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The aim of this Kinematics Based on Four Bar Linkage to make a four bar

linkage and display the movement by a hand crank. The four-bar linkage is

a movable and simplest linkage. It includes four rigid bodies known as bars

or links. These are connected by pivots to produce a closed loop. Four-bars

are the common mechanisms in mechanical engineering and kinematics.

The pivot joint includes one rotational degree of freedom and mechanism

is planar.

The planar four-bar linkages include many different motions based on

calculations. Many mechanisms include movable members and these

motions form trajectories points on the mechanism. The link is rigid in

every mechanism which acts like a frame.

Inversions mechanisms are configurations with manipulation of the rigid

link known as frame. The data from one link is utilized to know about

other inversions. Inversion technique is used for mechanisms synthesis and

analysis. There are two kinds of joints based on contact type. They are

lower pair joint and higher pair joint. Lower pair joint is contact of area

among two mating surfaces whereas higher pair joint is link among mating

surfaces like line contact. the constant body is known as ground link which

is required to get every position. There are two links linked to the ground

are known as grounded links and the left link is known as coupler link. The

second grounded link is the follower link.



Four-bar linkage

A planar four-bar linkage (Watt linkage) used as a train suspension.

A Bennett spatial four-bar linkage.

A four-bar linkage, also called a four-bar, is the simplest movable closed

chain linkage. It consists of four bodies, called bars or links, connected in a

loop by four joints. Generally, the joints are configured so the links move in

parallel planes, and the assembly is called aplanar four-bar linkage.1

If the linkage has four hinged joints with axes angled to intersect in a single

point, then the links move on concentric spheres and the assembly is called

a spherical four-bar linkage. Bennett's linkage is a spatial four-bar linkage

with hinged joints that have their axes angled in a particular way that

makes the system movable.

Planar four-bar linkages

Planar four-bar linkages are important mechanisms found in machines.

The kinematics and dynamics of planar four-bar linkages are important

topics inmechanical engineering.

Planar four-bar linkages are constructed from four links connected in a loop

by four one degree of freedom joints. A joint may be either a revolute, that

is a hinged joint, denoted by R, or a prismatic, as sliding joint, denoted by

P. The planar quadrilateral linkage is formed by four links and four revolute

joints, denoted RRRR. The slider-crank linkage is constructed from four

links connected by three revolute and one prismatic joint, or RRRP. The

double slider is a PRRP linkage.

Planar four-bar linkages can be designed to guide a wide variety of


Planar quadrilateral linkage

Planar quadrilateral linkage, RRRR or 4R linkages have four rotating

joints. One link of the chain is usually fixed, and is called the ground

link, fixed link, or the frame. The two links connected to the frame are

called the grounded links and are generally the input and output links of the

system, sometimes called the input link and output link. The last link is

the floating link, which is also called a coupler or connecting rod because it

connects an input to the output.

Assuming the frame is horizontal there are four possibilities for the input

and output links:

 A crank: can rotate a full 360 degrees

 A rocker: can rotate through a limited range of angles which does not

include 0° or 180°

 A 0-rocker: can rotate through a limited range of angles which

includes 0° but not 180°

 A π-rocker: can rotate through a limited range of angles which

includes 180° but not 0°

Some authors do not distinguish between the types of rocker.

Grashof condition

The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the

shortest and longest link of a planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or

equal to the sum of the remaining two links, then the shortest link can

rotate fully with respect to a neighboring link. In other words, the condition

is satisfied if S+L ≤ P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest,

and P and Q are the other links.


The movement of a quadrilateral linkage can be classified into eight cases

based on the dimensions of its four links. Let a, b, g and h denote the

lengths of the input crank, the output crank, the ground link and floating

link, respectively. Then, we can construct the three terms:

The movement of a quadrilateral linkage can be classified into eight types

based on the positive and negative values for these three terms, T 1, T2, and


Grashof condition Input link Output link

− − + Grashof Crank Crank

+ + + Grashof Crank Rocker

+ − − Grashof Rocker Crank

− + − Grashof Rocker Rocker

− − − Non-Grashof 0-Rocker 0-Rocker

− + + Non-Grashof π-Rocker π-Rocker

+ − + Non-Grashof π-Rocker 0-Rocker

+ + − Non-Grashof 0-Rocker π-Rocker

The cases of T1= 0, T2=0, and T3=0 are interesting because the linkages

fold. If we distinguish folding quadrilateral linkage, then there are 27

different cases.

