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Lesson 7

Vocabulary:

Agenda
Attitude
Battery
Court
Crisp
Databank
Delighted
Design - to design - designer
Dust
Electrical appliance
Event
Fizzy drink
Handle
Hose
Input (words)
Laptop computer
Lock
Marketing strategy
Mind the gap
Phrase book
Playback
Product aimed at
Purpose (of advertisement, of the meeting, ...)
Recognition
Spelling correction
Suitcase --- briefcase
Twist
Vacuum cleaner
Was it worth it?
Whereas
Yuppy (Young, urban, professional person)

Adjectives, features = characteristics:

A x year guarantee
Adjustable = you can change the different levels = suitable for all person
Annoying = irritating
Attractive
Available in a wide range of colours
Back-up = reinforcement
Beautiful = cute
Brass (locks)
Campaign
Colourful = bright --- dull
Comfortable to wear

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Lesson 7

Crazy = mad
Dear = expensive --- cheap
Desktop computer --- Laptop computer
Desktop product
Discreet
Durable = robust = made to last
Easy-to-carry --- easy-to-use = user-friendly (user-friendliness)
Elegant = smart --- casual = informal
Environmentally-friendly
Extremely lightweight and compact
Fake
Fault = Defect
Faulty = defective
Flat
Foldable --- collapsible
Hand-crafted
High performance = powerful
High quality --- low quality
Leather
Light --- dark (colour)
Luxurius
Modern --- traditional
New technology
Polite --- impolite
Portable
Practical = handy = useful --- impractical = useless
Prototype = the first model
Qualities of products: fantastic, great, marvellous, brilliant, super, wonderful,
gorgeous ...
Reliable fiable = reliable --- unreliable = doesn't work
Slim
Solar watch = powered by solar battery = it doesnt' need battery --- batteries
supplied
Sporty
Stylish = fashionable = trendy = up-to date --- old-fashioned = out of date
Successful
Top of the range = the best product in a category
Trim (p. ex. Golded trim)
Unusual = original
USP (Unique selling point) = characteristic = feature
Waterproof

Synonyms:

Ad = advert = advertise = advertisement = commercial


Appearance = how it looks = what is look like
Are you aware? = Do you know?
Ball point pen = biro pen
Benefit = advantage --- disadvantage / drawback

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Lesson 7

Brand = make --- trademark


Commercial market = professional market --- domestic market
Company = business = firm
Customer / consumer / end-user profile = target costumer = target audience
Eye-catching = attention getting
Illness = disease
Number = figure
Prize +/- award
Rather than = instead of
Shoulder strap = belt
Sort = kind = type
Turnover of x pounds = total sales of x pounds

Antonyms:

Fun --- boring (a product is fun, not funny)

Verbs:

To afford (e.g. He cans afford wathever he wants)


To be backed by = to be supported by - to get backing = to get support = to
support --- supportive
To call = to phone = to ring = to speak (by phone = over the phone)
To carry --- to hold
To continue --- to give up
To emphasize
To handle = to deal with (pasado: dealt)
To highlight
To lose up to X
To overtake
To persuade = to encourage
To refuse = to reject = to turn down (an offer)
To remind = to remember
To set (the alarm, the video, ...)
To set = to establish a price
To steal (pasado: stole)
To withdraw a product from the shops / from the market

Word formation (verb - noun):

To advertise - advertiser
To analyse - analyser
To compete - competition
To expand - expansion
To launch - launch
To manufacture - manufacturer
To operate - operation
To plan - planner

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Lesson 7

To prepare - preparation
To programme - programmer
To troubleshoot - troubleshooter
To visit - visitor
To wholesale - wholesaler
To work - worker

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Lesson 7

Orden de seguimiento en una reunión


Actitud
Pila, batería
Tribunal
Sonido sin interferencia
Información bancaria
Encantado
Diseño - diseñar - diseñador
Polvo
Electrodoméstico
Suceso, acontecimiento
Bebida con gas
Asa, pomo (de la puerta)
Manguera
Entrada (de datos)
Ordenador portátil
Cerradura, cierre
Estrategia de márketing
Cuidado con el agujero
Libro de viaje
Volver a reproducir
Producto dirigido a
Motivo (del anuncio, de la reunión, ...)
Reconocimiento
Corrección de ortografía
Maleta --- maletín
Giro
Aspiradora
¿Valió la pena?
Mientras
Yupi

Garantizado por x años


Ajustable
Molesto, irritante
Atractivo
Disponible en una amplia gama de colores
Apoyo, refuerzo
Bonito
Latón
Campaña
Colorido, brillante --- gris, apagado, sin vida
Confortable para llevar puesto

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Lesson 7

Loco
Caro --- barato
Ordenador normal --- ordenador portátil
Producto de sobremesa
Discreto
Resistente, hecho para durar
Fácil de llevar --- fácil de usar
Elegante / inteligente --- casual = informal
Respetuoso con el medio ambiente
Extremadamente delgado y compacto
Sintético, bañado
Defecto
Defectuoso
Plano
Plegable --- plegable totalmente
Hecho a mano
Alto rendimiento
Alta calidad --- baja calidad
Piel, cuero
(Color) claro --- oscuro / delgado
Lujoso
Moderno --- tradicional
Nueva tecnología
Educado --- maleducado
Portátil
Práctico, útil --- no práctico, inútil
Prototipo

Muy bueno

Realmente fiable, fiable --- nada fiable


Delgado

Reloj solar --- baterías suministradas

De aspecto deportivo
De moda, con estilo --- pasado de moda
Exitoso
El más alto de la gama
Borde, acabado
Inusual = original
Característica
Resistente al agua

Anuncio publicitario
Apariencia
¿Estás al tanto?
Bolígrafo
Ventaja --- desventaja

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Lesson 7

Marca --- marca registrada


Mercado comercial, profesional --- mercado doméstico
Empresa
Perfil del consumidor / usuario, cliente objetivo
Que llama la atención
Enfermedad
Número
Premio
En lugar de
Cinturón (de colgar)
Clase, tipo
Ventas totales de x libras

Divertido --- aburrido (funny: que hace reír)

Permitirse (p.e. Él puede permitirse cualquier cosa)


Estar respaldado por - conseguir apoyo - apoyar ---
persona que apoya
Llamar por teléfono
Llevar --- llevar en la mano
Continuar --- rendirse
Enfatizar
Tratar con
Destacar
Perder hasta
Adelantar
Persuadir, animar, favorecer
Rechazar (una oferta)
Recordar
Programar (la alarma, el vídeo, ...)
Establecer un precio
Robar
Retirar un producto de las tiendas / del mercado

Anunciar - anunciante
Analizar - analizador
Competir - competición
Expandir - expansión
Lanzar - lanzamiento
Fabricar - fabricante
Operar - operación
Planear - plan

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Lesson 7

Preparar - preparación
Programar - programador
Disparar - disparador
Visitar - visitante
Vender al por mayor - venta mayorista
Trabajar - trabajador

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Lesson 8

Vocabulary:

Aggresive
Approachable
Available
Cartoon
Collaborative
Covering letter
Far more than
Freedom to develop my role
Good reputation
Gossip
Government policy
High staff turnover
Higher productivity
Performance
Performance appraisal
Personal achievement
Personal matter
Physically handicapped

Politics - politician --- policy

Position of responsibility
Public sector worker
Responsible
Sensationalistic
Shift
Split schedule
Staff morale
Stage of the life
Success --- successes
Supportive
Sympathetic
Tax - taxes / taxation
Tax law
The end justifies the means
Time management

Synonyms:

Action points = actions to solve a problem

Advertisement for a job = a job advertisement = a recruitment advertisement

Aim = objective = target = goal


Application form = survey = questionnaire
Area = field
Asset +/- skill
Asset = skill = ability

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Lesson 8

Career = job = post = position


Caveat = warning
Closing date = deadline
Colleague = a person who works with you or in the same field
Content = happy = pleased = satisfied
Current = nowadays
Challenging = interesting
Definite = sure = certain
Empowerment = to give more responsability
Further = more

Graduated = someone who has finished the university = ... Obtained a degree

Grounds (siempre en plural) = reason = motivation


Inspirational = motivating (boss)
Job satisfaction = to enjoy your job = to feel satisfied with you are doing
Knowledge = awareness
Nice = friendly = kind
Perk = extra-thing in a job
Quote = quotation
Role = task
Sport shoes = training shoes
Status = professional position = prestige
Tour guide = courier = tour representative
Well-known = famous
Workplace culture = culture of the firm where you work

Antonyms:

Competent --- incompetent


Left --- right wing
Male --- female
Male --- female style
Narrow --- wide (for the rest, excepting clothing)
Own label // own brand (products)
Permanent --- temporary contract
Tight --- slack / losse (for clothing)
Valuable --- invaluable

Where we can find publicity:

Banner
Billboard
Bus stop / bus shelter
TV / radio / newspaper / magazine (advert)

Verbs:

Companies close and move

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Lesson 8

Do you live to work or do you work to live?


