Você está na página 1de 325

Durham E-Theses

Tradition and advance in Pergolesi's music

Stratford, Michael David

How to cite:

Stratford, Michael David (1973) Tradition and advance in Pergolesi's music, Durham theses, Durham
University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/9984/

Use policy

The full-text may be used and/or reproduced, and given to third parties in any format or medium, without prior permission or
charge, for personal research or study, educational, or not-for-prot purposes provided that:
• a full bibliographic reference is made to the original source
• a link is made to the metadata record in Durham E-Theses
• the full-text is not changed in any way
The full-text must not be sold in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.
Please consult the full Durham E-Theses policy for further details.

Academic Support Oce, Durham University, University Oce, Old Elvet, Durham DH1 3HP
e-mail: e-theses.admin@dur.ac.uk Tel: +44 0191 334 6107
http://etheses.dur.ac.uk
TRADITION AND ADVANCE IN PERGOLESI'S MUSIC

MICHAEL DAVID STRATFORD

Submitted f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS

The copyright of this thesis rests with the author.

No quotation from it should be published without

his prior written consent and information derived

from it should be acknowledged.


ABSTRACT OF THESIS
GIOVANNI BATTISTA PERGOLESI

(1710-1736)

P e r g o l e s i ' s r e p u t a t i o n has undoubtedly b e n e f i t t e d from the

b r e v i t y of h i s l i f e . Dying a t twenty-six, and t h e r e f o r e not having

a t t a i n e d f u l l maturity a s a composer, he was a t times p u r e l y conven-

t i o n a l i n h i s work, but then a t others p r o g r e s s i v e and wonderfully

inventive. Romantic biographers have made much of h i s b r i e f c a r e e r ,

and consequently i n f l a t e d the importance o f h i s o r i g i n a l i t y a s a composer.

To o t h e r s , h i s music has appeared v a r i o u s l y t r a d i t i o n a l , l i g h t w e i g h t ,

or even t e d i o u s .

H i s present fame r e s t s l a r g e l y upon the S t a b a t Mater and the

intermezzo, L a S e r v a Padrona. T h i s l a t t e r work became notorious a s a

r e s u l t of i t s being the c e n t r a l point o f d i s p u t e i n the P a r i s i a n

squabble o f 1752 - "La Guerre des Bouffons", T h i s apparently ensured

i t s immortality. H i s four opere s e r i e a r e f o r the most p a r t conventional

i n s t y l e , but a l s o c o n t a i n passages which s i n g l e out the composer f o r

his originality. Of them L'Olimpiade e v e n t u a l l y proved to be the most

s u c c e s s f u l , although i t s o r i g i n a l r e c e p t i o n was d i s t i n c t l y h o s t i l e .

P e r g o l e s i ' s g i f t s of l i g h t h e a r t e d melody, c l e a r c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n and

n a t u r a l n e s s of accent found t h e i r o u t l e t i n opera buffe, the f i e l d i n

which he gained g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s .

Much of h i s sacred music now has only h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ,

but some o f h i s e a r l y works d i s t i n g u i s h themselves f o r t h e i r o r i g i n -

ality. H i s f i n a l work, the Stabat Mater, i s s t i l l f r e q u e n t l y performed.

I n s t y l e i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t ; deeply moving s e c t i o n s a r e followed by

t h e a t r i c a l passages which a r e claimed by the composer's c r i t i c s to be

l a c k i n g i n s i n c e r i t y of e x p r e s s i o n .

3.
A f t e r h i s death enthusiasm f o r h i s works r o s e s h a r p l y . Supply

of manuscripts could not meet demand, and many f o r g e r i e s were passed

as genuine. Modern s c h o l a r s h i p has res<b6red a number to t h e i r composers,

but s t i l l works remain which can be only a t t r i b u t e d to P e r g o l e s i .

Of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n t h i s category a r e c e r t a i n i n s t r u m e n t a l

p i e c e s which, i f genuine, f o r t h e i r s t y l e and conception o f form would

p l a c e him f a r i n advance of many of h i s contemporaries.


CONTENTS

Introductory p. 7

\ Chapter I Biography p. 19

V Chapter I I P e r g o l e s i and Opera p. 2k

Chapter I I I Operatic A t t r i b u t i o n s and Works of p. ikO

Doubtful O r i g i n

Chapter IV P e r g o l e s i ' s Sacred Music p. l6k

Chapter V P e r g o l e s i ' s Instrumental Music p. 250

— Chapter VI P e r g o l e s i ' s Posthumous Fame and p. 28^

The R e b e l l i o n Against Opera S e r i a

Chapter V I I Borrowings from P e r g o l e s i p. 293

— Chapter V I I I I n Conclusion p. 296

Appendix A Works Considered p. 316

Appendix B Bibliography p. 320

5-
4
INTRODUCTORY

7.
INTRODUCTORY

Had P e r g o l e s i been a composer of minimal o r i g i n a l i t y one o f

his works would s t i l l be the cause o f an a r r e s t i n g page i n any h i s t o r y

of music, f o r i t was the performance o f h i s L a Serva Padrona by an

I t a l i a n troupe i n P a r i s during 1752 that s e t o f f the v i o l e n t but

amusing squabble (conducted c h i e f l y by j o u r n a l i s t s and pamphleteers)

c a l l e d " L a Guerre des Bouffons".

Was t h i s p l e a s a n t l i t t l e piece so deservedly notorious? Was i t

the work of a h i g h l y o r i g i n a l genius, or was the s t i r i t caused only

the consequence of i t s production i n a h i g h l y n a t i o n a l i s t i c c a p i t a l ?

Does the composer's present fame o r i g i n a t e from the i n t e r e s t

aroused by that squabble i n P a r i s , or i s the reverence i n which he i s

held due to h i s premature death a t the age o f twenty s i x ? Paisiello

(17^0-l8l6) s c a t h i n g l y claimed that P e r g o l e s i would not have been so

much esteemed i f he had l i v e d longer. Perhaps there i s some t r u t h i n

t h i s claim, f o r immediately a f t e r P e r g o l e s i ' s death there was a c o n s i d e r -

able demand f o r h i s music, no doubt f i r e d by a s o r t of hero-worship o f

a p o t e n t i a l g i a n t c u t o f f from l i f e before h i s promise was f u l f i l l e d .

P a r t i c u l a r l y i n demand were the two works by which he i s best known

today - Stabat Mater and L a Serva Padrona; but h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l works

were a l s o r e v i v e d . There were r e q u e s t s f o r s c o r e s from a l l over

Europe, and p a r t i c u l a r l y from England and France. Supply was not able

to meet demand and many works of doubtful o r i g i n were o f a consequence

a t t r i b u t e d to him by music c o p y i s t s who found they had a p r o f i t a b l e

business.

The volume of works which a t some time have been a t t r i b u t e d to

P e r g o l e s i i s formidable; few composers could p o s s i b l y have produced

8.
anything l i k e t h i s output i n such a b r i e f l i f e - s p a n . Perhaps he

ranks second only to Haydn i n the number of doubtful a t t r i b u t i o n s

made to him.

We s h a l l look a t the man, a t h i s l i f e h i s t o r y , a t s o c i a l condi-

t i o n s of the time, a t the works g e n e r a l l y considered to be h i s , and

some of doubtful o r i g i n , comparing them (where appropriate) w i t h those

of h i s predecessors, contemporaries and s u c c e s s o r s . F i n a l l y we shall

t r y to a s s e s s h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to music and decide to what extent he

may have been a composer "before h i s time".

9-
CHAPTER I

BIOGRAPHY
BIOGRAPHY

Giovanni B a t t i s t a P e r g o l e s i ( o r P e r g o l e s e ) ,

born i n J e s i near Ancona January, 1710,

died i n P o z z u o l i 16th March, 1736.

Although the composer i s normally known as P e r g o l e s i , t h i s i n

f a c t was not h i s name. His great-grandfather Francesco Draghi had

been a shoe maker i n Pergola, but ( c . 1635) moved twenty-five m i l e s

e a s t to J e s i where he then became known as " P e r g o l e s i " a f t e r h i s town

of origin.
Francesco Draghi

1
, 1

Cruciano = Maddalena Cerquetta Valentino


1663
1
Francesco Andrea
1683 - 1732
I
Giovanni Battista

By the time of the composer's parents, shoe-making was no longer the

family business. His f a t h e r Francesco, a surveyor and a sergeant i n

the l o c a l m i l i t i a , a l s o held the post of a d m i n i s t r a t o r of property

of the Compagnia d e l Buon Gesu, and was by a l l accounts an influential

person. He married Donna Anna V i t t o r i a d i Pompilio G i o r g i (1682-1726),

and as a r e s u l t of t h e i r union there were four c h i l d r e n :

Rosa - 1706, Bartolomeo - 1708, Giovanni - 1710, and Antonio - 172k.

A l l but Giovanni died i n i n f a n c y .

11.
The baptismal r e g i s t e r f o r Rosa bears the name o f Draghi d i Pergolese,

and f o r Bartolomeo t h a t of Draghi d a l l a Pergola, but f o r Giovanni i t

i s P e r g o l e s i alone. Both v e r s i o n s o f the surname continued to be

used u n t i l 1710 when Cruciano's branch s e l e c t e d the use o f P e r g o l e s i ,

while V a l e n t i n o ' s branch r e t a i n e d the o r i g i n a l Draghi.

F u r t h e r confusion over names arose when P e r g o l e s i went to the

Neapolitan Conservatorio d e i P o v e r i d i Gesu C r i s t o . Here he was

considered a " f o r e i g n e r " and was f r e q u e n t l y known as " J e s i " a f t e r

his birth-place. Due to t h i s , some e a r l y w r i t e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r

Mattei,^"^ wrongly assume t h a t h i s name was J e s i and that he was born

at Pergola.

Both h i s parents died young, h i s mother i n A p r i l , 1727, aged

f o r t y - f o u r , and h i s f a t h e r , who had remarried, i n 1732, aged f o r t y -

eight. As the three other c h i l d r e n d i d not s u r v i v e infancy we can

only assume t h a t they were not healthy stock, and i t i s but s m a l l

wonder that Giovanni died of consumption i n h i s mid-twenties.

He was confirmed on 27th May, 1711, a t the age of s i x t e e n months.

T h i s was most unusual, i n f a c t i n the Marche i t was not customary to

confirm c h i l d r e n before the f i f t h b i r t h d a y . I t has been suggested

that t h i s break w i t h normal p r a c t i c e was due to h i s being a s i c k l y

c h i l d and not expected to l i v e . I t i s p o s s i b l e ' t h a t he was already

s u f f e r i n g from t u b e r c o l o s i s ; we know from p i c t u r e s t h a t he had a

deformed l e f t l e g and that he limped. R a d i c i o t t i suggested that t h i s

was a s i g n of the d i s e a s e which was known i n I t a l y a s "Spina Ventosa".

( i ) E l o g i o d e l Jommelli ( C o l l e Ameno, 1785)

12.
T r a d i t i o n has i t that he was an i n f a n t prodigy, having more than

an ordinary s k i l l on the v i o l i n and an uncommon aptitude f o r composi-

tion. Nothing i s known of h i s parents' a t t i t u d e towards h i s education.'

We know some o f h i s e a r l y education i n J e s i was provided by

Sebastiano C i t t a d i n i , but there i s c o n f l i c t i n g evidence concerning h i s

subsequent t r a i n i n g . According to Gianfrancesco L a n c e l l o t i o f S t a f f o l o ,

he was taught the v i o l i n by the Marchese G a b r i e l e R i p a n t i and studied

music w i t h two p r i e s t s - Marcello Sacea and F i l i p p o Mondini, but

according to Guiseppe S a n t i n i they were two others o f "the most

esteemed maestri o f the c i t y " - Francesco S a n t i n i , the d i r e c t o r o f the

c a t h e d r a l c h o i r , and Francesco Montini, a p u b l i c music master of J e s i .

The two statements need not be c o n t r a d i c t o r y ; i t i s q u i t e possible

that h i s e a r l y education was from R i p a n t i and the p r i e s t s mentioned

above, and that l a t e r he had more r e g u l a r and systematic teaching from

the two more famous p r o f e s s i o n a l s .

J e s i was not s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to have i t s own opera house, but

i t s Palazzo Municipale had annual performances of dramas and musical

i n t e r m e z z i , and both o r a t o r i o s and c a n t a t a s were heard i n the churches.

P e r g o l e s i would a t t h i s stage be acquainted w i t h works by

Alessandro S c a r l a t t i (1660 - 1725) and Antonio Caldara (1670 - 1738).

I t i s b e l i e v e d that a nobleman from J e s i , the Marchese Cardolo

Maria P i a n e t t i , arranged f o r him to f u r t h e r h i s s t u d i e s i n Naples.

T h i s b e l i e f i s based on the f a c t t h a t R a d i c i o t t i found a copy of

S a l u s t i a , P e r g o l e s i ' s f i r s t opera, i n the l i b r a r y of the Marchese E i a n e t t i .

I t would seem that P e r g o l e s i had s e n t the score to h i s benefactor a s a

s i g n of g r a t i t u d e and to show that he had made good use o f h i s time.

13.
He s t u d i e d a t the Conservatorio d e i P o v e r i d i Gesu C r i s t o . No

complete r e g i s t e r s of students remain, but there a r e documents r e f e r r i n g

to one " J e s i " who i s presumed to be P e r g o l e s i . There are a l s o r e f e r -

ences to such people as "Maltese Maggiore" and "Maltese Minore", i n

accordance w i t h the custom of r e f e r r i n g to non-Neapolitans by t h e i r

place of o r i g i n . There i s supporting evidence i n that those known to

be h i s t u t o r s were a l l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s Conservatorio; they were

Domenico De M a t t e i s f o r v i o l i n , Gaetano Greco f o r counterpoint, and,

a f t e r the l a t t e r ' s death i n 1728, Francesco Durante.

I t was a s s e r t e d - wrongly - by h i s e a r l i e s t biographer the

Marchese d i V i l l a r o s a t h a t P e r g o l e s i could only have been r e c e i v e d

i n t o the Conservatorio i f h i s parents had become poverty stricken,

but r e g u l a t i o n s were t h a t poor c h i l d r e n only from Naples went f r e e ;

f o r e i g n e r s had to pay f e e s , which i n h i s case presumably were paid f o r

him by the Marchese P i a n e t t i . The year of h i s commencing was 1726,

when he was 16 and r a t h e r old compared w i t h the other boys.

According to V i l l a r o s a he was f i r s t n o t i c e d for h i s improvised

performances on the v i o l i n : "chromatic passages r i s i n g and falling,

new and g r a c e f u l g r u p p e t t i ( t u r n s ) , appogiature of a new k i n d , w i t h

such melody t h a t the very companions who were studying the instrument

w i t h him remained enchanted by them and sometimes were c o n s t r a i n e d to

suspend t h e i r study, s u r p r i s e d by the harmony produced by their

colleague. " ^ ^
The r e s u l t was p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n from De Matteis, h i s v i o l i n

1
(i)'Memorie d e i compositori d i musica d e l regno d i N a p o l i ,
(2nd ed., Naples, 1843).

Ik.
teacher, and a recommendation to Greco f o r s e r i o u s study i n composi-

tion.

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to observe the c o n d i t i o n s under which the

students worked i n these C o n s e r v a t o r i o s . Dr. C h a r l e s B u r n e y ^ O g i v e s

the f o l l o w i n g a s t o n i s h i n g account of a s i m i l a r Conservatorio somewhat

later:

"On the f i r s t f l i g h t of s t a i r s was a trumpeter, screaming upon

h i s instrument u n t i l he was ready to b u r s t ; on the second a French Horn

bellowing i n the same manner. I n the common p r a c t i s i n g room a Dutch

Concert, c o n s i s t i n g of seven or e i g h t h a r p s i c h o r d s , more than as many

f i d d l e s , and s e v e r a l v o i c e s , a l l performing d i f f e r e n t things i n

d i f f e r e n t keys: other boys were w r i t i n g i n the same room; but i t being

h o l i d a y time, many were absent who u s u a l l y study and p r a c t i s e i n t h i s

room. T h i s method of jumbling them a l l together may be convenient f o r

the house, and may teach boys to stand f i r e by o b l i g i n g them to attend

to t h e i r own p a r t s w i t h firmness, whatever e l s e may be going forward a t

the same time; i t may l i k e w i s e g i v e them f o r c e , i n o b l i g i n g them.to

play loud i n order to hear themselves f o r nothing but noise can pervade

noise; but i n the midst of such jargon and continued dissonance, i t i s

wholly impossible to a c q u i r e t a s t e , e x p r e s s i o n or d e l i c a c y - there can

be no p o l i s h or f i n i s h i n g to t h e i r performances, and t h a t seems to


n e.
account f o r the s l o v e ^ i n e s s and coarsness remarkable i n the p u b l i c

e x h i b i t i o n s , and for the t o t a l want of t a s t e , neatness and e x p r e s s i o n

i n the young performers t i l l they have acquired i t elsewhere. The beds

which a r e i n the same room, s e r v e f o r s e a t s to the harpsichords and

1
( i ) 'The P r e s e n t S t a t e of Music i n France and Italy ,
published i n London, 1771-

15.
other instruments. Out of t h i r t y or f o r t y boys who were p r a c t i s i n g ,

I could d i s c o v e r but two who were p l a y i n g the same p i e c e ; some of

those who were p r a c t i s i n g the v i o l i n seemed to have a g r e a t d e a l of

hand. The v i o l o n c e l l o s are i n another room, and the wind instruments,

such as the f l u t e s , hautbois e t c . i n a t h i r d . The trumpets and horns

e i t h e r fag on the s t a i r s , or on the top of the house. There a r e i n

t h i s c o l l e g e s i x t e e n c a s t r a t i , and these l y e ( s i c ) by themselves i n

a warmer apartment u p s t a i r s than the other boys for f e a r of c o l d s ,

which might endanger t h e i r v o i c e s . The only v a c a t i o n i n these s c h o o l s ,

i n the whole year, i s i n autumn, and t h a t f o r a few days only: during

w i n t e r the boys r i s e two hours before i t i s l i g h t , from which time

they continue t h e i r e x e r c i s e , an hour and a h a l f a t dinner excepted,

t i l l e i g h t o'clock a t night; and t h i s constant perseverance, f o r a

number of y e a r s , w i t h genius and good teaching, must produce g r e a t

musicians".

Despite what we would consider a p p a l l i n g , i f not impossible,

c o n d i t i o n s these c o n s e r v a t o r i e s i n Naples produced a s e r i e s of

remarkably able composers and performers.

George Hogarth^^shed f u r t h e r l i g h t upon the c o n s e r v a t o r i o s of

the Neapolitan d i s t r i c t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r methods of teaching:

" I f the c h i l d r e n did not show s u f f i c i e n t t a l e n t to a f f o r d a promise

of e x c e l l e n c e , they were dismissed to make room f o r others The

method of i n s t r u c t i o n resembled a good d e a l t h a t which i s known by


1
the name of the ' L a n c a s t r i a n system. The master gave h i s l e s s o n s to

four or f i v e of the most advanced s c h o l a r s ; each of these, having

r e c e i v e d h i s l e s s o n , d e l i v e r e d i t i n h i s t u r n to four or f i v e others

( i ) 'Musical H i s t o r y , Biography & C r i t i c i s m ' London, l835«

16.
of i n f e r i o r c l a s s ; each of these again, gave l e s s o n s to as many more,

and thus the l e s s o n s were propagated throughout the e n t i r e s c h o o l ,

and descended to the p u p i l s of the lowest grade. These subordinate

l e s s o n s were given under the general superintendance of the master,

who was thus enabled to see t h a t they were given and r e c e i v e d without

negligence or impropriety."

Commenting upon the system i n Naples during h i s l i f e t i m e , Hogarth

s t a t e d t h a t the c o n s e r v a t o r i o s continued i n the manner above mentioned

u n t i l the power of Napoleon put most of them to an end; the few

s u r v i v o r s were of comparative insignificance.

The main i n t e r e s t for students was to appear i n p u b l i c a t

performances outside the c o n s e r v a t o r i o s , indeed most of these e s t a b l i s h -

ments were dependent to a great extent on revenue brought i n by such

engagements. Records of the Conservatorio d e i P o v e r i d i Gesu C r i s t o

i n d i c a t e t h a t students performed among other events a t f u n e r a l s , church

f e s t i v a l s and wedding f e s t i v i t i e s . At monasteries and convents they

were involved i n performances of o r a t o r i o , commedie s a c r e and s e c u l a r

i n t e r m e z z i as f a r from Naples as A m a l f i , A v e l l i n o , I s c h i a , Nola and

S e s s a Aurunco. No doubt these occasions would provide welcome breaks

from the r o u t i n e of the c o n s e r v a t o r i o .

C a r n i v a l time i n Naples afforded the students c o n s i d e r a b l e

p l e a s u r e and some f i n a n c i a l gain; a sum of t e n ducats was paid to

those who performed from the c a r r i a g e s . The F e s t i v a l of San Gennaro

( i n May) had a ^ f l o t t o l a ^ composed by an advanced p u p i l and sung or

played by a group of twelve or more boys heading the p r o c e s s i o n ; these

performers were known as 'paranze*. Records a t the Conservatorio

mention ' J e s i ' i n t h i s connection. He i s a l s o r e f e r r e d to along w i t h

17.
P a l a z z o , Maltese Minore, Malemme and C o l u c c i as 'capiparanze*, and

e n t i t l e d to a monthly s t r i n g allowance f o r 1729 and the f i r s t few

months of 1730. Unfortunately r e c o r d s f o r the l a t t e r p a r t of 1730

and a l l 1731 a r e missing, and by 1732 there i s no r e f e r e n c e whatsoever

to hity, so we can only assume t h a t by t h i s time he had left.

I n December 1730 there was a v i r t u a l r e b e l l i o n of the students;

many were e x p e l l e d , but i t i s extremely u n l i k e l y P e r g o l e s i was one of

them as h i s dramma s a c r o La Conversione d i San Guglielmo d'Aquitania

was performed i n the monastery of Sant' Agnello Maggiore i n summer

1731« The work was of a type by which p u p i l s of Neapolitan c o n s e r v a t o r i e s

made t h e i r debuts as composers. I t would h a r d l y have been accepted f o r

performance i f P e r g o l e s i had been one of those s u f f e r i n g the i n d i g n i t y

of e x p u l s i o n . We are t h e r e f o r e l e f t w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he

probably l e f t of h i s own accord i n 1731 a t the age of 21.

There were v i r t u a l l y only two spheres of employment open to him,,

the church or noble patronage. The former had but l i t t l e a t t r a c t i o n as

he was not of a r e l i g i o u s d i s p o s i t i o n . Although he had an extremely

sound grounding i n counterpoint he e v e n t u a l l y was more s u c c e s s f u l i n

opera, which he found to be l e s s demanding than the severe polyphony of

church music.

One of h i s e a r l y sacred works was the o r a t o r i o L a F e n i c e s u l Rogo

or La Morte d i San Guiseppe. A copy dated 1731 s t i l l e x i s t s i n the

a r c h i v e s of O r a t o r i o d e i F i l i p p i n i i n Naples. I t Bears the f o l l o w i n g

remark of the c o p y i s t ,

" I , Giovanni Semolino, sang the soprano p a r t . "

18.
The winter of 1731 saw P e r g o l e s i ' s f i r s t opera s e r i a , S a l u s t i a ,

performed i n the Teatro San Bartolomeo. (Theatres f r e q u e n t l y took

t h e i r name from the p a r i s h i n which they were s i t u a t e d . ) Along w i t h

t h i s main work'Was performed an intermezzo bearing no t i t l e , but with

the c h a r a c t e r s Nerina and ^ibbic^

Nothing i s d e f i n i t e l y known about i t s r e c e p t i o n , although l a t e r ,

i n 1735, P e r g o l e s i t o l d h i s f r i e n d Duni t h a t i t had been i n d i f f e r e n t l y

received. We do know that N i c o l i n i , the l e a d i n g s i n g e r , was taken i l l

j u s t p r i o r to the performance and died s h o r t l y afterwards. His name

would have been an a t t r a c t i o n , and t h i s i s perhaps the reason f o r i t s

remaining i n the o r i g i n a l l i b r e t t o d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t he did not

a c t u a l l y take p a r t .

Francesco, the composer's f a t h e r , died i n 1732 l e a v i n g behind him

a few p o s s e s s i o n s which were auctioned i n order to help pay o f f some

of h i s debts.

A document of t h a t same year names P e r g o l e s i as the Maestro d i

Cappella to the P r i n c e of S t i g l i a n o , probably Ferdinando Colonna S t i g l i a n o ,

the equerry to the v i c e r o y of Naples. T h i s was a post he was to r e t a i n

u n t i l 173^« I t i s thought t h a t the m a j o r i t y of h i s instrumental works

and v o c a l c a n t a t a s were w r i t t e n f o r p r i v a t e performance under the

p r i n c e ' s patronage.

Lo F r a t e 'Nnamorato was performed i n the Teatro d e i F i o r e n t i n i i n

September, 173<5. • T h i s i s a three a c t opera b u f f a i n the Neapolitan

dialect. P r e v i o u s l y P e r g o l e s i had made u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts to have

7
( i ) C a f f a r e l l i , i n h i s introductory- to S a l u s t i a , claims t h a t the
intermezzo was Amor f a l'Uomo Cieco, basing h i s evidence on F e t i s '
""Biographie U n i v e r s e l l e des M u s i c i e n s " (2nd edn., B r u s s e l s ,
1860 - 65). D e t a i l s of modern s c h o l a r s h i p , c l e a r l y d i s p r o v i n g t h i s
statement, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . But F e t i s ' theory i s s t i l l
perpetuated by c e r t a i n more r e c e n t w r i t e r s , notably Ruth Berges i n her
book "Opera O r i g i n s and S i d e l i g h t s " ( P b l . Thos. Y o s e l o f f , 1961).
s e r i o u s works performed a t t h i s t h e a t r e , which had a t r a d i t i o n of

Neapolitan d i a l e c t operas by such composers a s S c a r l a t t i , Leo and

Vinci. I t would appear from the ' D i a r i o O r d i n a r i o ' of Rome that he

challenged the champions with outstanding s u c c e s s .

I n the December of t h a t year the c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s commissioned

him to w r i t e a Mass and Vespera f o r a ceremony invoking heavenly

p r o t e c t i o n from a s e r i e s o f earthquakes. The Mass (probably i n F

f o r double c h o i r and double o r c h e s t r a ) won g r e a t a c c l a i m when produced

i n the. church o f Santa Maria d e l l a S t e l l a . I t was a l s o h i g h l y p r a i s e d

by Leo who was reputed to have embraced P e r g o l e s i i n p u b l i c on the

occasion of i t s f i r s t performance.

The opera s e r i a I I P r i g i o n i e r Superbo was performed on

28th August, 1733 a t the Teatro San Bartolomeo. The main work proved

u n s u c c e s s f u l and r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e enthusiasm was shown then f o r the

accompanying intermezzo L a S e r v a Padrona, upon which so much o f the

composer's r e p u t a t i o n i s now hinged. At t h a t time i t was looked upon

as one of hundreds of b r i g h t , w i t t y i n t e r m e z z i w r i t t e n , performed and

soon forgotten Sin I t a l y every y e a r .

I n February of 173^ P e r g o l e s i was appointed a s deputy Maestro d i

C a p p e l l a f o r the whole c i t y of Naples, under Domenico S a r r o . I t

would have been normal procedure f o r him to have been the eventual

s u c c e s s o r to the main post, but i n any event S a r r o o u t l i v e d him by a

number o f . y e a r s .

I n May of the same year he was i n v i t e d to Rome to conduct h i s

F major Mass f o r f i v e v o i c e s a t the church of San Lorenzo i n L u c i n a ,

20.
h i s patron on t h i s occasion being the Duke o f Maddolini. The work

was extremely w e l l r e c e i v e d and was e v e n t u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e for h i s

l e a v i n g the employment of the P r i n c e of S t i g l i a n o i n favour of t h a t of

the Duke. H i s new employer was a ' c e l l i s t of repute; Leonardo Leo

wrote a number of concertos f o r him, i n c l u d i n g h i s famous work i n F

minor. Presumably i t was a l s o f o r the Duke t h a t P e r g o l e s i wrote h i s

S i n f o n i a f o r V i o l o n c e l l o and C o n t i n u e

He returned to the Teatro San Bartolomeo i n Naples i n October, 173^

for the performance of Adriano i n S i r i a , an opera s e r i a w i t h a l i b r e t t o

by Metastasio. T h i s was accompanied by the intermezzo L a Contadina

A s t u t a ^ ^ and again, a s i n the case of L a S e r v a Padrona, the s m a l l work

was the g r e a t e r a t t r a c t i o n . The comparative f a i l u r e of Adriano i n S i r i a

prevented any f u r t h e r commission to w r i t e f o r that t h e a t r e .

The s u c c e s s of the Mass i n F a t Rome r e s u l t e d i n a commission f o r

an opera. L'Olimpiade was performed i n the Torinonda Theatre during

the c a r n i v a l season of 173V5» The p r e c i s e date of performance i s

u n c e r t a i n ; i t i s u s u a l l y given a s 31st January, but L o w e n b u r g ^ ^ q u o t e s

A-Cametti who s t a t e s that the date was 8th/9th January. We doknow

however t h a t the r e c e p t i o n was h o s t i l e and that P e r g o l e s i , who was

d i r e c t i n g from the harpsichord, was s t r u c k on the back o f the head by

a w e l l aimed orange, projected by a d i s s a t i s f i e d member of the audience.

I t was suspected t h a t t h i s was a d e l i b e r a t e case of sabotage prompted

by j e a l o u s y on the part of some of the Romans. I t has been suggested

( i ) The o r i g i n a l t i t l e , but the work i s now known a s L i v i e t t a and T r a c o l l o .

( i i ) "Annals o f Opera".

21.
t h a t t h i s d i s a s t r o u s f a i l u r e hastened the onset of h i s f i n a l i l l n e s s ,

as h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n was a l r e a d y f r a i l and unable to withstand such

treatment. He returned to Naples discouraged and disgusted, and f o r

a period concentrated on r e l i g i o u s music. I t i s impossible to give

p r e c i s e dates of h i s sacred works, i n f a c t the only work with any

c e r t a i n t y of date i s the Mass performed i n December, 1732, but, as

we observed p r e v i o u s l y , we can only assume t h a t i t was the work i n F

major.

There i s f u r t h e r u n c e r t a i n t y about the timing of h i s l a s t few

works. I t i s g e n e r a l l y thought t h a t Orfeo, the b e s t of h i s chamber

c a n t a t a s , and h i s f i n a l s e t t i n g of S a l v e Regina were w r i t t e n s h o r t l y

a f t e r h i s r e t u r n from Rome, but a case has been made out t h a t one or

other of these works was w r i t t e n a f t e r h i s entry i n t o the monastery

at P o z z u o l i .

His f i n a l opera buffa Flaminio was performed i n the Teatre Nuovo

i n Naples during the autumn of 1735» the l i b r e t t o r e f e r s to him as

Organist of the Chapel Royal. Nothing i s known of h i s s k i l l as a key-

board performer, but there are a few keyboard works a t t r i b u t e d to him,

i n c l u d i n g an Organ Sonata i n F major, presumably dating from t h a t

period. Flaminio was a great s u c c e s s , g i v i n g some measure of compensa-

t i o n f o r the miserable f a i l u r e of L'Olimpiade i n Rope.

By the end of the year, a t a time when h i s h e a l t h was failing

r a p i d l y , he commenced work on a wedding c a n t a t a (or s c e n a r i o per musica)

I I Tempo F e l i c e , but according to the l i b r e t t o the music was completed

by Niccolo Sabatino.

I n February, 1736, on medical a d v i c e , he went to the c a t h e d r a l town

of P o z z u o l i and stayed i n the Capuchin monastery which had been founded

22.
by the a n c e s t o r s of h i s patron, the Duke of Maddolini. Realising

h i s c o n d i t i o n , he handed over most of h i s p o s s e s s i o n s to h i s aunt and

housekeeper C e c i l i a G i o r g i . According to V i l l a r o s a , ^ ^ h i s l a s t work

was the S t a b a t Mater, commissioned by the Archbrotherhood of C a v a l i e r i

d e l l a Vergine de' D o l o r i , a body of Neapolitan nobles. Villarosa

a l s o t e l l s us t h a t i t was commissioned before the v i s i t to Rome f o r

the performance of L'Olimpiade, and that ten ducats were paid i n advance.

P e r g o l e s i ' s f r i e n d Francesco Feo v i s i t e d him i n the monastery,

f i n d i n g him confined to bed w i t h a f e v e r but working on the S t a b a t Mater.

On s e e i n g him a few days l a t e r the work was complete, but the composer

was i n a worse condition.

He died on 16th March, 1736 and was b u r i e d i n a pauper's grave.

Apparently the i n t e r e s t and p r o t e c t i o n shown by the Duke of Maddolini

ceased a b r u p t l y on P e r g o l e s i ' s death, and h i s few remaining p o s s e s s i o n s

were s o l d o f f immediately i n order to pay h i s debts and the f u n e r a l

expenses.

( i ) Op. c i t .

23-
CHAPTER I I

PERGOLESI AND OPERA

24.
ITALIAN OPERA IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

AND THE RISE OF THE NEAPOLITAN SCHOOL

By the end of the seventeenth century opera was the most popular

form of entertainment i n I t a l y . A l l l a r g e c i t i e s had a t l e a s t one opera

house which a t t r a c t e d audiences from a l l s e c t i o n s of the p u b l i c . Venice

had been the l e a d i n g c i t y i n t h i s r e s p e c t , f i r s t mainly through the

works by Monteverdi (156? - l6*t3) i and subsequently those of G a v a l l i

(1602 - I676) and C e s t i (1623 - 1669). As the p o l i t i c a l importance of

Venice waned and that of Naples i n c r e a s e d , so d i d t h e i r r e l a t i v e

importances i n opera change p l a c e s .

Naples a t that time was the l a r g e s t c i t y i n I t a l y , w i t h some

300,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . As i t was important both p o l i t i c a l l y and socially

i t was an i d e a l c e n t r e f o r the establishment of a new s c h o o l of music.

The Royal Court, one of the w e a l t h i e s t i n Europe, encouraged the

development of opera; s p l e n d i d opera houses were b u i l t , and the c i t y

had four c o n s e r v a t o r i o s f o r the t r a i n i n g of young m u s i c i a n s . In

P e r g o l e s i ' s time there were three t h e a t r e s : San Bartolomeo, F i o r e n t i n i

and the Teatro Nuovo; the San C a r l o Theatre was b u i l t i n 1737•

The f i r s t h a l f of the eighteenth century Baw a d e c l i n e i n the

importance of the Church a s a c e n t r e of c u l t u r e . Simultaneously

s e c u l a r music i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a r i t y i n many European c i t i e s . This,

no doubt, c o n t r i b u t e d to the growing d i s i n t e r e s t i n the s t r i c t forms

and severe s t y l i s a t i o n s of Church Music.

25-
Rococo s t y l e i n a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e evolved i n the court a t

Versailles. Dpon the death of King L o u i s XIV (I638 - 1715), who had

reigned f o r seventy-two y e a r s , a r t i s t s were looking f o r new forms of

expression. They departed from f o r m a l i s a t i o n s of Baroque s t y l e s and

adopted f r e s h ornamental s t y l e s , a r t i s t i c a l l y based upon a r t i f i c i a l

rockwork, decorated and sculptured shellwork, profusion of d e t a i l i n

colour and c a r v i n g and extravagance i n proportion. These s t y l e s were

eagerly and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y imitated throughout France, Germany and

I t a l y , l e a v i n g t h e i r mark on music and l i t e r a t u r e a l s o , e s p e c i a l l y i n

the way of a t t e n t i o n to minute d e t a i l , d e l i c a c y of s t r u c t u r e and the

choice of f r i v o l o u s s u b j e c t matter. The c h r o n o l o g i c a l boundaries of

t h i s e r a were approximately 1720 - 1760.

Music i n the Rococo period, as we s h a l l see, moved away from the

u n i f i e d s t y l e of s i n g l e mood and adopted a system of c o n t r a s t i n g s h o r t

phrases which were often repeated s e q u e n t i a l l y . The long melodic l i n e

of the Baroque was abandoned and ornaments were now profuse, "analogous

i n f u n c t i o n to beauty patches on a p r e t t y f a c e " . ^ At times melodies

were l y r i c a l with immediate appeal, showing grace and neatness i n

c o n s t r u c t i o n : a t other times they were merely d e c o r a t i v e and lacking

i n emotional content.

Works w r i t t e n i n t h i s g r a c e f u l , l i g h t e r v e i n of the Rococo period

were given the term " s t y l e g a l a n t " to d i s t i n g u i s h them from the formal,

s t r i c t Baroque s t y l e .

The e r a immediately following the death of Louis XIV saw a change

to l i g h t h e a d e d n e s s i n the c o u r t s . The n o b i l i t y took a more a c t i v e p a r t

( i ) Homer U l r i c h - Symphonic Music.

26.
i n musical performances; t h i s i n i t s e l f hastened the change of s t y l e ,

as the wealthy amateur d i l e t t a n t e s were f r e q u e n t l y unable to cope

adequately with, ornaments i n d i c a t e d by mere symbols, or w i t h f i g u r e d

basses, l e t alone the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the contrapuntal t e x t u r e so o f t e n

found i n the works o f the Baroque composers. Consequently music became

simpler i n s t r u c t u r e and e a s i e r to perform; f l o r i d counterpoint steadily

disappeared, g i v i n g way to a homophonic t e x t u r e , and f i g u r e d basses

and ornaments were f r e q u e n t l y worked out i n f u l l .

Opera i n Naples s t a r t e d w i t h somewhat of a r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the

l i b r e t t i used i n the l a t e r y e a r s o f the Venetian School. T y p i c a l works

of t h i s o l d e r school were a s e r i e s of songs s t r u n g together w i t h j o k e s

i n doubtful t a s t e , and they contributed but l i t t l e to dramatic or

musical a r t . Three poets from the court a t Vienna were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r

reforming o p e r a t i c t e x t s : S t a m p i g l i a (1664 - 1725), Zeno (1668 - 1750)

and Metastasio (I698 - 1782).