The figure shows examples of the various cases for a planar quadrilateral


Types of four-bar linkages, s = shortest link, l = longest link

The configuration of a quadrilateral linkage may be classified into three

types: convex, concave, and crossing. In the convex and concave cases no

two links cross over each other. In the crossing linkage two links cross over

each other. In the convex case all four internal angles are less than 180

degrees, and in the concave configuration one internal angle is greater than

180 degrees. There exists a simple geometrical relationship between the

lengths of the two diagonals of the quadrilateral. For convex and crossing

linkages, the length of one diagonal increases if and only if the other

decreases. On the other hand, for nonconvex non-crossing linkages, the

opposite is the case; one diagonal increases if and only if the other also



The synthesis, or design, of four bar mechanisms is important when aiming

to produce a desired output motion for a specific input motion. In order to

maximize cost andefficiency, a designer will choose the simplest

mechanism possible to accomplish the desired motion. When selecting a

mechanism type to be designed, link lengths must be determined by a

process called dimensional synthesis. Dimensional synthesis involves

an iterate-and-analyze methodology which in certain circumstances can be

an inefficient process; however, in unique scenarios, exact and detailed

procedures to design an accurate mechanism may not exist.6

Time Ratio

The time ratio (Q) of a four bar mechanism is a measure of its quick return

and is defined as follows:

Q= ≥1

With four bar mechanisms there are two strokes, the forward and return,

which when added together create a cycle. Each stroke may be identical

or have different average speeds. The time ratio numerically defines

how fast the forward stroke is compared to the quicker return stroke.

The total cycle time (Δtcycle) for a mechanism is:

Δtcycle = Time of slower stroke + Time of quicker stroke

Most four bar mechanisms are driven by a rotational actuator, or

crank, that requires a specific constant speed. This required speed

(ωcrank)is related to the cycle time as follows:

ωcrank = (Δtcycle)-1

Some mechanisms that produce reciprocating, or repeating,

motion are designed to produce symmetrical motion. That is, the

forward stroke of the machine moves at the same pace as the

return stroke. These mechanisms, which are often referred to

as in-line design, usually do work in both directions, as they

exert the same force in both directions.

Examples of symmetrical motion mechanisms include:

 Windshield wipers

 Engine mechanisms or pistons

 Automobile window crank

Other applications require that the mechanism-to-be-designed

has a faster average speed in one direction than the other. This

category of mechanism is most desired for design when work is

only required to operate in one direction. The speed at which this

one stroke operates is also very important in certain machine

applications. In general, the return and work-non-intensive stroke

should be accomplished as fast as possible. This is so the

majority of time in each cycle is allotted for the work-intensive

stroke. These quick-return mechanisms are often referred to

as offset.

Examples of offset mechanisms include:

 Cutting machines

 Package-moving devices

With offset mechanisms, it is very important to understand how

and to what degree the offset affects the time ratio. To relate the

geometry of a specific linkage to the timing of the stroke, an

imbalance angle (β) is used. This angle is related to the time

ratio, Q, as follows:

Q = (180° + β) ÷ (180° - β)

Through simple algebraic rearrangement, this equation can be

rewritten to solve for β:6

β = 180°

Timing Charts

Timing charts are often used to synchronize the motion between two or

more mechanisms. They graphically display information showing where

and when each mechanism is stationary or performing its forward and

return strokes. Timing charts allow designers to qualitatively describe the

required kinematic behavior of a mechanism.

These charts are also used to estimate the velocities and accelerations of

certain four bar links. The velocity of a link is the time rate at which its

position is changing, while the link's accelerationis the time rate at which

its velocity is changing. Both velocity and acceleration

are vector quantities, in that they have both magnitude and direction;

however, only their magnitudes are used in timing charts. When used with

two mechanisms, timing charts assume constant acceleration. This

assumption produces polynomial equations for velocity as a function of

time. Constant acceleration allows for the velocity vs. time graph to appear

as straight lines, thus designating a relationship

between displacement (ΔR), maximum velocity (vpeak), acceleration (a), and

time(Δt). The following equations show this.

