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Knowledge of Aquifer Models

Mofazzal H. Bhuiyan, SPE, Alexander Chamorro, SPE, and Rajesh Sachdeva, SPE, IHS Energy Group

OHIP and a future production schedule are known, pressure

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and predictions can be made using the MBE. In many companies,

Exhibition held in San Antonio, Texas, 29 September–2 October 2002.

the MBE methods are utilized prior to running more detailed

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of

information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as

reservoir simulation studies. MBE is also used when enough

presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to detailed data is not available for a reservoir simulation study.

correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any

position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at The MBE is a key tool for any asset evaluation study.

SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of

Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper

for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is Although aquifer modeling is a very important component of

prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300

words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous the MBE approach, it involves many limitations. Since

acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.

Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

engineers usually do not drill in the aquifer region to collect

data, aquifer models involve high degree of uncertainty due to

unknown factors such as formation properties, aquifer

Abstract geometry, continuity and drive mechanisms (edge or bottom

water drive), etc. Aquifer models used with MBE are usually a

This paper outlines a new technique to determine original highly idealized mathematical representation of the real

hydrocarbon in place (OHIP) and aquifer influx constant from conditions. Improper selection of a particular aquifer model

production and pressure history. The Hsieh et al 1.method was and the underlying data limitations can lead to an erroneous

modified and extended in many significant respects. With the calculation of OHIP using MBE.

new technique, calculations can be done using either the

conventional (CMBE) or general material balance equation

Fetkovich3 treated the aquifer just like a reservoir by

(GMBE). The proposed method thus applies to any fluid type

introducing the concept of “aquifer productivity” (J).

(gas, oil, gas condensate, volatile oil etc.). This method does

However, the method still bears the traits of aquifer models

not require any pre-selection of aquifer models, and it can still

because one needs to know the reservoir to aquifer radius ratio

calculate aquifer constant, water influx quantities and OHIP

and the aquifer rock properties to calculate J.

values. A computer algorithm was developed to take the

“subjectivity” out of the Hsieh et. al. method. The new

Recently, Hsieh et. al. introduced a powerful technique to

technique was successfully verified using numerous real-life

estimate OHIP using the CMBE. They argued that the aquifer

examples that involved different reservoir types. The method

properties were already reflected in the production history.

was incorporated and tested using the commercially available

1 Based on this, they developed a new technique that did not

material balance program2 (OilWatTM / GasWatTM) #. need an a priori knowledge of aquifer properties or aquifer

type. Hsieh et. al. rearranged the conventional material

Introduction balance equation such that OHIP, reservoir pressure,

cumulative production, time, etc. would enable calculation of

Interpretation of a reservoir’s pressure and production history an aquifer constant (C) that is unique to a reservoir-aquifer

to determine OHIP by rearranging the material balance system. They showed that the correct OHIP would be the one

equation (MBE) has been a popular technique for decades. that consistently yielded the same C for a given period of time.

The MBE can handle reservoirs that may or may not have

water influx. When an aquifer is present, selection of a The Hsieh et. al. direct approach is limited to CMBE. It is also

representative aquifer model is necessary to determine water subject to visual interpretation, since there are several nearly

influx. The calculated water influx is then used in MBE for horizontal lines that may be misinterpreted as the correct one.

OHIP determination. Alternatively, if the aquifer properties, This is true especially when the assumed OHIP is close to the

real solution. Adding to the subjectivity, choice of factors such

1# OilWat and GasWat are trademarks of IHS Energy Group. as the initial OHIP, the increment criteria, and the number of

2 M. BHUIYAN, A. CHAMORRO AND R. SACHDEVA SPE 77489

iterations, entirely depend on the individual. Our approach F =Nfoi * (Eo+mEg+Efw) + We ----------------------(5)

brings objectivity to the Hsieh et. al. method by using a

where,

mathematical algorithm to accurately select the best possible

aquifer constant and the range of OHIP to perform iterations. F = [Np (Bo (1-Rv*Rps)+(Rps-Rs)*Bg)+(Wp-Wi) Bw-