Under these men opera s p l i t i n t o the two c a t e g o r i e s o f opera s e r i a

and opera b u f f a . Zeno i n p a r t i c u l a r p u r i f i e d s e r i o u s t e x t s of comic

elements which were i n way of concession to vulgar t a s t e s i n the t h e a t r e

pit.^^ C l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n was made between r e c i t a t i v e and a r i a ; the

former c a t e r e d f o r a l l dramatic a c t i o n and the l a t t e r f o r contemplation

when emotions could be expressed. The da capo a r i a , a s used i n Venice,

was improved. Under the Neapolitan composers the middle s e c t i o n

f r e q u e n t l y was used to express f e e l i n g s o f doubt or f e a r , and the

r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f the main s e c t i o n was l i k e l y to have a g r e a t e r amount

of ornamentation. The c o n t r a s t i n g moods of the s e c t i o n s o f the a r i a

( i ) Monteverdi's L'Incoronazione d i Poppea and Armide by L u l l y contained


comic elements, but these were not considered e n t i r e l y i n good t a s t e
when incorporated with the l o f t y themes taken from c l a s s i c a l myth
and h i s t o r y .

27.
gave scope to changes i n mood i n the music, mainly through v a r i e d rhythmic

s t r u c t u r e and modulation.

The Neapolitan school of opera i s g e n e r a l l y s a i d to have o r i g i n a -

ted w i t h Francesco Provenzale ( d . 1704). P r i o r to the performance of

his works there the c i t y had l i t t l e experience other than a r e v i s e d

and enlarged production of Monteverdi's L*Incoronazione d i Poppea.

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Provenzale's s t y l e a r e i n v e n t i v e n e s s of melody,

harmonic imagination and f i e r y pathos. He did not adopt Zeno's

methods of d i v i d i n g opera s e r i a from opera b u f f a , but continued w i t h

the i n c l u s i o n of comic episodes i n otherwise s e r i o u s m a t e r i a l .

Alessandro S c a r l a t t i (1660 - 1725)» a S i c i l i a n by b i r t h , was

r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the Neapolitan school g a i n i n g prominence. H i s work

developed from opera i n Venice and Home, indeed f o r many y e a r s he

commuted r e g u l a r l y between t h i s l a t t e r c i t y and the c i t y of h i s adop-

t i o n , w r i t i n g works f o r performance i n both. H i s output of work i s

v a s t , i n c l u d i n g some 115 operas, 500 chamber c a n t a t a s , 200 masses and

Ik o r a t o r i o s .

I n h i s work the d i v i s i o n between r e c i t a t i v o secco and a r i a was

c l e a r l y defined, the l a t t e r assuming p o i n t s of s t y l e from the concerto.

Continuo p a r t s were more of a developed homophony, the harmonies

accompanying the r e c i t a t i v e s being much more l u x u r i a n t than i n the e a r l y

part of the Baroque e r a . A regular practice i n h i s r e c i t a t i v e s was

the c a d e n t i a l f a l l of a 4th i n the v o c a l p a r t , o f t e n to be followed by a

p e r f e c t cadence; t h i s was h a b i t u a l l y copied by most composers of the

era.

28.
Although a t present none of h i s operas appears to be published

i n f u l l , h i s masterpieces are considered to be:

Tigrane 1715
and

Griselda 1721, based on a l i b r e t t o by Zeno.

They c o n t a i n a continue accompaniment which i s expanded f o r a s m a l l

s t r i n g o r c h e s t r a w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l use of trumpets, horns and wood-

wind. His harmonies are adventurous, making frequent use of the chords

of the Neapolitan 6th and the diminished 7th, both of which were r a r e

i n e a r l y Baroque works. The da capo a r i a s i n these works are f i n e

examples of t h e i r type, employing b e a u t i f u l and e f f e c t i v e c a n t a b i l e

elements.

Almost a l l of S c a r l a t t i ' s innovations appear i n h i s l a s t few works

and would s t i l l be r e l a t i v e l y f r e s h when P e r g o l e s i began composing.

He had a unique appeal through the c l e a r t o n a l d i r e c t i o n of h i s melodies

and h i s powerful rhythms, e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s S i c i l i a n a s . The l a t e r works

make e f f e c t i v e use of the o c c a s i o n a l r e c i t a t i v o stromentato. Ensemble

s i n g i n g was r a r e i n h i s operas, i n f a c t he u s u a l l y r e l i e d upon a l t e r n a -

t i o n r a t h e r than combination of v o i c e s .

E a r l y o v e r t u r e s of the period were n e a r l y a l l fashioned upon the

four-movement church sonata, but g r a d u a l l y there evolved from the

concerto form a Neapolitan Overture c o n s i s t i n g of two f a s t movements

i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h a s h o r t , slow t r a n s i t i o n a l movement.

The comic scenes which were f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d i n l a t e Seventeenth

and e a r l y E i g h t e e n t h Century opera pandered to popular t a s t e s i n song

and dance tunes with t h e i r g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y of emotions, and made a

marked c o n t r a s t to the ponderous grand a r i a s and s t y l i s e d , longwinded

recitatives.

29.
The i n t r o d u c t i o n of comic i n t e r m e z z i performed between the a c t s

of opera s e r i a acknowledged the separate e x i s t e n c e o f opera s e r i a

and opera b u f f a . The e a r l i e s t i n t e r m e z z i seem to have been composed i n

Venice i n 1706, but Neapolitan composers were r a t h e r slow to copy the

practice.

O r i g i n a l l y simple songs or madrigals were sung between a c t s o f a

main work and corresponded roughly to the p r a c t i c e o f i n c l u d i n g an

e n t r ' a c t e i n more modern works. The t r a n s i t i o n from intense tradegy

to absolute f a r c e and back seemed to be q u i t e acceptable to audiences of

the day; Roman h i s t o r y could give way q u i t e happily to l i g h t h e a r t e d ,

t r i v i a l p l o t s of servants g e t t i n g the b e t t e r of t h e i r masters.

When S c a r l a t t i , notably w i t h I I T r i o n f o dell'onore (somewhat of

an exception i n that i t i s a f u l l length opera b u f f a ) , and Hasse

adopted a l i g h t e r approach to t h e i r work the new form gained r a p i d l y

i n p o p u l a r i t y by the very f a c t t h a t i t opposed the conventions and

s t y l i s a t i o n s of i t s r i v a l . Frequently, a s i n P e r g o l e s i ' s case, the

s m a l l intermezzo proved to be a g r e a t e r p u b l i c a t t r a c t i o n than the

main work.

These i n t e r m e z z i r e t a i n e d t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y and were i d e a l perform-

ing m a t e r i a l f o r the troupes who introduced them to a wide audience

throughout Europe, They were easy and economical to produce, r e q u i r i n g

only one scene, u s u a l l y contemporary costume and a c a s t of only two

or three s i n g e r s .

30.
Whereas V a u d e v i l l e and B a l l a d Operas were compiled mainly from

t r a d i t i o n a l and popular music of the day, opera b u f f a , commencing w i t h

i t s s m a l l e r v e r s i o n - the comic intermezzo - was an' o r i g i n a l a r t form.

As i n opera s e r i a , r e c i t a t i v e s and a r i a s were i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s , but

they were composed i n such a way a s to match the r e a l people i n the

everyday s i t u a t i o n s of the p l o t .

The s t y l e galant e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f f i r s t l y i n t h i s form;

polyphony was then almost e n t i r e l y disregarded and a s i m p l e r homo-

phonic s t y l e r e p l a c e d i t . B r i e f r e p e t i t i v e phrases, melodic c l i c h e s such

as the feminine cadence w i t h an a n t i c i p a t o r y t r i p l e t c h a r a c t e r i s e d many

buffo melodies; a t times P e r g o l e s i went so f a r a s to i n c l u d e such

f e a t u r e s i n h i s s e r i o u s works.

The g r e a t e r freedom i n s t y l e of opera b u f f a bestowed a richness

l a c k i n g i n the s e r i o u s works. Whereas opera s e r i a devoted i t s e l f so

much to the development of the v i r t u o s o da capo a r i a , the l i g h t e r work

introduced the Canzona, based on a popular song, the rhyming song and

then v a r i o u s dance forms, p a r t i c u l a r l y the S i c i l i a n a . Extravagances

of opera s e r i a such a s c o l o r a t u r a and n e e d l e s s r e p e t i t i o n of words

were parodied i n opera b u f f a .

The r e a l i t y of opera b u f f a rendered the c a s t r a t o redundant i n

t h i s sphere o f the a r t ; r e a l men with men's v o i c e s were needed, and

feminine p a r t s were to be played by women. To some extent composers

were thus enabled to escape from the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the male sopranos

and c o n t r a l t o s who o f t e n r u l e d the opera houses.

The r a p i d parlando, t y p i c a l of the way of speech i n southern

I t a l y , was the main vehicle f o r comic e f f e c t . T h i s was subsequently

31.
adopted by many composers, notably Mozart and R o s s i n i , and played

some p a r t i n the e v o l u t i o n of the p a t t e r songs i n the Savoy Operas

by G i l b e r t and S u l l i v a n .

The most important m u s i c a l innovation was the ensemble f i n a l e

i n which c h a r a c t e r s sang s h o r t snatches i n quick s u c c e s s i o n or together.

Again t h i s was l a t e r adopted by Mozart and R o s s i n i who included

p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e examples i n I I S e r a g l i o and L a Cenerentola r e s p e c t i v e l y

32.
SALUSTIA

T h i s f i r s t opera, composed when P e r g o l e s i was twentyone, was

r e s p o n s i b l e f o r spreading h i s r e p u t a t i o n a f t e r the i n i t i a l s u c c e s s

of L a Conversione d i San Guglielmo d'Aquitania. The i m p r e s s a r i i of

the San Bartolomeo Theatre - Francesco R i c c i a r d i and C a r l o Barone -

o f f e r e d him the l i b r e t t o by an unknown poet (but based on a p l o t by

Zeno). Leading s i n g e r s were engaged:

Salustia - Maria F a c c h i n e l l i

Giulia - Teresa C o t t i

Albina - Anna Mazzoni

Alessandro Severo - Angiola Zanobi

Marziano - Niccolo Grimaldi ( N i c c o l i n o )

Claudio - Francesco Tolve.

According to the custom of the day, i n t e r m e z z i were performed

between the a c t s of the main work. I t was erroneously claimed that i n

t h i s case the intermezzo was Amor F a L'Uomp C i e c o . T h i s work w i l l be

discussed l a t e r . Contemporary evidence does not name the work a c t u a l l y

performed, but we do know that i t contained the c h a r a c t e r s Nibbio and

Nerina, who were played by Giovacchino Corrado and C e l e s t i n a Resse.

Mention has a l r e a d y been made of the replacement of N i c c o l i n o

from the c a s t l i s t . According to r e p o r t s , the items to r e c e i v e

p a r t i c u l a r a c c l a i m were:-

Alessandro's "Andro Ramingo e Solo",


1
S a l u s t i a s "Sento un Acerbo Duolo",

The Quartet, and


1
S a l u s t i a s "Per Queste Amare Lacrime".

33-
Although P e r g o l e s i remained f a i t h f u l to t r a d i t i o n a l forms and

mannerisms, t h i s y o u t h f u l work was one which l e d the way f o r r e t h i n k -

ing i n t h e a t r i c a l a r t and helped to e s t a b l i s h h i s "new sweet s t y l e " .

The music contains d i s t i n c t i v e s i g n s o f the composer's p e r s o n a l i t y ,

showing i n s i g h t i n t o the human h e a r t , f r e q u e n t l y breaking the i c e o f

h i s f r i g i d models by h i s warmth, sentiment and t r u t h of e x p r e s s i o n .

"He seems unconcerned by the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the s t o r y , and

seldom adds to the pretence by pandering to v i r t u o s i t y , but w i t h

s i n c e r i t y and f a i t h f u l n e s s to the s p i r i t of the t e x t he g i v e s l i f e

to the whole.

The s i n f o n i a , or "Introduzione" a s he c a l l s i t , i s i n the

Neapolitan three movement form - A l l e g r o S p i r i t o s o , Andante,

A l l e g r o A s s a i ; i t has no profound d i s t i n c t i o n but i s h a r d l y trivial.

Up to P e r g o l e s i ' s day the s i n f o n i a was of s m a l l importance, but under

composers of the Neapolitan School made some advance i n form and

function. The general i n t e n t i o n had seemed to be f o r the noise to be

as great a s p o s s i b l e to q u e l l the audience and to announce the beginning

of the performance. I n t h i s case, however, there i s some attempt

towards n o b i l i t y of s t r u c t u r e i n a procedure contrary to the p r e v a i l i n g

custom. P e r g o l e s i employs oboes and trumpets i n a d d i t i o n to s t r i n g s i n

the f i r s t movement, and horns i n the other two. The opening movement

i s bold, making extensive use of the t o n i c arpeggio. The middle move-

ment, which i s i n the subdominant, has a charming l i g h t n e s s of t e x t u r e ,

and the f i n a l movement r e t u r n i n g to the t o n i c , ( i n compound duple time)

adopts the binary p l a n so common i n i n s t r u m e n t a l movements of the day.

The customary opening chorus i s extremely b r i e f , but c r e a t e s

( i ) F . C a f f a r e l l i , I n t r o d u c t i o n to S a l u s t i a , Opera Omnia,
/
p i . Rome, 19 +0-^2.
e f f e c t s o f f e s t i v i t y and s o n o r i t y . The v o c a l p a r t s move mainly i n

t h i r d s and s i x t h s , while s t r e n g t h i s added to the s t r i n g s by the

a d d i t i o n of oboes, horns and trumpets.

C a f f a r e l l i t h i n k s h i g h l y of P e r g o l e s i ' s s t y l e of r e c i t a t i v e

secco, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r i t s p o l i s h e d modulations and orthodoxy a t

cadences, and compares i t with that of S c a r l a t t i f o r formal develop-

ment. He a l s o p r a i s e s h i s attempts a t making i t s u i t a b l y e x p r e s s i v e

and preceding Gluck i n t h i s r e s p e c t by f o r t y y e a r s .

The majority of h i s a r i a s follow a four p a r t p a t t e r n : e x p o s i t i o n ,

repeat i n the dominant, c o n t r a s t i n the r e l a t i v e minor, da capo. I n

t h i s symmetry o f form P e r g o l e s i does not surpass conventional ideas,

but w i t h remarkable n a t u r a l n e s s the musical thought proceeds and

demonstrates h i s e x p e r t i s e i n f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e s e t t i n g to h i g h l i g h t

the expression of a melodic phrase w i t h i n an accepted and s t y l i s e d

form. Following h i s example i n Guglielmo d'Aquitania he continues t o

demonstrate h i s a b i l i t y a t c h a r a c t e r p a i n t i n g . Within G i u l i a ' s three

a r i a s from the f i r s t a c t the dowager i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d a s envious and

spiteful. Her p e r s o n a l i t y i s b o l d l y carved by a f i r m , c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n

of phrase. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n her f i r s t a r i a w i t h the

octave leaps on 'Temi, temi i l suo f u r o r e ' , and again on 'Cosi l a

superba' i n the middle s e c t i o n o f her f o l l o w i n g a r i a .

The young emperor's love f o r h i s betrothed shows i t s e l f w i t h

p o e t i c abandon and y o u t h f u l f r e s h n e s s i n 'A un Lampo d i Timore'. (A)

35-
The s t y l e of t h i s a r i a i s almost Handelian, not only i n the melodic

content but a l s o i n the extended runs which c h a r a c t e r i s e a number of

the German composer's movements. Moments of deepest sadness a r e

portrayed i n the b e a u t i f u l l y ornate 'Andro Ramingo e S o l o ' . For

much of the movement there i s a v i o l i n obbligato whichHas one

p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p r e s s i v e passage i n which the instrument i m i t a t e s

the c a l l of the n i g h t i n g a l e . (B)

C l a u d i o ' s 'D'Amor l a s a e t t a g i a s v e l s i d a l core* i s i n the ornate

s t y l e popular a t that time. I t i s s e t i n 3/8 time, a p a r t i c u l a r

f a v o u r i t e of the composer, and amply demonstrates h i s fresh, youthful

approach. (C)

C a r e f u l p l a c i n g of r e s t s i n A l b i n a ' s 'Soleva i l t r a d i t b r e ' adds

f o r c e to the words i n an a r i a which demonstrates the composer's

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y clear orchestral texture. (D) Caffarelli

r e f e r s to these two l a s t mentioned a r i a s a s " c o n t a i n i n g an i n e x h a u s t i b l e

spark of P e r g o l e s i ' s c r e a t i v e t a l e n t . "

The c h a r a c t e r of S a l u s t i a i s portrayed w i t h p a r t i c u l a r sympathy.

Her f i r s t a r i a 'Tu V o l g i A l t r o v e i l C i g l i o ? * i s a p a t h e t i c appeal to

the l i s t e n e r and a t e a r f u l p l e a f o r mercy. (E) Musical punctua-

t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e , and a most powerful e f f e c t i s produced

by the use of r e s t s and the pause before she s i n g s 'e l ' a l t r u i falsa

accusa l a mia f i d e l t a ' . R i s i n g s e q u e n t i a l treatment i s employed

e x t e n s i v e l y to i n c r e a s e dramatic t e n s i o n , and the emotion i s deepened

by a decorated arpeggio, on the f i r s t v i o l i n , as i t l e a d s to a diminished

1
? t h on 'Oh D i o i

56-
I n order to produce a more powerful mode of e x p r e s s i o n s t r i n g s

are added to the r e c i t a t i v e sung by S a l u s t i a p r i o r to 'Sento un Acerbo


1
Duolo . There i s a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l duet i n which the 1 s t v i o l i n , i n

wide phrases f u l l of pathos, meditates on each v o c a l statement. The

a r i a r i s e s above the d u l l conventions of form through a beauty of

e x p r e s s i o n which has been compared (by C a f f a r e l l i ) to the f i n a l e of

Aida. Again r e s t s are used to give s y l l a b l e s e x t r a f o r c e . (F)

C e r t a i n mannerisms a r e evident, p a r t i c u l a r l y the two semiquaver f l o u r i s h

on the strong beat a t e a r l y cadences and the descending run of semi-

quavers a t a f i n a l cadence. P e r g o l e s i makes extensive use of the

diminished 7 t h a t moments of s t r e s s and a l s o uses i t a s a v e h i c l e f o r

modulation a s the music passes through G minor, D major, C minor,

B f l a t major, F major, E f l a t major and F minor.

The second a c t commences w i t h a s h o r t o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n

i n v o l v i n g some i m i t a t i o n . T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n and that to the t h i r d

act a r e i n P e r g o l e s i ' s hand i n a manuscript i n the Royal Academy; of

Music, Stockholm, but c u r i o u s l y a r e not to be found i n any I t a l i a n

manuscript.

The second a c t has two a r i a s s p e c i a l l y noteworthy f o r o r i g i n a l -

i t y and d e s c r i p t i v e power. G i u l i a ' s 'Odio d i f i g l i a a l t e r a l'ambizioso

cuore' i s augmented w i t h wind instruments to heighten e x p r e s s i o n . (G)

T h i s movement has a beauty which i s achieved through the smoothness o f

the v o c a l l i n e and a complete u n i t y of s t y l e . Although i t i s one of

the longer a r i a s , harmonic interest;-; i s maintained d e s p i t e the f a c t

t h a t excursions from the tonic and dominant a r e few and s h o r t i n dura-

tion.

I n Marziano's 'Talor d e l Fiume P i a c i d o Torbida Cresce L'Onda'

the texture i s c l e a r and bold and the harmonies a r e mainly tonic and

dominant. O r c h e s t r a l octaves a r e used w i t h the v o i c e f o r emphasis. (H)

37-
Although not s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i n a l , w i t h c l i c h e s a t cadences and i t s
)

phrases g r e a t l y prolonged by sequence, the main s e c t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e

and r e f l e c t i v e of the s i n g e r ' s c h a r a c t e r and occupation. The middle

s e c t i o n provides c o n t r a s t , not only i n keys (the r e l a t i v e and dominant

minors) but a l s o i n harmonic content by use of diminished ? t h s f o r

emphasis, and a l s o i n the w e l l timed use of r e s t s and pauses.

By c o n t r a s t , A l b i n a ' s 'Se t u a c c e n d e s s i , amore' has a l i g h t grace

which i s e f f e c t e d by a l i l t i n g 3/8 time and a c l e a r o r c h e s t r a l t e x t u r e .

Various c l i c h e s are present, n o t i c e a b l y the semiquaver c a d e n t i a l decora-

t i o n and the a n t i c i p a t o r y t r i p l e t . ( I )

S a l u s t i a ' s 'Tu m ' l n s u l t i ' , ( J ) , i s a good example of P e r g o l e s i ' s

" s p e z z a t a " (fragmented) melodies. We a r e reminded of the more famous

• S i Cerca, Se Dice' i n L'Olimpiade. C o l o u r i n g i s v i v i d , and rhythmic

v a r i a t i o n s by v o i c e and o r c h e s t r a are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the mood o f the

text. I n t h i s type of a r i a P e r g o l e s i produced a new and f o r c e f u l mode

of e x p r e s s i o n without d i s t o r t i n g the m u s i c a l language of h i s day.

A l b i n a ' s 'Gia che v i P i a c e 0 Dio' i n c l u d e s a number of mannerisms

of the period which a r e competently handled throughout a p u r e l y conven-

tional aria. Marziano's 'Parmi che i l C i e l o ' has changes o f mood

i n v o l v i n g double bars, changes of speed and time s i g n a t u r e s . Rising

tension i s produced by a c h r o m a t i c a l l y ascending bass l i n e which employs

a syncopated rhythm.

P e r g o l e s i ' s mannerisms abound i n C l a u d i o ' s ' I I Nocchier ne l a .

Tempesta', but there i s more v a r i e t y and o r i g i n a l i t y i n the Quartet.

I t commences i n dialogue form, according to the p r a c t i c e o f the day, ( K i )

but i t then develops a s a combined q u a r t e t , producing a most dramatic

e f f e c t , and ends i n a s o r r o w f u l lament by S a l u s t i a on 'Ah c h i s o f f e r s e

38.
ancore p i u barbaro dolor'. (Kii) The c u r t a i n f a l l s during the

f i n a l r e t u r n on the s t r i n g s of the melancholy i n t r o d u c t o r y motive.

There a r e l i g h t e r moments such as those when we hear of the

inconstancy of the love of Claudio and A l b i n a . A l b i n a ' s a r i a 'Voglio


1
d a l tuo d o l o r e ( L ) has f r e s h n e s s and d e l i c a c y ; the smoothness of the

opening phrase i s contrasted w i t h the s u b t l e use of r e s t s and s t a c c a t o

notes.

The manuscript i n the Conservatorio a t Naples contains three

separate a r i a s f o r Claudio's f o l l o w i n g number. The. most o r i g i n a l

m u s i c a l l y i s the second, which, although c o n t a i n i n g v a r i o u s s e t

mannerisms, i s endearing through i t s aptness of word s e t t i n g and

harmonic c o l o u r .

Marziano's i n t r e p i d c h a r a c t e r i s shown i n the a r i a s ' S i t i r a n n a ,

f r a dure r i t o r t e ' (M) and then i n 'Mostro crudele e orrendo' (N).

The use of e x t r a i n s t r u m e n t a l colour by the a d d i t i o n of horns, trumpets

and dboes produces a texture which was l e s s common i n t h a t day. In a

l i v e l y and most r e a l i s t i c way i t p o r t r a y s the l e a p i n g of the beast

confronting Marziano and the heat of the f i g h t i n the arena.

The most outstanding number i n the whole opera i s S a l u s t i a ' s

'Per Queste Amare Lacrime' ( 0 i ) which i s u n i v e r s a l l y admired above a l l

other a r i a s i n the work f o r i t s beauty and emotion of melody and the

n a t u r a l n e s s of troubled phrases i n a broken melodic l i n e . Caffarelli

r e f e r s to i t as being "Art a t i t s h i g h e s t , l i v e and t r u e " . Radiciotti

s a i d t h a t never before was such sadness portrayed w i t h such t r u t h and

force as when S a l u s t i a pleads w i t h G i u l i a f o r her f a t h e r ' s l i f e "a

model of dramatic declamation". As f a r as i t s form i s concerned there

i s nothing new; i n i t s harmony and modulations P e r g o l e s i does not go

39.
beyond the works of V i n c i , Leo or Hasse. But there i s o r i g i n a l i t y

i n the absolute appropriateness of declamation, and c o n s i s t e n c y of

care, which r e s u l t i n the music c l e a r l y u n d e r l i n i n g the meaning of the

poetry. There i s more e x t e n s i v e use of l e a p s than i n previous a r i a s ;

the pause i s adopted, not to s u i t the whims of the s i n g e r s , but to f i t

the needs of the words. P e r g o l e s i a l s o shows o r i g i n a l i t y i n h i s way of

u n i t i n g the development of a m u s i c a l i d e a c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h an exact

rendering of the t e x t . A l l these together produce a most t e l l i n g e f f e c t

of e x p r e s s i o n . The 1 s t v i o l i n ' s passionate c a n t a b i l e theme was a

novelty of accompaniment i n h i s day. The repeated phrase f o r ' S i doni -

l a v i t a - a l g e n i t o r e ' has an e f f e c t of heightening the t e n s i o n l e a d -

i n g to S a l u s t i a ' s c r y of 'per p i e t a d e ' . (Oii) T h i s phrase i s used

again i n the f i r s t movement of the Stabat Mater on the words 'dolorosa'

and 'lacrimosa' to produce an i d e n t i c a l e f f e c t . Dramatic power a l s o

l i e s i n the b r e v i t y of the ending of t h i s s e c t i o n of the aria,. The

middle s e c t i o n makes wide use of chromaticisms f o r v e r b a l emphasis,

and concludes with a p r o t r a c t e d rendering of the f i n a l phrase. (Oiii)

ho.
J !_
^ —

1: . a,' 1
H= l
- id ^
4
H =fa
f

5= 4—i
4-

fW- Aro rcL^*>--^o So -lo ctx^v*- p e r


per la
la. C(?*<^.

4
r -'.

va-iv. ^ i - row.- s i — ^A.^O - [ 0 pri-vo <JL l-Ifc.


e co«-v —

"E7
4- i
•r-
P^3

Bi".
1 \

3 '
r- .
1
1 J L f :
' r i L I T ' t° i 1
^ r

3—U.

I \
HE
_U_
1 ) ' C L - <^o^ l a s o . - e t - t o . Qfo, s v / ^ - s i cor« «e

—- t — r — -
— u —
H ^ k|—- y 7 11—
— to

5 T 7
!

3
— 1—{
J^ •——. r r i M L - „r • „
— — « : 1 V& : — K - p t - k ^ —

So to- re. t H _
f• - t r r — i 1 \
\ — trH
^ - — I —P-z—r
J
— - - J — i x t |

Ei
i
•dtp

Spo-so

= K
FT
i—7
\/ V )? V V % ¥-

r r ^ — — I
-4

•8. l'ejt«"u.i JJeJstx^cciA.Sev.

\ r . fcj , • ^ n~
\-
F
A b — r ' S S , l l ^ . - _ L l \ «! / . ' 1
5
/Av' 1 r ; / < i.
i. 1 1 1 1 .' r, I I \ r 1
L\E y—y tU-sa—L c :—t—s|—fc^—i .
VTJ 1—I 1 ' «—7T~\—E?=I V 1—; / » J P=3 j——! j :

s—? ^-zrr—|—f—* ^ i <—'O ~^ \ 1


f—T \ , t 11 ' . r Lir If p.b.
.1-... fc*_A—L« ULJ i3 If 1*0

t o1 f ° C—i i -1 — 7 / — — CVX-cL^-
S 1> \^U*.
J 1lj-oa.ro
• • — i s—i
ft 1
"£>o-v;- <ja*^;.t -Or?

1 b ~ —^—. * T'-x < t ^\ „ 'fir 1


i r f• *i ' \ - ' j* • - »- • I
i i- j-jrfc 1
l l '-Li H~i 1
\ • 1
' t——i—t
la. b^l — — la — , ^ f e r — -

\ " * 1
* T ^ . < ^ 1
\ i i 1 i . r 1 I '» — • 1
1 1 - 1 1 f i i i v y '. 1/ 1 1 1 ,' 1
1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 \ / ' I I 11 1
1
V i "T " T i T ••

I \ \ ^ . i i i i i i L
\, \ \ : , i - . \/ i i i ' i ^
» I 1 1 1 1 1 / ' 1 1 1 1 1

, i i i i JZT
-U—C— .s *> \ \ 1 1
I I i i
r 1
• I \ \ TJ.
1 ' ' r
lor d 4 plc^c^^o £vW*4--k> *~ ^<^*- erase -e. TOVV^A.

V . o K. K 1 \ ' — • i 1
\ ' - \ r \- \ L
h i N I ; 1 ^ i <- 1/ 1 i : 1 / / •". 1 i i V* ^ !
^ ^ ^ ! 1 1
L I 1/ 1 1 1 ~i 1• ' 1 1 / 1
W) 6 i/ - v i r ^ i i " - i

1I /i y . k r> > ; 1/ i i > i v ^ N. r -> . i : L i ^ II r

(V c
^ \, I ) ^ y ) ) : ^ r ^ -T V ? Ki Y J j ;^=ff=
1
HH =

J
/ < . * —.—.—,—_— _ — 1
I
i
A—* 1> v
±U
v \< \, * -
1 J/L
• « J ' <—f—?—i——f
1 Y-—Y-— — 1 i
r
!i
r
\i
?

\<r o~ -d l - Yo - r-e.
;„ C M
•f iV
A

4& 1

1i i y_—\j_
/ i/
]

-e&* =

j i f—r-
T* 1
• ? •*» i - ., i - , . 1
V. 1 |,
r ^
| i
'
>•
—*
0 3>c- o fv.o<v poSSo D T>v:-o

i i i ^

— ' f ; r ; <n ^ — > \, y i i \1 i


i i/' )/ Il I i I n
i i v I 1
i |
t"r«.-cU - to— r-a- bv»e.l-&.r\.-i il t r<k - c U -to— r-8-

/- - r i
r r r , . V I I y i I i
\ \ \ ( 1
V Y i l l i \ ^ J ,1
» \ 1
\ f i

v/u> C o - - r-cx. ok. C*x-ro<-

"™
\
> ^
y f f _ i. k \ —

Po.f - l e v p i ' ^ per^tlt.

ft.

1 h-
1 -ft /- I *. 1 ^ /- <- ^- 14) 1

>—V i
"tfe
I \ - Jl
1 1 5 A
i \ — < • — ^ — — • ' •"' *
<Vs
I4) 1l I • > ! 1
1 .11 ; . • 1 I1
1
1 '1 11 Jr-=l 1

^1 — I f . —

1 1^ I1^*
1 \ 1
r\ ^ 1> r.
\ ( ,1\ . 11 1 J 11 * I
u ' 1»
—^-—1-4 - 1
u 1
— ^ — ' - — ^ — — —
/• V

' 1
1
—»< V

bar -bcvr-O CJLQI - or pv.^ Wr - ro do — lof


HP •4 —r i l
TT "<- rr
1 IE
Vo -<\Uo dLcJL Vu^o iLol- of - ) &oS tv^o do-lo-rA.

I /
1 Y
—- - i — i/

£«,r*-vo ceyjj<^ o.l~U> W - b c - res. Sortc- l \ r<x

SI I I

T -
IP Sl i±±=t 32
3: -LL

N
i ^ \ \ <•
hst^fe—7 H — I 1
— i
1
7
i ^
T7
'
1
y 1
i /
- f — / H s€ Af. Oe —
1

-4 f \, \, 1 1 ! j 1
— i 1 r
» — I
i
1 1 [1
Kostro cr^-die.-(<--«-or-ren.cA.o l clvCo ^.ero «- Pcrt«_ .

I par yeste.*^-*- Iccrc^ f^-Ue 4 el <W -


^ / . .
r--i i i { U r u . I i—i ii
i ( r- i ^ i. ' v: 1- - I 1 1
f v y |i
- j i i / i / 1 ii
V." ' 1/ 1/ 1, I » ' i
V
o r - e, — l.-e <M e_ .
da\ — or —

0
/i u

5 X i/
i i
^ '
T —
OC^ rv-C- Lex. r^or-tr-e. ;
06.

tefc
f \ o f - he
0»i

/I
(<V
u
;
I
D
L
" ~>
I 1
^ w
1 ,
- . r- — ' 1
• i
N
r> '
i
i
i ' > ! 1
P

-
r
^
*—>
\ ~
i
I
i

i
i

)/ •/ 1
\J 1 v - ' 1/ !• i i — \
r

0 r*\.i.'o
^
il - t o r -

(—.
l i -
i 1 '. i
_i
i i i \
' 1' 1/ . i
r i
\_ U -
LO FRfiTE •NNAMORATO

T h i s work, a three a c t opera buffa, with l i b r e t t o by P e r g o l e s i ' s

most s u c c e s s f u l c o l l a b o r a t o r , F r e d e r i c o , i s i n many ways removed

from h i s opere s e r i e . I n i t he adopts a g r e a t e r freedom of s t y l e ,

form and musical language.

A s u c c e s s f u l performance would haye been almost automatically

guaranteed merely through the choice of s u b j e c t . The s e t t i n g of the

opera i s Naples, and the l o c a l d i a l e c t i s employed. Character drawing,

as we u s u a l l y f i n d i n P e r g o l e s i ' s works, i s c l e a r and particularly

s u i t e d to the p l o t . The s t o r y i s that of an adopted foundling who,

a f t e r turning out to be the l o n g - l o s t brother of the two sisters

enamoured of him, becomes the bridegroom of h i s formerly supposed

sister. I n h i s buffo works P e r g o l e s i always portrayed the c h a r a c t e r s

of s e r v a n t s p a r t i c u l a r y w e l l ; i n t h i s work there are two extremely l i f e -

l i k e s e r v a n t s i n V a n e l l a and C a r d e l l a . They are p e r s o n a l i t i e s drawn

from r e a l i t y ( w i t h perhaps a touch of the commedia d e l l * a r t e ) and are

given some of P e r g o l e s i ' s most bouyant, vigorous and robust music.

The bourgeois comedy of the work i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to

P e r g o l e s i ' s m e r c u r i a l s t y l e , but h i s slow and sentimental a r i a s are

e q u a l l y a t home here, and c e r t a i n l y more appropriate to contemporary

Naples than to the c l a s s i c a l e r a of the a n c i e n t Greeks and Romans.

A p r e l i m i n a r y glance a t the score r e v e a l s that i n t h i s case

P e r g o l e s i , not without s u c c e s s , i s prepared to abandon many conventions

of a r i a i n order to be more r e a l i s t i c . F i r s t l y , whereas Adriano i n

S i r i a has only three numbers not c l a s s i f i e d as a r i a s , I I P r i g i o n i e r

Superbo f i v e , and S a l u s t i a and L'01impi de s i x each, I I F r a t e


a

1
Nnamorato has twelve. Apart from the instrumental items there are
two canzonas, three duets, a t r i o and a q u i n t e t . A number o f the a r i a s

are conventional i n t h e i r form, but most have the f r e s h n e s s and

exuberance of the youthful composer; p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n this

r e s p e c t are those i n compound time.

The o r c h e s t r a l "Introduzione" i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate t o the

mood o f the opera, There are the customary three s h o r t movements, the

outer ones b u s t l e w i t h energy, but the middle ( l e a v i n g D major i n

favour o f G minor) i s tender and p l a i n t i v e .

V a n e l l a and C a r d e l l a ' s duet 'Passa Nino da qua dentro', ( A ) ,

p o s s i b l y was borrowed from a folksong; i t c e r t a i n l y i s Neapolitan i n

s t y l e w i t h i t s gentle compound rhythm and minor mode. A mood i s c r e a t e d

which i s then r e t a i n e d for the work.

Minuet time i s s p e c i f i e d f o r Don P i e t r o ' s Canzona, and dance

steps a r e i n d i c a t e d i n the s c o r e . Contrast o f key colour i s produced

i n a t y p i c a l l y Pergolesian manner by use o f the t o n i c minor.


1
The t r i p l e measure i s r e t a i n e d for C a r d e l l a ' s 'Non me vedete v o i ?

which i s punctuated by short repeated phrases. Greater freedom of form

i s evident: the second statement of the words has a completely f r e s h

musical rendering, and the passage we would c a l l the c o n t r a s t i n g

s e c t i o n resumes the o r i g i n a l theme.

The conventional a r i a d i bravura i s parodied i n Don P i e t r o ' s

•Le D i r a che i l suo Vago', i n which the i n t e r r u p t i o n of phrases by a

number o f r e s t s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e . The middle s e c t i o n i s

i n t e r e s t i n g from a point o f view o f i t s keys; i t commences i n the

subdominant minor (G minor), thence p a s s i n g through C major and F major

i n quick s u c c e s s i o n and f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g G major j u s t before the

r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i n D major.

Mannerisms abound i n C a r l o ' s 'Avventurose spose', which i s a l s o

in 3/8. The c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n d e r i v e s much of i t s m a t e r i a l from the

48.
main section, but commences i n the subdominant and eventually reaches

the r e l a t i v e minor.
1
Nina's *Tu non Curi i d e t t i mei again contains a number o f

Pergolesi's mannerisms, e.g., two semiquavers before cadences, syncopated

f i g u r e s , and chromatic motives i n the bass, both ascending and descend^

ing. The second statement o f the words i s developed musically and

extended much f u r t h e r than we might expect from an a r i a i n opera b u f f a

of t h i s period. Once again the middle s e c t i o n i s derived from e a r l i e r "

sections o f the a r i a but shows contrast o f key by commencing i n the

r e l a t i v e minor and concluding i n the mediant minor.

(B) The short r e p e t i t i v e phrase characterises Nena's 'E Strano

i l mio'. Diminished 7ths are f r e q u e n t l y employed f o r harmonic e f f e c t ,

as i s the chord o f the f l a t t e n e d submediant o f both the tonic and

dominant keys. Tonic and dominant minor phrases are used t o produce

f u r t h e r contrast o f keys.

I n Marcaniello's f o l l o w i n g a r i a there i s a f u r t h e r example o f

Pergolesi d e r i v i n g the music o f h i s c o n t r a s t i n g section from the open-

ing material. Short r e p e t i t i v e phrases w i t h the appropriate use o f

r e s t s characterise the movement.

