PHYSICS

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PHYSICS

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Uniform circular motion is the motion of an object traveling at a constant (uniform) speed on a circular path.

Period (T)

- the time required to travel once around the circle, that is, to make one complete revolution

Speed th

- distance travelled (circumference of the circle) divided by the period T

te

Example: The wheel of a car has a radius of 0.29 m and is being rotated at 830 revolutions per minute on a

tire balancing machine. Determine the speed in m/s at which the outer edge of the wheel is moving.

CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION

Magnitude: the centripetal acceleration of an object moving with a speed on a circular path of radius has a

magnitude given by

t

e

Direction: The centripetal acceleration vector always points towards the center of the circle and continually

changes direction as the object moves.

CENTRIPETAL FORCE

Magnitude: The centripetal force is the name given to the net force required to keep an object of mass , moving

at a speed , on a circular path of radius and has a magnitude of

t

e e

Direction: the centripetal force always points towards the center of the circle and continually changes direction as

the object moves.

Example:

BANKED CURVES

t

e th e

t e h

t

th

e

t h

t

th e

h

te h th

The equation indicates that, for a given speed v , the centripetal force needed for a turn of radius r can be obtained

from the normal force by banking the turn at an angle θ, independent of the mass of the vehicle. Greater speeds

and smaller radii require more steeply banked curves—that is, larger values of θ. At a speed that is too small for a

given θ, a car would slide down a frictionless banked curve; at a speed that is too large, a car would slide off the

top.

Today, there are many satellites in orbit about the earth. The ones in circular orbits are examples of

uniform circular motion.

There is only one speed that a satellite can have if the satellite is to remain in an orbit with a fixed radius.

t

e e

te

t t t

Where e h

e tt ┣ t h

WORK AND ENERGY

The work done on an object by a constant force F is

e t

Where is the magnitude of the force, is the magnitude of the displacement and is the angle between the force

and the displacement. The SI unit for work is newton meter or joule ( ).

WORK DONE BY A VARYING FORCE

The work done by Fx as the particle moves from xi to xf as can be expressed as

(a) The work done by the force component Fx for the small displacement Δx is Fx Δx, which equals the

area of the shaded rectangle. The total work done for the displacement from xi to xf is approximately

equal to the sum of the areas of all the rectangles. (b) The work done by the component Fx of the

varying force as the particle moves from xi to xf is exactly equal to the area under this curve.

A block on a horizontal, frictionless surface is connected to a spring. If the spring is either stretched or compressed

a small distance from its unstretched (equilibrium) configuration, it exerts on the block a force that can be

expressed as

where x is the position of the block relative to its equilibrium (x = 0) position and k is a positive

constant called the force constant or the spring constant of the spring. In other words, the force

required to stretch or compress a spring is proportional to the amount of stretch or compression x.

This force law for springs is known as Hooke’s law. The value of k is a measure of the stiffness of the

spring. Because the spring force always acts toward the equilibrium position (x = 0), it is sometimes

called a restoring force.

the block’s position x relative to the equilibrium position x = 0.

(a) When x is positive (stretched spring), the spring force is

directed to the left. (b) When x is zero (natural length of the

spring), the spring force is zero. (c) When x is negative

(compressed spring), the spring force is directed to the right. (d)

Graph of Fs versus x for the block–spring system. The work

done by the spring force as the block moves from -xmax to 0 is

the area of the shaded triangle, (1/2) k(xmax)2.

Suppose the block has been pushed to the left to a position -xmax

and is then released. Let us identify the block as our system and

calculate the work Ws done by the spring force on the block as

the block moves from xi &x max to xf # 0. Applying the

restoring force equation and assuming the block may be

treated as a particle, we obtain

= xf, the work done by the spring force on the block is

The kinetic energy KE of an object with mass and speed is

given by

e t

The SI unit for kinetic energy is th 耀 th.

When a net force does work W on an object, the kinetic energy of the

object changes from its initial value of KEi to a final value of , the

difference between the two values being equal to the work:

Change in kinetic energy due to

friction

If there are other forces besides friction acting on an object, the change in kinetic energy is the sum of that due to

the other forces from the work–kinetic energy theorem, and that due to friction:

The result of a friction force is to transform kinetic energy into internal energy, and the increase in

internal energy is

equal to the decrease in kinetic energy

Example:

1. A space probe of mass e st ꍰ is travelling at a speed of e t m/s through deep space.

No forces act on the probe except that generated by its own engine. The engine exerts a constant external force

s

F of magnitude t , directed parallel to the displacement of magnitude ts m. Determine the

final speed of the probe.