Gfgi*Bg] / (1-Rv*Rs) ---- ------------------------------(6)

The new method also extends the Hsieh et. al. approach to

cover the whole spectrum of reservoir fluids (from black oil to Bto = [Bo (1-Rv*Rsi)+(Rsi-Rs)*Bg / (1-Rv*Rs)----(7)

dry gas) by using the General Material Balance Equation4. The

Eo = (Bto-Boi) -------------------------------------------(8)

GMBE is especially useful for volatile oil and gas condensate

reservoirs, since it takes into account the amount of liquid Btg = [Bg (1-Rvi*Rs)+(Rvi-Rv)*Bo / (1-Rv*Rs) ---(9)

contained in the gas phase (Rv).

Eg = Btg-Bgi = Boi [Btg/Bgi – 1.0] ------- -----------(10)

In the first step, the best values of aquifer influx constant for Efw = (1.0+m)* Boi (Cw Swi + Cf / (1-Swi))*(Pi-P)---(11)

each production time interval and corresponding water influx

Etot = Eo+mEg+Efw ------------------------------------(12)

(We) are calculated. This is done by changing the OHIP

values in the MBE. In the second step, the correlation After simplification, we get:

coefficient (r) for each assumed OHIP for each hydrocarbon

We = F-N*Etot --------------------------------------------(13)

production time and the corresponding calculated aquifer

influx constant values are calculated. Data filtering is done to [N = Nfoi, We= C. S (p, t) = C∑∆P.Q (∆td)]

identify the stable data points in reservoir aquifer system. In

the final step, the highest absolute value of r that corresponds C = We / (∆P) (∆t) = We /((Pi-Pn)*(t n –ti)) --------------(14)

to a particular N or G value is identified as the likely OHIP

value for that reservoir. Calculation Steps.

The steps involved in evaluation of our method require

calculation methods included in the commercially available

computational power and are summarized below:

program2. Results obtained by this method were also tested

1. Assume OHIP: from the production data, use the

against cases where the reservoir – aquifer geometries were

final cumulative value of produced hydrocarbon

known a priori. A total of over 40 examples were used in

(oil/gas) to be the first guess to start the iteration, i.e.,

verification of the proposed technique.

Nmin = Np (final)

2. Calculate the cumulative water influx (We) using

Eq. 13

Methodology

3. Calculate a series of C values applying the We value

to each time step

Frank S. Hsieh et. al. rearranged the conventional material

4. Tune the data based on C values: Filter data points by

balance equation (CMBE) in such a way that aquifer influx

constant C is a function of OHIP, pressure difference, time using ‘Delta C’ (∆C = (C n-1 – Cn)/C n-1) criteria. This

increment and other PVT properties of the reservoir fluids. is needed because a perfect C- T plot will be a near

horizontal line where the ‘C’ values don’t vary

The final form of the equations for their direct approach is:

significantly. Only the selected data points will be

Gas Reservoirs: used for a linear least square fit

We = (Bgi – Bg) G + (GpBg +Wp) ---------------------(1) 5. Use a least square fit to the calculated C values and

the corresponding time data to find a correlation

C = We / (∆P) (∆t) = We / (Pi-Pn)* (tn –ti) ------------(2) coefficient (r)

6. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for the next OHIP value. In the

Oil Reservoir:

algorithm, the new value is incremented till the point

We = NBoi-(N-Np)Bo-[(Gc-Gpc)Bgc-GcBgci]-[NRsi-(N- the pre-specified maximum OHIP is reached. The

Np)Rs-Gps]Bgs criteria set for new OHIP and Maximum OHIP are:

-{(Cf+CwSwi)[NBoi/(1-Swi)](Pi-P)}+(Wp-Wi) Bw ---(3)

Nnew = N n-1 +0.1* Nmin

C=We/(Pi-Pn)*(tn-ti) -----------------------------------(4)

Nmax = Np (final) / t (final) * Time span

We reorganized the general material balance equation in a

similar fashion to cover the whole spectrum of reservoir The material balance program used to develop this method

fluids. The assumptions and requirements described in the internally selects Nmax based on the production data and time

Hsieh et. al. paper are valid in this case also. The resulting span. Nmax is used only as stopping criteria for the

equations are: iterative procedure.

