization matrix

Q(θcc ) in (8) makes complex the state space representation i dq

m

in Concordia’s axis. In a large range of industrial application,

voltage drop in R s and Lf is neglected according to stator

voltage U αβs then, we can put a short circuit element Q cc in Fig. 3. A global stator faulty model in dq frame

input voltage border (Fig. 2). Line currents iαβ s become the

sum of short circuit current ĩαβcc and usual current iαβs in Voltage and flux equations for faulty model with global

classical Concordia model. leakage inductance referred to the stator can be written as:

Park’s model (stator and rotor):

i'αβ Rs Lf ω .P ( π / 2 ).φ αβ

Rs idqs + dt

i αβ

s s m

U dqs = d

φdq + ω P ( π2 ) φdq

s s

i αβ

cc

i αβ

r φdq = Lf idqs + Lm (idqs + idqr )

s

(11)

0 = Rr idqr + dt

d

φdq

U αβ

s Q cc Lm Rr

r

φdq = Lm (idqs + idqr )

r

i αβ

m

Differential mode model (short circuit currents):

2 ηcck

Fig. 2. A short circuit model of induction machine icck = P (−θ) Q(θcck ) P (θ) U dqs , k = 1, 3 (12)

3 Rs

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 4

Resultant dq stator currents become: The number of turns in one rotor phase indeed fictitious.

3

For nb rotor bars, if we assume that the rotor cage can

idqs = idqs + icck (13) be replaced by a set of n b mutually coupled loops, each

k=1 loop is composed by two rotor bars and end ring portions

Each stator phase is characterized by its faulty parameters [1][5]; then the total number of rotor turns in one phase

(ηcck , θcck ), where k indicates one of the three stator phases. for three-phases representation is equal to n3b . For nbb

broken rotor bars, faulty parameter η 0 becomes:

B. Rotor faults modeling 3 nbb

η0 = (15)

Recently, rotor faults occurring in induction motors have nb

been investigated. Various methods have been used, including 1) Model of broken rotor bars: As stator faults modeling

measurement of rotor speed indicating speed ripple, in the (see equation 5), we can write voltage and flux equations of

same way as spectral analysis of line current [9][12][16]. The new faulty winding B 0 in dq Park’s frame [7]:

main problem concerning these monitoring methods is that ⎧

⎨ 0 = η0Rr io + dt

dφ0

they are essentially invasive, requiring obvious interruption ⎪

of operation. Moreover, they are inappropriate under varying φ0 = 23 η0 Lm [ cos(θ0 ) sin(θ0 )] (idqs + idqr ) (16)

speed. For these reasons, parameter estimation is preferred for ⎪

⎩ 2 2

fault detection and diagnosis of induction motors [18][19]. + 3 η0 Lm i0

Parameter estimation is based on the simulation of a con- The current i 0 in the faulty winding B 0 creates a stationary

tinuous state-space model of induction motor. This model magnetic field H0 being directed according to broken rotor bar

assumes sinusoidal magnetomotive forces, non-saturation of axis. This additional magnetic field is at origin of faulty flux

magnetic circuit and negligible skin effect. Under these as- φ0 . By throwing i 0 and φ0 on dq Park axis, one associates the

sumptions, stator in dq Park’s axis and squirrel cage rotor stationary vectors:

made of nb bars can be modeled by an equivalent circuit. As

for stator fault, rotor fault is modeled by a new axis B 0 referred

to the first rotor axis a r by the angle θ 0 [7]. This additional cos(θ0 ) cos(θ0 )

idq0 = i0 , φdq = φ0

short circuited winding is at the origin of a stationary rotor sin(θ0 ) 0 sin(θ0 )

field H0 (t) steered according to rotor fault axis (Fig. 4). Equations (16) become relations between stationary vectors

according to rotor frame. So, voltage and flux equations of

ar

stator, rotor and faulty winding of induction motor are given

B ro k en ro to r θ0 by:

b a r a x is

bar 1

B0 bar 2 bar nb

U dqs = Rs idqs + + ω P ( π2 ) φdq

d

dt φdqs

bar nb - 1 s

φdq = Lf idqs + Lm (idqs + idqr + 23 η0 idq0 )

s

0 = Rr idqr + dt

d

φdq

r

φdq = Lm (idqs + idqr ) + 23 η0 Lm idq0

r

E n d -rin g dφ

0 = η0 Rr idqo + dtdq0

2

φdq = 3 η0 Lm Q(θ0 ) (idqs + idqr + 23 η0 idq0 )