Lead to = result in (better results)

The boss believes in you = the boss trusts you

They value you more if you stay overtime


To allow
To appoint = to recruit = to looking for = to hire = to employ = to take on ---
to fire = to dismiss = to sack = to lay off
To be in control
To be passionate about = to be very enthusiastic
To blame

To compete (with)
To complete = to close = to end = to finish
To decide = to make up the mind
To discriminate on grounds of gender or race (will not)
To earn (a salary = a wage = an income)
To get on well / ... with (somebody) = To have a good relationship
To give a good impression on the company
To have a very good timetable
To have confidence
To have job security
To interfere --- To be hands off = to leave to do the job
To joke
To make mistakes
To match = to fit (my needs)
To meet our expectations = fulfil
To notice
To prioritise
To promote
To quote - quoting reference
To respond = to answer
To set = to establish --- To achieve --- To exceed (a goal = a target = an aim
= an objective)
To shop around
To shop on impulse
To sit cross-legged
To sort out = to solve
To spend time with
To take = to do = to sit (an exam)
To take into account = to bear in mind = to look at (various options)
To take the job seriously
To take work home
To unwind (pasado: unwound) = to switch off
To value
To work overtime

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Lesson 8

Agresivo/a
Persona abierta
Disponible
Viñeta
Colaborador, que colabora
Carta de presentación
Mucho más que
Libertad para hacer mi trabajo
Buena reputación
Cotilla, chismoso
Política gubernamental
Mucha rotación de personal
Mayor productividad
Rendimiento
Evaluación del rendimiento
Logro personal
Asunto personal
Físicamente capacitado
Política (siempre en plural) - persona que se dedica a la
política - política de una compañía
Puesto de responsabilidad
Funcionario
Responsable
Sensacionalista
Turno
Jornada partida
Motivación del personal
Etapa de la vida
Éxito --- éxitos
Persona que ayuda
Comprensivo, que escucha
Impuesto - impuestos / tasación
Ley de impuestos
El fin justifica los medios
Organización del tiempo

Acciones para resolver un problema

Anuncio de trabajo

Objetivo
Encuesta, formulario
Area
Activo / virtud
Facilidad, habilidad

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Lesson 8

Trabajo, profesión
Aviso, advertencia
Fecha tope
Colega
Contento, feliz, satisfecho
Hoy día, actualmente
Reto, desafío, algo estimulante
Seguro, definitivo, cierto
Dar más responsabilidad
Más

Universitario

Razón, motivo
(Jefe) que motiva
Satisfacción en el trabajo
Conocimientos
Simpático
"Cosa" extra en el trabajo
Presupuesto
Papel, tarea
Zapatillas deportivas
Cargo en una empresa / clase social, prestigio
Guía turístico (persona)
Conocido/a, famoso/a
Cultura de tu empresa

Competente --- incompetente


Tirando a la izquierda --- a la derecha (en los periódicos)
Hombre --- mujer
Estilo masculino --- femenino
Estrecho --- ancho (para todo lo que no sea ropa)
(Productos) de marca propia // de marca blanca
Trabajo fijo --- temporal
Estrecho --- ancho (para ropa)
Valioso --- que no tiene precio

Publicidad en movimiento
Valla publicitaria de carretera
Parada de autobús, marquesina de la parada del autobús
Anuncio en TV, radio, periódicos, magazines

Las empresas cierran y se trasladan

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Lesson 8

¿Vives para trabajar o trabajas para vivir?


Llevar a, conseguir (mejores resultados)
El jefe confía en ti ("trust" es confianza moral, no explicar
secretos)
Te valoran más si te quedas horas extras
Permitir, dejar hacer algo

Coger personal --- echar personal

Tener el control
Estar entusiasmado con
Culpar
Comprometerse a
Tener la capacidad de hacer algo, competir
Acabar
Decidir
Discriminar por razón de sexo y raza (no)
Ganar (un sueldo)
Llevarlo bien / Llevarse bien (con alguien)
Dar una buena impresión de la empresa
Tener un muy buen horario
Tener confianza en alguien
Tener una seguridad en el trabajo
Interferir --- no interferir
Bromear
Cometer errores
Satisfacer (mis necesidades)
Cumplir con nuestras esperanzas y expectativas
Darse cuenta
Priorizar
Promocionar
Mencionar - mencionando la referencia
Contestar

Establecer --- conseguir --- exceder (un objetivo)

Comprar en varios sitios


Comprar por impulso
Sentarse con las piernas cruzadas
Resolver
Pasar el tiempo con
Tener (un examen)
Tener en cuenta (varias opciones)
Tomarse en serio el trabajo
Llevarse el trabajo a casa
Descansar, desconectar
Valorar
Trabajar horas extras

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Lesson 9

Vocabulary:

Attendance
Average worker
Business --- businesses
Competitiveness
Database
Entrepreneurial spirit
Everyday goods
Exchange rate
In sight
Inflation
International trade
Internet banking
Life cost
Multinational
Overall
Price difference between
Quarter
Rate of growth
Respite
Shopping basket
Skilled workforce
Slightly
Speech
Staff: personnel = employee = worker = workforce
Technology
Until the end of the year
Variation in (price, taxes)
Working day

Synonyms:

Abroad = overseas = in a foreign country


Almost = nearly
All over the world = throughout the world = around the world
Applicant = candidate = someone who is applying for a job
As soon as possible = as quickly as possible
Decrease = fall = drop = decline = downturn
Discussion = debate = conversation
Dramatically = sharply
Due to = because of
Economic recession = economic crisis
Enough = sufficient
Enquiry = question
Environment = atmosphere
Great = vast (majority)

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Lesson 9

Huge = enormous = massive


Improvement = rise = increase = growth
Infrastructure = facilities = amenities = installations where the firm is
ubicated.
No one = nobody
Part = component --- piece
Resilient = strong
Shipping = transportation
Steadily
Sum = amount = quantitiy
Trend = direction
Trend = pattern

Antonyms:

Easy --- poor access to raw materials


Good --- poor availability of labour
High --- low labour costs
High --- low taxes
Inward --- outward investment
Likely --- unlikely
Political stability --- instability
Profit --- loss (en el plural no varía)
Strong --- weak economy
Wholesaler --- retailer

Verbs:

To account for
To affect --- to be affected by --- to be hit by
To attract (foreign investment)
To be source in (país)
To be willing = to be prepared
To bear
To benefit from
To charge
To choose = to select
To decrease = to fall = to drop = to decline
To drop
To improve = to rise = to increase = to grow = to boost
To invest
To make cuts = to reduce costs --- to improve profits
To motivate --- to desmotivate
To purchase = to buy = to shop
To put into practice = to implement = to carry out
To stabilise = to maintain the level = to remain steady at = to stay at the
level
To stand up (pasado: stood up)
To suffer a downturn

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Lesson 9

To take a full working day


To worry = to concern

Word formation (noun - career - positive - negative):

Analysis - analyst - analitycal - unanalitycal


Economy - economist - economic - uneconomic
Employment - employer - employed - employee - unemployed
Unemployment - employee - employable - unemployable

Word formation (verb - noun - career):

To invent - invention - inventor


To invest - investment - investor

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Lesson 9

Asistencia
Trabajador medio
Negocio --- negocios
Competitividad
Base de datos
Espíritu emprendedor
Productos de consumo diario
Tipo de cambio
A la vista
Inflación
Comercio internacional
Banco por internet
Coste de la vida
Multinacional
En general
Diferencia de precio entre
Trimestre
Tasa de crecimiento
Respiro, alivio
Cesta de la compra
Mano de obra preparada
Ligeramente
Manera de hablar, lenguaje, habla
Trabajador / personal
Tecnología
Hasta final de año
Variación de (precio, impuestos)
Día laborable

En el extranjero
Casi
Por todo el mundo
Candidato
Lo antes posible
Descenso, disminución
Conversación
Bruscamente
Debido a
Crisis económica
Bastante, suficiente
Pregunta
Medio ambiente, atmósfera
Gran (mayoría)

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Lesson 9

Enorme, muy grande


Crecimiento, aumento

Instalaciones

Nadie
Parte, componente --- pieza
Fuerte
Transporte
A un ritmo constante
Cantidad
Tendencia
Dibujo, estampado

Fácil --- difícil acceso a las materias primas


Gran --- poca disponibilidad de mano de obra
Alto --- bajo coste de la mano de obra
Impuestos altos --- bajos
Inversión interna --- externa
Probable --- improbable
Estabilidad --- inestabilidad política
Beneficio --- pérdida
Economía fuerte --- débil
Mayorista --- minorista

Representar (paraq cantidades)