ΔR = vpeakΔt

ΔR = a(Δt)^2

Given the displacement and time, both the maximum velocity and

acceleration of each mechanism in a given pair can be calculated.6

Design of Slider-Crank Mechanism

Slider-crank mechanisms involve both rotational and linear motion. For

most of these mechanisms, a crank rotates at constant speed in order to

repeatedly move an object in a linear motion to perform some task. This

device is a simple way to convert rotational motion to linear motion.6

With engines, for example, a crank continuously rotates which forces many

pistons to move linearly back and forth through cylindrical chambers.6

There are two types of slider-cranks: in-line and offset. There are also two

methods to design each type: graphical and analytical.

In-line Design

In-line Slider Crank animation

An in-line crank slider is oriented in a way in which the pivot point of the

crank is coincident with the axis of the linear movement. The follower arm,

which is the link that connects the crank arm to the slider, connects to a pin

in the center of sliding object. This pin is considered to be on the linear

movement axis. Therefore, to be considered an in-line crank slider, the

pivot point of the crank arm must be in-line with this pin point.

Thestroke((ΔR4)max) of an in-line crank slider is defined as the maximum

linear distance the slider may travel between the two extreme points of its

motion. With an in-line crank slider, the motion of the crank and follower

links is symmetric about the sliding axis. This means that the crank angle

required to execute a forward stroke is equivalent to the angle required to

perform a reverse stroke. For this reason, the in-line slider-crank

mechanism produces balanced motion. This balanced motion implies other

ideas as well. Assuming the crank arm is driven by a constant force and

therefore constantvelocity, the time it takes to perform a forward stroke is

equal to the time it takes to perform a reverse stroke.

Graphical Approach

The graphical method of designing an in-line slider-crank mechanism

involves the usage of hand-drawn or computerized diagrams. These

diagrams are drawn to scale in order for easy evaluation and successful

design. Basic trigonometry, the practice of analyzing the relationship

between triangle features in order to determine any unknown values, can be

used with a graphical compassand protractor alongside these diagrams to

determine the required stroke or link lengths.

When the stroke of a mechanism needs to be calculated, first identify the

ground level for the specified slider-crank mechanism. This ground level is

the axis on which both the crank arm pivot-point and the slider pin are

positioned. Draw the crank arm pivot point anywhere on this ground level.

Once the pin positions are correctly placed, set a graphical compass to the

given link length of the crank arm. Positioning the compass point on the

pivot point of the crank arm, rotate the compass to produce a circle with

radius equal to the length of the crank arm. This newly drawn circle

represents the potential motion of the crank arm. Next, draw two models of

the mechanism. These models will be oriented in a way that displays both

the extreme positions of the slider. Once both diagrams are drawn, the

linear distance between the retracted slider and the extended slider can be

easily measured to determine the slider-crank stroke.

The retracted position of the slider is determined by further graphical

evaluation. Now that the crank path is found, draw the crank slider arm in

the position that places it as far away as possible from the slider. Once

drawn, the crank arm should be coincident with the ground level axis that

was initially drawn. Next, from the free point on the crank arm, draw the

follower link using its measured or given length. Draw this length

coincident with the ground level axis but in the direction toward the slider.

The unhinged end of the follower will now be at the fully retracted position

of the slider. Next, the extended position of the slider needs to be

determined. From the pivot point of the crank arm, draw a new crank arm

coincident with the ground level axis but in a position closest to the slider.

This position should put the new crank arm at an angle of 180 degrees

away from the retracted crank arm. Then draw the follower link with its

given length in the same manner as previously mentioned. The unhinged

point of the new follower will now be at the fully extended position of the


Both the retracted and extended positions of the slider should now be

known. Using a measuring ruler, measure the distance between these two

points. This distance will be the mechanism stroke, ((ΔR4)max).