0

(17)

By using same transformation as to obtain primary trans-

br cr lation of an equivalent scheme in power transformer, we can

write global flux equations as:

Fig. 4. Broken rotor bar representation φdq = φdq + φdq = Lf idqs + Lm (idqs + idqr − ĩdq0 )

s f m

φdq = φdq = Lm (idqs + idqr − ĩdq0 )

r m

So, two additional parameters are introduced to explain rotor φ̃dq = η0 Q(θ0 ) φdq

faults: 0 m

(18)

• The angle θ 0 between fault axis (broken rotor bar axis)

with

and the first rotor phase. This parameter allows the 2 3

localization of the broken rotor bar. ĩdq0 = − η0 idq0 , φ̃dq = φ (19)

3 0 2 dq0

• To quantify the rotor fault, we introduce a parameter η 0

equal to the ratio between the number of equivalent inter Also, current equation of faulty winding is given by:

turns in defect and the total number of inter turns in one dφdq dφdq

2 η0

healthy phase: ĩdq0 = R0 m

= Q(θ0 ) m

(20)

dt 3 Rr dt

Number of inter turns in defect

η0 = (14)

Total number of inter turns in one phase where Q(θ0 ) is localization matrix.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 5

s s s

(20), faulty winding is a simple resistance element in parallel i dq

r

i dq i dq

cc2

i dq

cc1 cc3

with magnetizing inductance and rotor resistance. Because, Rr

U dq Qcc1 Qcc2 Qcc3

the reference frame is chosen according to rotor speed, it is s Lm

impossible to translate this element in stator border U dqs . So- Rdefect

i dq

lution consists in establishing equivalent scheme of induction m

R0 . Thus, equivalent resistance R eq referred to rotor is the Fig. 6. Stator and rotor faulty model of induction motors

stake in parallel of rotor resistance and faulty resistance as:

−1

Req = Rr−1 + R0−1

(21) to be quasi stationary with respect to the dynamics of the

= Rr−1 + 23 η0 Rr−1 Q(θ0 )

electric variables, the model becomes linear but not stationary

By inversion, we obtain expression of an equivalent resis- with fourth order differential equations [5][19]. For simplicity,

tance matrix: the state vector is chosen composed of two-phase components

Req = Rr + Rdef ect of the dq stator currents i dqs and the rotor flux φdq . Then, the

(22) r

= Rr − 1+α α

Q(θ0 ) Rr continuous time model of the faulty induction motor, expressed

in the mechanical reference frame, is given by:

with α = 23 η0 .

ẋ(t) = A(ω) x(t) + B u(t) (24)

ω .P ( π / 2 ).φ dq

i dq

s

Rs Lf

s y(t) = C x(t) + D u(t) (25)

i dq

r

with

Rr

U dq

s Lm T

x= ids iqs φdr φqr : state vector

R defect

i dq

m

Uds ids

u= , y= : input-output of system

Uqs iqs

Fig. 5. Broken rotor bars model

A11 A12

A(ω) = where

Thus, equivalent rotor resistance in broken rotor bars case is A21 A22

⎧

a series connection of a healthy rotor resistance R r and faulty ⎪

⎪ A11 = −(Rs + Req ) L−1 − ω P (π/2)

