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2017 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

A Study on Effect of Piston Bowl Shape on Engine Performance and Emission

Characteristics of a Diesel Engine
Autoren: K. Sakthisaravanasenthil, S. Senthilkumar, G. Sivakumar

Verlag: Springer Singapore

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Erschienen in: Innovative Design and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering
This paper presents a study on the effect of re-entrant piston bowl configuration on the
emissions characteristics and engine performances of a direct injection (DI) diesel
engine. In order to meet the emission norms, modern-day diesel engines rely on
methods of in-cylinder emission reduction and expensive after treatment device. By
using an effective piston bowl shape, one can reduce the in-cylinder emission and the
cost increased for the after-treatment device with considerable increase in the engine
lifetime. Six piston bowl shapes with various geometric configurations were selected
for numerical simulations. Three-dimensional models of the piston bowl shapes and the
combustion chamber were created using Pro-E and mesh was generated by using
preprocessor ANSYS ICEM CFD. The flow characteristics inside the cylinder with these
piston bowls were investigated under steady condition with the RNG k-ε turbulent
model using ANSYS Fluent. Numerical simulations under isothermal condition were
carried out to select an optimum bowl shape. The mass flow boundary condition was
used for inlet manifold and the value of this was measured from the experimental test.
The CFD results of mean swirl velocity of the engine at different locations inside the
combustion chamber were calculated. From the computational results, it was found
that the average swirl number is increased from 0.87 (base shape) to 1.74 (modified
bowl shape). It is well known that the swirl number is very important to enhance the
homogeneity of air/fuel mixture inside the combustion chamber, which in turn
improves the combustion efficiency. The experimental results shows that, as compared
to the baseline engine 20 % reduced in hydrocarbons (HC) emissions and 24 % reduced
in carbon monoxide (CO) for the engine with modified piston bowl shape. However,
there is a small amount of reduction in engine performance. It is observed that the
brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) reduced significantly for all load conditions.