(C) T r i p l e measure returns f o r Lucrezia's 'Morta t u mi vuoi


1
vedere , which has a sad beauty o f expression. The main section moves

mainly between the tonic (E minor) and the r e l a t i v e major, but the

middle section adopts the subdominant.

The form o f Ascanio's a r i a has greater freedom. The main s e c t i o n

commences i n C minor and moves t o the r e l a t i v e major; the second s t a t e -

ment modulates f r e e l y , but the c o n t r a s t i n g section i s mainly i n the

dominant. The r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s abbreviated t o j u s t the second


statement, which, f o r the sake o f convenience, i s w r i t t e n out i n f u l l .

The musical features which comprise Vanella's a r i a can be found

i n various pages o f Pergolesi's comic works. Here, as elsewhere,

these f a s t r e p e t i t i v e phrases make ample use o f r e s t s f o r a d d i t i o n a l

emphasis. The second statement i s lengthened by the a d d i t i o n o f a

"meno mosso" s e c t i o n i n which the modulation t o the dominant takes place;

t h i s i s followed by a short section ( w i t h double bars on e i t h e r side)

i n the r e l a t i v e minor. The c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n - again i n the r e l a t i v e

minor - i s marked "presto". The r e c a p i t u l a t i o n also i s abbreviated and

consequently w r i t t e n out i n f u l l ; i n f a c t only the "meho mosso" s e c t i o n

of the second statement i s repeated.

The f i r s t act f i h a l e takes the form o f a duet between Don P i e t r o

and Marcaniello. The c l o s i n g s e c t i o n i s ) o f i n t e r e s t i n the way

Pergolesi weaves together the d i s j o i n t e d phrases o f the two voices t o

make a continuous e f f e c t (D). He f i n a l l y includes a s h o r t passage o f

true ensemble w i t h both characters singing d i f f e r e n t words.

The i n s t r u m e n t a l opening t o the second a c t , which i s a t r a n s c r i p t i o n

of Vanella's a r i a , continues the f e e l i n g o f musical u n i t y .

Lucrezia next sings '11 Tormento ch'hasto core', which m i l d l y

breaks a r i a t r a d i t i o n i n t h a t the f i r s t and second statements are fused

together w i t h o u t a break; the latter^markedly contrasted i n i t s p i t c h .

The c o n t r a s t i n g section again has i t s o r i g i n s i n the main s e c t i o n ,

although i t i s now i n the r e l a t i v e minor. Extensive use i s made o f

the c a d e n t i a l decoration o f the supertonic w i t h a semiquaver f l o u r i s h -

a mannerism Pergolesi used f r e q u e n t l y throughout h i s comic works. (E)

50.
1
Once more short r e p e t i t i v e phrases are employed i n C a r d e l l a s

a r i a 'Vedi cert'uomini senza g i u d i z i o ' ; these give a s u b t l e balance

and s u f f i c i e n t verbal emphasis t o the movement despite i t s conventional

form.

Nina's ' T i saccio d a l mio p e t t o ' i s an exuberant number w i t h a

clear t e x t u r e ; i t i s constructed almost e n t i r e l y o f Pergolesi's most

regular f e a t u r e s . (F) Each entry o f the opening f i g u r e i s i m i t a t e d

by the bass i n the f o l l o w i n g bar. The f o l l o w i n g a r i a by Marcaniello

i s i n C minor; i t has p a r t i c u l a r l y expressive cadences a t which chro-

matic i n f l e c t i o n s are introduced.

Vanella's canzona provides a welcome contrast t o the s e r i e s o f

a r i a s , and e s p e c i a l l y by i t s v a r i e t y w i t h i n i t s e l f . The s i m i l a r i t y

i n s t y l e o f the f i r s t s e c t i o n t o P e d r i l l o ' s Serenade i n I I Seraglio

cannot be overlooked, e s p e c i a l l y i n the use o f Neapolitan 6ths. (G)

Contrast and i n t e n s i t y are provided i n the 'Allegro', and developed

f u r t h e r i n the f r e s h statement a t 'Presto', through the rapid r e p e t i -

t i o n and a l t e r n a t i o n o f notes. A b r i e f r e t u r n o f the o r i g i n a l S i c i l i a n o

provides a f i t t i n g and e f f e c t i v e conclusion t o t h i s number.

The t e x t o f Nena's f o l l o w i n g a r i a has undergone some change since

the o r i g i n a l performance, b u t the music remains unaltered. The main

section w i t h i t s bold arpeggio phrase and f a s t running passages has a

f i t t i n g c o n t r a s t i n the middle s e c t i o n : common time gives way t o 3/8,

•allegro b r i l l a n t e ' i s replaced by 'Larghetto', and s i g h i n g phrases

i n the tonic minor are employed. P a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n the way o f

word p a i n t i n g i s the treatment o f the f i n a l phrase w i t h a f l o u r i s h

which d e l i b e r a t e l y prolongs ' i l p i u o s t i n a t a ' .

51.
Ascanio's 'Si v o r r e i parlare' shows l i t t l e adventure e i t h e r i n

form or content, but has Pergolesi's customary brightness and employs

a number of h i s mannerisms. 'Si s t o r d i s c e ' , although i n a comic s i t u a -

t i o n , i s a most expressive and gentle number. A f t e r the o r c h e s t r a l

i n t r o d u c t i o n the voice commences w i t h an "ad l i b i t u m " phrase before

the commencement o f the theme proper. This s t y l e o f exclamation seems

to have o r i g i n a t e d around the year 1700 and was a popular feature o f a

number o f a r i a s i n Pergolesi's day. The a r i a continues w i t h extensive

use of ornament, but s t i l l remains subdued and expressive.

Although Professor E. J. Dent never held Pergolesi i n high esteem

he acknowledged t h a t the t e r z e t t o was "a masterpiece o f form" and

forshadowed sonata f o r m . ^ ^ The movement proceeds w i t h neat f r a g -

mentary development, t r a n s p o s i t i o n between vocal p a r t s , and i s somewhat

recapitulatory. Ensemble work i s developed, though never lengthy, and

movement i n t h i r d s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y favoured. Nena and Nina are

contrasted against Ascanio i n an ensemble passage i n which the women's

i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s are punctuated by i n t e r j e c t i o n s from Ascanio. (H)

Unity o f s t y l e i s achieved i n Carlo's 'Al grande onore saro

innalzato' by a p e r s i s t e n t syncopated v i o l i n f i g u r e . The use of r e s t s

adds to the expressiveness of the words, but the form breaks no new

ground. The key o f the main s e c t i o n i s C minor, but the c o n t r a s t i n g

section f o l l o w s a r a t h e r uncommon p r a c t i c e i n adopting the dominant.

Characterisation i s p a r t i c u l a r l y strong i n the q u i n t e t . Abusive

terms are used, stated s i n g l y a t f i r s t , but as the movement develops

they are joined together i n an ensemble rendering. ( I ) Throughout the

movement Vanella and Cardella thoroughly enjoy the s i t u a t i o n ; t h e i r

( i ) 'Ensembles and Finales i n Eighteenth Century I t a l i a n Opera',


(S.I.M.G. X I & X I I , 1910). Further reference w i l l be made t o
t h i s movement when considering the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the T r i o Sonatas.

52.
p a r t s , scored i n 3rds, are l i v e l y and robust.
1
The f i n a l act commences w i t h an o r c h e s t r a l v e r s i o n of V a n e l l a s

Canzona. The a r i a 'Al grande onore saro innalzato' shows Pergolesi's

t y p i c a l slow-moving harmonies, catchy syncopation and other rhythmic

and melodic elements which combinedmagically t o produce the type o f

a r i a f o r which he i s renowned. The movement i s conventional i n form,

but the middle s e c t i o n i s i n the subdominant r a t h e r than the more

common r e l a t i v e minor.
1
Nina's 'Suo caro e dolce amore adapts the most widely used a r i a

pattern. I t s f i r s t statement modulates to the dominant, but the second,

instead of repeating the opening theme, develops a small f i g u r e ,

commencing i n the subdominant and modulating f r e e l y . The c o n t r a s t i n g

section resumes the customary plan.

The f l u t e augments the orchestra f o r Nena's *Va solcando i l mar

d'amore', and again Pergolesi adopts some freedom i n form. The main

section employs c o l o r a t u r a extensively, chromatic and syncopated

f i g u r e s , and o r c h e s t r a l echoing o f the vocal l i n e . The c o n t r a s t i n g


1
section deserts common time i n favour o f 3/8 a t 'Prestissimo , and

adopts the tonic minor. I t s melodic l i n e has l i t t l e i n the way of

embellishments, thereby producing an e f f e c t i v e contrast both i n s t y l e

and mood. No vocal r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d , instead the orchestra

plays a b r i e f r i t o r n e l l o of the opening.

A r e c i t a t i v o stromentato sung by Ascanio f o l l o w s : i t i s a series

of d i s j o i n t e d , a g i t a t e d exclamations w i t h o r c h e s t r a l i n t e r p o l a t i o n s

between each statement. The f e e l i n g of restlessness i s increased by

a f l u i d i t y of key; the modulations pass r a p i d l y through E f l a t major,

B f l a t major, C minor, G minor and D major. Use of r e s t s f o r verbal

53-
accentuation, syncopated accompaniment and prominent arpeggio

diminished 7ths add to the u n c e r t a i n t y and a g i t a t i o n . But the moment

of greatest expressiveness comes a f t e r the fermata: there i s a sudden

change of key colour, E f l a t major i s established, and a smooth,

sustained vocal l i n e goes over a descending bass which leaps i n 3rds

and ends w i t h a fast-moving cadence. (J)

Lucrezia's a r i a , which i s without o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n , has

the simple charm customary i n Pergolesi's 3/8 time movements.

Sequential development of the opening phrase w i t h a tonic pedal plays

a large p a r t i n i t s b u i l d up. (K) A f t e r the pause a more sustained

vocal l i n e w i t h an o f f b e a t bass accompaniment appears. This s l i g h t

content provides the e n t i r e m a t e r i a l f o r the continuation of the a r i a ,

the second statement o f which i s mainly i n the dominant. The f i n a l

s e c t i o n , which has f r e s h words but r e t a i n s the musical m a t e r i a l , i s i n

the subdominant. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the

f i r s t section.

Perhaps throughout Pergolesi's works Ascanio's 'Padre mio sono


1
legato i s u n r i v a l l e d f o r s i n c e r i t y and depth o f emotion. (L)

I t i s i n F minor, a key a p p r o p r i a t e l y chosen t o r e f l e c t the sentiment.

A f t e r the f i r s t statement, which proceeds t o the r e l a t i v e major,

diminished 7ths are used f o r harmonic emphasis, then a descending

chromatic bass i n minims adds to the f e e l i n g o f despair, and the semi-

quaver f i g u r e which i s passed between the v i o l i n s provides c o n t i n u i t y

and contrast t o the fragmented vocal l i n e . Of the composer's manner-

isms, t h a t of approaching the tonic or dominant v i a changing notes, one

semitone e i t h e r side of the note o f r e s o l u t i o n , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y

prominent. The force of 'sola' and 'romper* i s increased by fragmenta-

t i o n o f the vocal l i n e which i s also echoed by the s t r i n g s . The second

5^
statement commences i n the r e l a t i v e major w i t h a fresh musical idea,
1
but on 'che l a morte ( L i i ) the o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l r e t u r n s . The

c o n t r a s t i n g section also employs t h i s second phrase widely and makes

considerable use o f the dominant minor.

Vanella's a r i a i s a l i g h t h e a r t e d number, simple i n construction

and w i t h a clear t e x t u r e ; s c a l i c movement i s used extensively.

Cardella's 'Perehe mi s t r i l l a t e ' i s equally l i v e l y and b u i l t o f

extremely short phrases w i t h a clear harmonic t e x t u r e . Again s t r u c t u r e

i s simple i n 'Non c'e conguaglio', which i s a pleasant movement, b u t

l a c k i n g i n depth.

Vanella and Don P i e t r o have a s p a r k l i n g duet. Much o f the exuber-

ance i s created through r a p i d l y repeated phrases over a simple chord

structure. The ensemble passages move i n lOths w i t h the characters

singing d i f f e r e n t words from each other. The most e n t e r t a i n i n g passage

of the duet i s t h a t i n which the singers i n t e r r u p t each other's

appellations as abuse i s hurled madly around. (M) This i s Pergolesi

a t h i s happiest and w i t t i e s t .

The f i n a l a r i a by Don P i e t r o i s non-recapitulatory and generally

free i n form: both f i r s t and second statements end i n the dominant.

The c o n t r a s t i n g section commences w i t h a f l o u r i s h i n the accompaniment

which i s t h e r e a f t e r reduced t o a mere o u t l i n e o f the vocal p a r t .

The f i n a l e i s a j o y f u l movement i n which a l l characters take p a r t .

Although i t owes i t s o r i g i n t o the convention o f opera s e r i a concluding

w i t h a small chorus, i t r i s e s higher through i t s ensemble singing and

clear c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n , as Nena, Nina and Carlo are grouped together

i n contrast t o the others. Movements o f t h i s nature paved the way f o r

the large-scale concerted f i n a l e s o f Mozart and Rossini.

55.
r v o u yy\ oro.l"o

J i " „ , „ N. S l M V. 1 V- v, i H p*.
1—P-^J—1—\—\
1 I I

1
— f — £ — t <• \
— ^ b —*

N W. k. ft. "C—1 ^ \ .

"j -' p .' -' g ! •. v ' * •


12—
« « y } ^ — = £ 2 — \ - * - — ^
-
Lo $f>lr i - to - SO ^ c M - - t o -

- f l — h 1 " r 1 1 ! ( 1
A U" _ ^ A o P f ^ . 1 ;
I _ 1
o r i 1i 1 ' -* i
i I ^ l
^ E
£ uo.^ - o vt ^ — o rxa^ - t i - r-e.

3 c/
in i ? I .»
2EZ
^3 r
- <Vc - tc

Co <"-«- v^v. „ qra. _ t 0 /

I I . *•
©T7-» y
I I
IX •/ | -
1 l1- 1l ^ - [ — t r' 1
; * : —s£ 1—Y- ¥•—y-—* — v - — i — k i - 1
ll do — lo -

CTT:—Ft r — 14 H^-- b - f — * - f — i — 7 — i —
/ *
1
— ir~j l I . I I K -^H H — < — !
i
l\k coK ~ pa. AW
Co I — p&. ^
EL
1
I / f .r-r-r-^
1 I 1 v 1 N- r I \ \y 1 1—\—S— l^te »^ V. If
7i—C—J w T<= 1 1 i \~7~i — 1 7 i—1—i— 1

^ 1 •"
11

F
r V - i 1


— R —
^-TJ
H
\

1— -
— i — i
A
? — —1
f —
\. 1 z.
1^ -\y—y •> i
>v . .Ti... j —i c * — 1 —
—t. k- Y-
J ' pet-to ^_
T i

AIJI n 1 i r i \ 1 1
—o] > ti 1
<i. ^ — 1 1 1

— / H- - L \ S= 1 J d I . J
1 1
— » «


— — — n = ~ ^ k fcr-i 1 .
F—t ; H -
I 'J ! fe= ; f
1/ 1
v: 1 ^ _ )c — a—
- ro

<• - s- y
i i I I
1
\ 1 1 1 »« i
\ ( ' J
_ J - ^ l
\
i
I
ii
i

r

'

i—^
>

. -ft- i'

x <- . 1
i — • t 1
^ i—^ » -H: - • — f J *->
—1 77—i, v
i r —p— J —|
^ f ^ ' s j ^

N'o
_LL
"77" 3z: 11
-LL
-Li-
d-iS - S«- lo- V JZ.r - i — te

Mk

I 1
[ — } — i — ^ r^l — H — — 1 ^ l 1 1
! s 9—
U

us^ » 1 i, 1 ^ , — J K i i • — H
J
1i a
I =—up— -^-.— L u

s-7
kr
I . V s r 1 i> 1 .' v, r i
A rL \ j "\ iI iI ^— »\ il il il il il il il it i'
3
—W
1

' *• Y- \/ V Y\
l
K
^—\
' I I

^ ' r r \
c r
1 1
/ L. I ^ IV 1 1 ^ . 1 —. 1 1 1 1 1 E 1 1 1
—A—b \ L- i c-J. -c £i_j ,r ! 1 k_l—<' > J ^ / < — J —

(fo " - i ' f 1 1 1 1 I > » • —- - } *• " J


p '
1
— T — " " — J

J Q ^ U L G s t ^ e . r ru-rlf.1 - fc.
a 1
fr±
1

Jtf —tt—
X±f"
j i r i
S T

» i \ 5

0 3 X - o

j i
IT

5
1^,

VN.O

J
/I i
1 \ i i . i . i I i
1 , l . i . i i i
i I I I I it i l r- i i d

fa
)
L
o —iL
1 1
1
1
A— 1 / • » i
i l l ' !> "
1
r x
1

-
• -' J r ' ' 1
» \f i 1 y^-U
1
1
1 1
1 \ \
L J —— J - J — u _
'
- to JL L - r-«. A.O v\. do. p<x-c-*- S«^.-to Avl — P-£_

1 ~> . 1 * ^ 1 l" f^-. 1 v 11 1 1 i 1 . <• \ P" <- 1 K I 11


i i » i • l 1 J" - i | | i i - ^ ii- i 1 7 i i i - ^ i i J i i i i, i i . .ii
b > i 1 1 J J ' i b-> ji i > ) I* b J / 1 J / I I i J i i | i i f
i i / -ii
^ -r i -C.^ 'il 1 * ' i /• * i " J i -> / »j
v*., • i>- K i^
/\ it ^ -l v '! /"
/ i 1
i - ,i ' i V v
V
J

i »• .
n tt — _ -» , ^
i \ i ^ i
U 1/
d
viov., via ^C-

i f ; i
^ \ , I / I /
1 & | i/' / '

0 oLe. sp^-

(two.) ± P £ -i- -t—


(
L' !
V I, ^ I r
i <k IT \ 1
i 1
?CeuM5 ^ C O , A O , pCa-«vo
(

N
— • ->» .i i/- \>
^ S.
' 1 , 1/
K r
A

/-
] i . 1 < ^
i - f 7 1• i x i , i i , i y
ir / / i/ K v r
V
^ - u !
Cfts-So.-lre f ces-ia— te.

j» -T- -f~ -
( 1 1 1 1 1 i \ : ttr i i :
1 , 1 / 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ ,0 *4 \/ \s \, n
\ , \S 1/ 1 ,
/ » 7
I 7 * ' K y ' / y
i

-r , ,
i
^ \/ 1/ \/ 1 s- ~J ! —
• 7 ' ' V \/ \ , \ I
1

1 1 . \ A 1 is. S. 1 1 !
1 1 1 1 1 IV. 1 ~ 1 ^ J> 1 p 1 1 ^ i
; * I *,» i i i i i - J J • ' i « [
#
J ' i ^ » » - L
-
t X~9—i — J ' i ' — I — I ^

I h D
\i i r /-•>, V 1 1
A u . V II- r— k r- - i . - V -v . r 1 ~ I 1
frtsu ii - \- \ i \ 1 / 1 , 1
/ i l l : t o i
\U i> / \ i 1 1
T \ » e » V ' i • i. •
J
So - u
1 y 1 / 1 II
1'
1

1
' ,
1/1
1
1
*-
l /
r
\
1
'
-N
(
1
1
.
1
/
1
|
1*- 1
CI
II
II
11

r o ^ p <2.r
s o La ?°

| F ^ i>firfir
|f
1 1 ) i, * ) )
:
& < ^ p
t
'J ^ b^ - ' i?
Y-

CJI * jt -- J> r, • * i— fx I „ i, « _^ ' r (


—-3 V/ . If +
7 7 r V v i—"7—*1—< y v I ^ —
- 3 — —

i l
4-
±± i
-l- L

_!_
J c
-VI I ' 3 Z

1
(Vk b<.t^- vio- . ; via- <*JZ&PLWX. via. V^CL^A^CV.
, r v ^ ^ ft—k—p- is
/ r
b } \ ~> *~< ji i » i ) i 'V 1 f
— - J — ^ — 7 ^ ' ! —
_j J —
SCOTA.O V/OL ^<J. |-cbL v^fc^o -

i i r - S M i
^
^ P< .. ) ; r
- i . i _
' 1 •D^ ' \
i r. \ V i
t V. 1

V;IOL / vta.
LA SERVA PADRONA

La Serva Padrona has l i v e d f a r beyond i t s i n s i g n i f i c a n t o r i g i n

as a two-part intermezzo sung between acts of I I P r i g i o n i e r Superbo.

I t s o r i g i n a l performance was on 28th August, 1733i the occasion o f the

birthday of E l i z a b e t h C r i s t i n a , the Empress o f A u s t r i a . There i s some

doubt about the work's l i b r e t t i s t ; f r e q u e n t l y N e l l i has been c r e d i t e d

w i t h authorship, but i t i s almost c e r t a i n l y the work o f Gennaro Antonio

FredericOjwho had collaborated w i t h Pergolesi e a r l i e r f o r Lo Frate

'Nnamorato. The p l o t i s based on Bernado Saddumene's e a r l i e r Neapolitan

d i a l e c t comedy, "Fantesca".

The grandiose world of opera s e r i a , w i t h i t s gods, kings and

m i l i t a r y heroes had i t s counterpart i n the world of r e a l i t y through

opera b u f f a , which was populated w i t h rogues, thieves and servants i n

back-street and tavern s e t t i n g s , where the people l i v e d , loved and

worked. This work i s a p e c u l i a r l y p e r f e c t example o f i t s type; i t has

timeless humanity, s p a r k l i n g musicaand economy of expression. I t is

but one of many intermezzi o f the p e r i o d , but i s the only one to have

had regular performance ever since i t s f i r s t production.

Patterns long associated w i t h opera s e r i a are employed, and indeed

c a r i c a t u r e d , e s p e c i a l l y r e c i t a t i v o secco, and da capo a r i a s . Ensembles

i n the form o f duets b r i n g the main characters together and forshadow

the h i g h l y developed ensembles to be found p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f i n a l e s o f

works by such l a t e r masters as Mozart and Rossini.

That Pergolesi manages to make h i s characters l i v e i n the music i s ,

perhaps, the most d i f f i c u l t yet s a t i s f y i n g a t t r i b u t e o f a good comic

opera.

61.
La Serva Padrona has a f l i m s y p l o t , but there are tender sections and

the whole work i s brought t o l i f e by the m a t u r i t y o f i t s musical

realisation. The musical s t y l e has been described as "prevailingly

major, r a p i d i n movement, having much r e p e t i t i o n o f s h o r t motives,

a d i s j u n c t melodic l i n e , comic e f f e c t s , wide skips and an i n f e c t i o u s

gaiety . . . . and vigour o f utterance, o f f e r i n g much t o the tone

and gesture o f the a c t o r " . ^ The orchestra o f s t r i n g s and h a r p s i -

chord i s s u i t a b l y simple and unobtrusive f o r the s t y l e o f the work.

Uberto, the master, b u l l i e d by the young serving maid whom he

r e a l l y loves, i s shown i n complete contrast t o her musically. His

phrases are s h o r t and f r e q u e n t l y t e n t a t i v e , whereas those o f Serpina

are smoother, flow more e a s i l y and are i n d i c a t i v e o f a confident

character who knows f u l l w e l l what she wants and how t o achieve i t .

At f i r s t we meet Uberto expressing h i s disgust a t being kept

waiting. With each phrase he becomes more i r a t e . The musical i n t e n s i t y

i s heightened by r i s i n g sequence, ( A i ) and ( A i i ) , and leaps o f a

7th on the dominant chord express h i s anger. As w i t h Mozart l a t e r ,

Pergolesi uses the repeated phrase extensively, c o n t r a s t s octaves w i t h

harmony i n h i s accompaniment and shows a l i k i n g f o r chromatic decora-

t i o n a t cadences. (B)

Serpina i s introduced w i t h an immediate outburst a.t the s i l e n t

manservant Vespone, much t o the d e l i g h t o f her master who comments

w i t h 'brava' and 'bravissima' a t successive r i s i n g p i t c h e s . As Serpina

turns upon Uberto and the audience i s f i r s t made aware who r e a l l y r u l e s

the household Pergolesi matches the sharpening o f her tongue w i t h a

r i s i n g chromatic bass l i n e .

( i ) A Short H i s t o r y o f Opera - Donald J. Grout.

62.
Conversation i s i n the r a c i n g b u f f o s t y l e , a l i g h t running

r e c i t a t i v e which i s said to have been derived from the r a p i d speech o f

the southern I t a l i a n s . Rhythm i s measured out p r e c i s e l y , i n v a r i a b l y

i n simple quadruple time, and c e r t a i n c l i c h e s o f r e c i t a t i v e i n opera


1
s e r i a are the object of P e r g o l e s i s humour. (Ci&Cii)

He makes subtle use o f key: a f t e r b i t i n g remarks by Serpina who

refuses to serve Uberto w i t h h i s chocolate, the music ( h i t h e r t o i n

D major) leads v i a an i n t e r r u p t e d cadence t o the f l a t t e n e d sub-

mediant. There i s now a complete change of mood as Uberto turns to

Vespone and s a r c a s t i c a l l y i n v i t e s him t o wish him h e a l t h as he must

now consider t h a t he has "had h i s chocolate".

His a r i a 'Sempre i n c o n t r a s t i ' ( P i & D i i ) shows h i s bewilder-

ment and annoyance by the short staccato phrases which u s u a l l y commence

on the weak beat and are echoed by the orchestra. His u n c e r t a i n t y i s

f u r t h e r depicted by the v a r i e t y of leaps w i t h i n the vocal p a r t and

d i f f e r i n g versions of the same phrase i n d i f f e r e n t keys. Pergolesi

shows a fondness f o r a sustained high dominant or tonic over a repeated

phrase on the dominant or tonic chords (a feature employed by a number

of h i s successors); a t one such p o i n t he requires the bass t o make

extensive use o f the upper F.

Cadences i n the accompaniment have a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c formula and

give the mediant o f the f i n a l chord an unaccustomed prominence. This

feature appears i n other scores by P e r g o l e s i , but by no means w i t h the

same r e g u l a r i t y as i n t h i s work. (E) The middle s e c t i o n o f t h i s a r i a

has a number o f r a p i d modulations and, as a manner o f c o n t r a s t , p a r t s

of the vocal l i n e are doubled i n octaves by the orchestra.

65-
The d i f f e r e n c e s o f opinion o f the two c e n t r a l characters continue

to be expressed i n the r a p i d parlando style^which i s so s u i t a b l e f o r

quick r e t o r t s and heated arguments. The sarcasm o f Uberto's words i s

epitomised i n a tender l i t t l e phrase u s u a l l y associated w i t h a more

serious context. (F)

Serpina r e a l l y gains the upper hand i n her a r i a •Stizzoso, mio


1
stizzoso . (6) The da capo form again i s employed, but the middle

section^which i s o f r e l a t i v e l y small importance^remains mainly i n the

subdominant. This a r i a i s a f o r c e f u l contrast as i t i s i n the b r i g h t

key o f A major (as opposed t o the f l a t keys o f Uberto's previous items)

and i n a t r i p p i n g duple measure. The impertinent character addresses

her master as 'stizzoso' (hothead), and Uberto, who can do l i t t l e about

i t , i s disarmed by the overwhelming l i f e o f the movement.^Technically

Pergolesi achieves much o f i t s effectiveness through a simple chord

s t r u c t u r e , c l a r i t y o f o r c h e s t r a t i o n , verbal a g i l i t y and a wide vocal

range. Touches o f humour, such as Serpina hushing her master, and her

emphasising o f her own importance and a u t h o r i t y , (H), a l l have audience-

appeal. This l a t t e r e f f e c t i s produced by r e s t s c a r e f u l l y placed t o

a t t a i n the appropriate verbal weight. Again there i s neatness and

delicacy o f phrase a t the approach o f cadences, such as we f i n d l a t e r

i n a number o f movementaby Haydn. 1

The duet t o end the f i r s t intermezzo, 'Lo cognosco a q u e g l i

o c c h i e t t i ' , again sparkles. ( I t has a l i v e l y quadcuple measure i n

G major). Serpina introduces a theme bubbling w i t h humour, i n which

she pokes fun a t Uberto. ( I ) She sings t h a t although he says f i r m l y

"no" h i s t w i n k l i n g eye means "yes". "No" i s sung t h r i c e t o a crotchet

6k.
rhythm, and shows an outward appearance of resoluteness; but a f t e r a

decorative f i g u r e p o r t r a y i n g the t w i n k l i n g of the eye, the word "yes" appears

f i v e times i n quavers and w i t h a much greater f e e l i n g o f urgency. ( J )

Uberto's r e p l y comes i n the dominant. Here Pergolesi r e a l l y has h i s

tongue i n h i s cheek as he introduces a bravura f i g u r e , normally associa-

ted w i t h opera s e r i a . The t r a n s l a t e d phrase means, "you f l y too h i g h " ,

and the voice i s l i t e r a l l y required to f l y h i g h . (K) Uberto's "asides",

i n which he expresses h i s forbodings and f e a r s of being trapped by

Serpina, are e f f e c t e d by the orchestra and voice i n octaves. A solemn,,

eerie f e e l i n g i s produced by a steady chromatic r i s e as i f he treads w i t h

care; the phrase ends w i t h a downward run as though he were making a

quick escape from the very thought of being ensnared. (L)

The p a i r become more incensed and t h e i r musical phrases are

made to overlap as they i n t e r r u p t each other. Embellishments popular

i n h i s day are used by Pergolesi to colour expressive phrases sung by

Serpinaas she f l a u n t s her a t t r i b u t e s o f beauty, grace and s p i r i t i n an

e f f o r t t o win Uberto. (Mi, M i i and M i i i ) I n the midst o f t h i s

atmosphere of f r i v o l i t y a sincere depth o f f e e l i n g i s introduced as she

asks Uberto why he should not take her. Serpina f e e l s q u i t e confident

of success, but Uberto i s worried about the s i t u a t i o n and determined

not t o be caught. The duet concludes w i t h both p a r t i e s s i n g i n g d i f f e r -

ent words t o musical l i n e s a t e n t h a p a r t . Conclusions t o f i n a l e s i n

c e r t a i n of the Savoy Operas ( p a r t i c u l a r l y I o l a n t h e , The P i r a t e s of

Penzance and Patience) show traces of influence from Pergolesi's

example. I n these l a t e r works, however, the o p p o s i t i o n i s between

male and female choruses.

65.
I n the second intermezzo Vespone i s made t o dress (complete w i t h

f a l s e whiskers) i n the disguise o f Captain Tempest, Serpina's supposed

fiance. The maid describes him w i t h a f f e c t i n g d e t a i l s ; a t each new

f a c t the p i t c h i s raised and liberto*s e j a c u l a t i o n s o f surprise and

horror r i s e correspondingly higher. Again Pergolesi pokes fun a t the

c l i c h e s o f r e c i t a t i v e i n opera s e r i a on the words *o bruto nome'. (N)

( 0 ) Serpina's a r i a *A Serpina penserete' i s sung w i t h c r o c o d i l e

tears. I t commences w i t h a b e a u t i f u l l y f i g u r e d melody as she turns on

a pathetic v e i n and plays upon Uberto's emotions i n order to wheedle


1
him and win h i s over. I n p a r t i c u l a r the words 'poverina and 'cara'

are emphasised r h y t h m i c a l l y and harmonically i n much the same way as

i n the scores o f Gluck and Mozart. (P) At the end o f each verse

Serpina has a frolicsome "aside" i n which she g l e e f u l l y comments upon

her progress. From a p o i n t o f view o f speed, time signature, key and

mood, the progress throughout the sections o f t h i s a r i a i n v i t e s s c r u t i n y :

Larghetto fe/4 B f l a t , modulating t o F major

A l l e g r o 3/8 F major

Larghetto k/k F, modulating t o B f l a t major

A l l e g r o 3/8 B f l a t major

Larghetto h/k G minor

A l l e g r o 3/8 G minor

Recapitulation o f sections 1, 2 and 3.

The verses Serpina sings t o Uberto play i n c r e a s i n g l y upon h i s emotions.

The f i r s t modulates from tonic t o dominant, the second produces a

saddening e f f e c t by reversing the process, the t h i r d goes f u r t h e r

s t i l l - ( i n t o the r e l a t i v e minor) and makes f u l l use o f the i n t e r v a l s

66.
of the diminished and minor 7ths, and o f word p a i n t i n g on the minor

t h i r d o f the scale.

The ensuing r e c i t a t i v e commences w i t h Serpina i n t r o d u c i n g

the disguised Vespone. Uberto i s l e f t to s o l i l o q u i s e ; he genuinely

loves h i s maid but cannot f o r g e t her low b i r t h , and objects t o the way

she has t r i e d t o force h i s hand. This i s a r e c i t a t i v e hardly expected

i n opera b u f f a o f such an e a r l y period and must have influenced

Mozart's r e c i t a t i v e s e t t i n g i n Don Giovanni. As Uberto wrestles

w i t h himself whether t o marry her the r e c i t a t i v e takes on a stromentato

accompaniment. The s t r i n g s are more sympathetic and expressive o f h i s

f e e l i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the r a p i d s c a l i c passages representing h i s

shudders o f horror a t the thought o f Captain Tempest w i e l d i n g a cane

on poor Serpina. A new climax i s reached on the f i n a l phrase o f the

r e c i t a t i v e when, commencing on a high F, he sums up the s i t u a t i o n i n

the words 'Oh che confusione'.

This confusion i s shown w i t h greater i n t e n s i t y i n the f o l l o w i n g


1
a r i a , 'Son imbrogliato i o g i a , which i s made up f o r the most p a r t o f

short snappy repeated phrases and t y p i f i e s a man i n such a s t a t e o f

i n d e c i s i o n t h a t he i s incapable o f knowing what to say or do. " I s

i t love or i s i t p i t y ? " Again Pergolesi represents Uberto i n a f l a t

key (E f l a t major), and vocal a g i l i t y i s required over the range o f two

octaves. The o r c h e s t r a l texture maintains i t s l i g h t n e s s and transpar-

ency, using extensively i n the bass a f i g u r e : - E f l a t , G, A f l a t and

B flat. The mood changes and the supertonic minor i s used f o r the

solemn passage 'Uberto pensaate', (Q), as the singer warns himself t o

beware o f l o s i n g h i s freedom; t h i s phrase i s l a t e r repeated i n the tonic

key. The middle section, which i s i n C and G minors, provides an

e f f e c t i v e musical c o n t r a s t .

67.
At the r e s o l u t i o n o f the p l o t when Serpina has now f i r m l y

established h e r s e l f as mistress two a l t e r n a t i v e duets are i n use, the

e d i t i o n by R i c o r d i p r i n t i n g both. The f i r s t o f t h e s e ^ } i n D major and

s t y l e d "duetto", i s i n ternary form; i t i s a l i g h t h e a r t e d piece w i t h

bouyant rhythms and p l a y f u l staccato r e p e t i t i o n s . The accompaniment

also makes use o f e x c i t i n g decorative f i g u r e s which add t o the

c o n t i n u i t y and sparkle o f the movement. Serpina hears a t i n y b e l l t h a t

sets her heart t i n g l i n g ; as she sings o f t h i s the b e l l e f f e c t i s

repeated by the orchestra. Uberto's v e r s i o n gives scope f o r the

e f f e c t s o f h i s pounding heart, which again are i m i t a t e d by the orchestra.

Mozart made use o f the idea i n a s i m i l a r way i n the opening o f

The Marriage o f Figaro when Figaro and Susanna debate the convenience

of the p r o x i m i t y o f t h e i r new apartment t o the quarters o f the count

and countess, and the inconvenience o f being summoned a t awkward hours.

Pergolesi achieves unanimity o f f e e l i n g s by using the same music f o r

both characters instead o f c o n t r a s t i n g musical ideas as he had done

previously i n the work. The ensemble resumes movement i n lOths, but

now as the characters are o f a l i k e mind the same words are sung by both.

The other duet, 'Contento t u s e r a i ' , presumably was the o r i g i n a l ,

and i n f a c t i s s t y l e d as " F i n a l e " . Apart from the "asides" i n

•A Serpina penserete' t h i s i s the only number i n the intermezzo w i t h a

t r i p l e measure. The choice o f key (A major) and speed i n d i c a t i o n o f

"Allegro s p i r i t o s o " provide the e x t r a g a i e t y f o r an appropriate conclu-

sion t o the work. I n melodic s t y l e i t i s not u n l i k e the p a s t o r a l move-

ments o f many I t a l i a n composers i n the Baroque era, a s t y l e which Handel

( i ) 'Per t e ho i o n e l core' which appears also i n


Flaminio and ^a Contadina Astuta.

fo8
f r e q u e n t l y adopted from them, e.g. 'As when the dove" from Acis and

Galatea; but here Pergolesi gives l i f e t o the movement by d i s c a r d i n g

the popular rhythms o f 9/8 and 12/8 i n preference t o h i s more accustomed

3/8 measure. As w i t h the previous duet the ensemble p a r t s are sung

i n lOths f o r the most p a r t .

Altogether the music o f t h i s small work i s l i g h t f o o t e d , w i t t y

and s w i f t i n a c t i o n . The characters are portrayed as r e a l people w i t h

r e a l emotions.

Being performed between acts o f opera s e r i a such intermezzi as

t h i s could not f a i l t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o d e f i c i e n c i e s i n s t y l e and

construction o f the major work w i t h i t s s e t a r i a s and s t i f f r e c i t a t i v e s .