⎨ f

resistance Rdef ect . Fig. 5 is the resulting rotor fault circuit A12 = (Req L−1

m − ω P (π/2)) L−1

f

diagram in induction machines. ⎪

⎪ A = Req

⎩ 21

The angle θ0 allows an absolute localization of the faulty A22 = −Req L−1

m

winding according to the first rotor phase. Indeed, induced

bars currents composed a n b -phases system and faulty angle T

1

0 0 0 1 0 0 0

θ0 is fixed by initial rotor position according to stator one. On B = Lf

1 , C = ,

the other hand, when two broken rotor bars occur in machine, 0 Lf 0 0 0 1 0 0

3 2 ηcck

estimation of faulty angles θ 01 and θ02 allows to obtain a gap D= k=1 3 Rs P (−θ) Q(θcck ) P (θ)

angular Δθ between broken bars [7]:

Δθ = θ02 − θ01 (23) ncck

Req = Rr + α

1−α Q(θ0 ) Rr and ηcck = ns

where ncck and ns are respectively the number of inter turns

In previous sections, two models of stator and rotor faults short windings at k th phase and the total number of turns in

were presented. For a global simulation and detection of one healthy phase.

simultaneous stator and rotor faults, we propose the global

faulty model including: Q(θcck ) is a matrix depending on short circuit angle θ cck (if

• Park’s model with the electrical parameters (R s Rr Lm the inter turn short circuit is at the phase a (resp. b and c),

Lf ) then the angle θ cck is 0 rad (resp. 23π and 43π ).

• Stator faulty model with the three additional parameters The discrete-time model is deduced from the continuous one

(ηcck , k = 1 − 3) by second order serie expansion of the transition matrix [19].

• Rotor faulty model with broken rotor bars parameters By using a second order serie expansion and the mechanical

(η0 , θ0 ) reference frame, a sampling period T e around 1 ms can be

Fig. 6 shows a global electrical model of squirrel cage used. The usual first order serie expansion (Euler approxima-

induction motors for stator and rotor faults detection. tion) requires very short sampling period to give a stable and

For simulation, it is necessary to write this faulty model in accurate model. These approximation by serie expansion are

state space representation. If mechanical speed ω is assumed more precise with low frequency signals. Thus, discrete-time

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 6

model is given by: we consider the previous mathematical model (Eqs. 24-25)

and we define the parameter vector:

xk+1 = Φk xk + Bdk uk (26)

T

yk = C xk + D uk (27) θ = [Rs Rr Lm Lf ηcc1 ηcc2 ηcc3 η0 θ0 ] (30)

Assume that we have measured K values of input-output

where

(u(t), y ∗ (t) with t = k · Te ), the identification problem is then

Te T2 to estimate the values of the parameters θ. Then, we define

Φk = eATe = I + A + A2 e (28)

1! 2! the output prediction error:

Te2

Bd k = (I · Te + A )B (29) εk = y∗k − ŷk (θ̂, u) (31)

2 · 1!

and xk = x(tk ) and y k = y(tk ). The components of the where predicted output ŷ k is obtained by numerical simulation

known input vector u k are the average of the stator voltage of the state space faulty model (Eq. 27) and θ̂ is an estimation

between tk and tk+1 . of true parameter vector θ.

As a general rule, parameter estimation with OE technique

III. D IAGNOSIS PROCEDURE is based on minimization of a quadratic criterion defined as :

K K

A. Introduction

J= εTk εk = (i∗dsk − îdsk )2 + (i∗qsk − îqsk )2 (32)

As soon as a fault occurs, the machine is no longer k=1 k=1

electrically balanced. Using previous faulty modes , electrical Usually, for induction motors, one has good knowledge on

parameters (Rs , Rr , Lm and Lf ) does not change and only electrical induction motors parameters, so it is very interesting

the faulty parameters (η cck and η0 ) vary to indicate a fault to introduce this information in the estimation process to

level. provide more certainty on the uniqueness of the optimum. For

Thus, during industrial operation, diagnosis procedure by this, we have applied the modification of the classical quadratic

parameter estimation of induction machines requires sequen- criterion [19][25], in order to incorporate physical knowledge.