2. A 58-kg skier is consisting down a 25˚ slope. A kinetic frictional force of magnitude 70 N opposes her motion.

Near the top of the slope, the skier’s speed is e ‴t ‴ . Ignoring air resistance, determine the speed at a

point that is displaced 57 m downhill.

The work done by the gravitational force on the book as the book falls from yb to a height

ya is equal to mgyb － mgya.

The gravitational potential energy PE is the energy that an object of mass has a virtue

of its position relative to the surface of the earth. That position is measured by the height

of the object relative to an arbitrary t level.

UPE = mgh

The SI unit for potential energy is joule ( t h.

ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY

surface. (b) A block of mass m is pushed against the spring,

compressing it a distance x. (c) When the block is released from

rest, the elastic potential energy stored in the spring is transferred

to the block in the form of kinetic energy.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

conserved. Thus, if the total amount of energy in a system

changes, it can only be due to the fact that energy has crossed

the boundary of the system by a transfer mechanism

Work is a method of transferring energy to a system by applying a force to the system and causing a displacement

of the point of application of the force.

Mechanical waves are a means of transferring energy by allowing a disturbance to propagate through air or

another medium. This is the method by which energy (which you detect as sound) leaves your clock radio through

the loudspeaker and enters your ears to stimulate the hearing process. Other examples of mechanical waves are

seismic waves and ocean waves.

Heat is a mechanism of energy transfer that is driven by a temperature difference between two regions in space.

Matter transfer involves situations in which matter physically crosses the boundary of a system, carrying energy

with it. Examples include filling your automobile tank with gasoline and carrying energy to the rooms of your

home by circulating warm air from the furnace, a process called convection.

Electrical Transmission involves energy transfer by means of electric currents. This is how energy transfers into

your hair dryer, stereo system, or any other electrical device.

Electromagnetic radiation refers to electromagnetic waves such as light, microwaves, radio waves, and so on.

Examples of this method of transfer include cooking a baked potato in your microwave oven and light energy

traveling from the Sun to the Earth through space.

The total mechanical energy (E = KE + U) of an object remains constant as the total object moves, provided that the

net work done by the external non – conservative forces is zero = 0 J, where U is all the potential energies.

1 1 1 1

mv mgh kx f mvi mgh kxi

2 2 2 2

2 f f 2 2 i 2

EXAMPLE: Potential energy changes for a roller coaster. A 1000 kg roller coaster car moves from point 1 to

point 2 then to point 3. A) what is the gravitational potential energy at point 2 and 3 relative to point 1? That is,

take y=0 at point 1. B) What is the change in potential energy when the car goes from point 2 to point 3? C)

Repeat parts a and b, but take the reference point (y = 0) to be at point 3. Refer to the figure on the previous

page.

CONSERVATIVE FORCES

Conservative forces have these two equivalent properties:

1. The work done by a conservative force on a particle moving between any two points is independent of the path

taken by the particle.

2. The work done by a conservative force on a particle moving through any closed path is zero. (A closed path is

one in which the beginning and end points are identical.)

The work Wc done by a conservative force on an object that is a member of a system as the object moves from one

position to another is equal to the initial value of the potential energy of the system minus the final value:

The work done by a conservative force F as a particle moves along the x axis is

where Fx is the component of F in the direction of the displacement.

Therefore, the conservative force is related to the potential energy function through the relationship

That is, the x component of a conservative force acting on an object within a system equals the negative

derivative of the potential energy of the system with respect to x.

NONCONSERVATIVE FORCES

A force is nonconservative if it does not satisfy properties 1 and 2 for conservative forces. Nonconservative

forces acting within a system cause a change in the mechanical energy Emech of the system. We have defined

mechanical energy as the sum of the kinetic and all potential energies.

POWER

DEFINITION OF AVERAGE POWER

The average power is the average rate at which work W is done, and is obtained by dividing W by the time

required to perform the work:

Work W

P

time t

E

P

time

P Fv

In a manner similar to the way we approached the definition of velocity and acceleration, we define the

instantaneous power P as the limiting value of the average power as "t approaches zero:

In general, power is defined for any type of energy transfer. Therefore, the most general expression for power

where dE/dt is the rate at which energy is crossing the boundary of the system by a

given transfer mechanism.

A unit of power in the U.S. customary system is the horsepower (hp). A unit of energy (or work) can now be

defined in terms of the unit of power. One kilowatt-hour (kWh) is the energy transferred in 1 h at the constant

rate of1 kW = 1 000 J/s. The amount of energy represented by 1 kWh is 1 kWh = (103 W)(3 600 s) = 3.60 X 106 J

Example: An elevator car has a mass of 1 600 kg and is carrying passengers having a combined mass of 200 kg. A

constant friction force of 4 000 N retards its motion upward, as shown in the Figure.

elevator car at a constant speed of 3.00 m/s?