SPE 77489 DETERMINATION OF OHIP AND AQUIFER CONSTANT WITHOUT PRIOR KNOWLEDGE OF AQUIFER MODELS 3

We found that when the correct OHIP is reached, the calculated by the present approach compare very favorably

corresponding correlation coefficient (r) values approached with those obtained from other methods. In all cases

unity. During calculations, initially the value of r gradually (excepting for the current approach), an a priori knowledge of

increases. Later, r either decreases or remains constant at a both aquifer properties and aquifer drive type is required. The

lower value till the end of iterations. In all cases, the correct negative C value calculated by the new approach is also

estimate of OHIP always corresponds to the highest value of r consistent with that calculated by other methods since it also

that is close to unity. signifies the absence of any aquifer.

the right data. Major objectives of this data tuning step include

The proposed generalized direct method has many advantages:

(a) removing the irregularities due to error in early data points

• As was the case in the Hsieh et. al.“direct approach”,

and (b) using only those aquifer influx values that result in an

the proposed approach has the advantage of not

almost horizontal straight line (C vs. time). This step prevents

requiring prior knowledge of aquifer properties

the linear least square fit calculation routine from identifying

and dimensions.

an incorrect near-horizontal line as a solution. The calculated

value of C can be either positive or negative. It was also • The new approach extends the Hsieh et. al. method to

observed that small absolute values of C indicate negligible cover both the conventional and generalized material

water influx. balance equations.

• The cumulative water influx values can also be

For any fluid type -- especially for gas condensate and volatile calculated if there is an aquifer associated with

oil reservoirs -- we strongly recommend using the new the reservoir.

approach with the GMBE since this will yield more accurate • The new algorithm has taken away the subjectivity of

answers. As expected, if Rv=0, the GMBE and CMBE will the Hsieh et. al. method and outlines an objective,

give the same results; this is usually the case for blackoil and mathematical approach that is much less prone to

dry gas reservoirs. human error and multiple results.

• The algorithm developed was successfully verified

The flowchart shown in Figure 1 summarizes the procedure. using over 40 different reservoir examples including

those found in references 7-10.

Nomenclature

Example

To illustrate the method, a typical gas condensate reservoir Bo: Oil Formation Volume Factor (FVF), res. Bbl/STB

was selected. There was no prior presumption made as to the Boi: Initial Oil FVF, res. Bbl/STB

presence of an aquifer associated with the reservoir. Because a Bg: Gas FVF, res. Bbl/scf

gas condensate reservoir was involved, the GMBE was used. Bgi: Initial Gas FVF, res. Bbl/scf

The reservoir temperature was 215 0 F without any initial gas Btg: Two - Phase Gas FVF, res. Bbl/scf

cap. The connate water saturation, formation and water Bto: Two - Phase Oil FVF, res. Bbl/STB

compressibilities are 25%, 0.25E-06 /psi and 0.30E-06 /psi, Bt: Two - Phase FVF, res. Bbl/STB

respectively. The historical pressure-production and PVT data C: Aquifer Constant, Rb/d/psi

are summarized in Table 1. The data included a history of Cf: Rock (formation) Compressibility, Pore Volume

2,372 days. Table 2 shows the final aquifer influx constant (PV) change / unit PV / psi

values after the tuning of C-T data. The resulting plot is shown Ct: Total Compressibility, psi-1

in Figure 2, which is the best possible near horizontal line that Cw: Water Compressibility, psi-1

was been picked by the algorithm. Table 3 indicates important Eg: Net Gas Expansion, res. Bbl/scf

calculated segments of assumed OOIP and the corresponding Eo: Net Oil Expansion, res. Bbl/STB

calculated correlation coefficient, r. The most likely OOIP is F: Total Hydrocarbon Fluid Withdrawal, res. Bbl

109.02 MMSTB and the OGIP is 658.70 BCF. These values G: Original Gas-in-Place, scf

correspond to r =0.905. Gp: Produced Wellhead Gas, scf

Gps: Produced Sales Gas, scf

Figure 3 represents the r-N plots for all the assumed N values. Gfgi: Gas in initial free-gas phase, scf