tial electrical data acquisitions. Using each set of datas, identi- 1) Compound quadratic criterion: In order to incorpo-

fication algorithm computes a new set of electrical parameters rate physical knowledge or prior information, the classical

to know the magnetic state of the machine and new faulty quadratic criterion has been modified. The solution is to

parameters to have an approximation of the number of inter consider a compound criterion J c mixing prior estimation

turns short circuit windings and broken rotor bars. θ0 (weighted by its covariance matrix M 0 ) and the classical

criterion J (weighted by the variance of output noise δ̂ 2 ).

B. Identification algorithm Then, the compound criterion is usually defined as:

Parameter estimation is the procedure that allows the deter- J

Jc = (θ̂ − θ 0 )T M0−1 (θ̂ − θ 0 ) + (33)

mination of the mathematical representation of a real system δ̂ 2

from experimental data. Two classes of identification tech- Thus, the optimal parameter vector minimizing J c is

niques can be used to estimate the parameters of continuous the mean of prior knowledge and experimental estimation

time systems: Equation Error and Output Error [13][19][26] weighted by their respective covariance matrix.

• Equation Error techniques are based on the minimization In real case, we have no knowledge of the fault; indeed,

of quadratic criterion by ordinary least-squares [13][25]. no prior information is introduced on faulty parameter. Only

The advantage of these techniques is that they are simple electrical parameters (R s , Rr , Lm and Lf ) are weighted in the

and require few computations. However, there are severe compound criterion. Thus, covariance matrix is defined as:

drawbacks, especially for the identification of physical 1 1 1 1

parameters, not acceptable in diagnosis, such as the bias M0−1 = diag( 2 , σ 2 , σ 2 , σ 2 , 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) (34)

σR Rr Lm Lf

caused by the output noise and the modeling errors. s

σR s

, σR r

, σL m

and σL f

are respectively the variance of

imization of an output error quadratic criterion by a Non parameters with prior information R s , Rr , Lm and Lf .

Linear Programming (NLP) algorithm. These techniques 2) Minimization of the compound criterion: We obtain the

require much more computation and do not converge optimal values of θ by Non Linear Programming techniques.

to an unique optimum. But, OE methods present very Practically, we use Marquardt’s algorithm [17][19] for off-line

attractive features, because the simulation of the output estimation:

model is based only on the knowledge of the input, so the

parameter estimates are unbiased [25][26]. Moreover, OE θ̂ i+1 = θ̂i − {[Jθθ + λ · I]−1 .Jθ }θ̂=θ (35)

i

methods can be used to identify non linear systems. For with K

these advantages, the OE methods are more appropriate k ·σ k,θ

εT

for diagnosis of induction motors [19] . Jc θ =2· M0−1 (θ̂

− θ0) − δ̂ 2

k=1

: gradient.

K

Parameter identification is based on the definition of a σk,θ ·σk,θ

T

model. For the case of fault diagnosis in induction machines,

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 7

∂ ŷ

σ k,θ = ∂θ : output sensitivity function. The motor used in the experimental investigation is a three

phases, 1.1 kWatt, 4-poles squirrel cage induction machine

In the proposed formulation, it is necessary to distinguish (Fig. 7). Stator windings were modified by addition of a

two kinds of sensitivities: number of tappings connected to the stator coils in the 1 st

and 2nd phases (464 turns by phase). The other end of

σ y,θ = ∂y

∂θ : output sensitivity vector. theses external wires is connected to a terminal box, allowing

∂x (36)

σ x,θ = ∂θ : state sensitivity matrix. introduction of shorted turns at several locations and levels in

the stator winding. Different rotors, with broken bars, are used

For each parameter θ i , we determinate σ x,θi by numerical to simulate a bar breakage occurring during operation. The

integration of the differential system, obtained by the partial induction machine is driven by field oriented vector algorithm

differentiation of equation (24). Then σ x,θi is the solution of included in a speed control closed-loop and run under different

the state-space system: loads with the help of a DC generator mechanically coupled to

the motor. The data acquisition was done at a sampling period

∂A(θ) ∂B(θ) equal to 0.7 ms. Before identification, measured variables

σ̇ x,θi = A(θ) · σ x,θi + ·x+ ·u (37)

∂θi ∂θi are passed through a 4 th order butterworth anti-aliasing filter

whose cut-off frequency is 500 Hz.