(B) What power must the motor deliver at the instant the

speed of the elevator is v if the motor is designed to provide

the elevator car with an upward acceleration of 1.00 m/s2?

‴

Example: A t kg car from rest accelerates for 5.00 s. The

magnitude of the net acceleration is e t ‴ . Determine the power

generated by the net force that accelerates the vehicle.

DEFINITION OF IMPULSE

The impulse of a force is the product of the average force and the time

interval during which the force acts:

浥h 耀 e h

Impulse is a vector quantity and has the same direction as the average

force.

When a ball is hit, it responds to the value of the impulse. A large impulse produces a large response; that

is the ball departs from the bat with a large velocity. However, we know from the experience that the more

massive ball, the less velocity it has after leaving the bat. Both mass and velocity play a role in how an

object responds to a given impulse. The effect of mass and velocity is included in the concept of linear

momentum, which is defined as follows:

The linear momentum p of an object is the product of the object’s mass m and velocity v:

浥e t

Linear momentum is a vector quantity that points in the same direction as the velocity.

When a net force acts on an object, the impulse of the net force is equal to the change in momentum of the object:

he t t

浥h 耀 e h耀 t 耀 hh

The total linear momentum of an isolated system remains constant or is conserved. An isolated system is one in

which the vector sum of the external forces acting on the system is zero.

It is important to realize that the total linear momentum may be conserved even when the kinetic energies

of the individual parts of a system change.

Collisions are often classified according to whether the total kinetic energy changes during the collision:

1. Elastic collision – One in which the total kinetic energy of the system after the collision is equal is equal to

the total kinetic energy before the collision.

2. Inelastic collision – One in which the total kinetic energy of the system is not the same before and after

the collision; if the objects stick together after colliding, the collision is said to be perfectly inelastic.

CENTER OF MASS

- Point that represents the average location for the total mass of the system

耀 h耀 t

e

tc i n tc t

t t

e

SIMPLE MACHINES

Work is performed by applying a force over a distance. These simple machines create a greater output

force than the input force; the ratio of these forces is the mechanical advantage of the machine. All six of the simple

machines have been used for thousands of years, and the physics behind several of them were quantified by

Archimedes. These machines can be used together to create even greater mechanical advantage, as in the case of a

bicycle.

Lever: A lever is a simple machine that consists of a rigid object (often a bar of some kind) and a fulcrum (or pivot).

Applying a force to one end of the rigid object causes it to pivot about the fulcrum, causing a magnification of the

force at another point along the rigid object. There are three classes of levers, depending on where the input force,

output force, and fulcrum are in relation to each other. Baseball bats, seesaws, wheelbarrows, and crowbars are

types of levers.

What is mechanical advantage?

When a machine takes a small input force and increases the magnitude of the output force, a

mechanical advantage has been produced.

Wheel & Axle: A wheel is a circular device that is attached to a rigid bar in its center. A force applied to the wheel

causes the axle to rotate, which can be used to magnify the force (by, for example, having a rope wind around the

axle). Alternately, a force applied to provide rotation on the axle translates into rotation of the wheel. It can be

viewed as a type of lever that rotates around a center fulcrum. Ferris wheels, tires, and rolling pins are examples of

wheels & axles.

Inclined Plane: An inclined plane is a plane surface set at an angle to another surface. This results in doing the

same amount of work by applying the force over a longer distance. The most basic inclined plane is a ramp; it

requires less force to move up a ramp to a higher elevation than to climb to that height vertically. The wedge is

often considered a specific type of inclined plane.

Wedge: A wedge is a double-inclined plane (both sides are inclined) that moves to exert a force along the lengths

of the sides. The force is perpendicular to the inclined surfaces, so it pushes two objects (or portions of a single

object) apart. Axes, knives, and chisels are all wedges. The common "door wedge" uses the force on the surfaces to

provide friction, rather than separate things, but it's still fundamentally a wedge.

Screw: A screw is a shaft that has a in inclined groove along its surface. By rotating the screw (applying a torque),

the force is applied perpendicular to the groove, thus translating a rotational force into a linear one. It is frequently

used to fasten objects together (as the hardware screw & bolt does), although Babylonians developed a "screw"

that could elevate water from a low-lying body to a higher one (which later came to be known as Archimedes'

screw).

Pulley: A pulley is a wheel with a groove along its edge, where a rope or cable can be placed. It uses the principle

of applying force over a longer distance, and also the tension in the rope or cable, to reduce the magnitude of the

necessary force. Complex systems of pulleys can be used to greatly reduce the force that must be applied initially

to move an object.

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