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Climate Change and Use of Energy.

Final Project.
Second Advance.

PROPOSALS

● Investing in the purchase of hybrid trucks or an electric system that allows the
dispose of harmful waste without the use of conventional trucks (diesel).
● To reduce CO2e emissions and increase production of electricity, use fugitive
methane as a power generator plant.

TECHNICAL SUPPORT

Proposal #1:

Truck emissions are one of the most important contributors to CO​2​e road transport
emissions. In fact, they contribute with 20-25% of GHG emissions (even though they are
only 5% of the vehicles on the road), and, according to governmental organizations, this net
emissions are thought to increase up to 2030. Since most of the trucks used in the company
(Peñoles) are classified as Class 7 or Class 8 (with a capacity from 33,000 lb. to more than
70,000 lb.), it’s very important to achieve a plan that allows the company to reduce its CO2​e
emissions.

The proposal, is to invest in the purchase of a revolutionary zero-emissions battery-electric


system developed by Transportation Power (TransPower) for installation into Class 8 (or
even 7) conventional road trucks, which allows trucks go on for 80-100 miles when fully
charged, transport nearly 80,000 lb. at 65 mph, and, the best of all, produce 0 emissions of
GHG (at least, not directly). Trucks with this technology, are powered by two 200-hp electric
motors. Currently, the total quantity of CO2e gases produced by Peñoles is 55,336 tons per
year (talking about transportation of materials and crew). 1
As we noted above, there are not direct emissions of Greenhouse Gases. However, indirect
emissions are generated from the power plants that generate the electricity used by
TransPower-powered trucks. As the company says:
“Accounting for the greenhouse gases produced by power plants to generate the electricity
used by the TransPower-powered trucks, the vehicle is expected to reduce GHG in typical
drayage drive cycles by 67-68%. “
This represents a net reduction of more than a ton of GHG for every 1,000 miles the truck is
driven, as compared with an equivalent diesel truck.

Proposal #2:
Methane, the principal component of natural gas, is often present in deep coal seams and is
a safety hazard to miners because it is explosive in concentrations ranging from 5 to 15
percent in air. Therefore, gassy underground coal mines employ large-scale ventilation
systems. These systems dilute methane released into the mine workings as coal is extracted
and remove the gas from the mine, thereby maintaining safe working conditions.2

1
​Retrieved from “ELECTRIC CLASS 8 TRUCK PRODUCT DESCRIPTION” Transpowerusa.com N.p, ​2016, Web. Apr. 2016.
Retrieved from: http://www.transpowerusa.com/downloads/Electric-Class-8-Truck-Description-TransPower-08-08-14.pdf
2
Retrieved from "Technical And Economic Assessment: Mitigation Of Methane Emissions From Coal Mine Ventilation Air".
Epa.org​. N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from:
https://www3.epa.gov/cmop/docs/vam_technologies-12-2010.pdf
​http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/cio/3128520

Our proposal is to develop a power generation plant that converts extremely dilute
methane from the mine into electricity.
In November 2007 BHP Illawarra Coals West Cliff Mine, south-west of Sydney, developed a
power generation plant to convert extremely dilute methane in the ventilation air from the
mine into electricity. Gas is captured and used to generate 1.2 megawatts of electricity
through the power plant situated near the mine. Since 1995 the mine has been capturing
and using the methane gas, drained from coal seams prior to mining for safety reasons. Yet
not all the methane is able to be captured, and only small percentages of methane are
present in the ventilation air released from underground operations. 3
The development of power plant technology is said to create a greenhouse gas emission
saving of up to 240 000 tons of CO2 equivalent every year, which is around 6% in reduction
of greenhouse gas emissions4, and enough energy to power 60 000 homes each year.
If implemented, Peñoles’s power generation plant would have an annual reduction of 144
000 tons of CO2 equivalent, which would result in a total of 2.25 million tons of CO2e.

3
“​Adaptations to reduce greenhouse emissions in the minerals industries” ​Landlearnnsw.org.au​. N.p., 2016. Web. 1 May.
2016. Retrieved from:
http://www.landlearnnsw.org.au/sustainability/climate-change/minerals/contribution/fugitive-emissions
4
​BHPBilliton. (2016). Resourcing global growth Annual Report 2015. May 1 2016, de BHPBilliton Sitio web:
http://www.bhpbilliton.com/~/media/bhp/documents/investors/annual-reports/2015/bhpbillitonannualreport2015.pdf
http://cleangreenenergyzone.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/landfill-gas-power-plant.jp
g

ECONOMIC EVALUATION

Proposal #1:
TransPower’s on-road truck has an equivalent energy cost of 23 cents per mile, as compared
with $1.49 per mile for a typical diesel truck (an 85% reduction in cost).5

5
​Vehicle In-Use Data. Transpowerusa.com N.p, 2016. Web 1 May. 2016. Retrieved from:
http://www.transpowerusa.com/data-center/vehicle-in-use-data
These results have been confirmed by real-world operations.
According to the company’s webpage (Transpower),and a paper published by the company,
their motor trucks are commercially available, high performance, reliability of $50,000 per
year in fuel savings, which offer a payback in as little as 150,000-200,000 miles.6

Proposal #2:
While the proposal might not be the most inexpensive one, it is beneficial in several aspects
which is why we think it is a fair enough to spend and invest money in this.
The USEPA estimated that, globally, upper bound estimates for the VAM mitigation market
in 2002 were 167.1 million tonnes CO2e (11.7 Bm3 methane), producing $8.4 billion in
equipment sales and $880 million in annual electricity revenues.