Afectar --- Estar afectado por
Atraer (inversión extranjera)
Provenir de (país)
Estar dispuesto, preparado
Soportar
Aprovecharse de
Cobrar
Seleccionar
Disminuir
Dejar caer
Aumentar
Invertir
Reducir gastos --- Aumentar beneficios
Motivar --- desmotivar
Comprar (la 1ª es la más formal)
Poner en práctica

Mantenerse en

Ascender a (para cantidades)


Sufrir un descenso

72
Lesson 9

Lleva un día completo de trabajo


Estar preocupado

Análisis - analista - analítico - no analítico


Economía - economista - económico - no económico
Empleo - empleador - empleado - desempleado
Desempleado - empleado - empleable - no empleable

Inventar - invención - inventor


Invertir - inversión - inversor

72
Lesson 7+8+9

Vocabulary:

Agenda
Aggresive
Approachable
Attendance
Attitude
Available
Average worker
Battery
Business --- businesses
Cartoon
Collaborative
Competitiveness
Court
Covering letter
Crisp
Databank
Database
Delighted
Dust
Electrical appliance
Entrepreneurial spirit
Event
Everyday goods
Exchange rate
Far more than
Fizzy drink
Freedom to develop my role
Good reputation
Gossip
Government policy
Handle
High staff turnover
Higher productivity
Hose
In sight
Inflation
Input (words)
International trade
Internet banking
Laptop computer
Life cost
Lock
Marketing strategy
Mind the gap
Multinational

21
Lesson 7+8+9

Overall
Performance appraisal
Personal achievement
Personal matter
Phrase book
Physically handicapped
Playback

Politics - politician --- policy

Position of responsibility
Price difference between
Product aimed at
Public sector worker
Purpose (of the advertisement, of the meeting, ...)
Quarter
Rate of growth
Recognition
Respite
Responsible
Sensationalistic
Shift
Shopping basket
Skilled workforce
Slightly
Speech
Spelling correction
Split schedule
Staff morale
Staff: personnel = employee = worker
Stage of the life
Success - successes
Suitcase --- briefcase
Supportive
Sympathetic
Tax - taxes / taxation
Tax law
Technology
The end justifies the means
Time management
Twist
Until the end of the year
Vacuum cleaner
Variation in (price, taxes)
Was it worth it?
Whereas
Working day
Yuppy (Young, urban, professional person)

22
Lesson 7+8+9

Adjectives, features = characteristics:

A x year guarantee
Adjustable = you can change the different levels = suitable for all person
Annoying = irritating
Attractive
Available in a wide range of colours
Back-up = reinforcement
Beautiful = cute
Brass (locks)
Campaign
Colourful = bright --- dull
Comfortable to wear
Crazy = mad
Dear = expensive --- cheap
Desktop computer --- Laptop computer
Desktop product
Discreet
Durable = robust = made to last
Easy-to-carry --- easy-to-use = user-friendly (user-friendliness)
Elegant = smart --- casual = informal
Environmentally-friendly
Extremely lightweight and compact
Fake
Fault = Defect
Faulty = defective
Flat
Foldable --- collapsible
Hand-crafted
High performance = powerful
High quality --- low quality
Leather
Light --- dark (colour)
Luxurius
Modern --- traditional
New technology
Polite --- impolite
Portable
Practical = handy = useful --- impractical = useless
Prototype = the first model
Qualities of products: fantastic, great, marvellous, brilliant, super,
wonderful, gorgeous ...
Reliable fiable = reliable --- unreliable = doesn't work
Slim
Solar watch = powered by solar battery = it doesnt' need battery ---
batteries supplied
Sporty
Stylish = fashionable = trendy = up-to date --- old-fashioned = out of date
Successful

23
Lesson 7+8+9

Top of the range = the best product in a category


Trim (p. ex. Golded trim)
Unusual = original
USP (Unique selling point) = characteristic = feature
Waterproof

Where we can find publicity:

Banner
Billboard
Bus stop / bus shelter
TV / radio / newspaper / magazine (advert)

Synonyms:

Abroad = overseas = in a foreign country


Action points = actions to solve a problem
Ad = advert = advertise = advertisement = commercial
Advertisement for a job = a job advertisement = a recruitment
advertisement
Aim = objective = target = goal
Almost = nearly
All over the world = throughout the world = around the world
Appearance = how it looks = what is look like
Applicant = candidate = someone who is applying for a job
Application form = survey = questionnaire
Are you aware? = Do you know?
Area = field
As soon as possible = as quickly as possible
Asset +/- skill
Asset = skill = ability
Ball point pen = biro pen
Benefit = advantage --- disadvantage / drawback
Brand = make --- trademark
Career = job = post = position
Caveat = warning
Closing date = deadline
Colleague = a person who works with you or in the same field
Commercial market = professional market --- domestic market
Company = business = firm
Content = happy = pleased = satisfied
Current = nowadays
Customer / consumer / end-user profile = target costumer = target
audience
Challenging = interesting
Decrease = fall = drop = decline = downturn
Definite = sure = certain
Discussion = debate = conversation
Dramatically = sharply

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Lesson 7+8+9

Due to = because of
Economic recession = economic crisis
Empowerment = to give more responsibility
Enough = sufficient
Enquiry = question
Environment = atmosphere
Eye-catching = attention getting
Further = more
Graduated = someone who has finished the university = ... obtained a
degree
Great = vast (majority)
Grounds (siempre en plural) = reason = motivation
Huge = enormous = massive
Illness = disease
Improvement = rise = increase = growth
Infrastructure = facilities = amenities = installations where the firm is
ubicated.
Inspirational = motivating (boss)

Job satisfaction = to enjoy your job = to feel satisfied with you are doing

Knowledge = awareness
Nice = friendly = kind
No one = nobody
Part = component --- piece
Perk = extra-thing in a job
Prize +/- award
Quote = quotation
Rather than = instead of
Resilient = strong
Role = task
Shipping = transportation
Shoulder strap = belt
Sort = kind = type
Sport shoes = training shoes
Status = professional position = prestige
Steadily
Such as = e.g. = for instance = for example
Sum = amount = quantitiy
Tour guide = courier = tour representative
Trend = direction
Trend = pattern
Turnover of x pounds = total sales of (x pounds)
Well-known = famous
Workplace culture = culture of the firm where you work

Antonyms:

Competent --- incompetent


Easy --- poor access to raw materials

25
Lesson 7+8+9

Fun --- boring (a product is fun, not funny)


Good --- poor availability of labour
High --- low labour costs
High --- low taxes
Inward --- outward investment
Left --- right wing
Likely --- unlikely
Male --- female
Male --- female (style)
Narrow --- wide (for the rest, excepting clothing)
Own label // own brand (products)
Permanent --- temporary contract
Political stability --- instability
Profit --- loss (en el plural no varía)
Strong --- weak economy
Tight --- slack / losse (for clothing)
Valuable --- invaluable
Wholesaler --- retailer

Verbs:

Companies close and move


Do you live to work or do you work to live?
Lead to = result in (better results)

The boss believes in you = the boss trusts you

They value you more if you stay overtime


To account for
To affect --- to be affected by --- to be hit by
To afford (e.g. He cans afford wathever he wants)
To allow
To appoint = to recruit = to looking for = to hire = to employ = to take on
--- to fire = to dismiss = to sack = to lay off
To attract (foreign investment)
To be backed by = to be supported by - to get backing = to get support =
to support --- supportive
To be in control
To be passionate about = to be very enthusiastic
To be source in (país)
To be willing = to be prepared
To bear
To benefit from
To blame
To call = to phone = to ring = to speak (by phone = over the phone)
To carry --- to hold
To commit to / commited to +ing = to dedicate = to applicate
To compete (with)
To complete = to close = to end = to finish
To continue --- to give up

26
Lesson 7+8+9

To charge
To choose = to select
To decide = to make up the mind
To decrease = to fall = to drop = to decline
To discriminate on grounds of gender or race (will not)
To drop
To earn (a salary = a wage)
To emphasize
To get on well / ... with (somebody) = To have a good relationship
To give a good impression on the company
To handle = to deal with (pasado: dealt)
To have a very good timetable
To have confidence
To have job security
To highlight
To improve = to rise = to increase = to grow = to boost
To interfere --- To be hands off = to leave to do the job
To joke
To lose up to X
To make cuts = to reduce costs --- to improve profits
To make mistakes
To match = to fit (my needs)
To meet our expectations = fulfil
To motivate --- to desmotivate
To notice
To overtake
To persuade = to encourage
To prioritise
To promote
To purchase = to buy = to shop
To put into practice = to implement = to carry out
To quote - quoting reference
To refuse = to reject = to turn down (an offer)
To remind = to remember
To respond = to answer
To set (the alarm, the video, ...)
To set = to establish - a goal = a target = an aim = an objective --- To
achieve a goal ... --- To exceed a goal ...
To set = to establish a price
To shop around
To shop on impulse
To sit cross-legged
To sort out = to solve
To spend time with
To stabilise = to maintain the level = to remain steady at = to stay at the
level
To stand up (pasado: stood up)
To steal (pasado: stole)
To suffer a downturn

