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Tool Retrivel

© All Rights Reserved

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ABSTRACT

The aim of this Kinematics Based on Four Bar Linkage to make a four bar

linkage and display the movement by a hand crank. The four-bar linkage is

a movable and simplest linkage. It includes four rigid bodies known as bars

The pivot joint includes one rotational degree of freedom and mechanism

is planar.

link known as frame. The data from one link is utilized to know about

analysis. There are two kinds of joints based on contact type. They are

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lower pair joint and higher pair joint. Lower pair joint is contact of area

among two mating surfaces whereas higher pair joint is link among mating

surfaces like line contact. the constant body is known as ground link which

is required to get every position. There are two links linked to the ground

are known as grounded links and the left link is known as coupler link. The

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CHAPTER - I

INTRODUCTION

Four-bar linkage

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loop by four joints. Generally, the joints are configured so the links move in

If the linkage has four hinged joints with axes angled to intersect in a single

point, then the links move on concentric spheres and the assembly is called

with hinged joints that have their axes angled in a particular way that

Planar four-bar linkages are constructed from four links connected in a loop

by four one degree of freedom joints. A joint may be either a revolute, that

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P. The planar quadrilateral linkage is formed by four links and four revolute

links connected by three revolute and one prismatic joint, or RRRP. The

movements.

joints. One link of the chain is usually fixed, and is called the ground

link, fixed link, or the frame. The two links connected to the frame are

called the grounded links and are generally the input and output links of the

system, sometimes called the input link and output link. The last link is

the floating link, which is also called a coupler or connecting rod because it

Assuming the frame is horizontal there are four possibilities for the input

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A rocker: can rotate through a limited range of angles which does not

include 0° or 180°

Grashof condition

The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the

equal to the sum of the remaining two links, then the shortest link can

rotate fully with respect to a neighboring link. In other words, the condition

Classification

based on the dimensions of its four links. Let a, b, g and h denote the

lengths of the input crank, the output crank, the ground link and floating

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The movement of a quadrilateral linkage can be classified into eight types

based on the positive and negative values for these three terms, T 1, T2, and

T3.3

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The cases of T1= 0, T2=0, and T3=0 are interesting because the linkages

different cases.

The figure shows examples of the various cases for a planar quadrilateral

linkage.4

types: convex, concave, and crossing. In the convex and concave cases no

two links cross over each other. In the crossing linkage two links cross over

each other. In the convex case all four internal angles are less than 180

degrees, and in the concave configuration one internal angle is greater than

lengths of the two diagonals of the quadrilateral. For convex and crossing

linkages, the length of one diagonal increases if and only if the other

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opposite is the case; one diagonal increases if and only if the other also

increases.5

Time Ratio

The time ratio (Q) of a four bar mechanism is a measure of its quick return

Q= ≥1

With four bar mechanisms there are two strokes, the forward and return,

which when added together create a cycle. Each stroke may be identical

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or have different average speeds. The time ratio numerically defines

how fast the forward stroke is compared to the quicker return stroke.

ωcrank = (Δtcycle)-1

Windshield wipers

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Other applications require that the mechanism-to-be-designed

has a faster average speed in one direction than the other. This

as offset.

Cutting machines

Package-moving devices

and to what degree the offset affects the time ratio. To relate the

ratio, Q, as follows:

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Q = (180° + β) ÷ (180° - β)

β = 180°

Timing Charts

Timing charts are often used to synchronize the motion between two or

These charts are also used to estimate the velocities and accelerations of

certain four bar links. The velocity of a link is the time rate at which its

position is changing, while the link's accelerationis the time rate at which

are vector quantities, in that they have both magnitude and direction;

however, only their magnitudes are used in timing charts. When used with

time. Constant acceleration allows for the velocity vs. time graph to appear

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as straight lines, thus designating a relationship

ΔR = vpeakΔt

ΔR = a(Δt)^2

Given the displacement and time, both the maximum velocity and

With engines, for example, a crank continuously rotates which forces many

There are two types of slider-cranks: in-line and offset. There are also two

In-line Design

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In-line Slider Crank animation