69.
Lev. Serves. Pad ro r\a
, _ „ « -f- -fr- -p-
m«i \ \ 1
* w \ . • -» - 1 1 1 1 i i i
°)' . H ^
/ 1) 0 1 1 i 1

M J
! 1
— J
It*
X. • i
/ ' K
; ; . — i —
1 . i i i \ i \
1
i <• i

1 i 1 1 ! 1 1 J
-P- -r- -P-
N IV ^ I I 1 1 > 1
r
'• ' 1 1
1 i 1 1
! ' s e-vr-
/ i ' ^ i i f *
£ : : 1 ! j


r <• r u — f H*-£—*>r! t °r P —H
1
-/-b—H—V-M—\ 1—M I-T—\—\—H — —\
die- t^oc — » —
ca
-, ^ ^ o r v •
1 l _ ^- — IV 11
Ol- 1 |/ 1. r I, I i l l
—/ £ fc« * V- " ft

r . \ 1 I . 1. 1/ 1 1 ' 1 , 1 . 1 1
<J) f 1 \S 1/ / if / 1/ 1/ 1/ 1 1 f-
' / 1 1

- L ^ / ^ \, — \ — i i '/ v i—f '4 /'/ v r f —


-h-^—J— — —^ 1 1 5
— \ ' \, 1 ^ 1
/—fcH—|

' : i—' ~ 1 'p j—' * K j f i


-7 {, v i f —t ^—\, v I rt — v \ — 1 !»k—
f j^—K—^—I i= 1 1 Y- ^ 1 —^4—' K
*• \ ' j •vVL

2>\\

rs, l l v- i k. I l i ^ . 1 1 1 I
( v
/1? 1 1 ^ , p1 j ' V 1
f } r • M i 1' y • I ^
o r < u e i D
^. Si»- c C AS
)f ^'jQ*- ^ j ^ ' ' ^ k>CcitC ^ C A , t r Sl
*
S7\

it
i
JE C C C
\
if X.1 V v v< y \'/ i;-=F=F V v -t
4-

it
I ft . r> k i ( , I
-L 4- 5 3C \ * 1 W j
I " ZO - So i*vi.o St Ca- Xo - 5 » / AO ,
Voi. £0- bo - — o - so 1
3 J C-,, I =a _u_
IL
1 v v V |Ffr=f

A -

I
A.O. Co - Si-

r U r 1
jz:
Lo CO- <VOSC0; lo C O - AX>£-CO CtJjuijU OCcKi&tK 6,
4*
7—
AO,

C * -
1—1 ' 1 1
i

St Si

1 1
Jt±L
0,^ 1/ -f-ir E
1- 1 ' f l 1
\ b r " fcj ^ ^
i i • i • • • - . ..
t^oppo, tfoppo/ troppo,hroppoi^. a l - f o vol y/o —

1 1 3 :

te.

33 3t±
I ,. r *

T4£ T:

71
lira
J4-

wHi- j i

r
i i

TTfr / a
- t o - So.
i o Sow ballcv
N
3
I

P
T
i
' • '• i
-7
i i \
7
r
a
/"V

251
±3
W - b to

1 I I I 1
1 ~" 1 1 1 1
1 1 ~ 1 CP ! 1
I 1 ° 1 1 1 1
— ice, - te.

Ill
I L PRIGIONIER SUPEHBO

Doubtless Pergolesi's second opera s e r i a has suffered u n j u s t l y

through being overshadowed by La Serva Padrona, f o r although weighed

down f o r the most p a r t by conventions o f form and s t y l e , i t has

passages of extreme beauty and inventiveness. The p l o t i s complex,

and much of the drama (by an unknown author) i s heavy and tedious.

C a f f a r e l l i , who states the opera was w e l l received, maintains the

heaviness of the a c t i o n has a tyrannic e f f e c t and t h a t i t i s only

Pergolesi's genius which overcomes i t . C e r t a i n l y there are i n s p i r e d

passages of melody which give the t e x t a c e r t a i n amount of l i f e and

vigour. Care i s shown towards o r c h e s t r a l colour, and characters are

c l e a r l y portrayed, despite c e r t a i n inconveniences caused by conven-

t i o n s of opera s e r i a . For the f i r s t , and perhaps only, occasion

Metalce was performed by a c o n t r a l t o i n man's c l o t h i n g , Micigda by a

soprano s i m i l a r l y a t t i r e d , and V i r i d a t e hy a "sopranista" ( c a s t r a t o ) .

The s i n f o n i a i s of the customary three movement p a t t e r n . The

outside movements are f r e s h and b r i g h t , and oboes and trumpets are

added a t the conclusion f o r e x t r a t o n a l colour and v a r i e t y .

The c u r t a i n r i s e s to a march and a two-part processional chorus

which sets the scene i n the r o y a l court o f Norway. The triumphal

c h a r i o t appears, drawn by doomed slaves taken i n b a t t l e . Sostrate's

hautiness i s portrayed i n the f i r s t a r i a by a strong, a g i t a t e d rhythm. (A)

The k i n g o f the prisoners shows profound despair a t the v i c t o r ' s

revenge, which i s the main aspect of the opera.

73-
C a f f a r e l l i asserts that Pergolesi a n t i c i p a t e s Gluck i n t h i s work

through h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t e x t and "the extent o f h i s

o r i g i n a l i t y i n the dramatic impulse o f each phrase".

The s i n i s t e r f i g u r e o f Metalce, the k i n g o f the Goths, i s brought

to l i f e i n the changeable moods o f the a r i a 'Che f i e r o m a r t i r e ' which

has a syncopated, unstable rhythm a t f i r s t , and then becomes f i r m e r

and bolder. Later, syncopation i s used t o i l l u s t r a t e the troubled

s t a t e o f h i s mind.

Rosmene's scena and a r i a have a p a t h e t i c beauty, p a i n t i n g a l l

the words suggesting sorrow by use o f f l a t t e n e d harmonies, diminished

7ths, or o r c h e s t r a l octaves. (B) Most modulations are a r r i v e d a t v i a

a chromatic ascent i n the bass, and the pause i s used f r e q u e n t l y . The

repeat o f the words does not produce a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , but the vocal

l i n e continues w i t h some development o f the opening m a t e r i a l .

(C) V i r i d a t e ' s a r i a which has no o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n , commences


;

most expressively and reaches i t s peak i n the phrase 'non mi d i r ch'io

parta, dimmi ch'io mora', which i s repeated w i t h great f e e l i n g i n the

tonic minor. I t s beauty l i e s i n the ornate 'galant' melody and the

simple harmonic s t r u c t u r e w i t h clear o r c h e s t r a l t e x t u r e . The middle

section i s accompanied by s t r i n g s i n repeated demisemiquavers, and

takes as i t s main key the most r e g u l a r l y employed r e l a t i v e minor.

I n the f o l l o w i n g scene Rosmene bursts f o r t h a t Metalce i n the

a r i a 'M'intendeste?'. As a lengthy i n t r o d u c t i o n would eat away the

dramatic e f f e c t Pergolesi commences w i t h a "Largo" vocal opening, ( D ) ,

using the pause t o b u i l d tension before the outburst o f the " A l l e g r o "

section. A second theme 'cosi l'amo' comes i n complete contrast and

i s e f f e c t i v e l y decorated by two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c semiquavers a t the phrase

ends.

7^.
1
Sarcastic word-painting on 'L'amo and 'bramo' provide colour, and

short, snappy phrases become more frequent as Rosmene loses her temper

and calm eloquence. P a r t i c u l a r dramatic emphasis i s l a i d upon the

words, 'audace' and 'indegno', and some sequential development takes

place. The middle s e c t i o n develops the rhythm i n the r e l a t i v e minor,

and employs both tonic and dominant pedals and more than an expected

number o f diminished 7ths.

I n Micisda's 'Un'ansia d i speranza' an accompanying f i g u r e appears

f i r s t on the v i o l a and i s then used e x t e n s i v e l y by a l l the s t r i n g s .

The melodic content has a freshness o f i t s own despite c e r t a i n

cliches.

E r i c l e a ' s a r i a i s i n the s t y l e galant and contains many o f the

popular devices o f the day. I n places the f i r s t v i o l i n has an

obbligato l i n e . Character i s given t o the melody by the bold arpeggio

opening, and some thematic development takes place. The repeated s h o r t

phrase i s employed, twice i d e n t i c a l l y , and then develops on the t h i r d


1
occasion. This p r a c t i c e i s found on many o f P e r g o l e s i s pages. The

concluding three bars on the v i o l i n s echo the musical phrase o f 'per


1
p i e t a difendete i l mio onor . (E) A w e l l t r i e d decorative semi-

quaver f i g u r e w i t h a prominent mediant on the f i n a l chord, closes the

aria.

Sostrate's a r i a a t the end o f the f i r s t act includes oboes and

trumpets, i s bold and sonorous and has dramatic c o n t r a s t . The f a t h e r ' s

love i s contrasted w i t h the king-prisoner's p r i d e , and h u m i l i t y i s

opposed t o hatred o f an adversary. A wide vocal range i s r e q u i r e d , and

the note A i s reached on f i v e occasions. The bass l i n e has a bold

s c a l i c tread, and there i s an abnormal amount o f tonic and dominant

harmonies.

75-
A number of rhythmic mannerisms appear i n Miciada's a r i a which

opens the second a c t . I t i s neat i n i t s modulations, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n

the second statement which shows an unusual degree of development by

employing the keys o f D minor, C major, D minor, G major (dominant),

C major (use of Neapolitan 6th) and C major i n r a p i d succession. A

version o f the theme i n the dominant on 'se i l tuo b e l labbro' i s

used again i n 'Quae moerebat* of the Stabat Mater.

E r i c l e a ' s a r i a i n compound duple time provides a r e f r e s h i n g change.

The main s e c t i o n has a c l e a r , l i g h t texture and simple chord s t r u c t u r e ,

which never s t r a y s f a r from the tonic or dominant keys. Much of the

development i s by sequence i n ^ ^ ^ ^ j a chromatic ascending bass. Oboes

and horns are used here f o r e x t r a colour.

Trumpets announced V i r i d a t e ' s a r i a d i bravura^which was w r i t t e n

i n the f i r s t place f o r a c a s t r a t o . Considerable vocal s k i l l i s r e q u i r e d ,

i n v o l v i n g f a s t runs, t r i l l s , leaps of major 7ths and quick changes o f

rhythm. (F) The o r c h e s t r a l parts c o n t a i n some syncopation and are

i m i t a t i v e , b r i g h t and c o l o u r f u l . The bass has a f i r m quaver tread,

and the t r e b l e instruments a passage of semiquaver arpeggios.

' I T n u c i d a t i a queste piante'^ sung, by Metalce^ bustles w i t h energy

and i s marked "Presto". As i t has no i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t r o d u c t i o n the

entry of the voice makes greater impact, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t continues

uninterrupted f o r 32 bars.

Sostrate's 'Vado a morte', ( G i ) , has a l l the beauty o f the devices

of the s t y l e galant, and the orchestra r e f l e c t s the singer's profound

suffering. At 'A v o i p a r l a i l g e n i t o r ' , ( G i i ) , the f i r s t v i o l i n

doubles and r e i n f o r c e s the e f f e c t o f the complex vocal l i n e . Then a t

• t u rammentati', ( G i i i ) , a sobbing f i g u r e i s passed sympathetically

between the two v i o l i n s . Tension which b u i l d s t o a climax a t the end

76.
i s produced by a sequential climb over a chromatically r i s i n g bass l i n e .
1
Rosmene s a r i a a t the conclusion o f t h i s act i s preceded by an

accompanied r e c i t a t i v e which h i g h l i g h t s the dramatic i n t e n s i t y .

Extremities of dynamics are required here, although Pergolesi only

i n f r e q u e n t l y gives such d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . The phrases are bold

and c l e a r l y defined i n shape; the harmonies f o r the most partj^diatonic,

but w i t h occasional diminished 7ths a t p o i n t s o f s p e c i a l emphasis.

'Orabra cara' i s expressed by four dotted minims, the f i r s t occasion on

F and l a t e r on low B f l a t , which produoes an atmosphere of reverence.

P a r t i c u l a r l y f o r c e f u l i s the e f f e c t a t ' t a c i e mira i l mio d o l o r ' .

This i s i n the c l o s i n g s e c t i o n of the a r i a , and where previous render-


7

ings used V and I , emphasis i s now f i r s t l y given by a diminished 7th

and a diminished 5th, followed by an i n t e r r u p t e d cadence on the f l a t t e n e d

submediant, before the repeat of the phrase, which ends w i t h a p e r f e c t

cadence i n E f l a t . This i s a wonderful p o r t r a y a l of human f e e l i n g s . (H)

The h o r r o r of the p r i s o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y portrayed i n V i r i d a t e ' s

opening number o f the f i n a l a c t . The melody i s cheerless and produces

an atmosphere of anxiety and forboding. The accompaniment i s syncopated,

w i t h the v i o l i n s moving i n 6ths i n a f r e q u e n t l y heard s i g h i n g motive.

Harmonically i t i s conventional u n t i l the climax i s reached; then,

a f t e r a f l o r i d passage, an i n t e r r u p t e d cadence resolves on the f l a t t e n e d

submediant on the word 'sospirar'. This i s immediately followed by a

diminished 7th ( a l l the more powerful i n the circumstances) f o r 'ombre

mute', ( I ) , which requires a sforzando as the singer makes h i s f i n a l

appeal. These c l o s i n g bars of the a r i a are the most expressive,

through t h e i r subtle use of r e s t s to produce appropriate v e r b a l emphasis.

77
Micisda's 'Doppo i l p e r i g l i o de l a tempesta' has a sweet seren-

i t y o f mood created by i t s gentle 3/8 rhythm and the c l e a r d i a t o n i c

harmonic t e x t u r e . Extra colour i s added by oboes and trumpets. (J)

The middle s e c t i o n involves key changes t o the t o n i c minor and the

dominant before the r e t u r n o f the main s e c t i o n .

Pergolesi's power o f c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n i s abundantly evident i n the

t e r z e t t o , when there i s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n between Rosmene, V i r i d a t e and

Sostrate. Harmonies are d i a t o n i c u n t i l the f i r s t mention o f death,

when, i n a descending chromatic passage, a diminished 7th i s used on

the word 'morir'. Strength i s added t o Rosmene's 'La morte mia dov'e'

by o r c h e s t r a l octaves, and the tension i s increased as the vocal p a r t s

i n t e r r u p t each other u n t i l a continuous t e x t u r e r e s u l t s . Each p a r t has

i t s own words and the music i s appropriate to the character. (K)

Rosmene appeals t o her f a t h e r , then V i r i d a t e and f i n a l l y God, only t o

be r e j e c t e d . Her sustained 'pieta' i s overwhelmed by accusations o f


1
• i n f i d e l * and ' t i r a n n a . Tenderness and emotion reach t h e i r extremes

i n the middle s e c t i o n o f t h i s lengthy movement; Rosmene appeals again

to heaven to intervene on her behalf. The voices and instruments progress

together i n octaves i n a moving chromatic s e c t i o n .

The opening motive o f E r i c l e a ' s 'Vedi, Ingrato' commences w i t h

two minims. I n the o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n and the second vocal

rendering both these minims appear i n the same bar, but i n the f i r s t

vocal statement they are placed e i t h e r side o f a b a r - l i n e . Apparently

t h i s i s not f o r any musical e f f e c t but t o provide the r e q u i s i t e number

of beats t o complete the bars. S i m i l a r examples are t o be found else-

where i n Pergolesi's scores, though they are u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o h i s

78.
opere s e r i e . The semiquaver f l o u r i s h a t phrase ends i s p a r t i c u l a r l y

frequent here, and there i s a f i n e example of the pause used f o r

dramatic e f f e c t . The middle section ( i n the r e l a t i v e minor - F sharp

minor) ends i n i t s dominant minor and produces a most pathetic e f f e c t

on ' d e l ' i n g i u s t o mio l a n g u i r ' . (L) The r e t u r n to A major i s made

i n a most simple but e f f e c t i v e manner by a s c a l i c descent from F sharp

to A on the " c e l l o ; t h i s i s a device Pergolesi used w i t h a f a i r degree

of r e g u l a r i t y .

Simple ensemble work appears i n the duet between Metalce and

Rosmene, and gives scope f o r c o n t r a s t i n g the two p e r s o n a l i t i e s . For

the most part the voices move together i n lOths, but the b r i e f middle

section gives them more independence of movement.

Metalce's f o l l o w i n g a r i a i s preceded by an accompanied r e c i t a t i v e .

The a r i a i t s e l f includes accompaniment by trumpets and muted v i o l i n s . (Mi)

I t has a bold o u t l i n e : e f f e c t i v e use of pauses and r e s t s provide e x t r a

verbal emphasis. I n s t r u c t i o n s regarding dynamics are more evident here

than i n the m a j o r i t y of h i s movements. Mutes are removed f o r the most


1
f o r c e f u l passage - ' c i e l nemico, i n f a u s t o giorno, s i l a v i t a i o p e r d e r o ,

( M i i ) , i n which the voice leaps octaves against f u r i o u s semiquavers on

the v i o l i n s , and i s f i n a l l y doubled by the whole orchestra i n octaves.

Rosmene's f i n a l a r i a contains a number of mannerisms of phrase

popular i n t h a t day. The texture i s c l e a r , and f o r the most p a r t the

bass moves i n minims. The middle section f o l l o w s the same plan as

Ericlea's 'Vedi, I n g r a t o * , i . e . , the r e l a t i v e minor (B minor) progresses

to i t s dominant minor and i s followed by an i d e n t i c a l s c a l i c r e t u r n to

the t o n i c .

A f t e r the r e s o l u t i o n of the p l o t the f i n a l chorus ( i n three vocal

p a r t s ) creates a f i r m ending to the opera, but adds nothing of s i g n i f i c a n c e

e i t h e r to the music or the drama.

79-
i ^ ^ / -w-i— -7— r /- ( (
11 "» II SI 1 _\ 1 . A
1 1
I 1• I1r ^ l1 \1 / ^ 1 / 1 11
0). _ | 1/ i 1

J ' i N - <- i i ^ y i v \
I i i ^ \

± 4 r
So <^Uo cV Co — ^-cc — v.

3
Si
fO -/vC — tor.

1 ^o-r%o ^ MVfi-ya

: N V „—p . I .—^—\, V V \ j r 1—'•


fobc v i. > r, -c X ^ j J ) i J [ Sf )
JSH. ... — v r \ r i i i

i T '—f+n*—*—*—" j ji J ji n ^ J >
r r
i ' • ' - i ' ' L i ' U ' J l j ' '

A
, v 1 . 1 . 1 . 1

1^ i^. — i t i l I i i * i i i • ^ i i •
1
I U4—^ " >—^-4 - J - — J - — | \ 1 1 1
Sj>0.pp- r e L c|w.<.l cor«, iX-<3^^, <\.Ww^C\.ce., L^.C)L€.^^0

1 l i t

j
1 1 1
n i
I I
~ K t — , 1
| | K—_
H i r

I
r
^ ^ 1——}—;h 1—^ ^—1 " A ^r- 4 1
Co— si- 0 <x.f^o } Co — bfo.^O

t 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 1

1 • \~—_| i—Z~ 1
i i f i ~ 1—^ 1 ii 1 :
« — —J—1—4 1 1 I—J /-J 1 1
/ k V L 0
Co — Sv. ey^C-do. i l rtCo ^ w c - r o ^ Co - £v «yt,<Jro-il —
A '
±

™—
i
7^
r r »
± .. r

per pi.J2.-ta cU-£e-w<U--te n.£o o-ivcw, a mo o — A-O^

5 2
Del \/a-lo-f«.al lo^
if
1 — 1p — !
^ \
/ • .'1
1 1 1
\ \
1 1 X I
. .
Or
.1
1 1
I _ \ \y 1
» i i t J - 1. j i • :
1 — — 3U - J ^ — H ! — i —H
u
1 ^d^ —

rr r Irr r

Vc-tU^ ^ o r _te, a te l& fcclca lascio VascCo <x


1: $- X~
I, i f / / \\
1 1
jf V '
Y
^ -r ^ «ZZZII
^ =tt
be. $U oJjJ«-t— t <*vCe-L

ZZZi
re

A. vo P<S-f U 11

i Y
y i ii H
R
Co/- tor
Cr'\\\
^ »

rs* V J \ \ \ i i I \ 1 > 1 1 \ - 1
|y " I 1 • 1/ 1 / I/ K 1/
J'^> ^ Y V ^ ^ 1/ \ Ir • V /

Col c J . o - v « r tlA. tii Co<v

v
y I I i ' I I I *
i
« fe^-^ >
Y*-
crt^—
k — b i i:—^
si - < x .

C. , „ f X X :

H
iu-e
5
5c i—*


7=2.
J
P
i
f
i

p t» bp t

t
\
3
[or

I —i
I

LLLLU
/ I l_ W*J 1 1 •

1
• V
l~
— w
A. It. 1 1

i . * b J : 1?/' J
2
T i — ^ —
—t- * — —
-^y v. ^ «
— Car 0 r*v- b»"-£ ra.iA.te- p«.f pie-
(OfcWa^roA bass) „ ,
:
©H—b H i - f 1
—L t_j ! L i i ,
1-- /• »" - • ^—TT-
—^ tr
1
B
V '1 '1 "1 1
< I
C —"
|
^' i f ' •4-
V 1 L1 - Ii - 1 1

1 1 1 1 * i ^* J U V

— J
< ^ 1—v- 1y 1, < 7 j j ^ 4
-dt-te (x S o - s p o 4 - c a r &- S o - S p i - -
r 1 -*~ s
f ! 1 1 \ r I i
\ ' \ 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 I 1 1 1 • 1 — I
1 . 1 ,' 1
J V V

|
1 / V
^ V —xir — J —
— ra.c _
r<xr ; o. So —

\ * i l l

T L i OJJ

ii> / fJ. ft U 3 ) o - Jȣ>


t M "7—

Col Sac? —* i — — ^ ^ po^bo

4-
4-
i
Pccdr*. S poSo
o :Dv-o'

1$ $
•r—r is:
4-
i/ v t
L dcL
i^S ~3 "",

?'
. FIT
2 -i
^i. do. Ave cu*ei lv*<vvi
fc3 Vol
1
-
n 73 r -A
pi JL. — tcx J

r
— i 1 f —;
i ' 1 1 3 — s ._ J C- se*
1
1 1—; ; — 1I » V—I—-—
o c - cK.t €. -1 i*. - £ e - <ie-L
-P- 1-

1 t
i

\
i —=™—: ^4 i. _!_ [j... y \s
1f \S
Vv Vv\: \r 1 i —
w V
i 1—^ r K

t
\1 IV - J
\ 1 i f r r
1 1 1

^> C J 6 - — to- lot Ovo r te. rate-



do
j
-v'e,?

j» • 1 1 ! • 1
» J v>
^ • 1
1
1 ' T J ' 1
I
IS - ro-<\ - A.a - to- per be-.

11
+> *
! J 1
*-
1
* £ 1
T • •
II
-

1
^
1
• 1
1 \ \ "V

e r
te , f ^ » pv-«- — to- /vow ;
V -£- P«.<" te- .

i i
v i
- Sto <*vio laA.c w-Cr.
J i j i \ 1 1 *
~7V #• .1
a t
+ -ft
J I' \

i i i
-4—+
4
t
=fcfc4
t i 1 \ P ,o 1
| 1 1 1
l • . '> — ii i 1 # -I v» l 1 i l . I I 1 -V J
/ h > 1 1 i i r j 1/ I I I V
/ v o I 1 I 1 '
- ^\.C». i(_ CO-T — SOU. a
•f-
~r u . * u r\
i «-i ^ 1 I M ' r
i i 1/ 1 I I I r / i ii
< i I r i »^ i i - 1 .
'^ }r .J^- (i
1 " V ti
iAa.ft.-ca. X pit - t o r - AO .

i—i

c , : a c
(vcou,i°) — ^ ~ °
i p

J I
± i
fc3
i
44-
^

i-- j I X

5 Si Si-

I 1
1
I J—i—1—i
f ' .- " . ' ' ' A-i- / I I »
I I I J ! L i1I S' ' J ' \
1 ^ ?
I I I ' t

8^
LIVIETTA E TRACOLLO

Although t h i s work i s now known as L i v i e t t a e T r a c e l l o , through-

out i t s h i s t o r y v a r i o u s other t i t l e s have been a p p l i e d to i t . It

began as the accompanying i n t e r m e z z i a t the production of P e r g o l e s i ' s

Adriano i n S i r i a i n the Teatro San Bartolomeo, 173^- The two central

c h a r a c t e r s are L i v i e t t a and T r a c o l l o , hence the present t i t l e , but

o r i g i n a l l y i t was known as La Contadina A s t u t a . ^ ^ Subsequent r e v i v a l s

went under the t i t l e s of:

L i v i e t t a e Tracollo - Rome, 1737,

L a Contadina A s t u t a - Venice, 1 7 ^ ,

I I Tracollo - Bologna, 17^6,

I I F i n t o Pazzo - Dresden, 17^7,

La F i n t a Polacca - Rome, 17^8,

I I Ladro C o n v e r t i t o Per Amore Venice, 1750.

A l l these performances were e s s e n t i a l l y of the same work to which only

a minimum of adaptions was made.

The u s u a l convenient c a s t - l i s t of two s i n g e r s i s to be found,

together w i t h two s i l e n t c h a r a c t e r s . Once again we meet r e a l people

i n f a r c i c a l s i t u a t i o n s which could p o s s i b l y , but not probably, be w i t h -

i n the experience of the audience. There are d e l i g h t f u l moments which

are coloured by sentiment on parody. As we might expect, much of the

s u b j e c t of the burlesque i s the pompousness of opera seria.

( i ) A copy of the o r i g i n a l l i b r e t t o i s kept i n the Conservatorio a t

Naples. The s i m i l a r i t y of t i t l e gave r i s e to confusion w i t h

Hasse's La Contadina, a point to be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r .

86.
Although not destined to the n o t o r i e t y accorded to L a Serva Padrona

through "La Guerre des Bouffons", t h i s work c o n t a i n s many s i m i l a r

a t t r i b u t e s , and Bukofzer^*^ maintains t h a t i n a manner of m u s i c a l

e x p r e s s i o n i t i s s u p e r i o r to i t s more i l l u s t r i o u s s i s t e r .

An o r c h e s t r a l passage of a mere four bars i n octaves precedes

L i v i e t t a ' s f i r s t number which i s sung to her s i l e n t f r i e n d F u l v i a . (A)

Her s e r i e s of s h o r t questions i s given m u s i c a l c o n t i n u i t y by o r c h e s t r a l

rhythmic punctuation based on the i n t r o d u c t o r y b a r s . The r e s u l t i s

n a t u r a l n e s s of v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n combined w i t h musical e f f e c t . In

t h i s movement the da capo a r i a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e r i o u s works i s -

abandoned i n favour of b i n a r y form. The f i r s t statement modulates to

the dominant and i s followed by a b r i e f o r c h e s t r a l unison passage.

A second statement then r e t u r n s to the t o n i c . The o v e r a l l l i v e l y effect

i s brought about by considerable use of s h o r t repeated phrases, b r i g h t

rhythm and an extremely simple chord s t r u c t u r e .

As with most other Neapolitan i n t e r m e z z i of the period c h a r a c -

t e r s converse i n the r a p i d "parlando" r e c i t a t i v e . I n t h i s case, w i t h

p a r t i c u l a r b r e v i t y and c o n c i s e n e s s , L i v i e t t a i n s t r u c t s F u l v i a how,

by f e i g n i n g , they w i l l c a t c h t h e i r t h i e f .

T r a c o l l o becomes involved w i t h the drama immediately he e n t e r s ,

dressed as a beggar woman. P e r g o l e s i i s prepared to abandon conven-

t i o n s of a r i a form when i t s u i t s h i s purpose. T h i s number i s r e a l l y

i n b i n a r y form, but i s broken up i n t o f i v e segments which are i n t e r -


1
spersed w i t h r e c i t a t i v e concerning the attempted robbery of F u l v i a s

necklace. Once again s h o r t repeated phrases and moments of o r c h e s t r a l

( i ) Music i n the Baroque E r a - M. Bukofzer.


Ch. 7, p. 2.k5.

87.
unison a r e p r e f e r r e d . Mockery o f opera s e r i a i s s u r e l y intended i n the

whining word-painting on ' C a r i t a ' , ( B ) , which i s repeated f r e q u e n t l y

as i t i n t e r r u p t s the r e c i t a t i v e . On one statement i t appears with the

f o l l o w i n g cadences: p e r f e c t , i n t e r r u p t e d ( t w i c e ) and then p e r f e c t once

more.

No o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n i s used f o r L i v i e t t a ' s •Sarebbe b e l l a

questa', which has a l i v e l y s e q u e n t i a l main phrase. Pergolesi's

l e a n i n g towards melancholia i s demonstrated i n the slower phrase

'senza c e r c a r merce*, ( C ) , which appears i n the major and i s then

repeated i n the minor. The form again shows greater freedom than he

would permit i n h i s opera s e r i a . Between the two main statements there

i s a break i n which L i v i e t t a has a r a p i d passage of r e c i t a t i v o

stromentato i n v o l v i n g octave l e a p s on the note G. The a r i a then

follows a modified ternary form i n which each v o c a l statement of the

middle s e c t i o n i s answered by a s h o r t o r c h e s t r a l phrase i n o c t a v e s .

The shortened r e c a p i t u l a t i o n (sung to d i f f e r e n t words) i s w r i t t e n out

i n f u l l and i s e n t i r e l y i n the mediant minor; t h e r e a f t e r the o r c h e s t r a l

r i t o r n e l l o r e - e s t a b l i s h e s the tonic key.

A r e c i t a t i v o stromentato, w i t h forboding octave f i g u r e s on the

s t r i n g s , i s sung by T r a c o l l o a s he r e f l e c t s on h i s miserable p o s i t i o n

and t h i n k s upon the shades of the underworld. H i s a r i a 'Ecco il


1
povero T r a c o l l o , which reappears i n L a Vedova Ingegnosa, i s a master-

piece of mock sentiment. I n c o n t r a s t to h i s s e l e c t i o n of b r i g h t e r

keys P e r g o l e s i employs F minor f o r the broken down T r a c o l l o who i s now

an o b j e c t of p i t y . I t commences, without i n t r o d u c t i o n , on a high F,

and l e a d s i n t o a strong f i g u r e which i s i m i t a t e d a t the octave by the

bass instruments. Having a t t a i n e d the subdominant, an obbligato v i o l i n

88.
f i g u r e i s introduced, which subsequently becomes the means of develop-

i n g and extending the movement. T h i s f i g u r e i s adapted f o r the many


1
r e p e t i t i o n s of the word 'povero . A f i n a l statement of the theme

occurs a t the c l o s e of the a r i a ; ( D i ) , there are strong l e a p s and a

f a l l of a major 7th onto an i n t e r r u p t e d cadence, a pause, and then the

phrase i s adapted (pianissimo) to end on a p e r f e c t cadence. I n the

middle s e c t i o n emphasis i s given by o r c h e s t r a l s f o r z a n d i on •morte',

'accosta' and 'brutta', as T r a c o l l o i s i n s t r u c t e d to shudder. His

f i n a l words have l e a p s covering the range of two octaves, a c r o t c h e t

chromatic descent on ' r a f f r e d a r ' to produce a c h i l l i n g e f f e c t , and


1
f i n a l l y comical s h i v e r s created by t r i l l s on •tremar mi f a . (Dii)

The f i r s t intermezzo concludes with a duet which r e q u i r e s a g i l i t y

on the p a r t of both s i n g e r s . I t i n v o l v e s r a p i d s c a l e s and tongue-

twisting r e p e t i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t 'strozzato p o l l a s t r e l l o , shatter*.

At t h i s point the f l u t t e r i n g of wings i s a l s o imitated by r a p i d octave

leaps on the s t r i n g s . ( E ) T r a c o l l o , having rendered the theme i n

the t o n i c , i s answered by L i v i e t t a i n the dominant. As the v o i c e s

combine and T r a c o l l o humbly attempts to make peace, h i s q u i e t entrea-

t i e s are i n t e r r u p t e d by i n t e r j e c t i o n s ( w i t h octave l e a p s ) of such

remarks as ' P a r l i a l vento', 'Che tormento' and 'Via a morir'. The

expected c o n c l u s i o n i s the combining of both v o i c e s i n r a p i d l y

r e i t e r a t e d t e n t h s , but with the two c h a r a c t e r s s i n g i n g d i f f e r e n t words.

The second intermezzo i s enlivened by T r a c o l l o , s t i l l wishing to

make amends, appearing as an a s t r o l o g e r . The sky i s darkened and the

sun obscured; tremolo s t r i n g s are employed w i t h v i o l e n t c r e s c e n d i and

89.
diminmendi, to produce a f e e l i n g of e x p e c t a t i o n . As he mentions

r a i n and thunder the oboes and horns a r e added to supply the appro-

priate effects.

At the end of the f o l l o w i n g r e c i t a t i v e L i v i e t t a i s overcome and

s i n g s the deeply moving 'Caro, per domani*, ( F i ) , which i s a tender

a r i a r a d i a t i n g warmth and humanity. I n form and s t y l e i t i s s i m i l a r


1
to 'Se c e r c a , se d i c e i n L'Olimpiade. Both dispense w i t h o r c h e s t r a l

i n t r o d u c t i o n s , are i n simple duple time and minor modes (G minor i n

t h i s c a s e ) , and a r e executed i n a tender, fragmented v o c a l l i n e a g a i n s t

an e s t i n a t o s i g h i n g f i g u r e on the second v i o l i n . Throughout the work

harmonies have been l a r g e l y d i a t o n i c , consequently the impact i s a l l


1
the g r e a t e r on the sad phrase ' T r a c o l l o mio , ( F i i ) , w i t h i t s German

6th modulating i n t o the dominant minor. As her emotion becomes more

i n t e n s e L i v i e t t a f i n d s i t almost i m p o s s i b l e to express h e r s e l f , and

f a l t e r s on every s y l l a b l e . The middle s e c t i o n l a r g e l y continues w i t h

m a t e r i a l from the main s e c t i o n , but employs the dominant minor. At the

c l o s e a Neapolitan 6th g i v e s f u l l force to the moment she supposes

her s p i r i t to be d e p a r t i n g . (G)

Although she i s only i n a swoon T r a c o l l o i s deeply concerned.

R e c i t a t i v o stromentato i s used to express h i s anguish. His a r i a falls

i n t o four s e c t i o n s which r e f l e c t h i s thoughts. I n the f i r s t ( i n duple

time and C major) he becomes aware of her c o n d i t i o n and s i n g s a hollow

sounding phrase w i t h octave accompaniment on the words ' s a r i a pur i l i

bruto caso*. (H) Then he c a l l s her name. As she s t i r s a l i t t l e ,

the mood turns to joy and there follows a f a s t r e p e t i t i v e s e c t i o n i n

3/8 time and F major. But as she has moved no f u r t h e r he r e t u r n s to the

o r i g i n a l i d e a which now appears i n A minor. The key s h i f t s to G minor,

90.
and i n r a p i d l y repeated phrases he addresses her a s 'mia b e l l a

m o r t i c e l l a L i v i e t t a ' a s he c a l l s again on her by name. As she moves,

3/8 i s once again adopted, though the music i s now transposed i n t o

G major.

The c l o s i n g duet i s an exuberant number which employs 3/8 time

and A major. A f e e l i n g of p e r p e t u a l l i f e and motion i s e f f e c t e d

through the " p r e s t o " quavers being v i r t u a l l y uninterrupted through-

out the movement. L i v i e t t a ' s statement moves from tonic to dominant,

making p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on • c r e d e l a c c i o ' ; T r a c o l l o ' s statement i n

the new key counterbalances with ' b e l l a , b e l l a ' . Apart from a few

bars i n which compliments a r e passed from one to the other the s i n g e r s

j o i n f o r c e s i n lOths and a r e now content to use the same words a s each

other f o r the remainder of the duet.

91.
1
:—7 V —fe-— i c — — \ 5=—iS=— 3 : 1
^ - i ^ - ^ r:.. .^2 .. .3 .. .
V _ — E
r t£ 'jtv L 1

i
Vi sto
• —

(V. 1 c \ 1 1 < (
—^—crs i
1
r~ f-'—-j 1
^ ^ *f \ ^ T - 1

1
• — ^— r
f. , f I. t ' ^
—f*—=;—1 ^ ^—?~—r— i i , i 1 ^ .
—•*
—1
\ r:—|
i U \=*=
r
ft
,
1
TT—

— \ — 1
« • — —
1
> K' kk VI
Eivl ex*, pari

^ / f —i r\ =5 "Tt 1 ^
1^ s
T4^-
f

/ ) ' fJ 1 ?* , 1* 1 1 i
1 J. A

i r> i \ ; i —
. .1 t i \ ?
3!
LUv. po* LOL c o - - ci. — t o - , La. c s x . - f L — to- ^ Ux-
-r-
n

co^- <"i to. la co- to.

- r~N 1 b -
K
. \ 1 1
/ r l \ f r- | v
r- ^ t \ i ^ 1
1
f« 1 1 1 1 V I
1
1 ' 1 t 1
1 ^ • 11 1 \ I
^ 1

• IT

1 L
P b r ' i / 1

- c o iL p o - ve.- <"o lro--collo cjta. virrci»v-«> (X t f a - c o l —


:
I : F 2
f — •

v V > \ *t

i ^ °t 1 V K
1 \ 1 : \
0 a. t r ^ - c o l - l a r .
3>ii
t -f-
i
i=X 4—4- ±±5 X X
do. c<x-po S C - w o o t ipCedi
-V far, by
4*4- 1 ~ ~ i I i ii
i—r T~T
m 3
v J
i MI

E
"1 - P .J <-»
1
1—I i * 1 i f ~Z- i h=—i i K i C — 1*=
1 V - l . l l i 1*1 1 ' t i l l , 1 ^ 1 s
I- 1 1 1 1
/ XI *\ v V y v V '/; ' j •/ ) ' ) y J—\-
4
St*"oVW^to po>-lastfello s ocolte-r ; t i J X o , Sbofce<", &afaf- s\oa)ter f

i i n
1
\ J — Y* — Y' — -— r — 1: — ^ —
i
un 1

- ' ' Y II
f
5 to.iter p<\l- pi — t a - .

