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PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
NEGERI PAHANG DARUL MAKMUR
2010

BIOLOGY
PAPER 2

MARKING SCHEME
CONFIDENTIAL* 2

1(a) A : Deoxyribonucleic acid / DNA 1

B : Nucleotides 1

C: messenger RNA / mRNA 1

D: polypeptide 1

E: RNA polymerase 1

F: ribosome 6

Nucleus 1

1(b) ribosomes 1 2

1(c) Aspect Transcription Translation

End product mRNA polypeptide 1

Aminoacyl - tRNA 1
Enzyme RNA polymerase synthetase

Cistron / gene / Codons on mRNA


Template 1
genetic code on
transcribing strand of
DNA Any 2

TOTAL 10

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2 ( a) Light energy ( of wavelength 700nm ) is absorbed by antenna 1


pigments ( of photosystem 1/ P700) and transferred to the reaction
centre ( of photosystem 1 / P 700)

High energy electrons are released 1 2

2(b) Site of photosystem I and photosystem II/ photosynthetic pigments 1

High energy electrons pass along electron carriers 1

Protons / H+ ions pumped into thylakoid space 1

Chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP 1 Any 3

2(c ) Aspect Cyclic Non- cyclic

photophosphorylation photophosphorylation

Photosystem I and II 1
photosystem Only photosystem I
are involved
involved
Electron flow cyclic Non -cyclic
1
First electron Photosystem 1 Water
donor 1
Last electron Photosystem I NADP +

acceptor 1
Products ATP ATP, NADPH and O2 1 Any 3

2( d ) Both use the electron transport system 1

Proton gradient created in inter - membrane space 1

Chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP 1 Any 2

TOTAL 10

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3 (a) A : Capillaries / glomerular capillaries 1

B: Bowman’s capsule 1

C:podocytes 1 3

3(b) Diameter of the afferent arteriole is larger than the diameter of the 1
efferent arteriole.

High hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus


1 2

Plasma contains large protein molecules that are not found in the
1
3( c ) glomerular filtrate.

These molecules are too large to pass through the basement 1


membrane of the glomerular capillaries
2

Tightly packed cells increases the rate of reabsorption 1


3(d)
Numerous microvilli that increase the surface area for reabsorption 1

Numerous mitochondria to provide ATP/ energy for active uptake of 1


substances
3

TOTAL 10

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4(a) RRPP , RRPp, RrPP, RrPp 1/0

4(b) Parents ( P ): Phenotypes Rose comb x pea comb

Genotype RRpp x rrPP 1

Gametes Rp x rP 1

F1 offspring: Genotype RrPp 1

Phenotype Walnut comb

Interbreeding of F1: RrPp x RrPp 1

F1 Gametes RP Rp rP rp RP Rp rP rp

F2 generation 1

Gametes RP Rp rP rp

RRPP RRPp RrPP RrPp


RP
walnut walnut walnut walnut 1

RRPp RRpp RrPp Rrpp


Rp
walnut rose walnut rose

RrPP RrPp rrPP rrPp


rP
walnut walnut pea pea

RrPp Rrpp rrPp rrpp


rp
walnut rose pea single

F2 phenotype ratio: 9 walnut : 3 rose : 3 pea : 1 single


comb comb comb comb 1

4 (c ) RRPP x RRpp 1 2
RRPP x Rrpp 1
10
TOTAL

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QUESTION ANSWER MARKS
NUMBER
Induced fit hypothesis / lock & key hypothesis 1

5(a) Enzyme with a flexible active site / enzyme has a rigid active 1
site

Enzyme molecules collide with substrate molecules 1

Substrate binds to the active site of enzyme 1

Enzyme changes shape slightly to enclose substrate in a 1


precise fit / substrate fits exactly into the active site of the
enzyme

Enzyme –substrate complex formed 1

Stressing & distortion of bonds of the substrate 1

Bonds break & new bonds are formed 1

Activation energy reduced 1

Substrate converted into products 1

Products are released from the enzyme 1

Enzyme can be reused 1

Rate of reaction increases 1

*Diagram showing enzyme & substrate molecule, enzyme- *1


substrate complex, enzyme & products // sketch graph
showing reduction of activation energy