An in-line crank slider is oriented in a way in which the pivot point of the

crank is coincident with the axis of the linear movement. The follower arm,

which is the link that connects the crank arm to the slider, connects to a pin

pivot point of the crank arm must be in-line with this pin point.

linear distance the slider may travel between the two extreme points of its

motion. With an in-line crank slider, the motion of the crank and follower

links is symmetric about the sliding axis. This means that the crank angle

ideas as well. Assuming the crank arm is driven by a constant force and

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therefore constantvelocity, the time it takes to perform a forward stroke is

Graphical Approach

diagrams are drawn to scale in order for easy evaluation and successful

ground level for the specified slider-crank mechanism. This ground level is

the axis on which both the crank arm pivot-point and the slider pin are

positioned. Draw the crank arm pivot point anywhere on this ground level.

Once the pin positions are correctly placed, set a graphical compass to the

given link length of the crank arm. Positioning the compass point on the

pivot point of the crank arm, rotate the compass to produce a circle with

radius equal to the length of the crank arm. This newly drawn circle

represents the potential motion of the crank arm. Next, draw two models of

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the mechanism. These models will be oriented in a way that displays both

the extreme positions of the slider. Once both diagrams are drawn, the

linear distance between the retracted slider and the extended slider can be

evaluation. Now that the crank path is found, draw the crank slider arm in

the position that places it as far away as possible from the slider. Once

drawn, the crank arm should be coincident with the ground level axis that

was initially drawn. Next, from the free point on the crank arm, draw the

follower link using its measured or given length. Draw this length

coincident with the ground level axis but in the direction toward the slider.

The unhinged end of the follower will now be at the fully retracted position

determined. From the pivot point of the crank arm, draw a new crank arm

coincident with the ground level axis but in a position closest to the slider.

This position should put the new crank arm at an angle of 180 degrees

away from the retracted crank arm. Then draw the follower link with its

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point of the new follower will now be at the fully extended position of the

slider.

Both the retracted and extended positions of the slider should now be

known. Using a measuring ruler, measure the distance between these two

Analytical Approach

To analytically design an in-line crank slider and achieve the desired stroke,

the appropriate lengths of the two links, the crank and follower, need to be

determined . For this case, the crank arm will be referred to as L2, and the

mechanisms, the stroke is twice the length of the crank arm. Therefore,

given the stroke, the length of the crank arm can be determined. This

L2 = (ΔR4)max ÷ 2

because the stroke of the mechanism only depends on the crank arm length,

of the follower link should be at least 3 times the length of the crank arm.

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This is to account for an often undesired increased acceleration yield or

Offset Design

between the crank arm pivot point and the slider axis. This offset distance

sliding axis. In addition, the required crank angles of the forward and

With offset slider-cranks, the stroke is always twice the crank length, and as

the offset distance increases, the stroke also becomes larger. The potential

range for the offset distance can be written in relation to the other

L1 < L3 - L2

The design of an in-line crank slider mechanism involves finding the two

Analytical Approach

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The analytical method for designing an offset crank slider mechanism is the

and can be used to determine unknown values for almost any offset slider-

crank. These equations express the link lengths, L1, L2, and L3, as a function

line M, θM. Arbitrary line M is a designer-unique line that runs through the

crank pivot point and the extreme retracted slider position. The 3 equations

are as follows:

With these relationships, the 3 link lengths can be calculated and any

Examples

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A four-bar linkage used as the suspension for a bicycle. If we count the two

bars that form the shock absorber attached to the output link, then this is a

Pantograph (four-bar, two degrees of freedom, i.e., only one pivot joint is

fixed.)

line motion)

Biological linkages

Bicycle suspension

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To achieve mass production

To reduce manpower

Less Maintenance

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CHAPTER -

Metal structure

Links

Bolt joint

Plummer block

V belt drive

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S1. PARTS Qty. Material

No.1 Mechanical links 4 mild steel

3 V belt 1 Rubber

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A pillow block, also known as a plummer block or bearing housing, is a

pedestal used to provide support for a rotating shaft with the help of

Pillow blocks are usually referred to the housings which have a bearing

fitted into them and thus the user need not purchase the bearings separately.