27
Lesson 7+8+9

To take = to do = to sit (an exam)


To take a full working day
To take into account = to bear in mind = to look at (various options)
To take the job seriously
To take work home
To unwind (pasado: unwound) = to switch off
To value
To withdraw a product from the shops / from the market
To work overtime
To worry = to concern

Word formation (verb - noun):

To advertise - advertiser
To analyse - analyser
To compete - competition
To expand - expansion
To launch - launch
To manufacture - manufacturer
To operate - operation
To plan - planner
To prepare - preparation
To programme - programmer
To troubleshoot - troubleshooter
To visit - visitor
To wholesale - wholesaler
To work - worker

Word formation (noun - career - positive - negative):

Analysis - analyst - analitycal - unanalitycal


Economy - economist - economic - uneconomic
Employment - employer - employed - employee - unemployed
Unemployment - employee - employable - unemployable

Word formation (verb - noun - career):

To invent - invention - inventor


To invest - investment - investor
To design - design - designer
To innovate - innovation - innovator

28
Lesson 7+8+9

Orden de seguimiento en una reunión


Agresivo/a
Persona abierta
Asistencia
Actitud
Disponible
Trabajador medio
Pila, batería
Negocio --- negocios
Viñeta
Colaborador, que colabora
Competitividad
Tribunal
Carta de presentación
Sonido sin interferencia
Información bancaria
Base de datos
Encantado
Polvo
Electrodoméstico
Espíritu emprendedor
Suceso, acontecimiento
Productos de consumo diario
Tipo de cambio
Mucho más que
Bebida con gas
Libertad para hacer mi trabajo
Buena reputación
Cotilla, chismoso
Política gubernamental
Asa, pomo (de la puerta)
Mucha rotación de personal
Mayor productividad
Manguera
A la vista
Inflación
Entrada (de datos)
Comercio internacional
Banco por internet
Ordenador portátil
Coste de la vida
Cerradura, cierre
Estrategia de márketing
Cuidado con el agujero
Multinacional

29
Lesson 7+8+9

En general
Evaluación del rendimiento, del resultado
Logro personal
Asunto personal
Libro de viaje
Físicamente capacitado
Volver a reproducir
Política (siempre en plural) - persona que se dedica a la política -
política de una compañía
Puesto de responsabilidad
Diferencia de precio entre
Producto dirigido a
Funcionario
Propósito, motivo (del anuncio, de la reunión, ...)
Trimestre
Tasa de crecimiento
Reconocimiento
Respiro, alivio
Responsable
Sensacionalista
Turno
Cesta de la compra
Mano de obra preparada
Ligeramente
Manera de hablar, lenguaje, habla
Corrección de ortografía
Jornada partida
Motivación del personal
Trabajador
Etapa de la vida
Éxito - éxitos
Maleta --- maletín
Persona que ayuda
Comprensivo, que escucha
Impuesto - impuestos / tasación
Ley de impuestos
Tecnología
El fin justifica los medios
Organización del tiempo
Giro
Hasta final de año
Aspiradora
Variación de (precio, impuestos)
¿Valió la pena?
Mientras
Día laborable
Yupi

30
Lesson 7+8+9

Garantizado por x años


Ajustable
Molesto, irritante
Atractivo
Disponible en una amplia gama de colores
Apoyo, refuerzo
Bonito
Latón
Campaña
Colorido, brillante --- gris, apagado, sin vida
Confortable para llevar puesto
Loco
Caro --- barato
Ordenador normal --- ordenador portátil
Producto de sobremesa
Discreto
Resistente, hecho para durar
Fácil de llevar --- fácil de usar
Elegante / inteligente --- casual = informal
Respetuoso con el medio ambiente
Extremadamente delgado y compacto
Sintético, bañado
Defecto
Defectuoso
Plano
Plegable --- plegable totalmente
Hecho a mano
Alto rendimiento
Alta calidad --- baja calidad
Piel, cuero
(Color) claro --- oscuro / delgado
Lujoso
Moderno --- tradicional
Nueva tecnología
Educado --- maleducado
Portátil
Práctico, útil --- no práctico, inútil
Prototipo

Muy bueno

Realmente fiable, fiable --- nada fiable


Delgado

Reloj solar --- baterías suministradas

De aspecto deportivo
De moda, con estilo --- pasado de moda
Exitoso

31
Lesson 7+8+9

El más alto de la gama


Borde, acabado
Inusual = original
Característica
Resistente al agua

Publicidad en movimiento
Valla publicitaria de carretera
Parada de autobús, marquesina de la parada del autobús
Anuncio en TV, radio, periódicos, magazines

En el extranjero
Acciones para resolver un problema
Anuncio publicitario

Anuncio de trabajo

Objetivo
Casi
Por todo el mundo
Apariencia
Candidato
Encuesta, formulario
¿Estás al tanto?
Area
Lo antes posible
Activo / virtud
Facilidad, habilidad
Bolígrafo
Ventaja --- desventaja
Marca --- marca registrada
Trabajo, profesión
Aviso, advertencia
Fecha tope
Colega
Mercado comercial, profesional --- mercado doméstico
Empresa
Contento, feliz, satisfecho
Hoy día, actualmente

Perfil del consumidor / usuario, cliente objetivo

Reto, desafío, algo estimulante


Descenso, disminución
Seguro, definitivo, cierto
Conversación
Bruscamente

32
Lesson 7+8+9

Debido a
Crisis económica
Dar más responsabilidad
Bastante, suficiente
Pregunta
Medio ambiente, atmósfera
Que llama la atención
Más

Universitario

Gran (mayoría)
Razón, motivo
Enorme, muy grande
Enfermedad
Crecimiento, aumento

Instalaciones

(Jefe) que motiva

Satisfacción en el trabajo

Conocimientos
Simpático
Nadie
Parte, componente --- pieza
"Cosa" extra en el trabajo
Premio
Presupuesto
En lugar de
Fuerte
Papel, tarea
Transporte
Cinturón (de colgar)
Clase, tipo
Zapatillas deportivas
Cargo en una empresa / clase social, prestigio
A un ritmo constante
Por ejemplo
Cantidad
Guía turístico (persona)
Tendencia
Dibujo, estampado
Ventas totales de (x libras)
Conocido/a, famoso/a
Cultura de tu empresa

Competente --- incompetente


Fácil --- difícil acceso a las materias primas

33
Lesson 7+8+9

Divertido --- aburrido (funny: que hace reír)


Gran --- poca disponibilidad de mano de obra
Alto --- bajo coste de la mano de obra
Impuestos altos --- bajos
Inversión interna --- externa
Tirando a la izquierda --- a la derecha (en los periódicos)
Probable --- improbable
Hombre --- mujer
(Estilo) masculino --- femenino
Estrecho --- ancho (para todo lo que no sea ropa)
(Productos) de marca propia // de marca blanca
Trabajo fijo --- temporal
Estabilidad --- inestabilidad política
Beneficio --- pérdida
Economía fuerte --- débil
Estrecho --- ancho (para ropa)
Valioso --- que no tiene precio
Mayorista --- minorista

Las empresas cierran y se trasladan


¿Vives para trabajar o trabajas para vivir?
Llevar a, conseguir (mejores resultados)
El jefe confía en ti ("trust" es confianza moral, no explicar
secretos)
Te valoran más si te quedas horas extras
Representar (para cantidades)
Afectar --- Estar afectado por
Permitirse (p.e. Él puede permitirse cualquier cosa)
Permitir, dejar hacer algo

Coger personal --- echar personal

Atraer (inversión extranjera)


Estar respaldado por - conseguir apoyo - apoyar --- persona que
apoya
Tener el control
Estar entusiasmado con
Provenir de (país)
Estar dispuesto, preparado
Soportar
Aprovecharse de
Culpar
Llamar por teléfono
Llevar --- llevar en la mano
Comprometerse a
Tener la capacidad de hacer algo, competir
Acabar
Continuar --- rendirse

34
Lesson 7+8+9

Cobrar
Seleccionar
Decidir
Disminuir
Discriminar por razón de sexo y raza (no)
Dejar caer
Ganar (un sueldo)
Enfatizar
Llevarlo bien / Llevarse bien (con alguien)
Dar una buena impresión de la empresa
Tratar con
Tener un muy buen horario
Tener confianza en alguien
Tener una seguridad en el trabajo
Destacar
Aumentar
Interferir --- no interferir
Bromear
Perder hasta
Reducir gastos --- Aumentar beneficios
Cometer errores
Satisfacer (mis necesidades)
Cumplir con nuestras esperanzas y expectativas
Motivar --- desmotivar
Darse cuenta
Adelantar
Persuadir, animar, favorecer
Priorizar
Promocionar
Comprar (la 1ª es la más formal)
Poner en práctica
Mencionar - mencionando la referencia
Rechazar (una oferta)
Recordar
Contestar
Programar (la alarma, el vídeo, ...)
Establecer un objetivo --- conseguir un objetivo --- exceder el
objetivo
Establecer un precio
Comprar en varios sitios
Comprar por impulso
Sentarse con las piernas cruzadas
Resolver
Pasar el tiempo con