Then by partial differentiation of equation (25), we get:

T P o sitio n

∂C(θ) ∂D(θ)

σ̇ y,θi = C(θ)T · σ x,θi + ·x+ ·u (38) Speed

∂θi ∂θi A C G rid C ontroller

~ 380 v CEGELEC E lectrica ls

3) Implementation: In this paper, we are only interested V F T V 4003B S en so rs

by prior information when performing parameter estimation

of physical systems. Prior information is mainly used to avoid B utterw orth

S p eed E x cita tio n F iters

aberrant estimates given by minimization of classical criterion. referen ce + P R B S

As a consequence, our interest is focused on the optimal choice

of θ 0 , M0 and δ̂ 2 . ia ib ic va vb vc

A cq u isition Shaft encoder

• Experiments or motor information given by industrials. FASTLAB 1024 pts/r

In this case, θ0 and M0 are obtained by electrotechnical 12 b its

tests performed on induction machines (locked rotor, load

shedding, ...) and all material characteristics. Fig. 7. Motor experimental setup

• Practically, prior information is given by physical knowl-

edge and partial estimation. Firstly, a set of experiment Identification algorithm needs persistent excitation to pro-

and identification of only electrical parameters with clas- vide appropriate estimation. This excitation is realized with a

sical criterion J is used in order to constitute an electrical P.R.B.Sequence equal to 90 rpm added to the reference of the

reference value data base, their pseudo-covariance matrix speed loop equal to 750 rpm.

M and the noise pseudo-variance are σ̂ 2 defined as:

B. Experimental results

σ̂ 2 = 2(K−N

Jopt

) 1) Detection and localization of experimental faults: Dif-

M = σ̂ 2 (φTd φd + φTq φq )−1 (φd + φq )T (φd + φq )(φTd φd + φTq ferent

φq )−1 tests (10 realizations by experiment) have been per-

(39) formed (Table I) :

where K, N and J opt are respectively the number of datas, the

1) Healthy motor.

number of parameters and the optimal value of experimental

2) A short circuit of 18 inter turns in 1 st phase with 1

criterion. The matrix φ d and φq are matrix of output sensitivity

broken bar.

functions according to dq current axis.

3) A short circuit of 58 inter turns in 2 nd phase with 2

Thus, the covariance matrix M 0 is obtained by diagonal broken bars with Δθ = 2,82π

values of M . To evaluate the noise variance, it is necessary

4) A short circuit of 18 inter turns in 1 st phase and 58 in

to use δ̂ 2 > σ̂ 2 to take into account the effect of modeling

2nd phase with 2 broken bars with Δθ = 2π 28 .

errors.

5) A short circuit of 58 inter turns in 1 st phase and 29 in

2π

2nd phase with 2 broken bars with Δθ = 2,8 .

IV. E XPERIMENTAL TESTS Table I shows the mean of faulty parameter estimates for

10 acquisitions.