Maximum [ any 7points + *1 mark for diagram/sketch 8


graph ]

Accept either induced fit hypothesis or


lock & key hypothesis

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QUESTION ANSWER MARKS


NUMBER
Competitive inhibitor has similar/ same shape to the natural 1
substrate
5(b)
Competitive inhibitor competes with substrate for the active 1
site on the enzyme

When competitive inhibitor combines with enzyme, no 1


products are formed
When natural substrate combines with enzyme, enzyme- 1
substrate complex formed & subsequently products are
formed
Vmax has the same value 1

Km increases 1

Example: malonate competes with succinate for the active site 1


on the enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase

Effect of competitive inhibitors can be reduced by increasing 1


the substrate concentration.

*Sketch graph of V vs [S] // Lineweaver –Burk plot of *1

1/V vs 1/ [S]

Maximum [ any 6 points + *1 mark for sketch graph ] 7

QUESTION ANSWER MARKS


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NUMBER

Krantz anatomy // Vascular bundle surrounded by 2 layers of 1


cells , columnar mesophyll palisade cells and bundle sheath
6(a) cells.

In mesophyll cells 1

Carbon dioxide combines with phosphoenolpyruvate to form 1


oxaloacetate / C4 compound

Using the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1

PEP carboxylase has a high affinity for CO2 1

Oxaloacetate is reduced to malate using NADPH 1

Malate is shunted through the plasmodesmata into the bundle 1


sheath cells

Malate is oxidized to pyruvate & carbon dioxide using NADP+ 1

CO2 concentration in stroma of chloroplast is increased 1

CO2 enters the Calvin cycle producing organic molecules 1

Pyruvate diffuses into mesophyll cells 1

Pyruvate is phosphorylated to regenerate 1


phosphoenolpyruvate

Energy / ATP used 1

Example: maize/ sugar cane 1

*Labelled diagram of Hatch Slack pathway *1

Maximum [any 12 points + *1 mark for diagram] 13

High CO2 concentration inhibits photorespiration 1

6(b) increases the rate of photosynthesis 1

Enzyme PEP carboxylase has a high affinity for CO2 1

Maximum ( any 2 points ) 2

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QUESTION ANSWER MARKS


NUMBER
7 (a ) In skeletal muscles, glycogen store is converted to glucose 1

Glucose is converted to pyruvate during glycolysis 1

During anaerobic respiration, pyruvate is reduced to lactate by 1


NADH + H+

Lactate is transported by the blood from the muscles to the 1


liver
In the hepatocytes, lactate is oxidized to pyruvate using NAD+ 1

Pyruvate is converted to glucose -6 –phosphate and then to 1


glucose

Glucose is converted to glycogen & stored in the liver 1

Glucose can be transported back to the muscles & used for 1


cellular respiration

Importance:

prevents an increase in lactic acid / H+ concentration in 1


muscles

Prevents a decrease in pH which will affect most metabolic 1


reactions that are catalysed by enzymes

Reduces muscle fatigue 1

Maximum [ any 6 points on Cori cycle + 1 point for


importance] 7

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QUESTION ANSWER MARKS


NUMBER
7 (b ) Occurs in the liver 1

Excess amino acids undergo deamination 1

Amino group is converted to ammonia 1

From cellular respiration, CO2 is produced 1

CO2 combines with NH3 , in the presence of water & ATP to 1


form carbomyl phosphate

Carbomyl phosphate combines with ornithine to form citrulline 1

Citrulline combines with asparate, NH3 and ATP to form 1

argininophosphate

Argininophosphate cleaves to form arginine and fumarate 1

Arginine is hydrolysed to form urea & ornithine 1

Urea is transported by the blood to the kidneys to be excreted 1

Importance:
1
Ammonia is toxic and must be excreted

Prevents an increase in CO2 concentration/ H+ concentration /


1
decrease in pH

so that optimal conditions maintained for metabolic reactions /


1
homeostasis

Maximum [ any 7 points on the Ornithine cycle + any 1 8


mark for importance ]