\ I* v
v
* » • r i w- v i
i A U r -t i ! F- i J * ' irf -!
J\ ^. ^
«*i i

i
(A

'
i 1

H i
»* r
2
-TSV D r ^ — — i
i
T i^Lj
~i>a-c©l - lo
a
i .
i
n
.n d1 K . - ^ l
/ik i r \ <• i

vSO / i l l / V f y 11
-
J • " ^ L - J

^. i Lnr> 1
i '

/ fr' ' L
1

«)3
-h6

/TT M / • ; w ^ , /i
= 4
V-cf

" J 1 'i J i ; ! J :b
N 1 V
H

rz J 7
7

7*

i r i n
i
5
i' 231
f
jX>J

a.
6 *
ADRIANO IN SIRIA

Of h i s four opere s e r i e , nowhere more than i n Adriano i n S i r i a

does P e r g o l e s i y i e l d to convention of s t y l e and form, f r e q u e n t l y

w r i t i n g show-pieces f o r an obviously t a l e n t e d c a s t which placed s e l f -

g l o r i f i c a t i o n above o p e r a t i c a r t . The accompanying s m a l l work

L i v i e t t a e T r a c o l l o afforded the composer a f r e e r e i n , and consequently

succeeded; but t h i s main work was l e s s f o r t u n a t e , mainly because of the

number o f r e s t r i c t i n g conventions of opera s e r i a . T h i s work had a noble

theme which the p u b l i c would expect to be t r e a t e d i n a conventional

manner, p a r t i c u l a r l y as the l i b r e t t o was by Metastasio.

The r e c i t a t i v e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y lengthy and are f r e q u e n t l y

tedious; only once does P e r g o l e s i i n c l u d e the stromentato s t y l e . Of

the twenty-three items i n the opera, e x c l u d i n g the s i n f o n i a and the

concluding duet and chorus, the v o c a l numbers c o n s i s t of twenty a r i a s .

T h i s proportion of a r i a s alone, to say the l e a s t , i s r e t r o g r e s s i v e , but

i n t h e i r form a l s o the m a j o r i t y of them are conventional and c o n t r i b u t e

l i t t l e to the advance of o p e r a t i c s t y l e .

The c a s t engaged was impressive and expected s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l

to demonstrate i t s considerable t a l e n t s .

The s i n f o n i a borrows from that of S. Guglielmo d'Aquitania and

follows the normal three movement p l a n . The f i r s t , employing trumpets

i n a d d i t i o n to s t r i n g s , provides a s t r i k i n g opening, though i t s borrowed

motives are only s l i g h t i n t h e i r m u s i c a l content. There f o l l o w s a

charming slow s e c t i o n i n the subdominant, but the f i n a l movement i s


1
almost a 'note f o r note t r a n s c r i p t i o n from the e a r l i e r work.

95-
The customary opening chorus, ( a p r a c t i c a l l y meaningless conven-

t i o n of s t y l e to which P e r g o l e s i had bowed down i n h i s previous opere

s e r i e ) i s abandoned, and i n i t s p l a c e a lengthy passage of r e c i t a t i v e

s e t s the scene.

Adriano's f i r s t a r i a c o n t a i n s a number of f a c e t s o f P e r g o l e s i ' s

s t y l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the s h o r t phrase, use of r e s t s and the pause, so

, much so t h a t they appear to be used to excess on t h i s o c c a s i o n . The

middle s e c t i o n has g r e a t e r s i n c e r i t y of e x p r e s s i o n and i s of i n t e r e s t

f o r the ' c e l l o ' s i m i t a t i o n o f the v o c a l l i n e a t the 4th, and f o r an

unusual key p a t t e r n , which commences i n the t o n i c minor and passes

through the f l a t t e n e d submediant u n t i l i t reaches the subdominant

minor.

I n 'Sprezza i t f u r o r d e l vento' the d i g n i t y of Osroa i s portrayed

i n a bold l i n e w i t h wide l e a p s and by an o r c h e s t r a l accompaniment

augmented by oboes and trumpets.

Farnaspe's 'Sul mio c o r so ben qual s i a ' i s an a r i a d i bravura

of g r e a t dimensions i n i t s l e n g t h , range, i n t e n s i t y and. ornament. The

o r c h e s t r a l accompaniment of the main s e c t i o n has a simple chord struc-

ture and the bass l i n e to a l a r g e extent i s of repeated quavers. But

the v o c a l adornments above i t c o n s i s t of t r i l l s , f a s t runs and wide

l e a p s which cover the range o f a 16th. At one point i n the main s e c t i o n

P e r g o l e s i has to a d j u s t the rhythm by i n c l u d i n g a bar of duple time

amidst a passage rendered otherwise e n t i r e l y i n common time. Between

the renderings of t h i s showpiece there i s a tender c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n

exchanging 'Allegro s p i r i t o s o ' f o r 'Larghetto', and common time f o r 3/$.

I n t h i s passage, a p a r t from the o c c a s i o n a l t r i p l e t d e c o r a t i o n , the

v o c a l p a r t has a smooth unadorned l i n e which commences i n the t o n i c

96.
minor and passes by sequence through the f l a t t e n e d mediant major u n t i l

i t reaches the subdominant minor.

For embellishment Emirena's ' P r i g i o n i e r a abbandonata' makes c o n s i d e r -

able use of the t r i p l e f i g u r e , ( A i ) , and a f u r t h e r dotted rhythm, (Aii),

not used to any g r e a t extent elsewhere i n P e r g o l e s i ' s works. Verbal

emphasis i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s k i l f u l i n the syncopated phrases. The middle

s e c t i o n , commencing i n the subdominant, a l s o makes use of the dotted

figure. I t ends i n the r e l a t i v e minor, from which the r e t u r n i s

e f f e c t e d by a descending quaver run i n the b a s s .

A l i g h t , open s t r i n g texture accompanies A q u i l i o ' s f i r s t aria

'Vuoi punir l ' i n g r a t o amante?' and provides c o n t i n u i t y among the broken

v o c a l phrases. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c descending quaver runs give way to

a s e r i e s of snaps a s the a r i a develops. The middle s e c t i o n i s of

i n t e r e s t i n t h a t i t i s l a r g e l y based on the musical m a t e r i a l of the

main s e c t i o n , but employs the keys o f the r e l a t i v e minor, mediant major

and the supertonic minor. Again the descending quaver s c a l e e f f e c t s

the r e t u r n to the t o n i c .

Sabina i s a l s o given scope to d i s p l a y t a l e n t s i n 'Chi s o f f e senza

pianto', which i s a movement w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e ornamentation. The

middle s e c t i o n adopts a slow 3/8 measure i n s t e a d of common time, and has

a l e s s ornamental o u t l i n e ; but from a point of view of keys i t i s q u i t e

unorthodox. Whereas the main s e c t i o n has the b a s i c p a t t e r n of C major

to G major and back, a u s e f u l c o n t r a s t i s achieved here by commencing

i n C minor, then E f l a t major and E f l a t minor, before e s t a b l i s h i n g

F minor. Diminished 7ths a r e used e f f e c t i v e l y to p a i n t words a t 'del

f i e r o mi d o l o r ' .

97-
The concluding p a r t of the f o l l o w i n g r e c i t a t i v e has full

accompaniment, and dramatic emphasis i s drawn from the t e x t by c a r e f u l

timing of Osroa's fragmented phrase. (B) The a r i a r e t a i n s the c o n s i s t -

ent d i g n i t y of s t y l e found i n t h i s s i n g e r ' s e a r l i e r number. Pergolesi

helps to achieve t h i s through a four bar 'Lento' passage w i t h i n the

'Allegro* s e c t i o n . The fragmentation of the phrase i n the r e c i t a t i v e

i s developed and employed i n both the main and middle s e c t i o n s .

Emirena's 'Sola mi l a s c i a piangerer' provides ample scope f o r

v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n . The word 'dolor' (which i s used f r e q u e n t l y w i t h

s p e c i a l e f f e c t s i n P e r g o l e s i ' s works) appears i n a chromatic descent

i n augmented kths with the bass, ( C ) , followed by changing notes which

r e s o l v e upwards. The c r y of 'barbaro' occurs twice i n sequence, both

times f a l l i n g a diminished 7 t h . The f i r s t statement concludes w i t h

two renderings of the c l o s i n g phrase, the f i r s t to an i n t e r r u p t e d

cadence i n the dominant minor, the second onto a p e r f e c t cadence i n

the dominant major.

The second statement has g r e a t e r freedom of treatment. I t commences

w i t h a new f i g u r e i n the dominant minor, but former f i g u r e s r e t u r n , s p i c e d

w i t h diminished 7ths i n a modulatory passage. 'Barbaro* i s given more

f o r c e f u l treatment; a dominant pedal - C - i s employed, a g a i n s t which

the word i s sung l o u d l y f i r s t l y on D f l a t , and then on B. The second

statement ends i n the tonic minor, then a t h i r d , b r i e f , fragmented

statement appears which makes f u r t h e r use of the t o n i c minor but

concludes i n the major.

98.
Although i t i n t e r r r u p t s the pace of the drama Parnaspe's
1
'Lieto c o s i t a l v o l t a i s not r e a l l y o b t r u s i v e , as i t appears a t the

c l o s e of the f i r s t a c t . The s i n g e r ' s v i r t u o s i t y i s taxed c o n s i d e r -

ably i n a movement which can be considered as a duet f o r v o i c e and

oboe, accompanied by p i z z i c a t o . s t r i n g s . Both the main and c o n t r a s t -

ing s e c t i o n s have simple chord s t r u c t u r e s supporting the e m b e l l i s h -

ments; the l a t t e r s e c t i o n follows the l e s s common p r a c t i c e of c l o s i n g

i n the subdominant.

The second a c t commences with a shortened o r c h e s t r a l v e r s i o n of

Emirena's f i r s t a c t a r i a .

Sabina's 'Ah ingrato' commences without an o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c -

tion. I t s main f e a t u r e s are e x t e n s i v e syncopation, a s e r i e s of snaps

and P e r g o l e s i ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c two semiquaver d e c o r a t i o n before cadences.

Harmonic c o l o u r i n g i s added a t ' n e l darmi speranza' by the chord of the

augmented 6 t h , but on t h i s o c c a s i o n preference i s shown f o r the French

v a r i e t y r a t h e r than P e r g o l e s i ' s more u s u a l German or I t a l i a n v e r s i o n s .

The main s e c t i o n ( i n G minor) follows the normal course of modulating

to the r e l a t i v e major and back. But the middle s e c t i o n - l i k e other

examples i n t h i s opera - adopts g r e a t e r freedom and modulates to D major,

A major, F major and E f l a t major.

The oboe i s added to the s t r i n g s f o r A q u l l i o ' s 'Saggio g u e r r i e r o


^ a t of
1
a n t i c o , which has an a c i d i t y l i k e ^ t h e a r i a sung by Farnaspe a t the

c l o s e of t h i s a c t ; the s i m i l a r i t y of both melodies i s noteworthy a l s o .

Semiquaver runs provide i n t e r e s t to the v o c a l l i n e , and again the

two semiquaver c a d e n t i a l f i g u r e and s h o r t repeated phrases a r e found.

The middle s e c t i o n , which i s more fragmented, ends i n the mediant minor

and r e t u r n s to the t o n i c v i a a descending bass s c a l e . This i s a

frequent p r a c t i c e i n P e r g o l e s i ' s e a r l i e r opere s e r i e .

99-
C o l o r a t u r a e f f e c t s a r e used e x t e n s i v e l y i n Sabina's

'Splenda per v o i serene?. A number of P e r g o l e s i ' s mannerisms a r e

included i n t h i s a r i a which i s b e a u t i f u l l y e x p r e s s i v e , though p u r e l y

conventional i n form.

The continuous f u r i o u s semiquaver accompaniment to Adriano's

• T u t t i nemici e r e i * , i n t e n s i f y i n g the s i n g e r ' s anger and b i t t e r -

ness, i s an uncommon feature f o r P e r g o l e s i . The main s e c t i o n i s a

s e r i e s of s h o r t s t a c c a t o utterances^ and the customary o r c h e s t r a l p a s s -

age between i t s two statements i s omitted. The word ' p e r f i d i ' i s

c a r e f u l l y placed r h y t h m i c a l l y i n order to produce a f o r c e f u l e f f e c t .

That outburst of anger g i v e s way, f o r much of the middle s e c t i o n , to

a more contemplative passage. However, r u s h i n g semiquavers r e p r e s e n t -

ing h e l l ' s f u r y , and a harsh o u t l i n e , e x p r e s s i v e of the h e a r t being r e n t

asunder, a r e poignant f e a t u r e s of the c l o s i n g b a r s . (D)

By way of complete c o n t r a s t i s Emirena's 'Quell'amplesso e q u e l l

perdono', which i s a gentle movement i n 3/8 time. A new d e c o r a t i v e

rhythmic f i g u r e occurs i n the o r c h e s t r a l passage between statements;

t h i s i s then used a s an independent accompaniment l i n e . Repeated semi-

quavers form a l a r g e p a r t of the accompaniment of the middle s e c t i o n .

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the s i m i l a r i t y i n s t y l e of t h i s and the

previous a r i a .

A t r i p l e t f i g u r e , r e p r e s e n t i n g fear^ appears i n the second violin


1
p a r t almost throughout Osra's 'Leon piagato e morte . Again the melody

has a bold o u t l i n e b e f i t t i n g the d i g n i t y of the c h a r a c t e r , but the

c o n t r a s t o f mood i n the middle s e c t i o n i s emphasised by a tremolo v i o l i n

accompaniment.

Once again Farnaspe's a r i a i s i n the prominent p o s i t i o n a t the

c o n c l u s i o n of an a c t , and a g a i n c o l o r a t u r a has f u l l r e i n . The s t r i n g

100.
o r c h e s t r a i s d i v i d e d f o r antiphonal e f f e c t s , and s u s t a i n e d horn p a r t s

are a l s o scored. The v o c a l l i n e commences w i t h s h o r t phrases which

are extended and become more complex a s the movement p r o g r e s s e s . The

wide v o c a l range reaches i t s e x t r e m i t i e s a s the climax i s achieved,

l e a p i n g twice from C to B f l a t i n a f a l l of a l 6 t h . The ascending

arpeggio of the main s e c t i o n i s i n v e r t e d a t the opening of the middle

s e c t i o n , which commences i n the r e l a t i v e minor and c l o s e s i n the mediant

minor. Wide l e a p s a r e fewer, but extended semiquaver runs a r e r e t a i n e d .

An o r i g i n a l o r c h e s t r a l passage i n t r o d u c e s the opening r e c i t a t i v e


1
of the t h i r d a c t . Sabina's D i g l i ch'e un i n f e d e l e ' i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y -

good example of P e r g o l e s i * s fragmented s t y l e of a r i a . The pause

i n t e r r u p t s the melodic flow, then follows ' s e n t i ' , a r e s t , then 'non

d i r c o s i ' ; l i k e w i s e ' d i g l i che l'amo' i s s p l i t f o r f u r t h e r emphasis. ( E i )

The middle s e c t i o n i s much more tender and l e s s fragmented; the diminished


1
7th (marked "sforzando") produces a powerful e f f e c t on tornami a

consolar', which i s sung twice i n sequence. ( E i i ) The movement ends

i n the mediant minor, followed by the f a m i l i a r r e t u r n to the t o n i c

v i a a descending bass s c a l e .

Remaining c o n s i s t e n t i n s t y l e f o r the c h a r a c t e r he i s p o r t r a y i n g ,

P e r g o l e s i g i v e s A q u i l i o a l i g h t , easy-moving a r i a i n 'Contento f o r s e

vivere nel nio martir potrei'. A bass l i n e moving i n quavers and a

s e r i e s of snaps i n the melody a r e i t s s t r o n g e s t f e a t u r e s .

Adriano's f i n a l a r i a commences w i t h a calm d i g n i t y . A gentle

rhythmn i n 3/8 time i s employed, and the melody, s t r i p p e d of a l l superg

fluous decoration, i s m a j e s t i c to s u i t the s i t u a t i o n . Here P e r g o l e s i

a p p r o p r i a t e l y chooses to abandon the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n and concludes w i t h

101.
a s h o r t o r c h e s t r a l passage f o l l o w i n g the c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n .
1
The f i n a l a r i a i s Osroa's ' T i p e r d i e confondi a l nome d i morte .

The 'largo' opening p o r t r a y s h i s amazement; then, a f t e r the pauses, he

g i v e s vent to h i s furyy a s the v i o l i n s play repeated semiquavers

( a l l e g r o ) a g a i n s t h i s quaver v o c a l l i n e . Powerful word-painting on

'e s o f f r i l ' a s p e t t o ' i s produced by the v o i c e f a l l i n g a diminished 7 t h

over the same chord. T h i s passage i s then transposed a tone higher to

create further tension. ( F ) The a r i a makes an impact through the

absences o f both the i n t r o d u c t i o n and the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , f o r Osroa

has a dramatic e x i t immediately upon s i n g i n g h i s f o r c e f u l c o n c l u s i o n

of the c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n .

A f t e r a s e r i e s o f a r i a s , mostly q u i t e conventional i n form,

P e r g o l e s i produces a duet which r i s e s to a new h e i g h t . Caffarelli

claims t h a t the breaking of new ground here paved the way f o r the duet

'Nei g i o r n i t u o i f e l i c i ' which c l o s e s the f i r s t a c t of L'Olimpiade.

Farnaspe commences w i t h 'L'estremo pegno almeno r i c e v i i n questo

addio'. H i s passage concludes i n the dominant and Emirena r e p e a t s i t

to d i f f e r e n t words. Tender words of f a r e w e l l a r e sung i n fragmented

phrases, the sentiment of which i s more s i n c e r e l y transmitted here than

i n any form of r e c i t a t i v e . Between the f a r e w e l l s there a r e three

passages i n which the ensemble reaches a p a r t i c u l a r l y high degree of

development w i t h i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s c o n t r a s t e d a g a i n s t phrases i n which

the v o i c e s move i n 6ths or l O t h s . The c l o s i n g ensemble s e c t i o n owes

something to the middle s e c t i o n of da capo a r i a s : the r e l a t i v e minor

i s employed and the mood i s a l t o g e t h e r more i n t i m a t e . At f i r s t the

s h o r t phrase i s used i m i t a t i v e l y a number o f times, but i n c o n c l u s i o n

the v o i c e s move together, reaching the supertonic minor, from which a

102.
s h o r t o r c h e s t r a l passage r e t u r n s to the t o n i c .

The p l o t i s q u i c k l y r e s o l v e d i n a passage of r e c i t a t i v e , and

as a f o r m a l i t y a s h o r t f a n f a r e l i k e chorus concludes the opera.

103.
Ai\ + n M r v o . *VO

i I

Pr {. - <jCo — A(.e_ - ra. o.\> -ba-^-do - irva. - to.


5 +
r r r "7"
I

' k !'
j J L
if ~T7~ ~I—
T
INK "to/-to, ^co. tor-to o-V. tuco b-eA

i i - ,. • f /-• / i r. / •. . .
5 \ t i t i
¥-

1
«'*
1— or
V. /
1• — —' 1i \/ 1I o. 1r • fr<
1
fe=j
h — ^ — 1 f — u-V—,f ;. *\,\
l> i 1
V 1

Si

r-i i
3 1
V '
do — C O 61

, L fcL£ ^
r\
\j\ •
/•^ » Ii
I i
I
t
t
t
U , T —
1 ^ 1 i v i y J _J i
/ r v. «. i * 1 1 \.
/ T7—i~7
— K - K
(X, ce-- y-^ - Co

ll I
/ ^ \ I " 1 1
•sJ —^ i' i' h ii a^/i
/ i ./J
.....
V
V \)
1 \
- J
SC / i
1
i
i
t
rr
k

>' • iL_T'" •
1 *
n —h i •'
— /•
'
— <
1
r3—
1 1 r
1'

— p 1 1 1
I .

' v /I V »-B t\ 1, J

i 1 — i ^

i I r t I t i — r
1 < Q/
i
l
*—\// l AT
< 1 /
* 1
V v L ^ ^ 1 J,
1
po_r-to fje. s to cUe. T-O .

A
s i I I r i i i
M |
:
_---*^ l I \ I l *^ l l \ r \
| 1 | 1 > 1 | •

i i \i i ,'J / 1I ; i / y i • — ii
"~\
c ;
1—i—*—r 1—f i T r-

b „
y I I IX 1
4. r
>- | - •
1
1
1
|
— 1 1•
II i i i i
' I " i 1 I 1
in 4X.
-r— ^ ±
So-la-^vi La-s-c^ pvoL^ja^^^ n.«A v ^ o d o - I C K Sp

|Ng is.
i — r
Ve-'l'o, b6./"-ba-ro itv^ojsto ^-e^-to, t>CL^bo.-fov»v-^Cw.sto
, f\ , .

r
f i (
J. LiL
K V' 7

£ 3
r •
5 11
_LL

.2.' L S 1— 1 tw 1 . /- , A. 1
if- >l / 1 f^/ 1 1 • n^ i : i
/ I / 1
r r
^ * 1
i f 1 . 1 .H- .»
J 1
' -* : i i i 1 4 ' y
y <* f

Wo. cor per U - c e -

i U
1
1 ft
n
• 'i r-j ;—. i i J — I I
1 \ i 1
\ 1
^ ' t 1 -> i -\ \ X 1

1 V ;l " / J1 —J U

f:
T7> I I
y v ? 1 ^ " M \J
c e
"J>C-^U cWtu-A - dLt-^e.^ ^~ ^ c b t v-v^ tra.

J L
I J L
L I I I I ^ \ \ I Y l i • " r \ \ f
e=i L

i ^ \ ' ^ i i i i
» .- ^ i I " ^ } \ \ j
± V/ \f f Y \ r \ * I
^C-^U cVvA po.«"tv - civ.- ^Vi cW^. p a r t C - r o dv.-^
Si.

i i I -LL
-t : I • I I i
± ± ± k
±
:Wt i'
tor
\>-i~ ^ ~ .
-t* ' i i r -P
1 1
1f \Sr —
1 f —
1 p '
— /

1 * V \t —¥•—Y- \ \ |
to/" - O- COft."SO - Lcur to ' " - A . c v A v i a . cow- So •
i

•O <
-f-k* rr id —S
4* " ~ - I| S
—1
1

etc
J
A 1 J-
/km 11 — ^

o — ©
i

• i 1
i 1

1 <v, ^—b—I i !—L—si


r i ^ | 1—i—»r r r f1
H H — ' — r
1
i

i i U
J

i — —
1
1 1/ J—_5 Y- 1 " • ! !

l l r ' So£ -
1 i i »
jVc y/as-pat-t^
r U J
.soC-jVi I'as pe.it o

lob
L'OLIMPIADE

Despite i t s h o s t i l e r e c e p t i o n i n Rome a t the f i r s t perform-

ance, t h i s work i s now considered to be the b e s t of P e r g o l e s i ' s opere

serie. The text was by the p r i n c e o f l i b r e t t i s t s , Metastasio, and

had been s e t p r e v i o u s l y by C a l d a r a i n 1733 and V i v a l d i i n 173^»

The c a s t l i s t was impressive:

Clistene - Giovanni B a t t i s t a P i n a c c i ,

(who had sung S o s t r a t e i n I I P r i g i o n i e r Superbo)

Aristea - Mariano N i c c o l i n i ,

Argene - Giovanni Tedeschi,

Megacle - Domenico R i c c i ,

( a c e l e b r a t e d " s o p r a n i s t a " from the V a t i c a n ) ,

Licida - Francesco B i l a n c i o n i ,

Aminta - Nicola L i c c h e s i ,

Alcandro - Carlo Brunetti.

We hear that to s a t i s f y these i l l u s t r i o u s people i t was necessary for

P e r g o l e s i to supply further a r i a s . These he d u t i f u l l y borrowed from

Adriano i n S i r i a , and words were added by an unknown hand. The

production seemed doomed from the s t a r t ^ " ^ . I t i s i r o n i c , however,

that the work should take Rome by storm so s h o r t l y a f t e r the composer's

death. E n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n s are a l s o recorded i n Venice, 1738, and

S i e n a , 17^1» followed by performances i n other I t a l i a n c i t i e s and

c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s i n many p a r t s o f Europe. We can c a l c u l a t e to some

(i) See the r e f e r e n c e i n the preceding Biography.

107.
extent the spread o f i t s fame by the f a c t t h a t e a r l y manuscripts of

the opera are to be found i n Naples, Palermo, Milan, Bergamo,

Monte Cassino, Rome, P a r i s , B r u s s e l s , Dresden and the B r i t i s h Museum,

London. The bicentenary of P e r g o l e s i ' s death a l s o witnessed a triumph-

ant r e v i v a l of the work i n J e s i , h i s b i r t h p l a c e .

The s i n f o n i a i s scored f o r s t r i n g s , oboes, horns and trumpets,

and f o l l o w s the three movement p l a n . The f i r s t i s bold and l i v e l y ,

keeping mainly to t o n i c and dominant harmonies. The second i s scored

only f o r s t r i n g s , and i s mainly i n the t o n i c minor. I t i s a tender

movement i n which the f i r s t v i o l i n p l a y s (over a repeated chordal

accompaniment) a sad f i g u r e , occuring fourteen times i n twenty-four

bars. The f i n a l movement i s triumphant and s e t s the dramatic scene

most a p p r o p r i a t e l y . I t i s i n the t o n i c major and i n c l u d e s trumpets i n

a d d i t i o n to the s t r i n g s .

Megacle's a r i a d i bravura has, i n a d d i t i o n to the two statements

of the main s e c t i o n , a t h i r d and completely f r e s h rendering of the

words i n the t o n i c . The middle s e c t i o n abandons common time i n favour

of 3/8 time, and produces a f i n e e x p r e s s i v e c o n t r a s t , e s p e c i a l l y i n the

c l o s i n g bars on the words ' a l f i n e i nomi ancor'. (A)

(B) Aminta, L i c i d a ' s t u t o r and a d v i s e r , i s portrayed a s an

a b s t r u s e , f o r g e t f u l c h a r a c t e r by the nature of h i s a r i a , which i s b u i l t

from a s e r i e s of d i s j o i n t e d phrases. F u r t h e r colour i s added by the

i n c l u s i o n of wind instruments, but the c h o r d - s t r u c t u r e remains simple.

S c a l i c movement f e a t u r e s l a r g e l y i n the main s e c t i o n , and repeated

chords i n the middle s e c t i o n , which commences i n the r e l a t i v e minor and

concludes i n the subdominant.

108.
L i c i d a ' s a r i a d i bravura which concludes the f i r s t scene i s

remarkable for d e s c r i p t i v e e f f e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y that of the war-horse

pawing the ground on i t s r e t u r n to the s t a b l e . The arpeggios on the

s t r i n g s , augmented by wind instruments, give an impression of a g r e a t

horse g a l l o p i n g a t speed. The middle s e c t i o n f o l l o w s the r e g u l a r

p r a c t i c e of commencing i n the r e l a t i v e minor and concluding i n the

subdominant.

Argene f i r s t appears d i s g u i s e d as a shepherd; P e r g o l e s i appro-

p r i a t e l y provides a b e a u t i f u l short s i c i l i a n a which has a p a r t i c u l a r l y

tender moment a t the appearance of the Neapolitan 6th on 'o c a r a f e l i c e

liberta'. (C) C a f f a r e l l i s i n g l e s out the f o l l o w i n g r e c i t a t i v e between

Argene and A r i s t e a as having "remarkable dramaticism ( i n the manner of

Porpora 'the f a t h e r of r e c i t a t i v e ' ) by the way i t i n t e r r u p t s Argene's

s o l o , i t s use of the pause, i t s i n s i g h t i n t o powerful e f f e c t s , a l l of


»

which give to the t e x t an u n p a r a l l e l e d v i v i d n e s s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .

C l i s t e n e ' s a r i a r e f l e c t s the n o b i l i t y of the k i n g . Particularly

noteworthy i s the middle s e c t i o n ' F o r t i noi v o i b e l l e s i e t e ' , where

the words have an i r o n i c ringV which i s emphasised by the c o n t r a p u n t a l

treatment i n the accompaniment. (D)

A r i s t e a * s *Tu d i saper procura' i s a b e a u t i f u l example of the

s t y l e galant and employs a number of P e r g o l e s i ' s mannerisms, notably

the t r i p l e t a n t i c i p a t i o n of a cadence, the two semiquaver decora-

t i o n and the augmented second i n the minor s e c t i o n .

(E) 'Piu non trovano' sung by Argene complaining of the f i c k l e -

ness of men, i s one of the "purple patches" of the opera and a f i n e

example of P e r g o l e s i ' s g i f t of appropriate word-setting. Particularly

e f f e c t i v e i s the repeated 'parlano', s t a t i n g t h a t men p r o t e s t f i d e l i t y ,

109.
but l e a v i n g no doubt regarding the s i n g e r ' s opinion on the matter.

The middle s e c t i o n i s i n the subdominant but f o r a s h o r t passage i n

the supertonic minor; t h i s i s the only example of such a key p l a n

w i t h i n the work.

The f o l l o w i n g a r i a by L i c i d a adopts the s t y l e galant and a g a i n

i n c o r p o r a t e s a number of P e r g o l e s i ' s mannerisms, p a r t i c u l a r l y the a n t i -

c i p a t o r y t r i p l e t s and the s e r i e s of snaps.

The f i r s t a c t concludes with the duet 'Nei g i o r n i t u o i felici'

which i s sung by A r i s t e a and Megacle. I n i t the drama of the preceding

r e c i t a t i v e i s continued and e n l i v e n e d . Some of the d u l l conventions o f

I t a l i a n opera a r e shaken o f f by the s p i r i t of the rausicc-and the t r e a t -

ment of the words. I n h i s opere s e r i e P e r g o l e s i pays l e s s a t t e n t i o n

g e n e r a l l y to key-colour than he does i n h i s i n t e r m e z z i , but here h i s

s e l e c t i o n of A f l a t major i s p a r t i c u l a r l y fortunate f o r the mood.

Questions and i n t e r j e c t i o h s (e.g., 'Perche?', ' t a c i ' , and ' p a r l a ' ) a r e

d i f f i c u l t to render n a t u r a l l y w i t h i n r e c i t a t i v e s i n such a tender s i t u a -

tion. P e r g o l e s i adopts a l e s s common course by employing them i n the

duet i t s e l f and thereby producing a s u r p r i s i n g l y dramatic e f f e c t by

breaking up the words. ( F i ) The height o f emotion i n t h i s passage

i s a t the pause on the f i n a l ' p a r l a ' . A f u r t h e r rendering of ' r i c o r d a t i

d i me' appears, but on t h i s o c c a s i o n i s i n the tonic minor, and r e s o l v e s

on an i n t e r r u p t e d cadence. Immense power i s given to the concerted

•Oh Dio* by the diminished 7 t h chord which progresses from the F f l a t

minor chord i n t o the key of E f l a t major. The f o l l o w i n g ensemble p a s s -

age i s s p i c e d w i t h suspensions, and the c l o s i n g ensemble i s p a r t i c u l a r l y

advanced f o r the period, as i t permits the v o i c e s an amount of

110.
independence from each other both v e r b a l l y and m u s i c a l l y . The s t i n g

comes i n the f i n a l v o c a l phrase: ( F i i ) Magacle's entry on 'piu barbaro-


1 1
dolor f o l l o w s A r i s t e a s statement of those words, but r i s e s a tone to

d r i v e home the f u l l force of the s i t u a t i o n . The duet ends i n the key

of B f l a t minor, and i n the c l o s i n g bars the o r c h e s t r a r e s t o r e s the

tonic.

Recognition of t h i s duet's musieal v a l u e came e a r l y ; Leonardo Leo

s e t the same t e x t i n 1737 and used P e r g o l e s i ' s v e r s i o n a s h i s model.

T h i s o r i g i n a l s e t t i n g a l s o appears i n a number of e a r l y manuscripts

of L a Conversione d i S. Guglielmo d'Aquitania, which was f i r s t

performed i n 1731i and r e v i v e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y s h o r t l y a f t e r the

composer's death. The poet whb provided the t e x t f o r t h i s t r a n s c r i p t

i s unknown. I t would c e r t a i n l y be beneath M e t a s t a s i o ' s d i g n i t y to s e t

words to e x i s t i n g music, and i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t purely by chance he

wrote a s e t o f words to s u i t that p a r t i c u l a r m u s i c a l r e n d e r i n g .

The opening a r i a of the second a c t i s not to be found i n a l l the

e a r l i e s t manuscripts. I t appears that P e r g o l e s i had to borrow on the

l a s t minute from Adriano i n S i r i a to s u i t the whims of the i m p r e s s a r i o

and the c o n t r a l t o C a r l o B r u n e t t i . ^ Although i t employs a number of

P e r g o l e s i ' s mannerisms, p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s i o n s of snaps and h i s

f a v o u r i t e syncopations, there a r e c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s of s t y l e which

cannot pass unnoticed. ( G i ) The t r i l l on 'perche* i s not f r e q u e n t l y

found i n that form i n the v o c a l p a r t a t a cadence. The following

o r c h e s t r a l passage ends w i t h a feminine cadence, which was a d e v i c e

( i ) T h i s same number a l s o appears i n L'Addio, a c a n t a t a o f extremely


dubious o r i g i n . C a f f a r e l l i i n c l u d e s the c a n t a t a i n Opera Omnia,
probably assuming a u t h e n t i c i t y of the whole work merely through
r e c o g n i t i o n of one item considered to be by P e r g o l e s i .

111.
g r e a t l y favoured by P e r g o l e s i , but on t h i s o c c a s i o n i t i s handled

u n u s u a l l y c l u m s i l y . The middle s e c t i o n commences i n the r e l a t i v e

minor, r e t u r n s to the t o n i c , and then progresses to an imperfect

cadence as though i n F sharp minor. ( G i i ) T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n occurs

twice, and on both occasions prolongs the dominant 7th i n an u n c h a r a c t e r -

i s t i c manner.

A r i s t e a ' s 'Grandie, ever, son l e tue perne' makes f u l l use of

P e r g o l e s i ' s customary range of embellishments, as i t flows along w i t h

a g r a c e f u l ease and i s o c c a s i o n a l l y punctuated w i t h s u b t l e and effective

rests.

There i s a p l a i n t i v e beauty of e x p r e s s i o n i n Argene's 'Che non

mi d i s s e un d i ' , which i s s e t i n the key of G minor. (Hi) The phrase

•mancar d i fede?' i s given p a r t i c u l a r emphasis by a chromatic descent. ( H i i )

The middle s e c t i o n of the a r i a develops the main theme, f i r s t l y i n the

r e l a t i v e major (B f l a t ) . At t h i s stage one cannot help observing a

c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y to the opening of Arne's s e t t i n g of 'Blow, Blow Thou

Winter Wind' which was w r i t t e n some y e a r s l a t e r . The phrase i s

immediately repeated i n B f l a t minor and then developed through C minor

via a chord of the diminished 7 t h . The c l o s i n g two b a r s (Largo) l e a d to

the dominant chord and prepare the way f o r the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n .

Altogether there i s more evidence of thematic development i n t h i s a r i a


1
than i n the m a j o r i t y of P e r g o l e s i s works.

The movement of the waves i s portrayed by bass arpeggios i n

Aminta's 'Siam n a v i nell'onde a l g e n t i ' , which i n c l u d e s oboes and (later)

horns. 'Impetuosi' i s painted by repeated semiquaver octave l e a p s .

The middle s e c t i o n o f f e r s an unusual point of i h t e r e s t f o r the p e r i o d .

I t adheres to the p a t t e r n of commencing i n the r e l a t i v e minor, but

a f t e r two bars i n common time the i d e a i s q u i c k l y rounded o f f by a bar

i n duple time. T h e r e a f t e r , a t a f a s t e r pace, a t r i p l e measure i s

112.
adopted and t h e t o n i c k e y i s r e s t o r e d , b u t e v e n t u a l l y a r e t u r n i s

made t o t h e r e l a t i v e minor. ( I ) C a f f a r e l l i p o i n t s o u t what he

c o n s i d e r s t o be a f o r e r u n n e r o f l e i t m o t i v e s : t h e opening o f t h i s

s e c t i o n i s an e x a c t t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f t h e opening o f Aminta's a r i a

i n the f i r s t act.

C l i s t e n e ' s a r i a 'So ch'e f a n i c u l l o amore' i s augmented by w i n d

instruments. I n c h a r a c t e r i t would be s u i t e d t o opera b u f f a t h r o u g h

i t s b r i g h t , l i v e l y pace, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h o r t r e p e a t e d phrases and

clear texture. The m i d d l e s e c t i o n f o l l o w s t h e l e s s common p l a n o f

a d o p t i n g t h e subdominant.

1
•Se c e r c a , se d i c e , an " a r i a p a r l a n t e " sung by Megacle, i s one

of t h e f i n e s t a r i a s i n any o f P e r g o l e s i ' s opere s e r i e . I t i s accom-

p a n i e d o n l y by s t r i n g s and i s i n t h e k e y o f C minor. I t s beauty o f

e x p r e s s i o n i s d e r i v e d i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e f r o m t h e fragmented s i g h i n g

phrase w h i c h i s echoed by t h e o r c h e s t r a , and t h e n f r o m t h e v o c a l

"asides". ( J i ) Rests and pauses a r e j u d i c i a l l y p l a c e d t o produce the.

maximum v e r b a l emphasis. A f t e r the attainment o f the r e l a t i v e major,

diminished 7ths ( w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n "Fortepiano") e f f e c t r a p i d

m o d u l a t i o n s i n t o F m i n o r , G major and G m i n o r . The N e a p o l i t a n 6 t h

i s used t o g i v e w e i g h t t o t h e p a t h e t i c n a t u r e o f t h e s e c t i o n . The

second s t a t e m e n t has some v a r i a t i o n i n t h e accompaniment, ( J i i ) , and

ends w i t h one o f P e r g o l e s i ' s most moving passages. The v o i c e s i n g s

• r i s p o n d i ' , w h i c h i s echoed t w i c e by t h e o r c h e s t r a , t h e n a N e a p o l i t a n

6th appears on 'piangendo', The phrase ends w i t h an i n t e r r u p t e d cadence

w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e f u l l a n g u i s h o f t h e s i n g e r ; thereupon t h e words

are r e p e a t e d w i t h use o f a f u r t h e r N e a p o l i t a n 6 t h , b u t end w i t h a

p e r f e c t cadence. The m i d d l e s e c t i o n employs F minor, B f l a t m i n o r ,

113-
C major, and F minor a g a i n , and p o r t r a y s emotion and c o n t r a s t s by

p o w e r f u l use o f d i m i n i s h e d 7 t h s and N e a p o l i t a n 6 t h s . After the

r e c a p i t u l a t i o n a closing section (Presto) follows. Again P e r g o l e s i

t a k e s f u l l advantage here o f t h e e x p r e s s i v e powers o f t h e c h r o m a t i c

chords.