In order to validate this diagnosis procedure, a series of As observed in table I, there is good agreement between

experimental tests has been carried out. a real fault and its estimation. All faulty parameters vary to

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 8

indicate the values of inter turn short circuit in the three-stator 11 3.86 60

10.5

3.85 40

TABLE I 10

nc

E STIMATION RESULTS OF STATOR AND ROTOR FAULTS Rs Rr

3.84 20

9.5

Estimation results

Experiments (mean of 10 realizations)

9 3.83 0

n̂cc1 n̂cc2 n̂cc3 n̂bb Δθ 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2

1. Healthy motor 5.57 3.52 −0.03 0.08 – (windings)

(H) (H)

2. case 2 17.86 −1.11 2.51 0.94 – 0.445 0.08 6

3. case 3 3.11 54.52 0.28 1.86 π/2.5

4. case 4 16.05 53.31 −2.54 1.88 2π/25 Lm Lf

0.435 0.077 4

5. case 5 53.69 26.87 −2.46 1.82 π/2.6

0.425 0.074 2

0.415 0.071 0

circuit turns number n̂ cck . The estimation error is negligible 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2

Fig. 9. Estimation of electrical and faulty parameters at faulty case

At simultaneous faults in several phases (case 4 and 5), we

observe that the estimates of the faulty parameters of each

phase is a realistic indication of the faults. This proves that This comparison is important because it is evident that only

each short circuit element explains the fault occurring at faulty parameters change when the faults occurs according

its phase and that no significant correlation exists between to prior information principle. Moreover, electrical parameter

these elements. Moreover, broken rotor bars estimation n̂ bb variations are function of the temperature and of the magnetic

gives a satisfactory indication from the fault. Angular distance state of the machine and are independent from the faults.

Estimation Δθ between the broken rotor bars (case 3, 4 and 3) Spectrum analysis: The residuals of the identification

5) allows to know rotor fault arrangement. algorithm of usual Park’s model give an indication of the

defect level [6][19]. Indeed, more the defect is important,

(windings) Bars

more the optimum criterion is high, indicating so an increase

Two broken

58 inter turns short

circuit windings

Estimation of prediction

rotor bars error. Then, in a faulty case, we observe an

60

Estimation 2

Real faults important modeling error due to the very restrictive condi-

Real faults

tions of Park’s model. Practically, Fourier’s analysis of these

45 1.5 identification residuals in faulty case using conventional Park’s

29 inter turns short One broken

circuit windings model

rotor bar is represented at Fig. 10.a. It exhibits spectrum lines at

30

18 inter turns short

1 low frequencies and around 50 Hz (corresponding respectively

circuit windings to rotor and stator faults).

15 0.5 Healthy

Healthy (dB) (dB)

machine machine 40 40

a. Usually Park’s b. Stator and rotor

0 0

10 Model 10 faulty model

−20 −20

Fig. 8. Estimation of electrical and faulty parameters at stator and rotor

faulty case −50 −50

−80 −80

Fig. 8 presents the evolution of inter turn short circuit

estimation in one phase for several experiments and the −110

0 50 100 150 200 (Hz)

−110

0 50 100 150 200 (Hz)

faults. We observed that all the estimation results exhibit the Fig. 10. Spectral density (dB) of identification residuals

good approximation of the stator and rotor faults.

2) Parameters evolution: Fig. 9 gives, for one realization On the other hand, FFT analysis of the identification resid-

in faulty situation (case 5), the evolution of electrical and uals using the faulty model shows at Fig. 10.b that previous

faulty parameters during estimation procedure. For electrical spectrum lines have disappeared. This proves a posteriori that

state, It shows that their optimum values are achieved in only this new faulty model explains correctly stator and rotor faults

four iterations. On the other hand, their variation according occurring in induction machines.

to the initial values corresponding to prior information is For instance, we notice that stator shorted windings current

negligible. For faulty state, it is shown that their variations, have a fundamental frequency equal to 2 F 0 , where F0 is

contrary from the electrical parameters, are very important. the power supply frequency; if we develop the expression

Each faulty parameters varies to indicate stator and rotor of the short circuit currents (equation 10), we find that the

fault level occurring in the machine (example: n cc1 varies to frequency of their fundamental is equal to 2 F 0 . This explains

approach the 58 inter turns in defect presents on the 1 st phase the absorption of the spectrum lines at this frequency by the

and nbb to approach 2 broken rotor bars). differential faulty model.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 9