Analytical Approach

To analytically design an in-line crank slider and achieve the desired stroke,

the appropriate lengths of the two links, the crank and follower, need to be

determined . For this case, the crank arm will be referred to as L2, and the

follower link will be referred to as L3. With all in-line slider-crank

mechanisms, the stroke is twice the length of the crank arm. Therefore,

given the stroke, the length of the crank arm can be determined. This

relationship is represented as:6

L2 = (ΔR4)max ÷ 2

Once L2 is found, the follower length (L3) can be determined. However,

because the stroke of the mechanism only depends on the crank arm length,

the follower length is somewhat insignificant. As a general rule, the length

of the follower link should be at least 3 times the length of the crank arm.

This is to account for an often undesired increased acceleration yield or

output, of the connecting arm.

Offset Design

With an offset slider-crank mechanism, an offset distance is

introduced. This offset distance is referred to as L1 and is the fixed distance

between the crank arm pivot point and the slider axis. This offset distance

means that the slider-crank motion is no longer symmetrical about the

sliding axis. In addition, the required crank angles of the forward and

reverse strokes are no longer equivalent. An offset slider-crank provides a

quick return when a slower working stroke is desired.

With offset slider-cranks, the stroke is always twice the crank length, and as

the offset distance increases, the stroke also becomes larger. The potential

range for the offset distance can be written in relation to the other

mechanism lengths, L2and L3, as the equation:6

L1 < L3 - L2

The design of an in-line crank slider mechanism involves finding the two

link lengths, L2and L3, and an appropriate offset distance,L1, in order to

achieve the wanted stroke,(ΔR4)max, and imbalance angle, β.

Analytical Approach

The analytical method for designing an offset crank slider mechanism is the

process by which triangular geometry is evaluated in order to determine

generalized relationships among certain lengths, distances, and angles.

These generalized relationships are displayed in the form of 3 equations

and can be used to determine unknown values for almost any offset slider-

crank. These equations express the link lengths, L1, L2, and L3, as a function

of the stroke,(ΔR4)max, the imbalance angle, β, and the angle of an arbitrary

line M, θM. Arbitrary line M is a designer-unique line that runs through the

crank pivot point and the extreme retracted slider position. The 3 equations

are as follows:

L1 = (ΔR4)max × (sin(θM)sin(θM - β)) / sin(β)

L2 = (ΔR4)max × (sin(θM) - sin(θM - β)) / 2sin(β)

L3 = (ΔR4)max × (sin(θM) + sin(θM - β)) / 2sin(β)

With these relationships, the 3 link lengths can be calculated and any

related unknown values can be determined.


A four-bar linkage used as the suspension for a bicycle. If we count the two

bars that form the shock absorber attached to the output link, then this is a

Watt II six-bar linkage

Pantograph (four-bar, two degrees of freedom, i.e., only one pivot joint is


Crank-slider, (four-bar, one degree of freedom)

Double wishbone suspension

Watt's linkage and Chebyshev linkage (linkages that approximate straight

line motion)

 Biological linkages

 Bicycle suspension


To achieve mass production

 To reduce manpower

 To increase the efficiency of the plant

 To reduce the work load

 To reduce the production cost

 To reduce the production time

 To reduce the material handling

 To reduce the fatigue of workers

 To achieve good product quality

 Less Maintenance



The major components of this project are,

 Metal structure

 Links

 Bolt joint

 Plummer block

 V belt drive

S1. PARTS Qty. Material
No.1 Mechanical links 4 mild steel

2 Plummer block 1 mild steel

3 V belt 1 Rubber

4 Stand (Frame) 1 Mild steel

5 Mechanical Pulley arrangement 1 Mild steel

Table 5.1 List of Materials


A pillow block, also known as a plummer block or bearing housing, is a

pedestal used to provide support for a rotating shaft with the help of

compatible bearings & various accessories. Housing material for a pillow

block is typically made of cast iron or cast steel.

Pillow blocks are usually referred to the housings which have a bearing

fitted into them and thus the user need not purchase the bearings separately.

Pillow blocks are usually mounted in cleaner environments and generally

are meant for lesser loads of general industry. These differ from "plummer

blocks" which are bearing housings supplied without any bearings and are

usually meant for higher load ratings and corrosive industrial

environments. However the terms pillow-block and plummer-block are

used interchangeably in certain parts of the world.