Many c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a r e p r e s e n t i n A r i s t e a ' s ' Tu me da ma

d i v i d i " , w h i c h i s e n l i v e n e d by s h o r t , w e l l p u n c t u a t e d phrases and an

u n u s u a l l y wide range o f dynamics. The form o f t h i s movement i s r a t h e r


1
unusual f o r P e r g o l e s i s day. The f i r s t s t a t e m e n t commences i n G minor

and modulates t h r o u g h B f l a t major t o F m a j o r . Then f o l l o w s a f r e s h

m u s i c a l i d e a w h i c h commences i n t h e new k e y and develops t h e l a t t e r

p a r t o f t h e words. A f u r t h e r statement o f t h i s idea occurs, modulating

from D major back t o G minor. The m i d d l e s e c t i o n modulates f r e e l y , and

makes some use o f s e q u e n t i a l development.

1
Argene's 'No l a speranza i s q u i t e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n mood, f o r m ,

s t y l e , harmony and mannerism. I t s main s t r e n g t h l i e s i n i t s p h r a s i n g ,

w h i c h g i v e s g r e a t emphasis t o t h e words.

The second a c t c l o s e s w i t h L i c i d a ' s 'Gemo i n un punto e fremo',

w h i c h i s s c o r e d f o r s t r i n g s , oboes, horns and t r u m p e t s . There i s a

l e n g t h y and d r a m a t i c i n t r o d u c t i o n i n w h i c h L i c i d a draws h i s sword b u t

i s a f r a i d t o use i t . A f u r i o u s s t r i n g p a r t accompanies a b o l d v o c a l

l i n e , b u t a t 'ho c e n t o l a r v e i n t o r n o * t h e s t a r k phrase i s p l a y e d i n

octaves by t h e o r c h e s t r a . ( K ) The second s t a t e m e n t i s a d i m i n u t i o n

of the f i r s t phrase.

Alcandro's ' L ' i n f e l i c e i n q u e s t o s t a t o * was borrowed f r o m

A d r i a n o i n S i r i a t o s a t i s f y t h e demands o f t h e i m p r e s s a r i o a t t h e

Ilk.
T o r d i n o n a T h e a t r e i n Rome. A l t h o u g h t h e r e are phrases w i t h c o n s i d e r -

a b l e o r n a m e n t a t i o n the s t y l e g a l a n t i s n o t employed t h r o u g h o u t . Twice

bars i n duple time are i n c l u d e d i n order t o avoid rhythmic d i f f i c u l -

t i e s i n the quadruple time. The m i d d l e s e c t i o n commences i n t h e

subdominant and t u r n s t o t h e r e l a t i v e minor o n l y i n t h e c l o s i n g b a r s .

Beauty o f e x p r e s s i o n , though by no means o r i g i n a l i n i t s mode, i s


1
p r e s e n t i n A r i s t e a ' s 'Caro, son t u a c o s i . The s h o r t phrase, a s e r i e s

of snaps, t r i p l e t s , p a i r s o f semiquavers a t phrase ends a r e among t h e

d e v i c e s used e x t e n s i v e l y .

Once a g a i n Megacle has t h e more v a r i e d number. I n 'Torbido i n

v o l t o e nero' t h e o r c h e s t r a i s s p l i t f o r a n t i p h o n a l e f f e c t s . Consider-

a b l e demands a r e made upon t h e s i n g e r ' s range and a g i l i t y . These

comprise l e a p s o f a 1 6 t h , l e n g t h y r u n s and r a p i d r e i t e r a t i o n s o f n o t e s .

Such c o l o r a t u r a e f f e c t s are sure s i g n s t h a t on t h i s o c c a s i o n P e r g o l e s i

deemed i t necessary t o pander t o h i s c a s t r a t o l e a d .

The r e c a p i t u l a t o r y p a t t e r n i s f o r s a k e n i n Argene's 'Fiamma i g n o t a

n e l l ' a l m a mi scende'. There i s a b r i g h t , l i v e l y rhythm and iib c o n t a i n s

a number o f neat, s h o r t , r e p e a t e d phrases. Power o f e x p r e s s i o n i s

p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r c e f u l i n t h e phrase ' p a l l i d e ombre compagne d i m o r t e ' ,

w h i c h C a f f a r e l l i compares w i t h passages o f Gluck's O r f e o f o r d e p t h o f

emotion. (L)

Atlanta's a r i a i s d e r i v e d from A d r i a n o i n S i r i a , and i s a l e n g t h y

movement i n c o r p o r a t i n g a number o f c l i c h e s . The March i s s i m p l e i n

c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n v o l v e s a c e r t a i n amount o f e c h o i n g o f phrases.

I t s harmonies a r e m a i n l y t o n i c and d o m i n a n t , w i t h o n l y b r i e f modulations

t o t h e dominant and s u p e r t o n i c m i n o r s .

115.
L i c i d a ' s ' N e l l a f a t a l mia s o r t e ' does n o t appear i n a l l t h e

o l d e r manuscripts. The main d e c o r a t i v e element i s t h e snap* w h i c h

appears i n p r o f u s i o n . The second s t a t e m e n t o f t h e words d e v e l o p s

f r e e l y , passing t h r o u g h a wide range o f k e y s and u s i n g r e s t s f o r

particular emphasis.

The f i n a l a r i a , sung by C l i s t e n e , makes use o f c o n v e n t i o n a l effects.

C o l o u r i s added by t h e o c c a s i o n a l d i m i n i s h e d 7 t h chord a t a moment o f

s p e c i a l emphasis; o t h e r w i s e h a r m o n i c a l l y i t i s q u i t e tame.

I n t h e m i d s t o f t h e l e n g t h y r e c i t a t i v e needed t o r e s o l v e t h e

p l o t P e r g o l e s i breaks i n t o the stromentato type a t the climax. The

s o l o i s t s and o r c h e s t r a a r e employed f o r a c o n v e n t i o n a l f i n a l c h o r u s

t o t h e work.

116.
1
L 0\

n
7 y
4
53
S=3
I**\.
•^Vt- CLA.
A
It
I
i 3
B.C.
3

i ^ ^—
: * i tT - i I I r I 1
^ • s 1 ! 1 1 V f r P m 1 \ \ \ I L> r
l 1 1 1
' Ki 1
1

1
»
1 i I _ l1 1 I
M 1 L 1 i

; T~ . - O
1 A, • • n r 1 . 1 \ I 1 I 1 1 I I I * ' 1 . II
1u • -* 1 1
1 1 1 1 I 1 ~v 1 1 I 1 1 1 O 1 ,T — _ —*» 1 •
1 ' b H- J i 1 1 1 1
i i i i i i i ; i i
1 / U T 1 » 1 i 1 VI j 1

1
P *•
i
i

H
5 N—i •

to.

5r J I

2 For — ti
n
*o r
nit ^
*l
^ V\K\ *
w-i
1
J I
< ./ \ \i — r i j/ f — i i—r
r Y 1 ' ^ * 1
Y V \ ' '
PlU. »VOrt. S i t^O-v/CV.- »«0 ^ f\.o'. n . « A S i t'"0V0_/\-O / £ t 1*. t~t"»

4- ,fl, • ^ +
i~~r
1£ r/ L J2 i , *
_L
pO.iT - la - A O ( par-la.- /V.O A: - d e l -

4 ! U_l \ t i i T II
I / J L 3E

Pc- d<tV. to.

Fi
—f=—/ r> . S , i — —
1
v V c r J ? =
?

-\ s — " 1/ — 1 11 1 i'
L \s • L. 'J J 1
* 1
4

A
Jf V 9 h _ — / 1^-—
—— f

1
1 1
*L
4 - * - * c
* — 1
v \> l K 1
l — ^ £—Y-—Y >
J To- - c.t
OWDco!
I"
\ r • ?—f- 1 I k 1
'' V ( • \.
3 ; \f
^ ^ 9ou~l<x P a r la.
do i ' C £. c~ - r-of r\. C © /A

as ea
V J

Jir
f — V-'l -i—r

±=± v- J*
LU. lift-/" bo- - r o do - lo^.

Gri

i — r
3=^
/V p - ^>of- t o . - t o r S o ^ i — o de-^ t u o fvae^-^Cof co/v—

^ 1 +
•/—L.

Se>^ - t o dLv. s c a c - c i a f S^^—Zo_ s>°-


1 i i—P=l —/ \—a \—1 -r-i
J
o 1 „J. 11 1—h i f j f g 1 d • x
i
1 1
= • ^ /• J. » » i —« 1

r
P*- ^>er - c^Cj So- — per par — c ^ e , .

1
?f—7> j i ; ; —f i—z? ;—

i_ i — ^
- eke - 7
= . . J.
1
1
1
!
J ^
S
J
X

M
j11
1

^T 1
!

J
/
1 x
ir) ~ 3 Hfcz^ G{ kd " -
T"S
^ 3
-cr
i
0, : „
/' \ C — £ P ™ —A—

H
n
L I 1 r*^i
y i p o / ^-~x 1
\ " ' 1 - - 1 I
1
A b -i. 1 "1 1 \ '. it.*'
V ) ' '. 1 f / -
va> K — u : / i i—i i> » ' ^ 1 1 I
J ' * • f

x t i 1 n i < . i i » i^-* l ti
1 . . 1 \S 1 1 I t r- 1 • a \I —« ••
1
I ' *—~a i
\ ,
'
^
* \
I V
s / i i
il
i/
To. — -TO

H 11
i i -J.
it
7gr
J D_
J L

T^v CA- w . cor

j i
-!—I
TTT

<W. CA. * ^

11}
- © H * — ^ 1—?—r—' 1/ P i — ' / 1 i *r r c v>

v r v | » » r

-f- - Moiso -f- . 1


b — ! — ^ 112 ^ - i ——i — ! — H — l v '1
J
_ J — p — J _ ^ _ l — , t
- r T
M — s —
T
II « 1 1
\ '^ 0
\1
- i dGk.l-1 o»v - d o — S o Of — <^o - Q^-'- -

L
1 < 1 «~N
\ It ' , •*> 1
f
1 '-
i .& o 1 f
K b
h /
Mi'
"
i
1

it/
' h J-
Ht \ .1 \
^ *? ~ J«) v ^ r
1
-, \ -
/ \ 1
i1
\p r V V \/ v \y i ' ki i '
dU-ce. l'a- do- V c 7
d o -•uc • oLo -

t i s A
\
Jf \
n Ys
p

% ^
% — s1 - - z - — w - — f r ^ * t
vg/ ' o -T i fci —1 c r 1 1 k) 1 1 f

V 1
-3 L—J
\ \
1 I I /
• L U » *r - *i
( j j i o U 1°)

J it R.iS - poA.-dc tv^a s o - l o pi'av\.-oe«v • — do OOLT —


™T". k L K T k L k7 k i
11
1 V
i v / , 2—^—*, . A j , J 1. J J „ J ^ r — H
^H*-
U J 1
3 " 1 7 ' - ^ T N0>
K OVO-- 3 ^ — " d o pOLT tl-

J , ; , — j ;o — - — — s k - n \ — J — ^ — \
« X | x * | j .| ^—^—|
b 1
"SJt i N*" 3L

\ -»—7s—^ 1 : 1— ..... _. i
— 1
fc-H-
L_^d
4 * t /—< f j ; b
<
1
i
1
1
i J. .'
1 J*"**
— i t - u "— v

1 J U S f—\ ! 1 '' f 1 f ^— f e a — K
1^1 1
f
f
1
1
—rw~i—i—h—b
|_M<£ Si ! 1 J J 1
uH r / / 1
KJk_£/ J ' C—
4I f; / /r •I

^ h — ^ — i r^l \ H
1 fr^ *—1 ^ K
110
d- i -
P^5
FLAMINIO

P e r g o l e s i ' s f i n a l work f o r t h e s t a g e i s f r e q u e n t l y d i s p a t c h e d

b r i e f l y w i t h such a d j e c t i v e s as " f l o w e r y , sugary and s e n t i m e n t a l " .

I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e s p i r i t e d comic s i t u a t i o n s a r e a t t i m e s o v e r -

shadowed by t h e r o m a n t i c and s e r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e opera, b u t

f r e q u e n t l y such t r e a t m e n t i s necessary i n o r d e r f o r t h e composer t o

remain f a i t h f u l t o t h e t e x t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , a composer w i t h

an eye on h i s " b o x - o f f i c e " would n o t o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t the p u b l i c

as a whole adores a c e r t a i n amount o f s e n t i m e n t i n t h e t h e a t r e .

Performed i n t h e T e a t r o Nuovo, Naples, i n t h e autumn o f 1735»

F l a m i n i o was a marked t r i u m p h , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the d i s a s t e r o f

L'Olimpiade i n Rome e a r l i e r t h a t y e a r . I t a f f i r m e d again the f a c t

t h a t t h e composer's g r e a t e s t t a l e n t s l a y i n opera b u f f a r a t h e r t h a n

i n o t h e r branches o f t h e a r t .

F r e d e r i c o , w i t h whom P e r g o l e s i had s u c c e s s f u l l y c o l l a b o r a t e d

p r e v i o u s l y f o r Lo F r a t e 'Nnamorato and, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , La Serva

Padrona, was t h e l i b r e t t i s t . H i s s t y l e i s concise w i t h c l e a r

character drawing. The N e a p o l i t a n d i a l e c t i s used f o r t h e most p a r t ,

though Checca s i n g s i n t h a t o f Tuscany.

1
We hear o f t h e o p e r a s i n i t i a l success b e i n g r e p e a t e d i n t h e

T e a t r o A r g e n t i n a , Rome, l a t e r t h a t y e a r ( t h e composer n o t b e i n g p r e s e n t ) ,

and s u b s e q u e n t l y , i n t h e T e a t r o d e i F i o r e n t i n i , Naples - 1737,

Siena - 17^2, and t h e T e a t r o Nuovo, Naples - 17^9.

F o l l o w i n g t h e example o f t h e e a r l i e r f u l l - l e n g t h b u f f o work,

the s e t t i n g i s near Naples, and t h e p l o t i s concerned with real people

121.
i n v o l v e d i n p o s s i b l e , though u n l i k e l y , s i t u a t i o n s . W i t h t h i s aim f o r

r e a l i t y t h e customary l e n g t h y passages o f r e c i t a t i v o secco and a r t i -

f i c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n by c a s t r a t i a r e b o t h disposed o f , and t h e

music has l i g h t n e s s and ease o f f l o w .

The l i g h t h e a r t e d n a t u r e o f t h e work i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n a custom-

ary t r i p a r t i t e overture. The f i r s t movement, w h i c h has been borrowed

t o i n t r o d u c e J o s e f F u r g i u e l e ' s e d i t i o n o f La Serva P a d r o n a , ^ ^ i s

b r i g h t and e n e r g e t i c , and makes much use o f echoed p h r a s e s . There i s

a s h o r t passage i n t h e dominant minor b e f o r e t h e theme appears i n t h e

dominant m a j o r , and l a t e r r e t u r n s i n t h e t o n i c . The s l o w e r m i d d l e move-

ment ( i n t h e subdominant) i s ornamented w i t h snaps and t r i p l e t s , and

t h e c l o s i n g ' A l l e g r o ' makes s p i r i t e d use o f t h e t r i p l e measure and


1
dotted rhythm. Of a l l P e r g o l e s i s o p e r a t i c s i n f o n i e t h i s i s t h e b r i g h t -

e s t and most s a t i s f y i n g .

P o l i d o r o ' s p a s t o r a l e , supposedly t o g u i t a r accompaniment, i s based

s t y l i s t i c a l l y upon p o p u l a r f o l k - s o n g and employs a minor mode and

compound q u a d r u p l e t i m e . C a f f a r e l l i anemarks t h a t t h e pathos and e l e g -

ance o f t h e melody precedes P i c c i n i ' s La Cecchina by t w e n t y - f i v e years.

Four s h o r t scenes between P o l i d o r o , B a s t i a n o , G i u s t i n a and Checca

intervene before Polidoro sings a r e p r i s e o f the pastorale.

B a s t i a n o ' s a r i a 'Con queste p a r o l i n e ' has a l i g h t t e x t u r e and t h e

rhythm o f i t s main theme i s syncopated. I t c o n t a i n s passages p o k i n g f u n


1
at the a r i a d i bravura, and mock pathos on t h e words ' l a s s m o r i r o , by

the use o f a N e a p o l i t a n 6 t h w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d by a r a p i d b u r l e s q u e

phrase. ( A i ) Subsequently t h e word ' s a p o r i t i n e ' r e c e i v e s l i g h t h e a r t e d

( i ) published - R i c o r d i - 1955•
( i i ) La Cecchina was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most p o p u l a r opera b u f f a o f
i t s day, and i s s t i l l f r e q u e n t l y r e v i v e d i n I t a l y .

122.
treatment. ( A i i ) A c c i a c c a t u r a s precede a l l s y l l a b l e s , and t h e y a r e

each d e t a t c h e d from t h e n e x t by a c r o t c h e t r e s t . The word i s t h e n sung

over a r e p e t i t i v e phrase, and f i n a l l y b o t h v e r s i o n s reappear sequentially.(A

I n k e e p i n g w i t h b u f f o bass a r i a s t h e r e occur h i g h r e p e a t e d n o t e s w i t h

p e r i o d i c o c t a v e l e a p s , r a p i d ascending s c a l i c passages w i t h o c t a v e

accompaniment, and s l o w e r l o w - p i t c h e d r i s i n g c h r o m a t i c p h r a s e s , sung

p i a n i s s i m o ( i n t h i s case n o t a c c i d e n t a l l y on ' d a l l a p r o f o n d i t a * ) . A l l

these a r e t o be found l a t e r among t h e works o f Mozart.

G i u s t i n a ' s 'D'araor l ' a r c a n o ascoso* i s one o f t h e a r i a s w h i c h

p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c i t e remarks about s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . The form i s t h a t

of t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l da capo a r i a and i t f o l l o w s t h e accepted k e y p l a n

for t h e main s e c t i o n . The m i d d l e s e c t i o n , though, adopts t h e l e s s

u s u a l p l a n o f commencing i n t h e subdominant and m o d u l a t i n g t o t h e super-

t o n i c minor. Harmonically i t i s uncomplicated, b u t ornamentation i n

the v o c a l l i n e i s e x c e s s i v e , f r e q u e n t l y t o t h e p o i n t o f b e i n g f u s s y and

tedious. M e l o d i c phrases show l i t t l e o f P e r g o l e s i ' s customary frag-

mentary t r e a t m e n t , b u t f l o w smoothly, h n h i n d e r e d by any awkward l e a p s .

S y n c o p a t i o n and d o t t e d rhythms f e a t u r e e x t e n s i v e l y i n Agata's

*Tu i l mio d e s i r non v e d i ' . P a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i s the modulation

to t h e dominant w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d by a p r o l o n g e d pause b e f o r e t h e words

'e non so' a r e g i v e n o u t i n minims. The use o f t h e t o n i c minor p l a c e s

P e r g o l e s i i n t h e unaccustomed k e y o f B f l a t minor.

The m i d d l e s e c t i o n l e a n s towards s e n t i m e n t a l i t y t h r o u g h i t s

harmonic c o l o u r . The opening n i n e b a r s , w h i c h commence i n t h e

subdominant (E f l a t m a j o r ) , a r e e x t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t o f a c a d e n t i a l

123-
progression of I , i i b , V7, I . The f o l l o w i n g phrase ( t a k e n f r o m t h e

main s e c t i o n ) modulates t o F major. Then t h e v o c a l l i n e , moving i n

s u s t a i n e d minims over a c h r o m a t i c a l l y descending bass, moves t o G m i n o r

which i s a c o n v e n i e n t key from which t o r e t u r n t o t h e main s e c t i o n . (B)

F l a m i n i o ' s e n t r y i s i m p r e s s i v e t h r o u g h i t s f a n f a r e - l i k e accompani-

ment w h i c h has marked c o n t r a s t s o f volume and a c e r t a i n amount o f

independence f r o m the v o c a l l i n e . The opening e l e v e n b a r s a r e g r e a t l y

fragmented and make s u b t l e and e f f e c t i v e use o f r e s t s . T h e r e a f t e r the

l i n e i s more c o n t i n u o u s , b u t P e r g o l e s i f a v o u r s t h e s h o r t phrase. As

t h e movement p r o g r e s s e s t h e r e are two " f i o r i t u r e " passages. The middle

s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a complete c o n t r a s t : ' A l l e g r o s p i r i t o s o ' g i v e s way to

'Andante s o s t e n u t o ' , common t i m e t o 3/8, and t h i s s e c t i o n w h i c h commences

i n the t o n i c minor concludes i n t h e subdominant minor. A f t e r the b o l d ,

c l e a r l y d e f i n e d rhythm o f t h e main s e c t i o n , as F l a m i n i o ' s t h o u g h t s now

t u r n t o h i s o l d l o v e , i t i s n o t i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e v o c a l l i n e t o be

e m b e l l i s h e d t o express h i s s e n t i m e n t .

A minor mode, a g e n t l e t r i p l e measure and a f r e q u e n t l y r e c u r r i n g

d o t t e d f i g u r e c h a r a c t e r i s e Ferdinando's tender a r i a . The q u e s t i o n s a t

t h e p o i n t o f h i s i n d e c i s i o n a r e c o l o u r e d by a s e r i e s o f augmented 6 t h s .

Once t h e v o i c e has e n t e r e d the o r c h e s t r a l passages a r e remarkable for

their brevity.

Agata's 'Non v o ' t a l sposo' i s b r i e f and o f a s i m p l e c o n s t r u c t i o n ,

w i t h v o i c e and bass moving i n l O t h s . The main m u s i c a l motive i s sung

t h r i c e b e f o r e t h e melody b e g i n s t o d e v e l o p . The short, sequentially

r e p e a t e d phrase i s f a v o u r e d , b u t i n f o r m t h e movement i s a b s o l u t e l y

conventional.

12*+.
Over a s i m p l e bass l i n e P e r g o l e s i weaves an e x t r e m e l y o r n a t e

t h r e a d i n P o l i d e r o ' s 'Da c o s i d o l c e speme'. He s u p p l i e s complex

r e p e a t e d phrases, a f r e q u e n t l y r e c u r r i n g s e r i e s o f snaps and vocal

passages c o n t a i n i n g a number o f mordants. I t can be argued t h a t this

i s c o l o u r f u l , b u t a t t h e same time i r r e l e v a n t , unnecessary and

i n f l u e n c e d by s t y l e s i n opera s e r i a . The middle s e c t i o n ( i n t h e t o n i c

minor) w i t h i t s N e a p o l i t a n 6 t h on ' l a n g u i s c e ' and slow-moving c h r o m a t i c

descent on ' l a n g u i r v e d r a i l ' m i o c o r ' has g r e a t e r s i n c e r i t y and f a r

o u t s h i n e s t h e main s e c t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n .

The s o l e m n i t y o f G minor i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o F l a m i n i o ' s '0 D i o ' .

E q u a l l y s u i t a b l e i s t h e c h o i c e o f t h e mediant minor f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l

passage i n w h i c h t h e words ' s o r t e s i r e a , s i s t r a n a ' a r e fragmented.

The middle s e c t i o n f o l l o w s a somewhat u n u s u a l course i n t h a t i t i s i n

two c l e a r p a r t s , f i r s t l y i n E f l a t major moving t o C minor, t h e n t h e r e

i s a change o f t i m e f r o m k/k t o 3/8 f o r the f i n a l bars.

I n G i u s t i n a ' s f o l l o w i n g a r i a ( i n D major) P e r g o l e s i m a i n t a i n s h i s

c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n by a f l o r i d v o c a l l i n e over a m o d e r a t l e y s i m p l e bass.

Amid t h e e l a b o r a t i o n the melodic shape i s u n u s u a l l y e x p r e s s i v e on t h e

word ' f u o c o * . ( C ) . A p o w e r f u l e f f e c t i s produced by what can b e s t be

d e s c r i b e d as a N e a p o l i t a n 6 t h w h i c h i s used as t h e agent t o r e t u r n

from t o n i c minor t o t o n i c major on 'vago a r d o r ' . Once more t h e m i d d l e

s e c t i o n changes from common t i m e t o 3/8, and w i t h r a p i d c o l o u r changes

adopts as i t s main key t h e t o n i c minor, b u t w i t h o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s

to t h e f l a t t e n e d mediant major and minor and f l a t t e n e d s u p e r t o n i c major,

b e f o r e i t e v e n t u a l l y passes t o t h e subdominant minor. Such a freedom

of m o d u l a t i o n was r a r e i n works o f t h e p e r i o d and forshadowed Schubert

by n e a r l y a c e n t u r y .

125-
I n F l a m i n i o as i n o t h e r b u f f o r W o r k s , s e r v a n t s , who a r e r e a l "down

to earth" characters i n l i f e , a r e g l o r i f i e d and g i v e n prominence o u t

of keeping w i t h r e a l i t y . Checca has a s p a r k l i n g a r i e t t a , w h i c h i s c l e a r

of a l l unnecessary o r n a m e n t a t i o n and has a most s i m p l e chord s t r u c t u r e .

W i t h a p p r o p r i a t e c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f a p r e c o c i o u s maidservant t h e f i r s t

s t a t e m e n t i s a p p a r e n t l y concluded and t h e o r c h e s t r a l i n t e r l u d e commenced


1
when, as a h u r r i e d a f t e r t h o u g h t , she adds 'e c o m p a t i r mi p u o . Not

c o n t e n t a t t h a t , she i n t e r r u p t s t h e o r c h e s t r a a g a i n w i t h t h e same phrase.

The second s t a t e m e n t develops t h e m u s i c a l i d e a s f u r t h e r , jovially

r e i t e r a t i n g ' c o n f o r t i n o ' and t h e n r e p e a t i n g ' z u c c h e r i n o ' s e q u e n t i a l l y .

A s i m p l e b u t e f f e c t i v e passage over a dominant p e d a l i s sung t o 'a l u i

d o n a i mio c o r ' ; a l t e r n a t e s y l l a b l e s on E f l a t ( s f o r z a n d o ) and D ( p i a n o )

produce an i m p r e s s i o n o f p a l p i t a t i o n . F o r much o f t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n

the bass i m i t a t e s t h e opening o f t h e v o c a l phrase a t t h e n i n t h . Once

more we hear t h e p r e c o c i o u s a f t e r t h o u g h t , b u t t h i s t i m e on t h e words


1
a p p r e s s o a l u i ne vo'.

The f i n a l e t o t h e f i r s t a c t c o n s i s t s o f a duet between P o l i d o r o

and B a s t i a n o . I t i s i n P e r g o l e s i ' s f r e q u e n t l y f a v o u r e d 3/8 measure, -

and a f a s t pace i s i n d i c a t e d . Oboes and t r u m p e t s make t h e i r first

appearance a t t h i s p o i n t . The movement i s b r i g h t , w i t h an e x c e e d i n g l y

s i m p l e harmonic s t r u c t u r e . Ensemble s i n g i n g amounts t o a s m a l l s e c t i o n

i n w h i c h v o i c e s move i n p a r a l l e l thirds.

The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e second a c t i s an o r c h e s t r a l v e r s i o n o f
1
Checca's l i v e l y a r i a . Oboes and t r u m p e t s appear a g a i n f o r P o l i d o r o s
1
'Amor che s i s t a a c c o l t o , w h i c h i s h i g h l y d e c o r a t e d and p u r e l y conven-

t i o n a l i n form.

Ferdinando's 'La s c i o r t e mia* commences w i t h a s h o r t syncopated

126.
phrase w h i c h appears t w i c e b e f o r e d e v e l o p i n g on t h e t h i r d occasion.

The harmonic e f f e c t o f the minor mode i s enhanced by a number o f

augmented 6 t h s and N e a p o l i t a n 6 t h s on 'pe l a p i e t a ' . Greater freedom

o f movement i s p e r m i t t e d i n t h e . o r c h e s t r a l p a r t s o f t h i s movement.

The middle s e c t i o n adopts as i t s main key t h e dominant minor, and the

p a t h e t i c mood i s i n c r e a s e d by a s e q u e n t i a l c h r o m a t i c d e s c e n t . After

a p r o l o n g e d pause t h e c l o s i n g subdued phrases a r e u t t e r e d t o t h e

chord sequence N6, V7, V I , w h i c h i s t h e n r e p e a t e d as N6, V?, i.

The t i t l e page o f F l a m i n i o n r e f e r s t o P e r g o l e s i as b e i n g "Organist

o f t h e R o y a l Chapel o f Naples". L i t t l e e l s e i s known about t h i s

appointment, b u t f r o m the absence o f p r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e s we assume

i t was made e a r l i e r i n 1735* Only one work f o r the organ i s known -

t h e Sonata i n F - which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . Some doubt has been

c a s t upon t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h e work merely t h r o u g h l a c k o f i r r e f u t -

a b l e evidence of authorship. Assuming i t i s genuine, i t would p r o b a b l y

have been composed a t much t h e same t i m e as F l a m i n i o . Strength i s

added t o t h e argument o f i t b e i n g genuine t h r o u g h s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t y l e

and c o n t e n t i n t h e u n u s u a l l y f r e e accompaniment t o G i u s t i n a ' s a±ia*In

mezzo a questo p e t t o ' . S i m i l a r r e p e t i t i v e m o t i v e s occur sequentially

i n b o t h , and i d e n t i c a l t r i p l e t a r p e g g i o f i g u r e s a t t h e approaches o f

cadences. A l t h o u g h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t s o f b o t h movements have

q u a l i t i e s o f f r e s h n e s s and b r i g h t n e s s , t h e v o c a l l i n e o f t h i s a r i a ,

when compared w i t h G i u s t i n a ' s o t h e r a r i a s , i s s i n g u l a r l y unadorned.

I t s s i m p l i c i t y ^ i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e accompaniment, p o r t r a y s t h e s i n g e r ' s

a n x i e t y and helplessness.

1
J o v i a l i t y r e t u r n s w i t h Checca's l i v e l y a r i a ' I o son d'un a n i m u c c i o

127.
w h i c h i s a l i g h t h e a r t e d movement w i t h c l e a r o r c h e s t r a l t e x t u r e ^ b u t

the vocal l i n e i s coloured w i t h extensive rhythmic decoration.

I m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s by t h e bass add t o t h e humour, and t h e harmonies

a r e s p i c e d w i t h an o c c a s i o n a l , b u t f o r c e f u l , augmented 6 t h . Greater

demand t h a n u s u a l i s made upon t h e f i r s t v i o l i n ' s range, w h i c h here

r e q u i r e s t h e use o f t h e 6 t h p o s i t i o n .

F l a m i n i o ' s f o l l o w i n g a r i a l e a n s towards s e n t i m e n t a l i t y t h r o u g h

i t s c h r o m a t i c d e c o r a t i o n w h i c h i s c a r r i e d almost t o excess, and

t h r o u g h t h e descending fragmented phrase on '0 D i o , non posso'. ( D i )

P e r g o l e s i p r o v i d e s us w i t h an uncommon b u t b e a u t i f u l l y solemn and

e x p r e s s i v e m o d u l a t o r y passage on ' p i e t a mi t o c c a i l core', (Dii),

as he moves from B f l a t major ( t h e r e l a t i v e m a j o r ) t h r o u g h E f l a t

minor, G f l a t minor, E f l a t minor and G minor i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n ,

before r e t u r n i n g t o B f l a t major.

R e c i t a t i v o s t r o m e n t a t o (one o f o n l y two such passages i n t h e

e n t i r e opera) precedes Agata's a r i a 'Da r i o f u n e s t o t u r b i n e ' . As she

i s t o r n between h e r l o v e f o r F l a m i n i o ( d i s g u i s e d as G u i l i o ) and h e r

b e t r o t h e d Ferdinando, she s o l i l o q u i s e s , and h e r d i s j o i n t e d thoughts

are u t t e r e d f r a g m e n t a r i l y i n a f i t o f melancholia. Trumpets a r e added

to t h e s c o r e , and t e n s i o n mounts as t h e c r i e s o f '0 Dio' a r e r e p e a t e d

i n r i s i n g sequence. ( E ) T h i s phrase i s i m m e d i a t e l y c o n t r a s t e d by a
1
t r a g i c r e n d e r i n g o f 'mi sento m o r i r e , d i v i d e r mi s e n t o .

Bastiano's 'Quando v o i v i a r r o s s e g g i a t e ' i s a t y p i c a l l y b r i g h t

and a g i l e b u f f o a r i a , w i t h s i m p l e harmonies and amusing b u t e f f e c t i v e

repeated c r i e s o f a c a t .

Ensemble s i n g i n g i n t h e duet between G i u s t i n a and F l a m i n i o i s

r e s t r i c t e d t o a few b a r s w i t h movement i n 6 t h s . For t h e most p a r t t h e

128.
s t y l e i s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l , but there i s one s h o r t passage o f fragmented

s i n g i n g i n which the c h a r a c t e r s i n t e r r u p t each other constantly.

A f t e r the main s e c t i o n a more tender passage i n the r e l a t i v e minor

f o l l o w s , but i n s t e a d of a f u l l r i t o r n e l l o P e r g o l e s i i s content to

conclude w i t h a s h o r t o r c h e s t r a l passage.

There i s no instrumental i n t r o d u c t i o n to the l i v e l y t e r z e t t o

sung by P o l i d o r o , Bastiano and Checca a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the second

act. The i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s a r e c l e a r l y defined by t h e i r v o c a l

lines. Sarcasm and mimicry a r e present i n the l i n e s of the s e r v a n t s ,

and e v e n t u a l l y there b u i l d up three s h o r t passages of ensemble i n

which a l l c h a r a c t e r s s i n g d i f f e r e n t words. An o r c h e s t r a l v e r s i o n o f

the t r i o i s employed to introduce the f i n a l a c t of the opera.

1
P o l i d o r o s 'Queste fronde* i s a c l e v e r parody, poking fun a t over

elaborate accompaniment f i g u r e s and repeated words to unison semi-

quaver arpeggio phrases. Strangely, t h i s i s the moment i n which

P e r g o l e s i e l e c t s to abandon the da capo a r i a i n favour of the binary

form.

Ferdinando's 'Sta barca desperata' i s a b s o l u t e l y conventional i n

form, but maintains i n t e r e s t through i t s wide l e a p s , syncopation and

clear texture. P e r g o l e s i ' s mannerism of p l a c i n g two semiquavers on a

strong beat a t phrase ends, n o t i c e a b l y absent f o r much o f t h i s opera,

r e t u r n s and i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h i s number.

I n keeping with the c h a r a c t e r , G i u s t i n a s i n g s a h i g h l y ornamented

a r i a i n 'L'oggetto d e l cor mio*, which i s mainly b u i l t up o f s h o r t

s e q u e n t i a l phrases. The c o n t r a s t i n g section,which adopts the t o n i c

minor and e v e n t u a l l y modulates to the subdominant minor, i s much

simpler and more tender and e x p r e s s i v e than the main s e c t i o n .

129-
No o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r Agata's 'Ad

annientarmi potea discendere d a l c i e l o un fulmine*; the impact of

her f u r y , b i t t e r n e s s and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t on being r e j e c t e d by

F l a m i n i o i s immediate. The v o i c e e n t e r s w i t h a bold r i s i n g arpeggio.

The subsequent descent i s doubled i n octaves by the o r c h e s t r a . Oboes

and trumpets are added for f u r t h e r f o r c e and the v i o l i n s chase

f u r i o u s l y i n semiquavers f o r much of the a r i a . But the s t r e n g t h of

e x p r e s s i o n l i e s mainly i n the w e l l defined v o c a l l i n e which i s devoid

of a l l unnecessary d e c o r a t i o n .

Flaminio reaches the peak of sentiment i n h i s f i n a l a r i a . Almost

throughout there i s a v i o l i n t r i p l e t f i g u r e answering the fragments

of the detached v o c a l l i n e . Both main statements (the f i r s t concluding

i n the dominant and the second i n the t o n i c ) repeat the f i n a l phrase


1
on the words ' s i s a c a n g i a r i n the appropriate minor key.

An amusing scene f o l l o w s i n which Checca f i n d s P o l i d o r o l y i n g

on the ground and supposes him to be s u f f e r i n g from moon-madness.

She performs a simple i n c a n t a t i o n ^ ^ , which gains speed as i t proceeds.

Despite her treatment Polidoro i s r a p i d l y r e s t o r e d and g i v e s vent to

h i s fury i n a r e c i t a t i v e stromentato. The f o l l o w i n g a r i a , which i s

augmented w i t h wind instruments, has a bold melodic o u t l i n e and s h o r t

fragmented phrases c a r e f u l l y punctuated w i t h r e s t s . C r i e s , a l m o s t of

p a n i ^ appear on • t i r a n n a ' , which i s t h r i c e repeated, each time

s u c c e s s i v e l y higher. P e r g o l e s i maintains t h i s work's p r a c t i c e of

employing the augmented 6th i n preference to the diminished ? t h , although

t h i s l a t t e r chord does appear b r i e f l y here.

( i ) C a f f a r e l l i informs us that t h i s was a popular song.

130.
(Fi) The much t r a v e l l e d duet 'Per te ho i o n e l core* i s sung

by the two s e r v a n t s a t the climax of the whole work. I t i s a spirited

number w i t h oboes added for f u r t h e r c o l o u r . Although not appearing i n

P e r g o l e s i ' s autograph score of Flaminio i t i s included i n some manu-

s c r i p t s of La S e r v a Padrona and La Contadina A s t u t a . Following the

example of the h i g h l y esteemed duets i n P e r g o l e s i ' s i n t e r m e z z i , a

b r i g h t melody moves exuberantly over a simple chord s t r u c t u r e . Much

use i s made of r a p i d s e q u e n t i a l phrases and r e p e t i t i o n of a s i n g l e

s t a c c a t o note.