V. C ONCLUSION [15] M. G. Maléro and Al, Electromagnetic torque harmonics for on-

line interturn shortcircuits detection in squirrel cage induction motors,

A new model dedicated to squirrel cage induction machines EPE’99, Lausanne, Suisse, September, 1999.

has been presented for the realistic identification and detection [16] S. T. Manolas, J. Tegopoulos and M. Papadopoulos, Analysis of squirrel

cage induction motors with broken rotor bars, ICEM’96, Vigo, Spain,

of stator and rotor faults. Firstly, the inter turn short circuit pp. 19-23, 1996.

winding have been modeled by a short circuit element. Each [17] D. W. Marquardt, An Algorithm for least-squares estimation of non-

element has been dedicated to a stator phase in order to explain linear parameters, Soc. Indust. Appl. Math, VOL. 11, NO. 2, pp. 431-

441, 1963.

the fault. Secondly, a new equivalent Park’s rotor resistance [18] S. Moreau, J. C. Trigeassou, G. Champenois and J. P. Gaubert, Diagnosis

has been expressed to allow the decreasing of the number of of Induction Machines: A procedure for electrical fault detection and

rotor bars in faulty situation. Parameter estimation is used to localization, IEEE International SDEMPED’99, Gijon, Espagne, pp. 225-

230, September 1999.

perform fault detection and localization. Prior information on [19] S. Moreau, Contribution à la modélisation et à l’estimation

electrical parameters of Park’s model (common model) has paramétrique des machines électriques à courant alternatif: Application

been introduced in the optimum search. au diagnostic, Ph.D. Thesis, Université de Poitiers, France, 1999.

[20] J. Ragot, M. Daraouach, D. Maquin and G. Bloch, Validation de

Experimental tests illustrate the efficiency of this technique données et diagnostic, Traité des nouvelles technologies, série diagnostic

for use in off-line stator and rotor faults diagnosis of induction et maintenance, Hermés, 1990.

machine under varying speed. The estimates of the number [21] J. Richalet, A. Rault and R. Pouliquen, Identification des processus par

la mèthode du modèle, Gordon Breach, Thérie des systèmes, No . 04,

of inter turns short circuit windings and broken rotor bars in 1971.

different realizations give a good approximation of the fault [22] M. Staroswiecki M. Hamad, Validation of measurements and detection

level in the machine. of sensors failures in control systems, Signal processing III: Theory and

applications. I.T. Young Editor, Elsevier, 1986.

Our next objective will be to detect and localize the faults [23] E. Schaeffer, Diagnostic des machines asynchrones: modèles et outils

without the use of a speed sensor. So, it will be necessary to paramètriques dédiés à la simulation et à la détection de défauts, Ph.D.

develop a speed estimator with only electrical signals. Thesis, Université de Nantes, France, 1999.

[24] G. Seguier and F. Notelet, Electrotechnique industrielle, Lavoisier Tec

et Doc, Paris 1994.

[25] J. C. Trigeassou, Recherche de modèles expérimentaux assistée par

R EFERENCES ordinateur, Technique et Documentation Lavoisier, Paris, 1988.

[26] J. C. Trigeassou, J. P. Gaubert, S. Moreau and T. Poinot, Modélisation

[1] A. Abed, L. Baghli, H. Razik and A. Rezzoug, Modelling induction et identification en génie électrique à partir de résultats expérimentaux,

motors for diagnosis purposes, EPE’99, Lausanne, Suisse, pp. 1-8, Journées 3EI’99, Supelec Gif-sur-Yvette, March 1999.