are meant for lesser loads of general industry. These differ from "plummer

blocks" which are bearing housings supplied without any bearings and are

through the holes in the base. Bearing housings are either split type or

unsplit type. Split type housings are usually two piece housings where the

cap and base can be detached, while certain series are one single piece

housings. Various seals are provided to prevent dust and other contaminants

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from entering the housing. Thus the housing provides a clean environment

Bearing housings are usually made of grey cast iron. However various

V Belt

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over pulleys. In a two pulley system, the belt can either drive the pulleys in

the same direction, or the belt may be crossed, so that the direction of the

where the belt is adapted to continuously carry a load between two points.

Power transmission

Belts are the cheapest utility for power transmission between shafts that

system are large and this has led to many variations on the theme. They run

smoothly and with little noise, and cushion motor and bearings against load

where, T1 and T2 are tensions in the tight side and slack side of the belt

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where, μ is the coefficient of friction, and α is the angle subtended

aligned shafts. It helps protect the machinery from overload and jam,

and damps and isolates noise and vibration. Load fluctuations are

pulley diameters, due to slip and stretch. However, this problem has

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V belts

Vee belts (also known as V-belt or wedge rope) solved the slippage

of movement, load of the bearings, and long service life. They are

is trapezoidal (hence the name "V"). The "V" shape of the belt tracks

in a mating groove in the pulley (or sheave), with the result that the

belt cannot slip off. The belt also tends to wedge into the groove as

the load increases—the greater the load, the greater the wedging

effective solution, needing less width and tension than flat belts. V-

belts trump flat belts with their small center distances and high

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largest pulley diameter, but less than three times the sum of both

as Twaron or Kevlar).

When an endless belt does not fit the need, jointed and link V-belts

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CHAPTER - 7

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Manual power

Rotary motion

Power To Front

Wheel

V belt drive

Links

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Sliding motion

CHAPTER - 8

WORKING PRINCIPLE

8.1 PRINCIPLE

the driver and called as the crank or the driver ( the red bar). The other

usually is called as rocker or follower (the green bar). The floating link

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( the blue bar) that connects the crank and the rocker is called as connecting

rod, and the fixed link ( the black bar ) is called as frame.

MECHANISM

bar mechanism.

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Application of four-bar mechanisms to machinery is numerous. Some

the coupler point) will describe a path on the fixed link, which is called

point curve can be used as the output of the four-bar mechanism (such as

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c) The positions of the coupler-link may be used as the output of the four-

bar mechanism. As shown in figure below, the four-bar mechanism used for

the dump truck requires that the center of gravity of the dumper to move on

beyond the topic. In this chapter we shall discuss some basic characteristics

of the four-bar.

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Dump truck

ratio of the link length dimensions. The links that are connected to the fixed

i) The link may have a full rotation about the fixed axis (we call this type of

link crank)

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The link may oscillate (swing) between two limiting angles (we call

motion:

i) Both of the links connected to the fixed link can have a full rotation. This

ii) Both of the links connected to the fixed link can only oscillate. This type

iii) One of the links connected to the fixed link oscillates while the other

theorem (or Grashof’s rule) gives the criteria for these various conditions

as follows:

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s= length of the shortest link

The following statements are valid (stated without proof. One can prove

1. If l + s < p + q (if the sum of the lengths of the shortest and the longest

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CHAPTER - 10

ADVANTAGES

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Handling is easy.

Repairing is easy.

CHAPTER - 11

APPLICATIONS

Pantograph (four-bar, two degrees of freedom, i.e., only one pivot joint is

fixed.)

Bicycle suspension

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CHAPTER - 12

CONCLUSION

while doing this project work. We feel that the project work is a good

We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time

We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available

facilities.

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REFERENCES

1991, pp.671.

- S.K. BOSE

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- A.K. HAJRA CHOUDHRY

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