QUESTION ANSWER MARKS


NUMBER

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8(a) Maintenance of a constant internal environment 1

Internal environment refers to the tissue fluid that surrounds 1


QUESTION ANSWER MARKS
the cells
NUMBER
9(a) High reproductive potential 1
Maintain optimal physical & chemical conditions for metabolic 1
reactions
leading to overproduction of individuals of a species 1
Through negative feedback mechanisms 1
Struggle for existence 1
Maximum ( any 2 points ) 2
leading to competition 1
8 (b) Activation of the cyclic AMP system 1
Variation exists within a population 1
Non- steroid hormone is not soluble in lipid and cannot diffuse 1
Survival of the fittest by natural selection 1
through the plasma membrane
Best adapted survive, reproduce & pass on the genes to the 1
Non- steroid hormone acts as the first messenger 1
next generation
Hormone combines with receptor at the cell surface 1
After many years, new species is formed from pre-existing 1
membrane, leading to a conformational change in the receptor
species via natural selection
Hormone – receptor complex binds to the G protein . 1

G protein binds
Maximum: anywith GTP
5 points 1
5
G protein stimulates adenylyl cyclase . 1

Adenylyl cyclase converts ATP to cyclic AMP 1

c AMP acts as the second messenger 1

Cascade effect occurs 1

c AMP catalyses the conversion of inactive protein kinase to 1


active protein kinase

Active protein kinase catalyses the conversion inactive 1


phosphorylase to active phosphorylase

Active phosphorylase catalyses the conversion of glycogen to 1


glucose
Fast manifestation 1

Effect last for a short duration 1

Example: epinephrine / adrenaline 1

*Diagram *1

Maximum : [ any 12 points + *1 mark for diagram ] 13

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QUESTION ANSWER MARKS


NUMBER
9 ( b ) ( i ) Fossil record of horses :

increase in body size 1

Number of digits reduced to 1 on each foot 1

Thicker & stronger bones 1

Teeth modified for grazing 1

Sub -Total 4

( ii ) Pentadactyl limb: 1

Homologous structures

Modified structures that share a basic pattern as the common 1


ancestor but may have different forms & functions

Occupy different ecological niches / example 1

Sub -Total 3
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( iii ) Comparative embryology

Early embryological development of vertebrates reflects 1


evolutionary origins / Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny

Adult stages are different but show certain structural 1


similarities in embryonic stages

Example: fish-like stages with pharyngeal gill slits in the 1


embryological development of fish, chicken, man
Sub -Total 3

Total: 10

QUESTION ANSWER MARKS


NUMBER
10 ( a ) Development that can continue indefinitely 2/0

Uses renewable resources

Minimizes the use of non-renewable resources

Conservation of the environment

Maximum [ all 4 points included ] 2

10 ( b ) ( i ) Replanting programmes : replanting the trees in areas that 1


have been logged

Stop traditional ‘slash & burn’ forest clearance in shifting 1


cultivation
Limit licenses for logging activities 1

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Enforcement of laws and surveillance to prevent illegal logging 1

Creating more forest reserves to avoid the complete 1


destruction of forests

Selective logging : control the trees that are logged in terms of 1


diameter and species

Recycling of paper helps to reduce the number of trees being 1


cut down

Educational Awareness programmes 1

Maximum : [ any 5 points ] 5

10b ( ii ) Crop rotation to prevent depletion of nutrients 1

Prudent use of herbicides, pesticides, 1

encourage use of biological control 1

Soil improvement method – application of organic fertilizers 1

Irrigation of water deficient soils 1

Contour farming on hill slopes 1

Maximum ( any 5 points ) 5

10b ( iii) Limiting areas for fishing 1

Permissible mesh size of nets 1

Introduce closed seasons so that fish can reproduce & fish 1


population can be maintained

Stop illegal fishing methods eg: fish bombing 1

Maximum [ any 3 points ] 3

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