September 1999. [27] P. Vas, F. Filippetti, G. Franceschili and C. Tassoni, Transient modelling

[2] A. B ELLINI , F. F ILIPPETTI , G. F RANCESCHINI AND C. TASSONI , To- oriented to diagnostics of induction machines with rotor asymmetries,

wards a correct quntification of induction machines broken bars through ICEM’94, December 1994.

input electric signals, ICEM’00, Espoo, Finland, pp. 781-785, 28-30 aoùt [28] Gdr SDSE, Sûreté et disponibilité des Systèmes Electrotechniques,

2000. Villeurbanne, du 20 au 21 janvier 2000.

[3] R. I SERMANN , Fault diagnosis of machines via parameter estimation

end knewledge processig - Tutoriel paper, Automatica, VOL. 29, No . 04,

pp. 815-835, 1993.

[4] S. Bachir, S. Tnani, T. Poinot and J. C. Trigeassou, Stator fault diagnosis

in induction machines by parameter estimation, IEEE International

SDEMPED’01, Grado, Italie, pp. 235-239, September 2001.

[5] S. Bachir, S. Tnani, G. Champenois and J. C. Trigeassou, Induction

motor modeling of broken rotor bars and fault detection by parameter Smail Bachir prepares the Ph. D. degree in Au-

estimation, IEEE International SDEMPED’01, Grado, Italie, pp. 145-149, tomatic and control from Poitiers University in the

September 2001. department of Electrical engineering of LAII labo-

[6] S. Bachir, S. Tnani, J. C. Trigeassou and G. Champenois, Diagnosis ratory (France). He was born in 1974 in Algeria.

by parameter estimation of stator and rotor faults occuring in induction He is a member of scientific department from Leroy

machines, EPE’01, Graz, Autriche, August 2001. Somer Society in France. His research interest in-

[7] S. Bachir, S. Tnani, G. Champenois and J. Saint-Michel, Modélisation cludes electrical machines, parameter estimation and

et diagnostic des ruptures de barres rotoriques par identification fault diagnosis.

paramétrique, Electrotechnique du Futur’01, Nancy, France, pp. 165-

170, November 2001.

[8] S. Bachir, Contribution au diagnostic de la machine asynchrone par

estimation paramétrique, Thèse de doctorat, Université de Poitiers,

France, 2002.

[9] F. Fillippitti, G. Franceshini, C. Tassoni and P. Vas, Broken bar detection

in induction machine : comparaison between current spectrum approach

and parameter estimation approach, IAS’94, NewYork, USA, pp. 94-102,

1999.

[10] P. M. Frank, Fault diagnosis in dynamical systems using analytical and Slim Tnani was born in Tunisia in 1967. He re-

knowledge based redundancy - A survey, Automatica, VOL. 26, No . 3, ceived the Ph.D in 1995 from the university of

pp. 459-474, 1990. Franche-comté (France). Now, he is professor as-

[11] G. Grellet and G. Clerc, Actionneurs électriques. Principes, modèles et sistant at the university of Poitiers (France). His

commande, Eyrolles, Paris, 1997. major interest in research are modelling of elctrical

[12] A. G. Innes and R. A. Langman, The detection of broken bars in variable machines and active filtering in power systems.

speed induction motors drives, ICEM’94, December 1999.

[13] L. Ljung, System identification: Theory for the user, Prentice Hall,

USA, 1987.

[14] A. Makki, A. Ah-jaco, H. Yahoui and G. Grellet, Modelling of capacitor

single-phase asynchronous motor under stator and rotor winding faults,

IEEE International SDEMPED’97, Carry-le-Rouet, France, pp. 191-197,

September 1997.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y 10

1946. He received the Ph.D degree in 1980 from the

Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique de Nantes

(France) and the habilitation degree in 1987 from the

University of Poitiers (France). Now, he is profes-

sor at the University of Poitiers. His major fields

of interest in research are modelling, identification

and parameter estimation of physical systems, with

particular application to the diagnosis of electrical

machines.

He received the Ph.D. degree in 1984 and the ”ha-

bilitation degree” in 1992 from the Institut National

Polytechnique de Grenoble (France). Now, He his

professor at the University of Poitiers (France). His

major fields of interest in research are electrical

machines associated with static converter ;control,

modelling and diagnosis by parameter identification

techniques.

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