Mantenerse en

Ascender a (para cantidades)


Robar
Sufrir un descenso

35
Lesson 7+8+9

Tener (un examen)


Lleva un día completo de trabajo
Tener en cuenta (varias opciones)
Tomarse en serio el trabajo
Llevarse el trabajo a casa
Descansar, desconectar
Valorar
Retirar un producto de las tiendas / del mercado
Trabajar horas extras
Estar preocupado

Anunciar - anunciante
Analizar - analizador
Competir - competición
Expandir - expansión
Lanzar - lanzamiento
Fabricar - fabricante
Operar - operación
Planear - plan
Preparar - preparación
Programar - programador
Disparar - disparador
Visitar - visitante
Vender al por mayor - venta mayorista
Trabajar - trabajador

Análisis - analista - analítico - no analítico


Economía - economista - económico - no económico
Empleo - empleador - empleado - desempleado
Desempleado - empleado - empleable - no empleable

Inventar - invención - inventor


Invertir - inversión - inversor
Diseñar - diseño - diseñador
Innovar - innovación, novedad - innovador

36
Lesson 10

Vocabulary:

Annual report
Balance sheet
Earning per share
Equity
Exchange-rate
Expenditure
Fare
Financial results
How well the company is performing
Income tax
Interest rate
Interest-bearing
International presence
Land
Offshore bank account
On-demand
Profit and loss account
Proposal
Public expending
Regardless
Return
Share
Shareholder
Statement
Summary
Tax year
Tax-free
The Inland Revenue
The investment may go down as well as up
VAT - Value Added Tax
Worthwhile

Figures and numbers:

Cardinal number
Decimal number
Fraction
Metre - centimetre (squared)
Ordinal number
Percentage

Expenditure = to expend = expending = expenses

To spend on ...
Clothing and footwear

72
Lesson 10

Food and drink


Fuel and power
Household good = household product = furniture
Housing
Leisure goods and services
Miscellaneous
Rent --- mortgage
Soft drink --- alcoholic drink
Tobacco
Transport

Synonyms:

Acquisition = Takeover another company


Cash = money
Currency = money
Dividend = share of the turnover that the shareholders receive
For a start = to begin
In other words = that is to say = that means = i.e.
Inflation = cost of living
Pay on time --- late payment = don't pay on time
Operating profit = turnover minus overheads or running costs
Outstanding = excellent
Performance = result
Proper = good = correct
Several = a lot of
Tax = taxation
That's a good point = that's interesting

Antonyms:

Asset --- liability


Bank --- current --- deposit (account)
Favourable --- unfavourable
Gross --- net (profit, interest)
Individual --- company
Public --- private (company)
Safe = sure --- dangerous = unsure
Short --- long (term)
Variable --- unvariable

Verbs:

To avoid
To ban = to prohibit = to forbid
To be obliged --- to oblige (to do something)
To borrow (e.g. If I borrow money from you, then you lend me the
money)

72
Lesson 10

To deduct
To draw up
To focus on = to concentrate on
To get rid of

To lend (e.g. If I borrow money from you, then you lend me the money)

To save money
To sell off = to dispose of = to sell (an asset)
To switch = to change = to vary
To take care of = to look after
To take full advantage

To treat --- to invite

72
Lesson 10

Informe anual
Balance
Beneficio por acción
Plusvalía
Tipo de cambio
Gasto de una persona
Tarifa
Resultados financieros
Si la empresa va bien o no
IRPF
Tipo de interés
Que paga intereses
Presencia internacional
Terreno
Cuenta bancaria en un banco situado en un paraíso fiscal
Sobre demanda
Cuenta de pérdidas y ganancias
Propuesta
Gasto público
Sea cual sea
Devolución
Acción
Accionista
Afirmación / extracto
Resumen
Año fiscal
Libre de impuestos
Hacienda
La inversión puede bajar como subir
IVA
Que merece la pena

Número cardinal
Número decimal
Fracción
Metro - centímetro (cuadrado)
Número ordinal
Porcentaje

Gastar en ...
Ropa y calzado

72
Lesson 10

Comida y bebida
Combustible y electricidad
Producto para el hogar
Gastos del hogar
Productos y servicios de ocio
Varios
Alquiler --- hipoteca
Bebida refresacante --- bebida alcohólica
Tabaco
Transporte

Comprar otra empresa


Dinero en efectivo
Moneda, divisa
Dividendo
Para empezar
En otras palabras, es decir
Inflación
Pagar cuando toca --- retrasarse en el pago
Beneficio operativo = ventas totales menos gastos
Excelente
Resultado
Bueno, adecuado, correcto
Muchos
Tasación
Es interesante

Activo --- pasivo


(Cuenta) bancaria --- corriente --- depósito
Favorable --- desfavorable
Beneficio, interés bruto --- neto
Persona particular --- empresa
Empresa pública --- privada
Seguro --- no seguro
A corto --- largo plazo
Variable --- invariable

Evitar
Prohibir
Verse obligado --- obligar (a hacer algo)

Pedir prestado

72
Lesson 10

Deducir
Preparar, planear, poner por escrito
Concentrarse en algo
Deshacerse de algo

Prestar

Ahorrar dinero
Vender (un activo)
Cambiar, variar
Cuidar
Aprovecharse de las ventajas
El primero es que te invitan y paga el otro y el segundo no quiere
decir que vayan a pagar

72
Lesson 11

Vocabulary:

Bankruptcy
Early settlement discount
Equal opportunities policy
Ethical policy
Fair
Fine
Fortnight
Freely
Ground coffee
Harmful = hurtful = dangerous
Human rights
Needlessly
Ozone layer
Payment on time
Payment policy
Product policy
Roast coffee
Spokesman

Synonyms:

Developing = underdeveloped = third world (country)


Bill = law = legislation
Cash-flow = movement of money in a company
Ethical consumer = morally right --- morally wrong
Unless = except if

Antonyms:

Creditor (who lends money) --- debtor (who borrows money)


Incomes --- outgoings
Responsible = ethical --- irresponsible = unethical

Verbs:

To claim (the lead)


To conduct = to run = to manage (a business = a company)
To charge an interest
To damage = to harm = to hurt
To dissuade
To face a problem
To go out of business = to close
To grow = to expand = to develop
To have high spending power = To be rich = to be wealthy
To lack (a lack)

72
Lesson 11

To overcharge
To owe (money)
To pollute
To preserve
To proceed
To provide
To raise
To settle = to pay
To submit = to send in
To take ages to pay
To turn over
To use delaying tactics (for the payment)

Word formation (noun - adjective):

Environment - environmental
Power - powerful --- powerless
Sceptic - sceptical

72
Lesson 11

Bancarrota
Descuento por pronto pago
Política de igual de oportunidades
Política ética
Justo
Multa
Quincena, dos semanas
Gratuitamente
Café molido
Dañino
Derechos humanos
Necesariamente
Capa de ozono
Pagar a tiempo
Política de pagos
Política de producto
Café torrefacto
Portavoz

País en vías de desarrollo


Ley
Entrada y salida de dinero
Consumidor ético, responsable --- moralmente reprochable
Excepto

Deudor --- acreedor


Ingresos --- gastos
Responsable --- irresponsable

Reclamar / pretender (ser el líder, el liderazgo)


Dirigir (una empresa)
Cargar un interés
Dañar
Disuadir, hacer cambiar de opinión
Enfrentarse a un problema
Cerrar una empresa
Crecer, cultivar, producir / expandirse
Ser rico
Faltar, no tener (falta)

72
Lesson 11

Cobrar de más
Deber (dinero)
Contaminar
Conservar
Proceder a hacer algo
Conllevar
Recaudar
Pagar
Enviar
Tardar mucho tiempo en pagar
Convertir
Usar tácticas para retrasar (el pago)

Medio ambiente - medioambiental


Poder - poderoso --- débil
Escéptico - escéptico

72
Lesson 12

Vocabulary:

Branch
Brand loyalty
Collapse
Chairman
Flavour

Synonyms:

Border = frontier
Competitor = seller = rival
Drink = beverage
Good = product = item
Manufacturer = producer
Market share = proportion of market
Open market = area of business where there is free competition
Parent = holding (company) --- subsidiary
Plant = factory = facility

Antonyms:

Understaff --- overstaff


Upmarket = an expensive/luxury image --- downmarket = a low-status image

Verbs:

To break into = to enter into = to begin doing business = to exploit (in a new area,
in a new market)
To float = to sell (shares)
To form = to establish = to create (a company)
To gain supremacy = to win the first position
To merge --- to demerger
To outsell = to sell more than
To retain = to keep (shares)
To split = to divide (a company)

72
Lesson 12

Sucursal, tienda
Fidelidad a una marca determinada
Caída
Presidente, director general
Gusto, sabor

Frontera
Competidor, rival
Bebida
Producto
Fabricante, productor
Cuota de mercado
Area de libre competencia
Empresa matriz --- filial
Fábrica

Falto de personal --- demasiado personal


Imagen de marca --- sin imagen de marca

Entrar en (una nueva área, en un nuevo mercado)

Salir a bolsa, vender (acciones)


Crear (una empresa)
Conseguir el primer puesto
Fusionarse --- desfusionarse
Vender más que
Quedarse, guardarse (acciones)
Dividir (una empresa)

72
Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Vocabulary:

Agenda
Aggresive
Annual report
Approachable
Attendance
Attitude
Available
Average worker
Balance sheet
Bankruptcy
Battery
Branch
Brand loyalty
Business - businesses
Cartoon
Collaborative
Collapse
Competitiveness
Court
Covering letter
Crisp
Chairman
Databank
Database
Delighted
Dust
Early settlement discount
Earning per share
Electrical appliance
Entrepreneurial spirit
Equal opportunities policy
Equity
Ethical policy
Event
Everyday goods
Exchange rate
Expenditure
Fair
Far more than
Fare
Financial results
Fine
Fizzy drink
Flavour
Fortnight

49
Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Freedom to develop my role


Freely
Good reputation
Gossip
Government policy
Ground coffee
Handle
High staff turnover
Higher productivity
Hose
How well the company is performing
Human rights
In sight
Income tax
Inflation
Input (words)
Interest rate
Interest-bearing
International presence
International trade
Internet banking
Land
Laptop computer
Life cost
Lock
Marketing strategy
Mind the gap
Multinational
Needlessly
Offshore bank account
On-demand
Overall
Ozone layer
Payment policy
Performance appraisal
Personal achievement
Personal matter
Phrase book
Physically handicapped
Playback

Politics - politician --- policy

Position of responsibility
Price difference between
Product aimed at
Product policy
Profit and loss account
Proposal

50
Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Public expending
Public sector worker
Purpose (of the advertisement, of the meeting, ...)
Quarter
Rate of growth
Recognition
Regardless
Respite
Return
Roast coffee
Sensationalistic
Share
Shareholder
Shift
Shopping basket
Skilled workforce
Slightly
Speech
Spelling correction
Split schedule
Spokesman
Staff morale
Staff: personnel = employee = worker = workforce
Stage of the life
Statement
Success - successes
Suitcase --- briefcase
Summary
Supportive
Sympathetic
Tax - taxes / taxation
Tax law
Tax year
Tax-free
Technology
The end justifies the means
The Inland Revenue
The investment may go down as well as up
Time management
Twist
Until the end of the year
Vacuum cleaner
VAT - Value Added Tax
Variation in (price, taxes)
Was it worth it?
Whereas
Working day
Worthwhile

51
Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Yuppy (Young, urban, professional person)

Adjectives, features = characteristics:

A x year guarantee
Adjustable = you can change the different levels = suitable for all person
Annoying = irritating
Attractive
Available in a wide range of colours
Back-up = reinforcement
Beautiful = cute
Brass (locks)
Campaign
Colourful = bright --- dull
Comfortable to wear
Crazy = mad
Dear = expensive --- cheap
Desktop computer --- Laptop computer
Desktop product
Discreet
Durable = robust = made to last
Easy-to-carry --- easy-to-use = user-friendly (user-friendliness)
Elegant = smart --- casual = informal
Environmentally-friendly
Extremely lightweight and compact
Fake
Fault = Defect
Faulty = defective
Flat
Foldable --- collapsible
Hand-crafted
High performance = powerful
High quality --- low quality
Leather
Light --- dark (colour)
Luxurius
Modern --- traditional
New technology
Polite --- impolite
Portable
Practical = handy = useful --- impractical = useless
Prototype = the first model
Qualities of products: fantastic, great, marvellous, brilliant, super, wonderful,
gorgeous ...
Reliable fiable = reliable --- unreliable = doesn't work
Slim
Solar watch = powered by solar battery = it doesnt' need battery --- batteries
supplied
Sporty

52
Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Stylish = fashionable = trendy = up-to date --- old-fashioned = out of date


Successful
Top of the range = the best product in a category
Trim (p. ex. Golded trim)
Unusual = original
USP (Unique selling point) = characteristic = feature
Waterproof

Where we can find publicity:

Banner
Billboard
Bus stop / bus shelter
TV / radio / newspaper / magazine (advert)

Figures and numbers:

Cardinal number
Decimal number
Fraction
Metre - centimetre (squared)
Ordinal number
Percentage

Expenditure = to expend = expending = expenses

To spend on ...
Clothing and footwear
Food and drink
Fuel and power
Household good = household product = furniture
Housing
Leisure goods and services
Miscellaneous
Rent --- mortgage
Soft drink --- alcoholic drink
Tobacco
Transport

Synonyms:

Abroad = overseas = in a foreign country


Acquisition = Takeover another company
Action points = actions to solve a problem
Ad = advert = advertise = advertisement = commercial

Advertisement for a job = a job advertisement = a recruitment advertisement

Aim = objective = target = goal

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Almost = nearly
All over the world = throughout the world = around the world
Appearance = how it looks = what is look like
Applicant = candidate = someone who is applying for a job
Application form = survey = questionnaire
Are you aware? = Do you know?
Area = field
As soon as possible = as quickly as possible
Asset +/- skill
Asset = skill = ability
Ball point pen = biro pen
Benefit = advantage --- disadvantage / drawback
Bill = law = legislation
Border = frontier
Brand = make --- trademark
Career = job = post = position
Cash = money
Cash-flow = movement of money in a company
Caveat = warning
Closing date = deadline
Colleague = a person who works with you or in the same field
Commercial market = professional market --- domestic market
Company = business = firm
Competitor = seller = rival
Content = happy = pleased = satisfied
Currency = money
Current = nowadays

Customer / consumer / end-user profile = target costumer = target audience

Challenging = interesting
Decrease = fall = drop = decline = downturn
Definite = sure = certain
Developing = underdeveloped = third world (country)
Discussion = debate = conversation
Dividend = share of the turnover that the shareholders receive
Dramatically = sharply
Drink = beverage
Due to = because of
Economic recession = economic crisis
Empowerment = to give more responsibility
Enough = sufficient
Enquiry = question
Environment = atmosphere
Ethical consumer = morally right --- morally wrong
Eye-catching = attention getting
For a start = to begin
Further = more
Good = product = item

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Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Graduated = someone who has finished the university = ... obtained a degree

Great = vast (majority)


Grounds (siempre en plural) = reason = motivation
Harmful = hurtful = dangerous
Huge = enormous = massive
Illness = disease
Improvement = rise = increase = growth
In other words = that is to say = that means = i.e.
Inflation = cost of living

Infrastructure = facilities = amenities = installations where the firm is ubicated.

Inspirational = motivating (boss)


Job satisfaction = to enjoy your job = to feel satisfied with you are doing
Knowledge = awareness
Manufacturer = producer
Market share = proportion of market
Nice = friendly = kind
No one = nobody
Open market = area of business where there is free competition
Operating profit = turnover minus overheads or running costs
Outstanding = excellent
Parent = holding (company) --- subsidiary
Part = component --- piece
Pay on time --- late payment = don't pay on time
Performance = result
Perk = extra-thing in a job
Plant = factory = facility
Prize +/- award
Proper = good = correct
Quote = quotation
Rather than = instead of
Resilient = strong
Role = task
Several = a lot of
Shipping = transportation
Shoulder strap = belt
Sort = kind = type
Sport shoes = training shoes
Status = professional position = prestige
Steadily
Such as = e.g. = for instance = for example
Sum = amount = quantitiy
That's a good point = that's interesting
Tour guide = courier = tour representative
Trend = direction
Trend = pattern
Turnover of x pounds = total sales of (x pounds)
Unless = except if

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Well-known = famous
Workplace culture = culture of the firm where you work

Antonyms:

Asset --- liability


Bank --- current --- deposit (account)
Competent --- incompetent
Creditor (who lends money) --- debtor (who borrows money)
Easy --- poor access to raw materials
Favourable --- unfavourable
Fun --- boring (a product is fun, not funny)
Good --- poor availability of labour
Gross --- net (profit, interest)
High --- low labour costs
High --- low taxes
Incomes --- outgoings
Individual --- company
Inward --- outward investment
Left --- right wing
Likely --- unlikely
Male --- female
Male --- female (style)
Narrow --- wide (for the rest, excepting clothing)
Own label // own brand (products)
Permanent --- temporary contract
Political stability --- instability
Profit --- loss (en el plural no varía)
Public --- private (company)
Responsible = ethical --- irresponsible = unethical
Safe = sure --- dangerous = unsure
Short --- long (term)
Strong --- weak economy
Tight --- slack / losse (for clothing)
Understaff --- overstaff
Upmarket = an expensive/luxury image --- downmarket = a low-status image
Valuable --- invaluable
Variable --- unvariable
Wholesaler --- retailer