Notice that the incremental steps for OHIP should be small so Gfoi: Gas in initial free-oil Phase, scf

that the “solution” r is not missed. m: Initial Gascap fraction

N: Original Oil-in-Place, STB

Table 4 compares the calculated OOIP, OGIP and aquifer Np: Produced Oil, STB

constant values. The other methods used here have been Nfgi: Oil in initial free-gas phase, STB

summarized elsewhere in SPE literature5, 6. The OHIP values Nfoi: Oil in initial free-oil phase, STB

4 M. BHUIYAN, A. CHAMORRO AND R. SACHDEVA SPE 77489

Pi: Initial Pressure, psia Volatile oil, Condensate Reserves” Oil &Gas Journal,

∆P: Pi - P, psia

August 22, 1994, pp72-76.

r: Correlation Coefficient

rg: Fraction of Produced Gas reinjected 5. Wang, B., and Teasdale T.S.: “GASWAT: A

Rs: Solution Gas/Oil Ratio, scf/ STB Microcomputer Program For Gas Material Balance With

Rsi: Initial Solution Gas/Oil Ratio, scf/ STB

Water Influx”, SPE 16484, presented at the Petroleum

Rv: Volatile Oil/Gas Ratio, STB /scf

Rvi: Initial Volatile Oil/Gas Ratio, STB /scf Industry Applications for Microcomputers Conference,

Rp: Cumulative Produced Wellhead Gas/Oil Ratio, Montgomery, Texas, June 23-26,1987.

scf/ STB

Rps: Cumulative Produced sales Gas/Oil Ratio, scf/ 6. Wang, B., and Litvak, B.L. and Bowman, G. W.:

STB “OILWAT: Microcomputer Program For Oil Material

Swi: Initial Water Saturation, fraction Balance With Gas Cap And Water Influx”, SPE 24437,

t: Time, Days

Time Span: Extrapolated Time, Days presented at the seventh SPE petroleum Computer

We: Water Encroachment, res. Bbl Conference, Huston, Texas, July 19-22,1992.

Wi: Water Injection, res. Bbl 7. Craft B.C., Hawkins M.F.: “Applied Petroleum Reservoir

Wp: Produced Water, STB

Engineering” second edition, Prentice Hall PTR, NJ

General Definitions. 07632,1991, pp 64-66.

8. Dake L.P.: “The Practice of Resrevoir Engineering”

Rps = Gps/Np

Gps = Gp (1-rg) revised edition, Elsevier Science Publishers, 2001, pp 112-

Ct = (Swi*Cw + Cf)/(1- Swi) 122.

9. Wang, S.W., Stevenson, V. M. and Ohaeri, C. U.:

Auxiliary Relations.

“Analysis of Overpressured Reservoirs with A New

N = Nfoi + Nfgi Material Balance Method”, SPE 56690, presented at the

G = Gfoi + Gfgi

1999 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition

Gfoi = Nfoi * Rsi

held in Houston, Texas, 3-6 October 1999.

10. Wang, S.W.: “A General Linear Material Balance Method

Acknowledgement

for normally and Abnormally pressured Petroleum

We wish to thank IHS Energy Group, for permission to Reservoirs”, SPE 48954, presented at the 1998 SPE Annual

publish this paper. The help of Mr. Frank S. Hsieh of Sproule Technical Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans,

Associates Limited during the development process, is Louisiana, 27-30 September 1998.

gratefully acknowledged.

References

Method for Production Rejuvenation With Horizontal

Wells”, SPE 65484, presented at the 2000 SPE/Petroleum

Society of CIM International Conference on Horizontal

Well Technology held in Calgary, Alberta, November 6-9.

2. OilWatTM/GasWatTM: PC-based commercial computer

programs from IHS Energy Group.

3. Fetkovich, M.J.:” A Simplified Approach to water Influx

Calculations-Finite aquifer Systems” JPT (July 1971)

814-28.