(Fii) I m i t a t i o n of h e a r t b e a t s provides m a t e r i a l f o r buffoonery

between the two s i n g e r s . P i z z i c a t o v i o l i n s enter i n t o the enjoyment

by echoing the v o c a l phrases. F u r t h e r amusement i s added by Checca

s i n g i n g her v e r s i o n i n a high r e g i s t e r while B a s t i a n o ' s appears i n

the low r e g i s t e r . Amidst the " b i l l i n g and cooing" w i t h such endearing

terms as 'caro' and ' g i o i a ' there i s a c e r t a i n amount of ensemble

s i n g i n g , but i t i s r e s t r i c t e d to movement i n lOths as the c h a r a c t e r s

hold each other up to p l a y f u l r i d i c u l e . Although i t i s lengthy,

P e r g o l e s i was obviously aware of the duet's p o t e n t i a l for d e l i g h t i n g

an audience, and consequently provided scope f o r f u r t h e r merriment

by s e t t i n g i t i n da capo form.

A s h o r t l i v e l y ensemble concludes the work. I t fulfils the

purpose of the chorus i n opera s e r i a , but i n a more j o v i a l and light-

hearted manner.

131-
J2_
: t i \ n 4
or. %r j P
~*-r TTT7J !
b 1V v 1
[f^H ft^ 1 ° 1 1 ffP

JZ: to
_i°0

i ^- i \ i ^ f i i - - t i i t -e-
\ ' i i » v i—r

1T •a*-
t=t '< 1 V
± 3
Co' s C
1 J
i
L
i i —c— I
±
— tc - Co-si - \po - C i
So. - -
po -— r\. t

-f- -r- f f f f
i
J
l
L
i i i i i i i i i i \—l- 1 t i
I 1
—iL i S J J L
-r ±
i - o.a. scu -
< po — r i. *te. pa.ro —

i i
i—r
11 ' V \>' '

i i
—— 1
1
"—\
1 —
\ '\
— —
\ — H
M
*; !i ' 1i » !• i 1
1

1
z1 — : x
1 1
1 1 &1 } . )— 1 —b & fc>- 1 d \
'
pa. -£€. f y^v-v. ScCp — cc — te. ( - l a ^ro - j W - c A - v . —

1 1 i IV 1 1 I t ! It
1i Em J~i—i
1 1 1 i l 1 i1 — 1i 11 I I Ii
1. 11 s~\
1 • n
11
<± — f e j - v L — / | r\—j^d tcL
— h
ckuX — lev pro - ^ I J W — dv
f-l
I 1 1

\
s t

ossod vov o <L 0 OS sod

=M J, A1\ •A
—*•


i 7 r i ^ r
v i
'—J

0 5 5 o C vio-v« ossod vov <E 0


7^ 1 7\ 1
1 '1
j n1 K
1 =3

-OA j op

1 ^ 3
I
S—l=!

00 - T)A ©3
f 5 1 1 4
r- r 1
1
! ! 3
1 1 !

p
1 1 Srb
"I
_
l / i
1
f
/

1 —
—• © 11 rzm

\
J
1
1 CD
•e- r.
<S> 1 CJ 0 ~ - w
r 1 u 3 r
1 ^ 1 0 1
1 »

_ -»d
1
{R\
1 1 A r
1 1 ^ - H J -
1
3>
si
1/ EH

I—* '7
5? H*r>f

v V

5 i
i
t
i
3>< tcv

I f
\ r—p—
s
r i

it

1
i-

EX
— f - ± I

i i i
1 9 i— . . . ....—|— — r—^ i —
1—J
'
1 &
1 4W— * < )
. . . r
.1 ... . V.
I T
^/fl'
1
<
-to r«*o - ri -re, -

it \ r-—1 l
r a
4^— i-— ^ — i
i i 1
i
i i
i—Pi—T
i— i-
£ 1
-4—
—Si ~ _ ^— ;
J I F
1
1 1 1

-€^4 L=St
/ * -^S IF-

£2
fl—*- —V-
\—\

tor 10
*\eA co- r S L
i
[ N : : — r •'; , :

1 RT x v S * I kl 1 ^« r . | L
J i
'j y \~ xA
^
j- v: 1
v ^ \ "! \,: v -7; ^

-fc-
_i L -K—K-
±

—c-
^ Y \£-
±

„. . . . I . I. \s \y U. V I. 1^.
ORFEO

At t h i s p o i n t i t i s appropriate to turn a t t e n t i o n b r i e f l y away

from opera and i n the d i r e c t i o n of the s e c u l a r c a n t a t a . A number of

such works have been a t t r i b u t e d to P e r g o l e s i , many obviously i n e r r o r ,

but the s e t t i n g of Orfeo a t l e a s t i s f r e e from a l l doubt regarding

authenticity. I t was w r i t t e n i n the l a t t e r p a r t of" 1735» during a

period of convalescence by the composer, and a t a time when the f i n a l

s e t t i n g of Super Flumina i s considered to have been w r i t t e n a l s o .

T h i s work i s based on what i s probably the best loved of a l l c l a s s i -

c a l legends and f o l l o w s the form of the c a n t a t a da camera which was

popular w i t h c u l t u r e d I t a l i a n s o c i e t y f o r n e a r l y a century p r e v i o u s l y ,

but i t i s l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e i n content and treatment than most works

of i t s type.

The s e t t i n g , f o r soprano and s t r i n g s , commences w i t h a r e c i t a -

t i v e stromentato i n which the composer demonstrates h i s w e l l proven

a b i l i t y i n heightening dramatic e f f e c t by c a r e f u l spacing of h i s

words. (A) As i t has a l r e a d y been observed i n Flaminio, towards the

end of h i s l i f e P e r g o l e s i i n c l i n e d more to s e n t i m e n t a l i t y and profu-

s i o n of ornament i n h i s works, but both i n t h i s and i n the l a r g e r work

the s u b j e c t s presented ample scope for such treatment.

Both a r i a s i n Orfeo are longer than the m a j o r i t y w r i t t e n by

P e r g o l e s i , and although i n da capo form they break a number of i t s

limiting conventions.

The f i n e r example of the two i s ' E u r i d i c e , e dove s e i ? ' which

combines prolonged passages of i r r e l e v a n t c o l o r a t u r a , ( B ) , w i t h

phrases reaching the depths of human emotion. I n the second statement,

a f t e r the f e e l i n g of u t t e r h e l p l e s s n e s s shown by the descending

chromatic phrase 'Chi a l mio cor l a rendera?', there f o l l o w s a f u r t h e r

136.
passage whose s i m i l a r i t y i n o u t l i n e to one found i n *Che f a r o ' of

Gluck's more i l l u s t r i o u s s e t t i n g ( w r i t t e n 1762) cannot be over-

looked. (C) The pause i s used f o r dramatic e f f e c t before f u r t h e r


1
impassioned c r i e s f o r E u r i d i c e . 'Dove? remains unanswered and i s

repeated a t a higher p i t c h w i t h a f a l l of a 7th. The r e c a p i t u l a t i o n

of the a r i a i s abbreviated, and l e a v e s the f i r s t statement a f t e r two

bars i n order to continue a t the corresponding point of the second

statement.

The r e c i t a t i v e , i n common with that which opened the c a n t a t a ,

i s measured out p r e c i s e l y i n i t s note v a l u e s , and c o n t a i n s more than

a customary number of diminished 7ths. I n the c l o s i n g '0 d ' E u r i d i c e '

a s o u l - l e s s phrase i s employed to p o r t r a y the dark waters of the

r i v e r Acheron, ( D ) , and Orfeo's piteous murmaring of ' s p i r i t o

i n f e l i c e ' i s sung to a chromatic phrase which is,accompanied i n

octaves. ( E ) Chromatic descents i n minims, both v o c a l and i n the

bass, emphasise the extent of Orfeo's s u f f e r i n g . (F) As i n the

other a r i a , the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s abbreviated to a r e n d e r i n g o f the

second statement only.

137.
0
f
A
m > 1/ i/^—[7
fer y V
•a- dL«--b«.l-lo lo sA^-S OA. b t V - b f t . - *\>

I
315 ^ Y
4

5'

7 5 3 3

5
\
1

Czzs
1

!
I

7*
1 1 1
*-4 m
cor

^ - I I 1 1 1

i i

t t
tZ3
7 '
^ I *4j ky

135
1

rex,

ri v. r 1 § s

" C k n ^ o " - j r a ^ Geek's ORFE.O.


Cii
J2£
4 r : rr ' ^ h ^ > _^ iC_

id ^ 3
-»A.rv. —

* 1 -
^—iH , 1_ K K-4 r
-1—J—1-^*-

1 I w - E E
=S=2=
cov —So pv-v*. s>©-GV*

2.
r—
- i ^ , ^4— 1 „ 1 ' 6
T
£ | |I — 1 L
i i - M
!
i •
u
^ 1—^
t
0 A-eke- Sul i\e-'o £ O A . - te.

\— v — /"» I 1 1 i 1
t
* ' — i — 1 -tT
\
\

= = =
— t o "v*.- ^ - U — c c .
1
—|
I I r 1
c-t? \ # p ^ p •W < J
i O •rJ
Sof-
—1 -4—
-jVir si Si
— \
V
1— \ (—
: J
(Orck«tr«.l, Bass) -e- -eJfco
Chapter I I I

OPERATIC ATTRIBUTIONS AND WORKS OF

DOUBTFUL ORIGIN

ikO.
OTHER OPERATIC WORKS ATTRIBUTED TO PERGOLESI

Before the e x i s t e n c e of copyrights composers borrowed from which-

ever sources they pleased. I n the realms o f opera the products o f

such wholesale p i l f e r i n g were the " p a s t i c c i o " , a h y b r i d work to which

many l 8 t h century composers contributed w i l l i n g l y , and the b a l l a d

opera, which was compiled o f any popular tunes o f the day, r e g a r d l e s s

of t h e i r s o u r c e s .

Modern s c h o l a r s are presented w i t h s e r i o u s problems concerning the

o r i g i n s o f works which appear i n d i v e r s e forms from a v a r i e t y o f

sources. C e r t a i n works a t one time were a t t r i b u t e d e n t i r e l y to

P e r g o l e s i purely on the s t r e n g t h o f an o c c a s i o n a l item being known

to be genuine. Research, much by Frank W a l k e r , h a s exploded a

number o f myths and traced the o r i g i n s o r e a r l i e r sources o f some

of these works.

I t i s s t i l l impossible, however, to produce an accurate catalogue

of P e r g o l e s i ' s works because o f the l a r g e number of dubious and

erroneous a t t r i b u t i o n s to be found even i n e a r l y manuscripts.

Caffarelli, to whom we are indebted f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Opera

Omnia, obviously made mistakes by a c c e p t i n g c e r t a i n works which have

now proved to have o r i g i n a t e d from other s o u r c e s , and a t the same

time by omitting others which can reasonably be considered genuine.

We s h a l l ' consider b r i e f l y the known h i s t o r y o f c e r t a i n doubtful

works, making a d e t a i l e d observation o f the score of one o f them.

( i ) Two C e n t u r i e s o f P e r g o l e s i F o r g e r i e s and M i s a t t r i b u t i o n s ,
M & L XXX. (Oct., 19^9.)
LA CONTADINA ASTUTA

Confusion arose concerning s i m i l a r i t y of t i t l e s between Basse's

L a Contadina, 1728, and P e r g o l e s i ' s L i v i e t t a e T r a c o l l o , which was

o r i g i n a l l y known as L a Contadina Astuta, 173^» F e t i s , and later

Clement and Larousse, l i s t e d L i v i e t t a e T r a c o l l o as a d i f f e r e n t work

from La Contadina A s t u t a d e s p i t e being held up to r i d i c u l e by

E. F a u s t i n i - F a u s i n i . ^ ^ C a f f a r e l l i published both t i t l e s i n Opera

Omnia, t a k i n g the manuscript owned by F e t i s f o r the work to be

published as L a Contadina Astuta.

The f i n a l duet i n t h i s l a t t e r work i s by P e r g o l e s i - ('Per te ho

i o n e l core') but i t has roamed widely. I t i s included i n C a f f a r e l l i ' s

p u b l i c a t i o n of Flaminio as a duet between Checca and B a s t i a n o , although

i t does not appear i n the autograph s c o r e ; i t i s a l s o used as an

a l t e r n a t i v e f i n a l e to La Serva Padrona. Presumably i t was t h i s item

that prompted C a f f a r e l l i to accept the whole of the present work as

genuine.

The o r i g i n a l s e t t i n g by Hasse was performed i n the Teatro San

Bartolomeo, Naples, i n 1728 as a p a i r of i n t e r m e z z i between C l i t a r c o ,

and was subsequently r e v i v e d by him i n 1733 f o r the production of

Cajo F a b r i c i o . Composers of i n t e r m e z z i were f r e q u e n t l y l e f t without

mention i n the l i b r e t t i ; that was so f o r the 1733 production. An

extremely s l e n d e r argument could be made f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of

P e r g o l e s i being the composer on t h a t occasion, but i t would hardly

seem l i k e l y f o r him to compose i n t e r m e z z i bearing the t i t l e i n question

when Hasse provided the main work and had s e t the intermezzo text

previously.

( i ) G. B. P e r g o l e s i a t t r o v e r s o e s u o i b i o g r a f i - Milan, 1900.

I*f2.
The l i b r e t t o of the 1733 performance, i n common w i t h the

F e t i s score, c o n t a i n s seven items. Numbers 1 to k are a l i k e a p a r t

from o c c a s i o n a l word changes, and are from the o r i g i n a l

L a Contadina by Hasse. Of the remaining items, numbers 6 and 7 i n

the F e t i s s c o r e are taken from I I Tutore, another intermezzo by

Hasse, and the f i n a l item, as we have a l r e a d y observed, i s by

Pergolesi.

Walker sums up the work as a whole a s f o l l o w s : "It is a

p l e a s a n t l i t t l e work, but l a c k s j u s t that i n d i v i d u a l note, t h a t

v e i n of d e l i c a t e sentiment, which was P e r g o l e s i ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to

the f o r m . " ^

( i ) Op. c i t .

1^3-
AMOR FA L'UOMO CIECO

La Contadina A s t u t a ( L i y i e t t a e T r a c o l l o ) was r e v i s e d by

G o l d i n i ( L i b r e t t o ) and C h i a r i n i (music) i n 17^1, who both added new

m a t e r i a l and provided the t i t l e I I F i n t o Pazzo. L a t e r t h a t same

year G o l d i n i was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n which r e t a i n e d

most o f the a r i a s but provided a f r e s h s e t t i n g under the t i t l e of

Amor f a l'Uomo C i e c o . Apparently the music r e t a i n e d three items by

P e r g o l e s i , one by L a t i l l a , ^ ^ and four by C h i a r i n i , who a l s o wrote new

r e c i t a t i v e s and can t h e r e f o r e be considered the major c o n t r i b u t o r .

Unfortunately, C h i a r i n i ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s now l o s t . Confusion i s

a l l the g r e a t e r a s a r e s u l t o f c o n f l i c t i n g evidence regarding the

o r i g i n a l l i b r e t t i s t ; some a u t h o r i t i e s name Andrea Belmuro and o t h e r s

Bernado Saddumene.

( i ) L a t i l l a ( o f t e n wrongly s p e l t a s A t i l l a ) , 1711 - 1791.

B u r n e y ^ * ^ d e s c r i b e d him on meeting i n Venice i n 1770 a s "a


p l a i n and s e n s i b l e man w i t h knowledge of music o f the a n c i e n t
and an understanding o f modern t r e n d s . " H i s i n t e r m e z z i i n
p a r t i c u l a r , some of which were used a s ammunition i n " L a Guerre
des Bouffons", were popular w i t h t r a v e l l i n g buffo companies,
f r e q u e n t l y undergoing changes and being incorporated i n " p a s t i c c i o "
operas.

( i i ) Op. c i t .
I L MAESTRO DI MUSICA

Of a l l the o p e r a t i c works a s s o c i a t e d w i t h P e r g o l e s i none has

undergone more changes i n i t s c a r e e r than I I Maestro d i Musica.

The work, a three a c t opera b u f f a , i s now known to be a p a s t i c c i o .

I t r e a l l y o r i g i n a t e d from Orazio ( o r H o r a t i o ) by A u l e t t a (I698 - 1771)»

and a l i b r e t t o by Antonio Palomba. The o r i g i n a l date of performance

i s u s u a l l y considered to be 1737 i n N a p l e s . B e t w e e n 1737 and

1752 i t i s known to have been performed i n F l o r e n c e , Venice, Genoa,

Graz, L e i p z i g , Hamburg, Milan, Bologna, Vienna, Reggio, London,

Copenhagen, B r u s s e l s , Parma, Lucca and L e i d e n . During t h i s time

there was a steady replacement of items, some of which i n t u r n were

replaced u n t i l the work became a p a s t i c c i o , although s o l e c r e d i t f o r

composition was s t i l l f r e q u e n t l y given to A u l e t t a .

The b e s t manuscript score i s housed i n the F l o r e n c e Conservatory

and bears A u l e t t a ' s name; but i t a l s o i n c l u d e s items by F i n i , Leo,

P e s c e t t i , P e r g o l e s i , O r l a n d i n i , T e r r a d e l l a s , P u l l i and probably

other composers. Eighteen replacement items which appeared i n the

period 17^0 - 9 can be traced to t h e i r o r i g i n a l composers, A u l e t t a

can d e f i n i t e l y be c r e d i t e d w i t h seven more, but the remaining nine

have no c l e a r a t t r i b u t i o n s .

Because of i t s complexity of compilation t h i s opera was f r e q u e n t l y

performed under the names of v a r i o u s composers. Performances i n

( i ) Henry W. Simon, i n The F e s t i v a l of Opera, suggests the f i r s t


performance was a s e a r l y a s 1731*

1^5-
F l o r e n c e during 17^+0 and 17^2 had no s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t i o n , the

production i n Venice (17^3) a t t r i b u t e s i t j o i n t l y to L a t t i l a and

P e r g o l e s i , w h i l e the 17^9 production i n B r u s s e l s g i v e s c r e d i t to

A u l e t t a on one page, and on another to Galuppi, who probably

contributed nothing.

When e v e n t u a l l y a d r a s t i c a l l y reduced v e r s i o n was performed

i n P a r i s i n 1752 i t r e c e i v e d the same popular support as most

I t a l i a n opere buffe t h a t year, and the p u b l i c r e a d i l y accepted i t

as a p a s t i c c i o . P e r g o l e s i ' s work, however, was so much i n vogue

that i t i s not i n the l e a s t s u r p r i s i n g to d i s c o v e r t h a t i t was

published there the f o l l o w i n g year under h i s name. The current

t i t l e was s u b s t i t u t e d a t that p o i n t .

Many v e r s i o n s e x i s t ; the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s range from three

to e i g h t , but d e s p i t e the d i f f e r e n c e s the p l o t i s e s s e n t i a l l y the

same. A young soprano student - L a u r e t t a , l o v e s her teacher -

Lamberto ( t e n o r ) . The l o c a l i m p r e s s a r i o - C o l a g i a n n i ( b a s s ) s e e s

she i s a t t r a c t i v e and makes advances to her. Her teacher consents

to her engagement i n opera and j e a l o u s l y f a l l s i n love w i t h her. She

gets her man and the c o n t r a c t too.

For a c o n s i d e r a b l e time the work was considered to be P e r g o l e s i ' s ,


1
but a f t e r the d i s c o v e r y that four of the main items were from A u l e t t a s

Orazio f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d the other sources, i n c l u d i n g the

three f u r t h e r numbers by A u l e t t a .

The present form i s too long to pass as an intermezzo and still

s h o r t f o r an opera buffa i n i t s own right. However, F a u s t i n i - F a u s i n i

suggests i t was performed as an intermezzo along w i t h S. Guglielmo

d'Aquitania. T h i s view i s shared by Henry W. Simon. Villarosa, who

does not appear to have known I I Maestro d i Musica, mentions i n t e r m e z z i

i n S. Guglielmo d'Aquitania, but makes no s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e . L a t e r

146.
R a d i c i o t t i argues t h a t such a work would have no need f o r i n t e r -

mezzi as i t c o n t a i n s i t s own comic scenes between Captain Cuosemo

and the d e v i l . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t V i l l a r o s a ' s r e f e r e n c e to

" i n t e r m e z z i b u f f i " meant these scenes, and not independent numbers.

F u r t h e r , a drammo s a c r o , although staged as i n t h i s case, i s h a r d l y

the type of work to employ comic i n t e r m e z z i between i t s a c t s .

The v e r s i o n performed i n Venice i n 1743 c o n t a i n s two items by

P e r g o l e s i : 'Splendida per me sereno', adapted from Adriano in Siria,

and 'Mentre l ' e r b e t t a ' from F l a m i n i o . Subsequently, apart.ffrom an

inducement to good b o x - o f f i c e r e c e i p t s through d e l i b e r a t e fraud,

there could have been genuine m i s a t t r i b u t i o n as a r e s u l t of these two

arias.

Even De Brosses was caught out i n the confusion as e a r l y as

1739 by r e f e r r i n g to I I Maestro d i Musica as being by S c a r l a t t i . It

has been suggested the work he meant was Demenico S c a r l a t t i ' s

L a D i r i n d i a (1715), which was otherwise known as I I Maestro d i C a p p e l l a

and based on a s i m i l a r s u b j e c t .

147.
I L GELOSO SCHERNITQ

T h i s work f a l l s again between i n t e r m e z z i and opera b u f f a as

i t contains a f u l l I t a l i a n s i n f o n i a , scored f o r f l u t e s , oboes, horns

and s t r i n g s . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s chorus work, but n e i t h e r of these

f e a t u r e s was known i n Neapolitan i n t e r m e z z i . The only performance

known u n t i l modern times was Venice i n 17^6, and a s i n g l e copy of

the l i b r e t t o s u r v i v e s . On t h a t o c c a s i o n i t was performed between the

a c t s of M i c h i e l i ' s Zenobia. No t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s are a v a i l a b l e to

e x p l a i n how a 3 a c t intermezzo was played w i t h i n a 3 a c t opera.

Unfortunately the l i b r e t t o did not name the composer.

Various guesses have been made regarding the o r i g i n a l performance:

Schatz and C a f f a r e l l i - 1731

Faustini-Fausini - 1732, along w i t h Ricimero

Radiciotti - 173^+-

Other performances were obviously made, as the manuscript from

which the Opera Omnia p u b l i c a t i o n was prepared came from the P r u s s i a n

S t a t e L i b r a r y , B e r l i n , and a f u r t h e r manuscript was housed i n Hamburg.

Both a t t r i b u t e d the work to P e r g o l e s i , and i n accordance w i t h custom

had r e c i t a t i v e s i n German.

The manuscript i n the P a r i s C o n s e r v a t o i r e corresponds e x a c t l y

w i t h the 17^+6 v e r s i o n apart from omitting the f i n a l chorus of the

German v e r s i o n s , and bearing the name of P i e t r o G h i a r i n i , detto il

B r e s c i a n i n o , who l i v e d and composed i n Venice a t t h a t time. No

reasonable o b j e c t i o n can be r a i s e d to h i s being the composer.

Ik8.
I t s s i n f o n i a , which immediately aroused s u s p i c i o n through being

too w e l l developed f o r the majority of o v e r t u r e s composed i n Naples

i n the 1730's, but more i n keeping w i t h Venetian works i n the middle

of the century, has now been proved to be a l a t e r a d d i t i o n . I tis

i n f a c t the f i f t h of 6 s i n f o n i e by Galuppi, offered i n the

B r e i t k o p f catalogue of 1762.

149.
LA VEDOVA INGEGNOSA

L a Vedova Ingegnosa i s the s u b j e c t of much c o n j e c t u r e . I t

seems to have appeared suddenly under the f o l l o w i n g circumstances:

I n November 17^3» the t r a v e l l i n g company of P i e t r o Mingotti gave

a remarkable performance, i n the open-air t h e a t r e a t Hamburg, of

A r t a s e r s e ( w i t h l i b r e t t o by Metastasio and giusic by the Bolognese

Paolo S c a l a b r i n i ) . T h i s was i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h La Serva Padrona.

I n view of the s u c c e s s of the production i t was announced that there

would be a f u r t h e r g a l a evening the f o l l o w i n g day (20th) w i t h p r i c e s

of admission remaining the same, i . e . , stands 1 ducat, s t a l l s 1

r e i s t h a l e r , g a l l e r y 2 marks. The double f e a t u r e was to be Venceslao

by Apostolo Feno and Paolo S c a l a b r i n i , i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h P e r g o l e s i ' s

L a Vedova Ingegnosa. The p a r t s were to be played by the same performers

as i n L a S e r v a Padrona - Ginevra Magagnoli, soprano, and a famous buffo

bass from Cesena, Alessandro C a t t a n i .

We know t h a t the evening was an uproarious s u c c e s s , and, according

to the Hamburg Correspondent of 22nd November, Mingotti had taken

kOO Courant Marks, which i n those days would be considered a v a s t sum.

The two operas were repeated s e v e r a l times with s i m i l a r s u c c e s s ,

and then on 5th December A r t a s e r s e was given a f u r t h e r performance,

but t h i s time w i t h L'Amor f a L'Uomo Cieco which was then presented as

though composed e n t i r e l y by P e r g o l e s i .

The s u c c e s s of these i n t e r m e z z i was repeated i n Prague a t the

C a r n i v a l of and again a t the E a s t e r c e l e b r a t i o n s i n L e i p z i g

t h a t same y e a r .

150.
I n a l l three c i t i e s the l i b r e t t i were p r i n t e d i n I t a l i a n and

s o l d r a p i d l y among e n t h u s i a s t s o f P e r g o l e s i ' s works.

La Vedova Ingegnosa went on to r e c e i v e f u r t h e r fame a s f a r away

as Copenhagen i n 1750 and 1752. Again i t was Mingotti's company who

performed the work a t l e a s t 16 times. Consequently the soprano,

G r a z i a Melline ( w i f e of the above-mentioned Paolo S c a l a b r i n i ) was

honoured with the t i t l e of Court V i r t u o s a , and P e l l e g r i n o G a g i o t t i

t h a t of Court Singer to the King o f Denmark. S c a l a b r i n i , who was

h a r p s i c h o r d i s t to the company, was nominated D i r e c t o r of the Theatre

and of the Court Concerts of King F r e d e r i c k I V of Denmark, i n r e t u r n

for which honour he presented the k i n g with h i s manuscript of the

work. T h i s manuscript, now housed i n the Royal L i b r a r y of

Copenhagen, i s the one on which modern p u b l i c a t i o n i s based.

The f a c t that there i s no e a r l i e r r e f e r e n c e to the work arouses

s u s p i c i o n regarding a u t h e n t i c i t y . According to C a f f a r e l l i the l i b r e t t o

i s considered to be by Tommaso Mariani, who c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h P e r g o l e s i

for L i v i e t t a e T r a c o l l o and would t h e r e f o r e be anxious to repeat the

s u c c e s s w i t h a s i m i l a r work. Frank W a l k e r ^ , basing h i s information

on r e s e a r c h by E . J . L u i n ^ " ^ , maintains i t i s the product o f e i t h e r

or both Ignazio P r o t a and Giuseppe S e l l i t t i . C e r t a i n l y i t contains

a l l the r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s to be found i n the comic i n t e r m e z z i by

P e r g o l e s i and h i s contemporaries, p a r t i c u l a r l y the scheming woman who

outwits her man i n t o matrimonial submission. There a r e the u s u a l two

s i n g i n g p a r t s favoured by P e r g o l e s i , a l s o i n t h i s case two s i l e n t p a r t s ,

( i ) Op. c i t .

( i i ) "Fortuna e i n f l u e n z a d e l l a musica d i P e r g o l e s i i n Europa",


Siena, 19kj>.

151.
and again a c e r t a i n amount of amusement i s c r e a t e d a t the expense

of the m i l i t i a .

Drusilla Soprano

S trambone Bas s

Mostaccio) „ .
„ .,, x Servants
Grillo )

Regular s t u p i d i t i e s occur i n the l i b r e t t o , but they are redeemed by

a musical s k i l l which i s shown i n the c l e a r t e x t u r e and b r i g h t ,

expressive melodies.

Comparing t h i s work with La S e r v a Padrona, s t y l i s t i c a l l y much of

i t s music could be genuine, although i t s l i g h t h e a r t e d movements do not

always achieve the exuberance of the more famous p i e c e . The s h o r t

phrase, t y p i c a l of P e r g o l e s i , appears frequently.' On the other hand,

at no point i s there q u a l i t y of c o n t r a s t which can compare with a

number of S e r p i n a ' s b e a u t i f u l l y developed, long, smooth l i n e s .

I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y La Vedova Ingegnosa i s a p a s t i c c i o , perhaps

c o n t a i n i n g much of P e r g o l e s i ' s music which was subsequently used as

evidence f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the whole work w i t h him. The date and

suddenness of the f i r s t performance would a l s o s u b s c r i b e to the

" p a s t i c c i o theory", as none of P e r g o l e s i ' s biographers have attempted

to a s s o c i a t e the work with a performance of any other work by him,

e i t h e r during h i s l i f e or a f t e r h i s death. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note

that l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s ( i n c l u d i n g Grove's D i c t i o n a r y of Music and

Musicians) make no mention of the work i n t h e i r catalogues of a t t r i b u -

t i o n s to P e r g o l e s i .

The compilation of musical numbers i s good and maintains a u n i t y

of s t y l e which, i n the absence of c o n t r a r y evidence, would suggest a

152.
s i n g l e composer. C l e a r l y i t had the necessary i n g r e d i e n t s and was

d e l i b e r a t e l y designed to ensure a p u b l i c a c c l a i m s i m i l a r to t h a t

accorded to the more famous work.

D r u s i l l a ' s opening a r i a , i n which she implores the god of l o v e

to r e t u r n her - a widow - to a s t a t e of matrimony, employs both

P e r g o l e s i ' s fondness of f l a t keys f o r sad moods and h i s frequent

3/8 time. The s h o r t phrase i s s t a t e d twice and then developed i n

a b e a u t i f u l manner, i n t r o d u c i n g a c a d e n t i a l f i g u r e which was subse-

quently adopted as a mannerism by Arne. (A) The dominant i s achieved

v i a the f l a t t e n e d s u p e r t o n i c . Towards the end of the a r i a the words

" S c o n s o l a t a " and " v e d o v e l l a " a r e repeated w i t h renewed pathos by

employing the tonic minor key.

As i s the u s u a l p r a c t i c e of the Neapolitan School, the a r i a s

are connected by the r a c i n g buffo s t y l e of r e c i t a t i v e .

1
D r u s i l l a s second a r i a i s adventurous, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s p e c t

of k e y s . I t commences r a t h e r unusually without an o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c -

t i o n and c o n t a i n s a chromatic accompanying f i g u r e ( f i r s t appearing i n

bar k) which i s an a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e . Commencing i n F major, the

main s e c t i o n passes through C major, G major, A minor, G major,

C major, C minor, C major, F major, C major and F minor, before

r e t u r n i n g to the tonic major. The dominant minor i s employed w i t h


1
t e l l i n g e f f e c t a t D r u s i l l a s moment of great d e s p a i r , ( B ) , and her

d e l i v e r y f a l t e r s i n a d i s j o i n t e d melodic l i n e . More e x t e n s i v e use of

the Neapolitan 6 t h i s made i n the development of t h i s main s e c t i o n

than we would expect to f i n d i n P e r g o l e s i ' s works. There are f i v e

153-
s h o r t m u s i c a l i d e a s which are a l l the more poignant f o r the

f a c t t h a t they a r e d i s j o i n t e d and show no s i g n of development.

Two passages of spoken dialogue ( p a r l a t o ) occur i n the r e c i t a -

tive. These a r e followed by Strambone's f i r s t a r i a which i s i n the

s t y l e galant. Here one i s s t i l l aware of a c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y of the

opening phrase and that o f the previous a r i a . F o r c e f u l use of the


, ,
diminished 7th i s made i n the accompaniment of "ah t r i s t a r e l l a 1

and there i s a d e l i c a c y of treatment i n the s h o r t 'adagio' phrase

which f o l l o w s i t . (C)

The words " i l p i z z i c o r " occur t h r i c e . (D) E f f e c t i v e weight

i s given on the second o c c a s i o n by use of the chord of the f l a t t e n e d

subdominant and r e p e t i t i o n of the phrase i n the tonic minor. .

The duet to conclude the f i r s t intermezzo i s i n a popular

southern I t a l i a n p a s t o r a l rhythm (12/8), but has a l i v e l y s p a r k l e

associated with Pergolesi. Again the t e x t u r e i s l i g h t w i t h a simple

chord s t r u c t u r e , and the movement, c o n t r a s t i n g g r e a t l y w i t h the three

previous numbers, has more exhberant arpeggio l e a p s . D r u s i l l a ' s open-

ing phrase ( E ) modulates to the dominant and i s thereby c o n v e n i e n t l y

transposed f o r Strambone's r e n d e r i n g . C o n s i d e r i n g the a g i l e nature of

the music i t i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g to observe the l i m i t e d v o c a l range

r e q u i r e d i n t h i s duet; D r u s i l l a ' s compass i s an 11th (C - F>) and

Strambone's i s a 9th (C - D). Elsewhere D r u s i l l a has a l i m i t of two

octaves and Strambone a l6th. F o l l o w i n g the common p r a c t i c e of the

day the duet concludes w i t h an ensemble i n lOths which i s developed

from the opening idea; D r u s i l l a s i n g s " y e s " to Strambone's "no". ( F )

15^.
I n the midst of t h i s s e c t i o n Strambone s i n g s an episode which i s an

amusing t i l t a t the bravura s t y l e of opera s e r i a .

The r e c i t a t i v e to open the second intermezzo again employs a

c e r t a i n amount of p a r l a t o .

1
(G) D r u s i l l a s next a r i a owes much to v a r i o u s s t y l e s . After

an unusually lengthy o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n the v o i c e commences

w i t h a s e r i e s of d i s j o i n t e d phrases which are e v e n t u a l l y developed.

I n some ways the melody i s P e r g o l e s i a n and i s b u i l t up i n a c h a r a c t e r -

i s t i c manner. I f a u t h e n t i c , which seems doubtful, t h i s number i s

remarkable f o r i t s t o t a l l a c k of syncopation, as i t s s t y l e seems

to demand such treatment. Accompaniment i s a l s o much more f l o r i d

than we would expect of P e r g o l e s i i n works of t h i s nature. I t also

contains a c o l o r a t u r a passage w i t h a simple chord s t r u c t u r e i n which

the bass o u t l i n e s the melody i n tenths. The middle s e c t i o n , which i s

mainly i n the subdominant, has a g r e a t l y contrasted accompaniment

c o n s i s t i n g of broken chords. The vceaL'l&ie i s developed from the

opening f i g u r e of the a r i a and g i v e s the whole movement a f e e l i n g

of u n i t y .

(H) The f o l l o w i n g a r i a ( i n F minor) sung by Strambone i s a w e l l

developed movement which employs the f u l l range of the v o i c e . What

must c e r t a i n l y be the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n appears i n L i v i e t t a e T r a c o l l o


1
with the words 'Ecco i l povero T r a c o l l o , but the present t r a n s c r i p t

has a number of s m a l l adaptions. Frank Walker, who quickly dismisses

the whole work with, "This score i s c e r t a i n l y a l s o m i s a t t r i b u t e d to

P e r g o l e s i " , appears to have overlooked the f a c t that a t l e a s t one

aria i s his. The strong opening f i g u r e i s played i n canon a t the

155.
octave by the bass and i s a l l the more f o r c e f u l m u s i c a l l y f o r the

f a c t t h a t an i n t r o d u c t i o n i s dispensed w i t h and the s i n g e r commences

on a high F . The composer q u i c k l y modulates to the subdominant and

introduces an accompaniment arpeggio f i g u r e which i s subsequently

used to develop the movement. T h i s i s followed by a s h o r t

passage o f chromatic harmony i n which s k i l l i s d i s p l a y e d i n key

manipulation by the r a p i d p a s s i n g through C minor, G major, B f l a t

major, before r e t u r n i n g to C minor. As w i t h bass a r i a s elsewhere

emphasis i s added to the v o c a l l i n e by s c o r i n g f o r the o r c h e s t r a

i n octaves w i t h i t . ( T h i s device was a l s o favoured by Handel a t

s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s , e.g. "0 Ruddier than the Cherry" from A c i s & G a l a t e a . )

The r e t u r n of the main theme f o r the end of the s e c t i o n has even

g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h i n i t s wide l e a p s and the f a l l of a major 7th onto

the i n t e r r u p t e d cadence which appears before the decorated p e r f e c t

cadence. I n the middle s e c t i o n the accompaniment i s f l o r i d and

contains chromatic e f f e c t s . The o c c a s i o n a l f o r c e f u l phrase i s played

i n octaves w i t h the voice, which i s given some amusing passages o f

mock bravura.

( I ) F o r the f i n a l e there i s a r e t u r n to 3/8 time and a l i g h t l y

t r i p p i n g melody over a simple chord s t r u c t u r e , c o n s i s t i n g to a

great extent of t o n i c and dominant harmonies. F o r D r u s i l l a a longer

flowing phrase i s employed w i t h a s e r i e s o f 4-3 suspensions over a

descending b a s s . Strambone's v e r s i o n i s developed from t h i s opening,

but the s e r i e s o f suspensions i s now of the 7-6 v a r i e t y .

Once again the ensemble s e c t i o n s favour movement i n lOths; but

156.
there i s one humourous s e c t i o n where, i n r e p l y to D r u s i l l a ' s query

regarding h i s f e e l i n g s , Strambone s t a t e s he i s not j e s t i n g . (J)

Here the s t r i c t e s t economy of v o c a l w r i t i n g i s adopted by making the

p a r t s i n t e r r u p t each other and produce what becomes a three note

f i g u r e which i s sung s i x times i n descending sequence. (Even i f

Strambone was not j e s t i n g the composer c e r t a i n l y was. The middle

s e c t i o n of t h i s duet g i v e s g r e a t e r scope f o r comedy, p a r t i c u l a r l y

i n the r a p i d l y repeated notes which a r e then echoed by the o r c h e s t r a ;

one cannot overlook a c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y of l i n e given to Papageno

i n Die Z a u b e r f l o t e . J u s t p r i o r to t h i s there i s a d e l i g h t f u l f i g u r e

of mock pathos produced by canon a t the 7th, ( K ) . I t i s almost

as moving ( i f we would l e t o u r s e l v e s be moved here) as the passage

which opens the S t a b a t Mater.

157.
1 £3 7\

a.