Verbs:

Companies close and move


Do you live to work or do you work to live?
Lead to = result in (better results)

The boss believes in you = the boss trusts you

They value you more if you stay overtime

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Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

To account for
To affect --- to be affected by --- to be hit by
To afford (e.g. He cans afford wathever he wants)
To allow
To appoint = to recruit = to looking for = to hire = to employ = to take on --- to
fire = to dismiss = to sack = to lay off
To attract (foreign investment)
To avoid
To ban = to prohibit = to forbid
To be backed by = to be supported by - to get backing = to get support = to
support --- supportive
To be in control
To be obliged --- to oblige (to do something)
To be passionate about = to be very enthusiastic
To be source in (país)
To be willing = to be prepared
To bear
To benefit from
To blame
To borrow (e.g. If I borrow money from you, then you lend me the money)
To break into = to enter into = to begin doing business = to exploit (in a new
area, in a new market)
To call = to phone = to ring = to speak (by phone = over the phone)
To carry --- to hold
To claim (the lead)
To commit to / commited to +ing = to dedicate = to applicate
To compete (with)
To complete = to close = to end = to finish
To conduct = to run = to manage (a business = a company)
To continue --- to give up
To charge
To charge an interest
To choose = to select
To damage = to harm = to hurt
To decide = to make up the mind
To decrease = to fall = to drop = to decline
To deduct
To discriminate on grounds of gender or race (will not)
To dissuade
To draw up
To drop
To earn (a salary = a wage = an income)
To emphasize
To face a problem
To float = to sell (shares)
To focus on = to concentrate on
To form = to establish = to create (a company)
To gain supremacy = to win the first position
To get on well / ... with (somebody) = To have a good relationship

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To get rid of
To give a good impression (on the company)
To go out of business = to close
To grow = to expand = to develop
To handle = to deal with (pasado: dealt)
To have a very good timetable
To have confidence
To have high spending power = To be rich = to be wealthy
To have job security
To highlight
To improve = to rise = to increase = to grow = to boost
To interfere --- to be hands off = to leave to do the job
To joke
To lack (a lack)
To lend (e.g. If I borrow money from you, then you lend me the money)
To lose up to
To make cuts = to reduce costs --- to improve profits
To make mistakes
To match = to fit (my needs)
To meet our expectations = fulfil
To merge --- to demerger
To motivate --- to desmotivate
To notice
To outsell = to sell more than
To overcharge
To overtake
To owe (money)
To persuade = to encourage
To pollute
To preserve
To prioritise
To proceed
To promote
To provide
To purchase = to buy = to shop
To put into practice = to implement = to carry out
To quote - quoting reference
To raise
To refuse = to reject = to turn down (an offer)
To remind = to remember
To respond = to answer
To retain = to keep (shares)
To save money
To sell off = to dispose of = to sell (an asset)
To set (the alarm, the video, ...)
To set = to establish --- To achieve --- To exceed (a goal = a target = an aim =
an objective)
To set = to establish a price

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To settle = to pay
To shop around
To shop on impulse
To sit cross-legged
To sort out = to solve
To spend time with
To split = to divide (a company)

To stabilise = to maintain the level = to remain steady at = to stay at the level

To stand up (pasado: stood up)


To steal (pasado: stole)
To submit = to send in
To suffer a downturn
To switch = to change = to vary
To take = to do = to sit (an exam)
To take a full working day
To take ages to pay
To take care of = to look after
To take full advantage
To take into account = to bear in mind = to look at (various options)
To take the job seriously
To take work home

To treat --- to invite

To turn over
To unwind (pasado: unwound) = to switch off
To use delaying tactics (for the payment)
To value
To withdraw a product from the shops / from the market
To work overtime
To worry = to concern

Word formation (verb - noun):

To advertise - advertiser
To analyse - analyser
To compete - competition
To expand - expansion
To launch - launch
To manufacture - manufacturer
To operate - operation
To plan - planner
To prepare - preparation
To programme - programmer
To troubleshoot - troubleshooter
To visit - visitor
To wholesale - wholesaler
To work - worker

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Word formation (noun - career - positive - negative):

Analysis - analyst - analitycal - unanalitycal


Economy - economist - economic - uneconomic
Employment - employer - employed - employee - unemployed
Unemployment - employee - employable - unemployable

Word formation (verb - noun - career):

To design - design - designer


To innovate - innovation - innovator
To invent - invention - inventor
To invest - investment - investor

Word formation (noun - adjective):

Environment - environmental
Power - powerful --- powerless
Responsible - responsibility
Sceptic - sceptical

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Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Orden de seguimiento en una reunión


Agresivo/a
Informe anual
Persona abierta
Asistencia
Actitud
Disponible
Trabajador medio
Balance
Bancarrota
Pila, batería
Sucursal, tienda
Fidelidad a una marca determinada
Negocio - negocios
Viñeta
Colaborador, que colabora
Caída
Competitividad
Tribunal
Carta de presentación
Sonido sin interferencia
Presidente, director general
Información bancaria
Base de datos
Encantado
Polvo
Descuento por pronto pago
Beneficio por acción
Electrodoméstico
Espíritu emprendedor
Política de igual de oportunidades
Plusvalía
Política ética
Suceso, acontecimiento
Productos de consumo diario
Tipo de cambio
Gasto de una persona
Justo
Mucho más que
Tarifa
Resultados financieros
Multa
Bebida con gas
Gusto, sabor
Quincena, dos semanas

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Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Libertad para hacer mi trabajo


Gratuitamente
Buena reputación
Cotilla, chismoso
Política gubernamental
Café molido
Asa, pomo (de la puerta)
Mucha rotación de personal
Mayor productividad
Manguera
Si la empresa va bien o no
Derechos humanos
A la vista
IRPF
Inflación
Entrada (de datos)
Tipo de interés
Que paga intereses
Presencia internacional
Comercio internacional
Banco por internet
Terreno
Ordenador portátil
Coste de la vida
Cerradura, cierre
Estrategia de márketing
Cuidado con el agujero
Multinacional
Necesariamente
Cuenta bancaria en un banco situado en un paraíso fiscal
Sobre demanda
En general
Capa de ozono
Política de pagos
Evaluación del rendimiento, del resultado
Logro personal
Asunto personal
Libro de viaje
Físicamente capacitado
Volver a reproducir
Política (siempre en plural) - persona que se dedica a la
política - política de una compañía
Puesto de responsabilidad
Diferencia de precio entre
Producto dirigido a
Política de producto
Cuenta de pérdidas y ganancias
Propuesta

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Gasto público
Funcionario
Propósito, motivo (del anuncio, de la reunión, ...)
Trimestre
Tasa de crecimiento
Reconocimiento
Sea cual sea
Respiro, alivio
Devolución
Café torrefacto
Sensacionalista
Acción
Accionista
Turno
Cesta de la compra
Mano de obra preparada
Ligeramente
Manera de hablar, lenguaje, habla
Corrección de ortografía
Jornada partida
Portavoz
Motivación del personal
Trabajador / personal
Etapa de la vida
Afirmación / extracto
Éxito - éxitos
Maleta --- maletín
Resumen
Persona que ayuda
Comprensivo, que escucha
Impuesto - impuestos / tasación
Ley de impuestos
Año fiscal
Libre de impuestos
Tecnología
El fin justifica los medios
Hacienda
La inversión puede bajar como subir
Organización del tiempo
Giro
Hasta final de año
Aspiradora
IVA
Variación de (precio, impuestos)
¿Valió la pena?
Mientras
Día laborable
Que merece la pena

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Yupi

Garantizado por x años


Ajustable
Molesto, irritante
Atractivo
Disponible en una amplia gama de colores
Apoyo, refuerzo
Bonito
Latón
Campaña
Colorido, brillante --- gris, apagado, sin vida
Confortable para llevar puesto
Loco
Caro --- barato
Ordenador normal --- ordenador portátil
Producto de sobremesa
Discreto
Resistente, hecho para durar
Fácil de llevar --- fácil de usar
Elegante / inteligente --- casual = informal
Respetuoso con el medio ambiente
Extremadamente delgado y compacto
Sintético, bañado
Defecto
Defectuoso
Plano
Plegable --- plegable totalmente
Hecho a mano
Alto rendimiento
Alta calidad --- baja calidad
Piel, cuero
(Color) claro --- oscuro / delgado
Lujoso
Moderno --- tradicional
Nueva tecnología
Educado --- maleducado
Portátil
Práctico, útil --- no práctico, inútil
Prototipo