The fundamental application of both types is the same which is to primarily

mount bearings safely enabling their outer ring to be stationary while

allowing rotation of the inner ring. The housing is bolted to a foundation

through the holes in the base. Bearing housings are either split type or

unsplit type. Split type housings are usually two piece housings where the

cap and base can be detached, while certain series are one single piece

housings. Various seals are provided to prevent dust and other contaminants

from entering the housing. Thus the housing provides a clean environment

for the expensive bearings to freely rotate, hence increasing their

performance and duty cycle.

Bearing housings are usually made of grey cast iron. However various

grades of metals can be used to manufacture the same.

ISO 113 specifies internationally accepted dimensions for plummer blocks.

Popular plummer block brands worldwide include SKF, FAG, SMR,GBM,

NTN to name a few

V Belt

A belt is a loop of flexible material used to mechanically link two or more

rotating shafts. Belts may be used as a source of motion, to transmit

powerefficiently, or to track relative movement. Belts are looped

over pulleys. In a two pulley system, the belt can either drive the pulleys in

the same direction, or the belt may be crossed, so that the direction of the

shafts is opposite. As a source of motion, a conveyor belt is one application

where the belt is adapted to continuously carry a load between two points.

Power transmission

Belts are the cheapest utility for power transmission between shafts that

may not be axially aligned. Power transmission is achieved by specially

designed belts and pulleys. The demands on a belt drive transmission

system are large and this has led to many variations on the theme. They run

smoothly and with little noise, and cushion motor and bearings against load

changes, albeit with less strength than gears or chains. However,

improvements in belt engineering allow use of belts in systems that only

formerly allowed chains or gears.

Power transmitted between a belt and a pulley is expressed as the product

of difference of tension and belt velocity:[1]

where, T1 and T2 are tensions in the tight side and slack side of the belt

respectively. They are related as:

where, μ is the coefficient of friction, and α is the angle subtended

by contact surface at the centre of the pulley.

[edit]Pros and cons

Belt drive is simple, inexpensive, and does not require axially

aligned shafts. It helps protect the machinery from overload and jam,

and damps and isolates noise and vibration. Load fluctuations are

shock-absorbed (cushioned). They need no lubrication and minimal

maintenance. They have high efficiency (90-98%, usually 95%),

high tolerance for misalignment, and are inexpensive if the shafts

are far apart. Clutch action is activated by releasing belt tension.

Different speeds can be obtained by step or tapered pulleys.

The angular-velocity ratio may not be constant or equal to that of the

pulley diameters, due to slip and stretch. However, this problem has

been largely solved by the use of toothed belts. Temperatures ranges

from −31 °F (−35 °C) to 185 °F (85 °C). Adjustment of center

distance or addition of an idler pulley is crucial to compensate for

wear and stretch.

V belts

Vee belts (also known as V-belt or wedge rope) solved the slippage

and alignment problem. It is now the basic belt for power

transmission. They provide the best combination of traction, speed

of movement, load of the bearings, and long service life. They are

generally endless, and their general cross-section shape

is trapezoidal (hence the name "V"). The "V" shape of the belt tracks

in a mating groove in the pulley (or sheave), with the result that the

belt cannot slip off. The belt also tends to wedge into the groove as

the load increases—the greater the load, the greater the wedging

action—improvingtorque transmission and making the V-belt an

effective solution, needing less width and tension than flat belts. V-

belts trump flat belts with their small center distances and high

reduction ratios. The preferred center distance is larger than the

largest pulley diameter, but less than three times the sum of both

pulleys. Optimal speed range is 1000–7000 ft/min. V-belts need

larger pulleys for their larger thickness than flat belts.

For high-power requirements, two or more vee belts can be joined

side-by-side in an arrangement called a multi-V, running on

matching multi-groove sheaves. This is known as a multiple-V-belt

drive (or sometimes a "classical V-belt drive").

V-belts may be homogeneously rubber or polymer throughout, or

there may be fibers embedded in the rubber or polymer for strength

and reinforcement. The fibers may be of textile materials such as

cotton or polyester or, for greatest strength, of steel or aramid (such

as Twaron or Kevlar).

When an endless belt does not fit the need, jointed and link V-belts

may be employed. However they are weaker and only usable at

speeds up to 4000 ft/min. A link v-belt is a number of rubberized

fabric links held together by metal fasteners. They are length

adjustable by disassembling and removing links when needed.