Cost assumptions

Reactor cost +15% contingency, 212000 cfm $3.15 million


(100 m^3/s) unit, .5%methane

turbine-generator capital cost- per kW installed $650

Project “soft costs” as percent of installed cost 25%

Turbine generator maintenance cost .0035/kWh

Miscellaneous annual operating cost 3.2% capital

Cost of ogb gas per 1.055 GJ or mmBtu $0.60

Revenue Assumptions

Electric sales price Low: 3.0 cents/kWh


High: 4.5 cents/kWh

Thermal energy sales price $3.00/mmBtu or about 1.0

Carbon Offset Assumptions

Vent and gob methane destroyed-unfired case 3760 lb/h (1706 kg/h)

6
​TransPower Company Overview Transpowerusa.com N.p, 2016 May 1, Retrieved from:
http://www.transpowerusa.com/downloads/TransPower_Overview_March_2013.pdf
Vent and gob methane destroyed 4908 lb/h (2227 kg/h)

Global warming potential: methane versus CO2 23

Assumed value of CO2 per Mt $1.50

References
“​Adaptations to reduce greenhouse emissions in the minerals industries”
Landlearnnsw.org.au​. N.p., 2016. Web. 1 May. 2016. Retrieved from:
http://www.landlearnnsw.org.au/sustainability/climate-change/minerals/contributi
on/fugitive-emissions
BHPBilliton. (2016). Resourcing global growth Annual Report 2015. May 1 2016, de
BHPBilliton Sitio web:
http://www.bhpbilliton.com/~/media/bhp/documents/investors/annual-reports/20
15/bhpbillitonannualreport2015.pdf
"EPA And NHTSA Propose Greenhouse Gas And Fuel Efficiency Standards For Medium- And
Heavy-Duty Trucks: By The Numbers". ​Epa.org​. N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Apr. 2016.
Retrieved from: https://www3.epa.gov/otaq/climate/documents/420f15903.pdf

"ELECTRIC CLASS 8 TRUCK PRODUCT DESCRIPTION". ​TransPower.com.​ N.p., 2016. Web. 14


Apr. 2016. Retrieved from:
http://www.transpowerusa.com/downloads/Electric-Class-8-Truck-Description-Trans
Power-08-08-14.pdf

"Vehicle Weight Classifications For The Emission Standards Reference Guide | Emission
Standards Reference Guide For On-Road And Nonroad Vehicles And Engines | US
EPA". ​Epa.gov.​ N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from:
https://www.epa.gov/emission-standards-reference-guide/vehicle-weight-classificati
ons-emission-standards-reference-guide

"Informe De Desarrollo Sustentable 2014". ​penoles.com.mx​. N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Apr. 2016.
Retrieved:
http://www.penoles.com.mx/wPortal/content/conn/UCM/path/Carpetas/www/Sala
%20de%20Prensa/Informes%20Anuales/PENOLES-DESARROLLO-SUSTENTABLE-2014.
pdf

"Fugitive Emissions In The Mining Industry". ​Landlearnnsw.org.au​. N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Apr.
2016. Retrieved from:
http://www.landlearnnsw.org.au/sustainability/climate-change/minerals/contributi
on/fugitive-emissions
Hall, D. (2007). West Cliff powers up. May 1 2016, de Australian Mining Sitio web:
https://australianmining.com.au/news/west-cliff-powers-up/

"Technical And Economic Assessment: Mitigation Of Methane Emissions From Coal Mine
Ventilation Air". ​Epa.org.​ N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Apr. 2016. Retrieved from:
https://www3.epa.gov/cmop/docs/vam_technologies-12-2010.pdf

"Thermal Oxidation Of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane". ​Epa.org.​ N.p., 2016. Web. 14
Apr. 2016. Retrieved from:
https://www3.epa.gov/cmop/docs/2008_mine_vent_symp.pdf

"Ventilation Air Methane (VAM) Utilization Technologies". ​Epa.org​. N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Apr.
2016. Retrieved from: ​https://www3.epa.gov/cmop/docs/vam.pdf

"Transpower Company Overview". ​transpowerusa.com​. N.p., 2016. Web. 1 May 2016.


Retrieved from:
http://www.transpowerusa.com/downloads/TransPower_Overview_March_2013.pdf