Muy bueno

Realmente fiable, fiable --- nada fiable


Delgado

Reloj solar --- baterías suministradas

De aspecto deportivo

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De moda, con estilo --- pasado de moda


Exitoso
El más alto de la gama
Borde, acabado
Inusual = original
Característica
Resistente al agua

Publicidad en movimiento
Valla publicitaria de carretera
Parada de autobús, marquesina de la parada del autobús
Anuncio en TV, radio, periódicos, magazines

Número cardinal
Número decimal
Fracción
Metro - centímetro (cuadrado)
Número ordinal
Porcentaje

Gastar en ...
Ropa y calzado
Comida y bebida
Combustible y electricidad
Producto para el hogar
Gastos del hogar
Productos y servicios de ocio
Varios
Alquiler --- hipoteca
Bebida refresacante --- bebida alcohólica
Tabaco
Transporte

En el extranjero
Comprar otra empresa
Acciones para resolver un problema
Anuncio publicitario

Anuncio de trabajo

Objetivo

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Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Casi
Por todo el mundo
Apariencia
Candidato
Encuesta, formulario
¿Estás al tanto?
Area
Lo antes posible
Activo / virtud
Facilidad, habilidad
Bolígrafo
Ventaja --- desventaja
Ley
Frontera
Marca --- marca registrada
Trabajo, profesión
Dinero en efectivo
Entrada y salida de dinero
Aviso, advertencia
Fecha tope
Colega
Mercado comercial, profesional --- mercado doméstico
Empresa
Competidor, rival
Contento, feliz, satisfecho
Moneda, divisa
Hoy día, actualmente

Perfil del consumidor / usuario, cliente objetivo

Reto, desafío, algo estimulante


Descenso, disminución
Seguro, definitivo, cierto
(País) en vías de desarrollo
Conversación
Dividendo
Bruscamente
Bebida
Debido a
Crisis económica
Dar más responsabilidad
Bastante, suficiente
Pregunta
Medio ambiente, atmósfera
Consumidor ético, responsable --- moralmente reprochable
Que llama la atención
Para empezar
Más
Producto

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Universitario

Gran (mayoría)
Razón, motivo
Dañino
Enorme, muy grande
Enfermedad
Crecimiento, aumento
En otras palabras, es decir
Inflación

Instalaciones

(Jefe) que motiva


Satisfacción en el trabajo
Conocimientos
Fabricante, productor
Cuota de mercado
Simpático
Nadie
Area de libre competencia
Beneficio operativo = ventas totales menos gastos
Excelente
Empresa matriz --- filial
Parte, componente --- pieza
Pagar cuando toca --- retrasarse en el pago
Resultado
"Cosa" extra en el trabajo
Fábrica
Premio
Bueno, adecuado, correcto
Presupuesto
En lugar de
Fuerte
Papel, tarea
Muchos
Transporte
Cinturón (de colgar)
Clase, tipo
Zapatillas deportivas
Cargo en una empresa / clase social, prestigio
A un ritmo constante
Por ejemplo
Cantidad
Es interesante
Guía turístico (persona)
Tendencia
Dibujo, estampado
Ventas totales de (x libras)
Excepto

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Conocido/a, famoso/a
Cultura de tu empresa

Activo --- pasivo


(Cuenta) bancaria --- corriente --- depósito
Competente --- incompetente
Deudor --- acreedor
Fácil --- difícil acceso a las materias primas
Favorable --- desfavorable
Divertido --- aburrido (funny: que hace reír)
Gran --- poca disponibilidad de mano de obra
Beneficio, interés bruto --- neto
Alto --- bajo coste de la mano de obra
Impuestos altos --- bajos
Ingresos --- gastos
Persona particular --- empresa
Inversión interna --- externa
Tirando a la izquierda --- a la derecha (en los periódicos)
Probable --- improbable
Hombre --- mujer
(Estilo) masculino --- femenino
Estrecho --- ancho (para todo lo que no sea ropa)
(Productos) de marca propia // de marca blanca
Trabajo fijo --- temporal
Estabilidad --- inestabilidad política
Beneficio --- pérdida
Empresa pública --- privada
Responsable --- irresponsable
Seguro --- no seguro
A corto --- largo plazo
Economía fuerte --- débil
Estrecho --- ancho (para ropa)
Falto de personal --- demasiado personal
Imagen de marca --- sin imagen de marca
Valioso --- que no tiene precio
Variable --- invariable
Mayorista --- minorista

Las empresas cierran y se trasladan


¿Vives para trabajar o trabajas para vivir?
Llevar a, conseguir (mejores resultados)
El jefe confía en ti ("trust" es confianza moral, no explicar
secretos)
Te valoran más si te quedas horas extras

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Lesson 7+8+9+10+11+12

Representar (para cantidades)


Afectar --- Estar afectado por
Permitirse (p.e. Él puede permitirse cualquier cosa)
Permitir, dejar hacer algo

Coger personal --- echar personal

Atraer (inversión extranjera)


Evitar
Prohibir
Estar respaldado por - conseguir apoyo - apoyar --- persona
que apoya
Tener el control
Verse obligado --- obligar (a hacer algo)
Estar entusiasmado con
Provenir de (país)
Estar dispuesto, preparado
Soportar
Aprovecharse de
Culpar
Pedir prestado

Entrar en (una nueva área, en un nuevo mercado)

Llamar por teléfono


Llevar --- llevar en la mano
Reclamar / pretender (ser el líder, el liderazgo)
Comprometerse a
Tener la capacidad de hacer algo, competir
Acabar
Dirigir (una empresa)
Continuar --- rendirse
Cobrar
Cargar un interés
Seleccionar
Dañar
Decidir
Disminuir
Deducir
Discriminar por razón de sexo y raza (no)
Disuadir, hacer cambiar de opinión
Preparar, planear, poner por escrito
Dejar caer
Ganar (un sueldo)
Enfatizar
Enfrentarse a un problema
Salir a bolsa, vender (acciones)
Concentrarse en algo
Crear (una empresa)
Conseguir el primer puesto
Llevarlo bien / Llevarse bien (con alguien)

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Deshacerse de algo
Dar una buena impresión (de la empresa)
Cerrar una empresa
Crecer, cultivar, producir / expandirse
Tratar con
Tener un muy buen horario
Tener confianza en alguien
Ser rico
Tener una seguridad en el trabajo
Destacar
Aumentar
Interferir --- no interferir
Bromear
Faltar, no tener (falta)
Prestar
Perder hasta
Reducir gastos --- Aumentar beneficios
Cometer errores
Satisfacer (mis necesidades)
Cumplir con nuestras esperanzas y expectativas
Fusionarse --- desfusionarse
Motivar --- desmotivar
Darse cuenta
Vender más que
Cobrar de más
Adelantar
Deber (dinero)
Persuadir, animar, favorecer
Contaminar
Conservar
Priorizar
Proceder a hacer algo
Promocionar
Conllevar
Comprar (la 1ª es la más formal)
Poner en práctica
Mencionar - mencionando la referencia
Recaudar
Rechazar (una oferta)
Recordar
Contestar
Quedarse, guardarse (acciones)
Ahorrar dinero
Vender (un activo)
Programar (la alarma, el vídeo, ...)

Establecer --- conseguir --- exceder (un objetivo)

Establecer un precio

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Pagar
Comprar en varios sitios
Comprar por impulso
Sentarse con las piernas cruzadas
Resolver
Pasar el tiempo con
Dividir (una empresa)

Mantenerse en

Ascender a (para cantidades)


Robar
Enviar
Sufrir un descenso
Cambiar, variar
Tener (un examen)
Lleva un día completo de trabajo
Tardar mucho tiempo en pagar
Cuidar
Aprovecharse de las ventajas
Tener en cuenta (varias opciones)
Tomarse en serio el trabajo
Llevarse el trabajo a casa
El primero es que te invitan y paga el otro y el segundo no
quiere decir que vayan a pagar
Convertir
Descansar, desconectar
Usar tácticas para retrasar (el pago)
Valorar
Retirar un producto de las tiendas / del mercado
Trabajar horas extras
Estar preocupado

Anunciar - anunciante
Analizar - analizador
Competir - competición
Expandir - expansión
Lanzar - lanzamiento
Fabricar - fabricante
Operar - operación
Planear - plan
Preparar - preparación
Programar - programador
Disparar - disparador
Visitar - visitante
Vender al por mayor - venta mayorista
Trabajar - trabajador

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Análisis - analista - analítico - no analítico


Economía - economista - económico - no económico
Empleo - empleador - empleado - desempleado
Desempleo - empleado - empleable - no empleable

Diseñar - diseño - diseñador


Innovar - innovación, novedad - innovador
Inventar - invención - inventor
Invertir - inversión - inversor

Medio ambiente - medioambiental


Poder - poderoso --- débil
Responsable - responsabilidad
Escéptico - escéptico

72

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