Manual power

Rotary motion

Power To Front

V belt drive


Sliding motion




In the four-bar mechanism, one of the rotating members usually is

the driver and called as the crank or the driver ( the red bar). The other

usually is called as rocker or follower (the green bar). The floating link

( the blue bar) that connects the crank and the rocker is called as connecting

rod, and the fixed link ( the black bar ) is called as frame.

Many mechanism can be broken down into equivalent four-bar linkages.

These mechanism has many aplication in mecanical operations. They can

be considered to be one of the fundemental mechanisms.


A four-link mechanism with four revolute joints is commonly called a four-

bar mechanism.

Application of four-bar mechanisms to machinery is numerous. Some

typical applications will involve:

a) Correlation of the angular rotations of the links connected to the fixed

link (commonly known as correlation of crank

angles or function generation). In such applications we would like to have

a certain functional relation such as q14 = f(q12) to be realised by the four-

bar mechanism. A simple example will be to convert a linear scale to a

logarithmic scale within a certain range.

b) Link that has no connection to the fixed link is known as

the coupler link. A point on this link (which is known as

the coupler point) will describe a path on the fixed link, which is called

the coupler-point-curve. By proper choice of link dimensions useful

curves, such as a straight-line or a circular arc, may be found. This coupler

point curve can be used as the output of the four-bar mechanism (such as

the intermittent film drive shown below

c) The positions of the coupler-link may be used as the output of the four-

bar mechanism. As shown in figure below, the four-bar mechanism used for

the dump truck requires that the center of gravity of the dumper to move on

an inclined straight line while it is being tilted (why?).

The above applications can be solved by the methods of synthesis which is

beyond the topic. In this chapter we shall discuss some basic characteristics

of the four-bar.

Dump truck

4.1.1. Grasshof’s Theorem

The motion characteristics of a-four-bar mechanism will depend on the

ratio of the link length dimensions. The links that are connected to the fixed

link can possibly have two different types of motion:

i) The link may have a full rotation about the fixed axis (we call this type of

link crank)

 The link may oscillate (swing) between two limiting angles (we call

this type of link rocker).

In a four-bar mechanism we can have the following three different types of


i) Both of the links connected to the fixed link can have a full rotation. This

type of four-bar is called "double-crank " or "drag-link".

ii) Both of the links connected to the fixed link can only oscillate. This type

of four-bar is called “double-rocker."

iii) One of the links connected to the fixed link oscillates while the other

has a full rotation. This type of four-bar is called crank-rocker.

The type of motion is a function of the link lengths. Grashof's

theorem (or Grashof’s rule) gives the criteria for these various conditions

as follows:

Let us identify the link lengths in a four-bar chain as:

l= length of the longest link

s= length of the shortest link

p,q = length of the two intermediate links

The following statements are valid (stated without proof. One can prove

these statements by using the input-output equation of a four-bar See

Appendix AIII for the proof of the theorem).

1. If l + s < p + q (if the sum of the lengths of the shortest and the longest

links is less than the sum of the two intermediate links)




 It requires simple maintenance areas.

 Handling is easy.

 Electric power not required

 Repairing is easy.

 Replacement of parts is easy.

 Less initial cost



A four-bar linkage used as the suspension for a bicycle.

Pantograph (four-bar, two degrees of freedom, i.e., only one pivot joint is


Crank-slider, (four-bar, one degree of freedom)

Double wishbone suspension

Watt's linkage and Chebyshev linkage Biological linkages

Bicycle suspension



This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and

experience, to use our limited knowledge. We gained a lot of practical

knowledge regarding, planning, purchasing, assembling and machining

while doing this project work. We feel that the project work is a good

solution to bridge the gates between institution and industries.

We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time


MECHANISM” is working with satisfactory conditions. We are able to

understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and also quality.

We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available


In conclusion remarks of our project work, let us add a few more

lines about our impression project work.


1. G.B.S Narang, “Automobile Engineering”, Khanna Publishers, Delhi,

1991, pp.671.

2. William H. Crowse, “Automobile Engineering”.







Web Site : www.maritime.org