SPE 77489 DETERMINATION OF OHIP AND AQUIFER CONSTANT WITHOUT PRIOR KNOWLEDGE OF AQUIFER MODELS 5

START

CALCULATE: We (EQUATION 1 TO 9)

Pn = (P n-1 + Pn) /2 OR Pn AT TIME tn

C n =W e/((Pi –Pn)* (tn -ti)), n – TIME STEP (EQ. 10)

ON ‘Delta C’ where ∆C = ((C n-1 – C n)/C n-1)

SMOOTHED DATA USING LINEAR LEAST SQUARE FIT

ASSUME NEW N:

N n = N n-1 +0.1* N min

N min = N p (FINAL)

N max = N p (final) / t (final) * TIME SPAN

CORRESPONDING OHIP (‘N’ OR ‘G’), FINAL AQUIFER

CONSTANT, ‘C’ AND WATER INFLUX, ‘We’ FOR EACH

TIME STEP

6 M. BHUIYAN, A. CHAMORRO AND R. SACHDEVA SPE 77489

Psia RB/STB SCF/STB RB/MSCF STB/SCF Days MMBBL SCF/STB

5800 4.382 6042 0.73 165.50 0 0.0 0

5550 4.441 6042 0.74 165.50 182.5 1.3 6040

5450 4.468 6042 0.74 165.50 365 1.9 6040

5420 2.378 2795 0.74 164.20 547.5 2.1 6040

5300 2.366 2750 0.74 156.60 730 2.6 6120

4800 2.032 2128 0.76 114.00 912.5 7.0 7000

4300 1.828 1730 0.79 89.00 1095 10.1 7900

3800 1.674 1422 0.85 65.20 1277.5 13.3 9180

3300 1.554 1177 0.95 48.30 1460 16.2 10730

2800 1.448 960 1.09 35.00 1642.5 18.4 12390

2300 1.360 776 1.31 25.00 1825 20.2 14300

1800 1.279 607 1.68 19.00 2007.5 21.6 16400

1300 1.200 443 2.32 15.00 2190 22.8 18500

800 1.131 293 3.69 13.50 2372.5 23.7 20530

Time Aq. Constant

0

Days C, Rb/d/Psi

365 -5.2 -2

547.5 -2.91 -4

912.5 -1.73

C, rb/psi/d

-6

1095 -3.58

-8

1277.5 -3.45

1460 -2.72 -10

1825 -4.16

-14

2007.5 -5.03

-16

2190 -6.34

365 547.5 912.5 1095 1277.5 1460 1642.5 1825

Time , Days

values after tuning

SPE 77489 DETERMINATION OF OHIP AND AQUIFER CONSTANT WITHOUT PRIOR KNOWLEDGE OF AQUIFER MODELS 7

N Correlation

Figure 3: Correlation Coefficient,r vs.Assumed N

MMSTB Coefficient, r 1

82.95 0.751899 OOIP = 109.02 , OGIP=658.70 bcf

0.9

85.32 0.746477

87.69 0.737067 0.8

90.06 0.395698

0.7

92.43 0.427995 Correlation coefficient

94.8 0.466108 0.6

97.17 0.736701

0.5

99.54 0.252566

101.91 0.711537 0.4

104.28 0.865602 0.3

106.65 0.897214

109.02 0.905151 0.2

111.39 0.68658 0.1

113.76 0.69399

116.13 0.698857 0

23.7 35.6 47.4 59.3 71.1 83 94.8 107 119 130 142 154 166 178 190 201

118.5 0.702272

N, mmstb

120.87 0.704787

123.24 0.667966

OOIP and corresponding ‘r’

MMSTB BCF C C

F/E PLOT 100.034 604.40 0.00

CAMPBELL 98.117 592.82 0.00

SMALL AQ 100.774 608.88 -972.02 rb/psi

SCHILTHIS SS 102.704 620.54 -1816.80 rb/psi-yr

HURST SS 101.924 615.82 -4250.20 rb/psi

INF LINEAR 101.796 615.05 -1660.60 rb/psi/sqrt(yr)

PRESENT APPROACH 109.02 658.70 -10.11 rb/psi/d

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