I
k i

9i
Y*VOL. to-r

f • 0 - \ S 1 1
p ^ i
4
•KI
H ?
f , k 1/ ^ 1 1 h 11 1 ,
1 / 1' . I /
k - - L '
1 A 1/ i ' " ' i
1
l *»
t J
1
V 7 bJ i
r
J L

11 "1 i* i
It j J / L J
1
1-5-4 / h 1 |

J vf
Jor - pew - l a r .

i i . i i i .'' *- \
1=3
3 I i I
Y Y ! 't• ^ i i

CO
I

k, r ^ 9 £

3> *v If-
7 r '/ ii f i : ^i ">i I -»-N 4rf I I
I i r TTT
*E|E / Y tJz: _L
c a

1 I I I J
* ^———\—_ „ r?—•—X7—~,— 1

1 ^ 1/ 7
M n Y
\ v
i 1

—V- i—\c 1
cor 12. COT
42: T .1 1 \ y ' V 1^ f ^ . -N ! . I
± \ I •1 \T> / LI M J ' / I
m 4 3

n ID + 23±
St vol - ft. ift. I - h iA.

— r . ^ ,\ ^— • . » < - . < - .
— . — ~ — ^ — — . — — t — i f — — r
1 I. i 1 l l - ? 1- H — —
-1 " 1 1— - 1
-A4 =M4 ===4—
(J
F o r - S«- poi di. - r&. (i;-s'i di-fo- di. ;
Si, Si, 5i, Si,
^ • -r~"
\ .' ^ : II i ii \ i i V i l l I ~t~'
' \- ~f" I 1 •
QvbB i—}— —\~\~\ i—r~r i—n m — —i 1 1 i "T i i i
V)I-.U»S. 1 1 ! !.!._ _J L4= L4 1=4—! —1 — ! 1 J • 1 1
/17 % —
/ v
d i - r o ciCct^o^ai dv. Si, Qia.f*f\fiu di. Si f *-o/ ° / «vo, UNJS *vo,

— ^ s ^ 1
- v 111 ^ r i 1— • \ 1 hH—i—H—\ 1 1 1
I1 «1 1—I
L 1[• 1; V—J -i
—1
1—« 1
— t - M — — t = y — k - U
| o r - S * - p o i d l — r c k . d*. SC ; d C - r o - d i - r o . ^ <3iv-rok.
( ^ ; Si.
1 1 1 .
f • 7 i T f-r-i= ; {! 7! V \ . 1 ' \ .* 1
!
— n1 j — ~—>-*
n — 1 | -HH r-h HH VM— 1 •
1 Tnt7
V'H
1

i
s
Sow Qote/'- ri«. - C o

1 1 -tr-r
N-^ - 1/ I I
->—1—r
v/o- ^Uo Sot-to d«

J-L
Sfcc dec

IT9
CVil ; 1 j ^ f-vrzr- r V. 1 1 f . \ A
1 A i/> r, 1 I / 1 • i
i
) V ? c 1
i V U I' - l V y Y V Y ' —i
Y . .... [ L -

/>, i i

- J -1—! 1—J-^-
— * 1 — '

i — r
0
—r- ^ i/ i- l * i i/ i I Ti r I i ( " T r ^ J i ^ j 11}—i—-Hi

J
i
H. ,—- h r
h E
i k t i ^ :

4 a i ^ z T
it—I
-=J-T—f—
r- ^ —<—/ 1 ;
" - J! j h ' J J
r

- f - ' /' j* 1
1 r i r f
/ .lv—lI
l 11 1 • r 1

Q^itS SB ' 1v/ 'T^ _-3 / A ,i1 \V


4 — £
f —
1
—\ 1 V vJ\
1 V 1" — 1 Y (\/\
1 |
T7— < 7
G
^-1—1

K

5a. - ro~

HH
^: k '/ | 1/

i
KO
RICIMERO

As the catalogue of m i s a t t r i b u t i o n s continued t o develop an

apparently mythical t i t l e was added t o the l i s t . This was the

supposed opera s e r i a Ricimero. The e a r l i e s t known r e f e r e n c e ^ ^

occurs eighty years a f t e r Pergolesi's death. No score or l i b r e t t o

of the work i s known, That an opera s e r i a of t h i s period could

disappear without trace i s i n c r e d i b l e . I t was supposed t o have been

performed i n the Teatro San Bartolomeo, Naples, i n 1732 - according to

F a u s t i n i - F a u s i n i who, having coupled S. Guglielmo d'Aquitania and

I I Maestro d i Musica, was l e f t w i t h the undated I I Geloso Schernito

and the supposed Ricimero. He opted f o r the obvious course of a c t i o n

and conveniently married o f f these two also. Apart from the reference

to Ricimero, Mazzarella's a r t i c l e only mentions L'Olimpiade as being

among Pergolesi's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o opera s e r i a . A h i s t o r i a n who omits

reference t o opere s e r i e , opere buffe and intermezzi of undisputed

a u t h e n t i c i t y , but names a h i t h e r t o unknown work and i s unable t o

support i t w i t h any evidence, h a r d l y deserves credence.

Probably the confusion arose through a number of operas w i t h

the t i t l e Ricimero being known by Mazzarella, who ascribed one more t o

Pergolesi. To mention but two composers here, both Jommelli (171^ -

177*0 and Maio (1732 - 1770) wrote operas Ricimero Re d e i G o t i , the

former i n 17^0 and the l a t t e r i n 1759i and both were f o r performance

at Rome. I t has been suggested t h a t confusion may have a r i s e n through

Pergolesi's I I P r i g i o n i e r Superbo, as Metalce i n t h a t work was the

( i ) Frank Walker (Op. c i t ) traces A. Mazzarella's a r t i c l e on


Pergolesi i n Domenico M a r t u s c e l l i ' s " B i o g r a f i d e g l i uomini
i l l u s t r i d e l regno d i Napoli", ( V o l . I l l - l 8 l 6 . )

161.
"King of the Goths".

I n the l i g h t o f a l l the evidence there i s no reason f o r arguing

t h a t Pergolesi ever wrote a work bearing the t i t l e o f Riciraero.

LA STUDANTE ALIA MODA

La Studante a l i a Moda, an opera b u f f a , was produced a t

Covent Garden i n 175^ and passed o f f as being by P e r g o l e s i . Research


1
has shown the only a r i a l i k e l y t o be genuine i s 'Piu no s i Trovano ,

which was borrowed from L'Olimpiade, and t h a t the bulk o f the work i s

Violante by Logroscino w i t h some borrowings from Auletta's L*Amor

Constante.

OTHER DOUBTFUL ATTRIBUTIONS

Further works which have been a t t r i b u t e d erroneously include

Dalina e Balbo, I I Cavaliere Ergasto (now known ato be P i c c i n i ' s

La M o l i n a r e l l a - 1766), and Temistocle, which was f i r s t set by

Caldara i n 1736. I n each case manuscript versions name Pergolesi as

the composer, but there i s no evidence t h a t he wrote such a work o r

even record of performances by any composer during Pergolesi's l i f e t i m e

Two volumes i n Opera Omnia published as A r i e da Camera and

Frammenti d i Opere T e a t r i c a l e contain a v a r i e t y o f items now known t o

be by A r r e s t i , Bononcini, Chinzer, Lampugnani, Leo, O r l a n d i , Rinaldo da

Capua, A. S c a r l a t t i , Giuseppe S c a r l a t t i , S e l l i t i , Terredellas and

others. Among various separate a r i a s i s 'Tre g i o r n i son che Nina*

which was a t t r i b u t e d t o Pergolesi u n t i l S p i t t a i n 1887 claimed i t f o r

Rinaldo da Capua on the grounds t h a t i t appeared i n La Bohemienne, a

French adaption of La Zingara, performed i n P a r i s , 1755* Barclay Squir

shows the a r i a was introduced i n 17551 having been taken from an opera

( i ) M.T. 1899.

162.
L i Tre C i c i s b e i R i d i c o l i (performed i n London i n 17^9) by the Milanese

composer Natale Resta. But t h i s a r i a does not appear i n the l i b r e t t i

of e a r l i e r performances o f the work i n Bologna - 17^8, or Venice -

17^8 and 1752. I t seems t o have appeared f o r t h i s London perform-

ance a t the i n s t i g a t i o n o f the impressario Ciampi. E a r l i e r manuscripts

have only one verse, and i t i s thought t h a t Ciampi was responsible f o r

a second being added t o make i t r e l e v a n t t o L i Tre C i c i s b e i R i d i c o l i .

I t i s sung as a seren&Aee by Lindoro who t h i n k s he i s addressing

Modulina. No character by the name o f Nina appears i n t h i s work.

Ciampi i n adding the a r i a a t t h i s p o i n t expects h i s audience t o

accept "Nina" as a convenient d i m i n u t i v e o f "Modulina".

Walker thinks Ciampi may w e l l have been a Neapolitan, although

i t i s generally said without proof t h a t he was born i n Piacenza.

The l i b r e t t i o f h i s three operas describe him as Signor Vincenzo Ciampi

"Maestro d i Cappella Neapolitan©". A probable theory i s t h a t t h i s a r i a

was a popular song i n Naples, p o s s i b l y by P e r g o l e s i , and i t was here

t h a t Ciampi f i r s t made i t s acquaintance. R a d i c i o t t i maintains t h a t

a l l e a r l y I t a l i a n manuscripts o f the song have only one verse and

clearly a t t r i b u t e i t to Pergolesi.

The vast number o f minor Eighteenth Century I t a l i a n oomposers

makes p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f many works impossible merely through

individuals* points of style. The s t y l e o f t h i s song i s t h a t o f

Pergolesi, but i t could also be claimed t o be i n keeping w i t h Ciampi,

whose works f r e q u e n t l y show considerable Pergolesian i n f l u e n c e .

163.
Chapter IV

PERGOLESI'S SACKED WORKS


PERGOLESI'S SACRED WORKS

I n I t a l y during the e a r l y Eighteenth Century, the Mass by v i r t u e

of the organisation o f i t s l i t u r g i c a l form gave much scope f o r

musical i n s p i r a t i o n which both s a t i s f i e d the requirements o f the

Church and a t the same time permitted (freedom o f imagination. An

a t t i t u d e o f love o f music f o r i t s own sake, (as seen i n Neapolitan

opera) pervaded s e t t i n g s o f the Mass. Outdated modes o f expression

were s t e a d i l y replaced, as composers f r e q u e n t l y turned t o opera f o r

t h e i r lead. Religious t e x t s were o f t e n s e t t o music devoutly and

w i t h the same ardour as secular works. But f r e q u e n t l y t e x t and music

only corresponded loosely as a r e s u l t o f the composers' preoccupa-

t i o n w i t h musical form, which caused (through the desire f o r symmetry)

much unnecessary and i r r e l e v a n t r e p e t i t i o n o f words.

Construction owed much t o instrumental movements o f the period.

The formal elements o f the sonata and rondo were included f i r s t l y i n

the works o f such men as Pergolesi, Jommelli and Hasse.

Many Masses i n the e a r l y C l a s s i c a l period owe t h e i r existence

to the instrumental forms which dominated them. I n d i v i d u a l movements

f r e q u e n t l y were merely o r c h e s t r a l movements w i t h voices i n the back-

ground. Often Kyrie and G l o r i a s e t t i n g s commenced w i t h an i n t r o d u c -

t i o n which could almost be classed as an overture, and the voices

entered the movements only where symphonic t e x t u r e allowed f o r

reinforcement. But, generally, i n the e a r l y Eighteenth Century

s e t t i n g s groupings o f i n d i v i d u a l parts were c a r e f u l l y planned, e.g.,

the Kyrie adopted Kyrie-Christe-Kyrie, a ternary p a t t e r n . Final

sections o f the G l o r i a and Credo were sometimes r e p e t i t i o n s o f the

musical openings reintroduced i n order t o produce a formal u n i t y .

I65.
Gradually sonata form overtook the K y r i e , and Masses o f t e n commenced

w i t h a slow i n t r o d u c t i o n , somewhat i n the manner o f the opening

Haydn l a t e r adopted f o r symphonies.

The da capo a r i a was an acceptable form f o r opera, b u t f o r

r e l i g i o u s works composers p r e f e r r e d binary form, and only permitted

those items r e q u i r i n g recapitulation o f thought t o adopt ternary

form. Coloratura e f f e c t s were s t e a d i l y reduced and usually reserved

only f o r r e l e v a n t places.

Choruses were l a r g e l y polyphonic, but during the period homo-

phony was employed w i t h increasing frequency, e s p e c i a l l y i n the

treatment o f v e r b a l passages r e q u i r i n g p a r t i c u l a r emphasis. Although

i t employed a l l devices o f opera and instrumental music o f the day,

the Mass could be considered independent i n s t y l e and t y p i c a l of

Church music o f the p e r i o d .

N a t u r a l l y o r a t o r i o took i t s shape from opera, and provided an

adequate s u b s t i t u t e f o r i t d u r i n g Lent. Reforms made by Zeno were

f a i t h f u l l y observed. One o f o r a t o r i o ' s advantages over opera was the

scope provided by the occasional use o f a chorus other than as a mere

f o r m a l i t y o f opening or c l o s i n g the work. Composers o f the period

who wrote o r a t o r i o , namely Bassani, Bononcini, A r i o s t i , Marcello,

L o t t i , and the Neapolitans - A. S c a r l a t t i , Feo, V i n c i and P e r g o l e s i ,

produced works which were performed i n a l l European musical centres.

I n o r a t o r i o a l s o , as i n s e t t i n g s o f the Mass, polyphony was the

main mode o f expression. At times, L o t t i i n p a r t i c u l a r , b u t Pergolesi

and others a l s o , returned t o a s t r i c t P a l e s t r i n i a n s t y l e , w i t h s t r i n g s

doubling the voices.

166.
I n a d d i t i o n t o renderings of the Mass and some c o n t r i b u t i o n i n

the f i e l d of o r a t o r i o , Pergolesi i s also c r e d i t e d w i t h a number of

Psalm s e t t i n g s (some being open to doubt), various motets, four versions

of the Salve Regina, a s e t t i n g of the Requiem Mass and the M a g n i f i c a t ,

and h i s best known work - the Stabat Mater. His sacred music i s

p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o catalogue because of probable d u p l i c a t i o n s

between l i b r a r i e s and the almost c e r t a i n existence o f adaptions or

arrangements of some works.

L i t t l e argument can be made regarding a u t h e n t i c i t y of the

f o l l o w i n g works:

I I Pentimento - the manuscript o f an o r a t o r i o i n the Royal Music

L i b r a r y , B r i t i s h Museum,

La Morte d'Abel - the manuscript of an o r a t o r i o i n the Allgemine

Musikgesellschaft, Zurich,

A s e t t i n g of Septem Verba, also a t Z u r i c h , and

La Nascita d e l Redentore - an o r a t o r i o known t o V i l l a r o s a i n 1831,

but now l o s t (- probably genuine).

A s e t t i n g of 0 S a l u t a r i s H o s t i a ^ ^ f o r tenor, bass and cembalo i s

not included i n Opera Omnia. An autograph manuscript, dated 1729»

e x i s t s i n the B r i t i s h Museum and makes t h i s the e a r l i e s t known work.

A complete s e t t i n g of the Agnus Dei i n B minor, of which C a f f a r e l l i

had only discovered an incomplete version, was found i n America i n 19^9*

Again, t h i s i s i n autograph manuscript, and i s dated 1732. This s e t t i n g ,

scored f o r four voices, and edited by R. F. Goldman, i s now published

by Mercury Music Corporation, New York.

( i ) Add. MS. J+1063 M. f f . 93-95

167.
Despite a number o f uninspired and conventional passages i n

Pergolesi's s e t t i n g s o f r e l i g i o u s t e x t s there are many pages showing

an o r i g i n a l i t y which was f i r e d w i t h the zeal o f youth. I t i s a pity

t h a t , w i t h the exception o f the Stabat Mater and occasionally the

Magnificat, most o f these works are gathering dust r a t h e r than being

performed.

168.
LA CONVERSIONE DI S. GUGLIELMO D'AQUITANIA

Although f o r the purpose o f the present survey t h i s work i s

considered under sacred music, i t has a number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

which could argue f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n under the section devoted t o

opera. I t i s one o f Pergolesi's e a r l i e s t works, and was performed

( i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y by h i s fellow-students from the Conservatorio)

i n the monastery o f Sant'Agnello Maggiore, i n the summer o f 1731*

I t i s a curious work, i n t h a t i t i s a k i n d o f sacred drama which

apparently was intended t o be acted. There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g l i s t

of characters included t o combine e d i f i c a t i o n and amusement. Already

Pergolesi's w i t , sparkle and t h e a t r i c a l f l a v o u r are present i n the

musical s t y l e and p o r t r a y a l o f the characters. Good and e v i l

characters are contrasted against each other: a s a i n t and an angel

are opposed by the d e v i l and Captain Cuosemo, a buffo bass who sings

throughout i n the Neapolitan d i a l e c t .

The s i n f o n i a f o l l o w s the three movement plan. The f i r s t i s a

f a n f a r e , mainly on the tonic chord o f D w i t h a few bars i n the

dominant. A f u l l orchestra o f s t r i n g s , oboes, horns and trumpets

i s employed to produce a p a r t i c u l a r l y vigorous opening. The middle

section (without key signature, but i n the tonic minor) i s scored

for s t r i n g s alone. The opening f i g u r e f i l l s e i g h t consecutive bars,

then modulates t o F major, whereupon a new f i g u r e appears and i s

repeated f o r four bars. Thereafter the opening f i g u r e r e t u r n s f o r

s i x more bars, which r e t u r n from F major t o D minor. The movement

closes w i t h four f u r t h e r bars o f the second f i g u r e . One could h a r d l y

c r i t i c i s e Pergolesi f o r lack o f economy i n t r e a t i n g h i s musical ideas

169.
For the f i n a l movement there i s a r e t u r n t o the tonic key.

A somewhat unusual speed o f "andante" i s adopted, and the movement

i s i n 3/8 time, one of Pergolesi's most j u b i l a n t measures. Trumpets

are reintroduced i n t o the score a t t h i s p o i n t . This movement i s i n

binary form w i t h neat four-bar phrases, a number of which end w i t h a

quaint c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feminine cadence. The c l o s i n g eighteen bars

are a continuous r e p e t i t i o n o f the f i n a l c a d e n t i a l progression.

The opening r e c i t a t i v e introduces a l l f i v e characters, and

immediately displays d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The

accompaniment f o r the d e v i l has low and close-positioned chords,

whereas those f o r the angel are high and open. St. Bernard i s

portrayed as a p l a c i d character ("Adagio" i s s p e c i f i e d ) and h i s

p a r t generally has a gentle o u t l i n e .

Guglielmo's opening a r i a i s noticeable f o r the number o f short

repeated sequential phrases and changes o f speed, which are r e f l e c t i v e

of h i s i n d e c i s i o n . The b r i e f middle s e c t i o n i n the r e l a t i v e minor,

apart from i t s f i n a l phrase, i s declamatory and t r e a t e d r a t h e r as

though i t were a r e c i t a t i v e stromentato.

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f r e q u e n t l y appearing i n l a t e r works occur i n


1
St. Bernard's 'Dio s'offende . P a r t i c u l a r l y do we f i n d c a d e n t i a l

decorations w i t h t r i p l e t or semiquaver f i g u r e s and 6-5 suspensions.

The pause and r e s t s are c a r e f u l l y placed t o h i g h l i g h t the words

'sordo* and 'cieco'. I n the middle s e c t i o n ( i n the t o n i c minor -

G minor), f u r t h e r emphasis i s required on the word 'cieco' to which

Pergolesi adds harmonic colouring by a p t l y s e l e c t i n g the mediant

minor (B f l a t minor). (A) The s e c t i o n ends i n D minor a f t e r a

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and e f f e c t i v e f a l s e close,.

The angel's f i r s t a r i a i s b r i g h t r h y t h m i c a l l y w i t h syncopated

170.
f i g u r e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h o r t repeated phrases. The f i r s t violin

has a f l o r i d l i n e which i s mainly i n semiquavers, but w i t h a number

of descending demisemiquaver runs. The middle section i s delayed

by a r e c i t a t i v e from Captain Cuosemo. The r e l a t i v e minor i s

selected; the angel condemns him f o r h i s f o o l i s h idea, and repeats,

amidst pauses and an i n t e r r u p t e d cadence, the phrase 'tuo f o l l e


1
pensier . (B)

Between the a r i a s of the two protagonists comes Cuosemo's f i r s t

a r i a , w i t h comic clumsy r e p e t i t i o n of r a p i d m a r t i a l sounding phrases.

Already we can see the composer's prowess a t poking fun a t the conven-

t i o n a l a r i a d i bravura. The c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n f a l l s i n t o two c l e a r

parts: Andante 3/8, and A l l e g r o marziale and both are w e l l

punctuated w i t h r e s t s .

E f f e c t s are obvious i n the d e v i l ' s 'Afondar l e me grandezze': a


r
rushing descending v i o l i n scale on cado' i s complemented by an ascent

on 'sorgaro'. Once again the short repeated phrase features prominently

i n an a r i a which i s completely conventional i n form.

A more ornamental s t y l e i s present i n the angel's 'Dove mai

raminga mai b e l l a agnella', which i s a b e a u t i f u l l y tender number, and

a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n a p a s t o r a l rhythm. Semiquavers give way t o t r i p l e t s

i n an easy f l o w i n g development. A feature o f the movement i s the

v i o l i n semiquaver arpeggio used w i t h the v o i c e , f i r s t against the

fragmented phrase 'spersa i n boschi o r r e n d i ' , and subsequently as a

l i n k between s e c t i o n s . The second statement has f u r t h e r rhythmic

ornamentations w i t h " c o l l a voce" warnings f o r the accompaniment.

A f t e r the d i a t o n i c harmonies and f l u e n t beauty of the main section

the middle s e c t i o n presents a complete contrast through the r e d u c t i o n

of speed i n a d d i t i o n to the expected key change to the r e l a t i v e minor.

171.
Vocal t r i p l e t s appear against demisemiquavers and semiquavers i n the

accompaniment; diminished ?ths are also employed t o emphasise the

f e e l i n g o f i n d e c i s i o n regarding the course t o be taken. Brief

reference i s made t o the semiquaver motive from the main s e c t i o n as

the climax i s reached. When thoughts o f the merciless wolf are a t

t h e i r height t h i s motive reappears as though t o t u r n the s t r a y i n g

mind back towards s a f e t y .

St. Bernard precedes h i s a r i a w i t h a r e c i t a t i v o stromentato

which r e f l e c t s on Guglielmo's obstinacy. S t r i n g s , moving i n octaves,

punctuate t h i s movement. The s a i n t warns and entreats him t o d e s i s t .

The a r i a breaks from the conventional da capo plan, as a r e c a p i t u l a -

t i o n would be obbtrusive i n the context. (C) The subject o f the

f i r s t phrase ( i n G minor) i s Guglielmo's lack o f concern about the

horrors o f h e l l . This phrase i s then transposed i n t o the r e l a t i v e

major and used t o r e f e r t o h i s lack o f b e l i e f . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis

i s l a i d upon 'peccator' by means o f a vocal f l o u r i s h . A beautiful

v i o l i n obbligato i s the outstanding feature o f the o r c h e s t r a l

accompaniment, which proceeds w i t h a gentle r a t e o f chord progression.

I n the c o n t r a s t i n g section greater i n t e n s i t y i s achieved mainly through

the dominant minor. P r i o r t o the days o f p u b l i c a t i o n t h i s a r i a proved

to be p a r t i c u l a r l y popular, and a number o f a l t e r a t i o n s were made f o r

various performers. The r e s u l t i s that even the oldest manuscripts

disagree over d e t a i l s .

A quartet closes the f i r s t a c t . Guglielmo, heartbroken, wishes

to atone; he i s consoled and encouraged by St. Bernard and the angel,

but a t the same time the d e v i l ' s comments are disparaging. Character

drawing i s e s p e c i a l l y clear i n the ensemble passage, (D), which

combines the l i n e s o f a l l four singers. There follows a verbal duel

during which St. Bernard i s compelled t o silence h i s opponent as they

172.
f i g h t f o r Guglielmo. The f i n a l message, sung t o Guglielmo by the

angel and St. Bernard, i s t h a t he i s not t o be downhearted.

An i n t e r e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i s presented by the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o

the second a c t . This i s an o r c h e s t r a l arrangement o f St. Bernard's

*Fra fronda e fronda' which appears l a t e r i n t h a t a c t .


1
There are a number o f examples i n P e r g o l e s i s scores o f a r i a s

subsequently being used as entr'actes w i t h i n the same work. This

instance o f preceding the a r i a , and thereby s e t t i n g the mood f o r i t ,

a n t i c i p a t e s a p r a c t i c e f o r which Gluck i s generally given the c r e d i t .

As the d e v i l prepares t o go i n t o b a t t l e the a r i a he sings has a

m a r t i a l f l a v o u r w i t h f a n f a r e - l i k e arpeggios and bravura passages.

The v i o l i n also i s a given a series o f semiquaver arpeggios which add

to the i n t e n s i t y . The mood o f the a r i a i s summed up i n the f i n a l

statement which has an octave accompaniment on 'un i n t r e p i d o g u e r r i e r ' .

Once again ihethe a r i a 'Tremur pur quanto vuoi' the angel i s given

a more f l o r i d p a r t which includes a number o f snaps and c a d e n t i a l

triplets. Sequential statements o f fragmented phrases are also

e f f e c t i v e l y employed. The middle s e c t i o n (which ends i n the mediant

minor) has a short passage i n which the f i r s t v i o l i n i s syncopated,

sounding on the second h a l f o f every beat. This i s r a t h e r an unusual

feature i n Pergolesi's music.

The f o l l o w i n g duet between Captain Cuosemo and the d e v i l provides

a l i t t l e comic r e l i e f . Differencer. o f character i s portrayed by the

accompaniment; the Captain's f i r s t statement i s l a r g e l y doubled i n

octaves by the s t r i n g s , but the d e v i l ' s version i s accompanied by a

passage o f continuous semiquavers. The duet r e a l l y takes the form o f

a dialogue, there only being two bars o f ensemble s i n g i n g , i n which

173.
the voices enter i n canon. Pergolesi produces an e f f e c t i v e ending

by s p l i t t i n g up the musical phrases on t h e i r f i n a l statements so

t h a t each character i n exasperation i s made t o i n t e r r u p t the other. (B)

A f t e r the departure o f the d e v i l the Captain has an a r i a which

i s especially relevant t o the s i t u a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l motive i s a

b r i g h t 12/8 phrase w i t h accompaniment mainly i n octaves. I t s state-

ments are interspersed w i t h a number o f references t o the previous

duet, and are coloured here and there w i t h powerful discords. (F)

As the opening o f the duet reappears i n the dominant minor (and l a t e r

i n the tonic minor) the accompaniment provides a reminder o f the.

d e v i l ' s canonic answering phrase, i n a d d i t i o n t o the o r i g i n a l

orchestral figures. These i n t e r r u p t i o n s t o the development o f the

main idea adequately i l l u s t r a t e the Captain's f e e l i n g s o f u n c e r t a i n t y .

Reference has been made t h a t St. Bernard's a r i a was employed

as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s a c t . I n form i t i s quite conventional,

but i t s charm l i e s i n the b r i e f vocal phrases which are accompanied

by v i o l i n s moving together i n t h i r d s on the f i g u r e s echoed a t the

octave^ and i n the passages o f continuous semiquavers.

The b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the t h i r d act also a n t i c i p a t e s the

music t o f o l l o w i n Guglielmo's next a r i a . The r e c i t a t i v e forshadows

the r a p i d parlando s t y l e which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Pergolesi's

intermezzi. Cuosemo s t i l l makes reference t o h i s previous a r i a w i t h

'vatee despera' which i s punctuated by r a p i d descending scales on the

strings.

Again c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n i s clear i n the duet which f o l l o w s .

Cuosemo i s given rapid staccato phrases which are h a s t i l y delivered

w i t h a c e r t a i n amount o f r e p e t i t i o n o f single notes, as found i n many

17^.
of Pergolesi's b u f f o numbers. But the d e v i l has a calm s e l f -

assurance i n h i s bold, d e l i b e r a t e l i n e .

Guglielmo's f o l l o w i n g a r i a i s preceded by a p a r t i c u l a r l y moving

r e c i t a t i v o stromentato, the p a t h e t i c nature of which i s stressed by

a s e r i e s of diminished 7ths introduced i n a rhythmic f i g u r e :

t \ JTHTJ J" The a r i a ( p a r t of which has been

used as an o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the t h i r d a c t ) i s a good

example of Pergolesi's fragmented s t y l e . Rests are c a r e f u l l y placed

to h i g h l i g h t words or even i n d i v i d u a l s y l l a b l e s . The phrase 'cerco

p i e t a , merce' i s introduced s e q u e n t i a l l y : the f i r s t statement

produces an imperfect cadence i n the tonic key of F minor, but the

second i s f a r more powerful w i t h a diminished 7th leading i n t o B f l a t

major, and continues t o modulate u n t i l i t teaches the dominant (C major).

Throughout the a r i a the v i o l i n accompaniment i s f l o r i d and demands

an unusual degree of competence from the performer.

The d e v i l ' s f i n a l a r i a i s consistent w i t h e a r l i e r c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n .

A b o l d , syncopated f i g u r e i s employed i n the vocal l i n e and i s

accompanied by semiquaver runs and arpeggios. Already we see e a r l y

examples o f Pergolesi's e f f e c t i v e use of the pause before a bold,

meaningful statement. For the middle s e c t i o n he adopts the r e l a t i v e

minor, the course which he followed most f r e q u e n t l y i n subsequent

works. However, i t commences i n a somewhat unusual way i n t h a t i t

employs m a t e r i a l from the main s e c t i o n .

Pergolesi r e t a i n s h i s s t y l e of c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n i n the angel's

f i n a l a r i a , w r i t i n g a vocal l i n e decorated by a considerable amount

of t r i p l e t movement. I n the middle section the words • i l tuo dolore,

i l tuo tormento' (G) are set p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriately and b r i n g out

the anguish of both phrases. A semitone r i s e over a pedal bass on

175-
the word 'dolore' i s followed by a diminished 7th a t a higher p i t c h

on 'tormento'.

The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r c h e s t r a l semiquaver runs i n Cuosemo's

e a r l i e r numbers are retained f o r h i s f i n a l a r i a , i n f a c t they now

become a source of humour as they are passed between the singer and

the orchestra. The a r i a concludes w i t h a l i g h t h e a r t e d passage which

i m i t a t e s the t o l l i n g of a b e l l and i s followed by rapid r e p e t i t i o n s

of a tongue-twister type of phrase. This concluding idea appeared

frequently i n a number of Pergolesi's subsequent buffo a r i a s . (H)

The c o n f l i c t of good and e v i l i s summarised i n the c l o s i n g duet.

The angel, i n a gently flowing decorated l i n e , urges Guglielmo's soul

heavenward as a l l sins are now forgiven. The d e v i l ' s f i r s t entry i s

i n the dominant and i s a bold l i n e w i t h r a p i d s c a l i c semiquavers f o r

the v i o l i n accompaniment. Thereupon, both themes are repeated

together i n the tonic key, and produce an i n t e r e s t i n g and e f f e c t i v e

piece of ensemble singing i n a passage which singles out the young

composer as having exceptional inventive g i f t s . (I)

176.
T
r f j r i i i l l1 ij
i 1 M
co

1
w^

; p„—f—kk >> ^—\—


4 b 1
; /J ) . i -+\,
1 }
:<* "7 r * > * } >
1
i—^ —
—r^i —K
•J Co —t\<L <VO«N. f>C-*v- St

in . i f r- V ^ r H ^ - r —
i i • i i i 11 ' ' • «l ) i/ i . i » f' 1

-M-Ll ! J |J - 1
f / Y t$ \ i

6u)
BB9

fad 7 H<• —f-

L )
3k_L_C 9
kj EM

h i

! \ ivy v

C I
/
/ V P

t o r
1

i r

'it
13 i L. —r
T

4 = t

+ ' A
A A -4_ — + -
j i
i
I

s\i
7T i
5
\ TJ ji—i —\ —S yt / t : A \
1
£—\
J -
'\ A
"fr
A—b—
~~
> i
i -
j "
\.
>k
j = £ :

I 1
\~ S 1 —^ v- f t J i .
1 1 1 ZD ^ H"I y
l 1 — ^ \ v
— J "D T H 4s

» 1 1—
= 1 1 = \ 1— —
•i
• *
. »i^. 1

1
— * £ — -
_ ^ - * o t i -/-^ -

1 i I \ A A A 1
-1 s H r ^ \ s U: - A y~i —
1
d ^ .> ty ^ ^ J > J * • — d — i
•»•: v v
—7 -f-f fH3X -1—H?
^—u—i—i—i— U 1 — —\—I—I—- 1 — + ^

• \ h*.o tor •

J \ P 3 6

—SK : -ft '


~P
1
—JPL, •

1
1 ,. r :—
J- J-
Cr. 9 -; \ ' '
/
i L -*
't
^ »•
\
* ^ 1f (1 < rr 1
, l
1 1
1
1 1 M— 1 i Y

s^:—L- J «: +
t -—
i cr. ft „ — b -
\
1

i~Z i
1 I i
/ *C - / k -» K k 1 \ —P P—
"~r '
1
t1 "1 •Mi V—>
i—
1 I f f

N < U o c ^ c p o ^ d r t t a f\e"2.X<v * v o t t c - ( V>«A.\.«.

-- - -*^.-f-, t * T i ^ —
1
feohU-, be.lie boVte, b*.lU bolt*., b^-l" *- boftji. Ue-S«- c

i—f i—*—i—t—
Y
—1 1
<—> f—T \ — i
—t Y V Y Y
V — , i/ 1/ I / u
1 f p r ; 1 r

f / f . / -y r>-
1, ^ r K
1/ / '/ V Y £=ff

'19
-I L

tr-
io*- I'o^r-e dU -

/- . i n

1
s
CW o -<y Col — pa. &A - ^

5 i

'—7 f : W— f * ?
—f T \ f
kl V — — t M—
^ — * —1 :
1 — —yi • !1 11
- to^ - l a « i u . — —

i
— —t" b—Z> * f
i l l 1
1—^ V X
\— —\—V '—\—

CO
LA MORTE DI S. GIUSEPPE

We cannot give the p r e c i s e dates of composition of L a Morte d i S.

Giuseppe. The o l d e s t manuscript i s dated 1 7 3 1 b u t i t seems

probable t h a t the o r i g i n a l performance was the previous year, perhaps

even before S. Guglielmo d'Aquitania. Both these works have y o u t h f u l

f r e s h n e s s and o r i g i n a l i t y which point to t h e i r composer as being

destined f o r fame.

I n t h i s case the author of the t e x t i s unknown. Most commentators

on the work would agree that such a l a c k of information matters little,

as i t was the s u b j e c t and not the i n f e r i o r poetry which i n s p i r e d

Pergolesi.

I n a d d i t i o n to the V i r g i n Mary and S t . Joseph, S t . Michael and

Heavenly Love (L'Amore Divino) a l s o appear i n the work. These l a t t e r

p a r t s were both w r i t t e n f o r soprano v o i c e s , probably c a s t r a t i , but

the p a r t s f o r the mortals were c o n t r a l t o and tenor ( o r b a r i t o n e )

respectively.

As we might expect, the s i n f o n i a f o l l o w s a three movement p l a n .

C a f f a r e l l i ( i n h i s p r e f a c e ) t r i e s to read much i n t o i t , c l a i m i n g that

the p a s t o r a l e f f e c t of oboes moving i n 6ths r e p r e s e n t s some remote

region - perhaps G a l i l e e . The f i r s t movement i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s

form. The main s e c t i o n i n D major i s repeated i n the dominant. A

s m a l l amount of development takes p l a c e , i n c l u d i n g a passage i n the

tonic minor which has a s t r i k i n g descending minim motive i n the bass ( A ) .

T h i s appears again i n a modified form i n L'Amore Divino's f i r s t aria.

The s u b j e c t i s then repeated i n f u l l i n the t o n i c key.

( i ) No l i b r e t t o of the f i r s t performance has s u r v i v e d , but i t would

appear from t h i s manuscript that the o r i g i n a l t i t l e was L a F e n i c e

s u l Rogo.
181.
A f t e r a s h o r t Larghetto ( t h e r e l e v a n c e of which becomes apparent later

i n the work) i n the tonic minor, there i s a l i v e l y concluding move-

ment i n 3 / 8 c o n t r a s t i n g the tonic major and minor i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n .


;

The prospect of death i s looked upon p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y and w i t h

c h e e r f u l n e s s i n S t . Michael's opening a r i a . I n a movement as e a r l y

as t h i s we see the s t y l e of a composer of opera b u f f a . A g e n t l y flow-

ing melody i s decorated by syncopated f i g u r e s and other rhythmic

adornments. A s t r i c t da capo form i s observed, adhering to the most

conventional key p a t t e r n s , but the movement i s not without m u s i c a l

interest. A number of melodic phrases a r e i m i t a t e d by the bass p a r t .

There i s a c e r t a i n amount of wor'd-painting, notably the diminished 7th

on 'dolpre' (almost h a b i t u a l treatment i n h i s l a t e r works), a sweet

and gentle phrase on 'benedetto', mordants on 'sua p i e t a ' , and f o r e e -

f u l rhythm on 'con impeto d'amore'.

R e c i t a t i v e throughout the work i s kept to a minimum, a s the

r e f l e c t i v e nature of the a r i a i s a f a r more appropriate v e h i c l e of

expression.

S. Giuseppe's f i r s t a r i a 'Se a tanto foco' i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y

e x p r e s s i v e number w i t h a r i c h l y ornate melody l i n e . Already we hear

ample evidence of P e r g o l e s i ' s fondness f o r the s h o r t , repeated,

s e q u e n t i a l phrase and h i s superb v e r b a l timing by use of r e s t s . For

his second statement he v i r t u a l l y i n v e r t s h i s o r i g i n a l s c a l i c opening.

The middle s e c t i o n i s i n the expected r e l a t i v e minor and employs some

m a t e r i a l from the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n . The c l o s i n g bars a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y

e x p r e s s i v e on the words 'non sdegnera s t i l l e d e l core, non sdegnera', ( B ) ,

w i t h the leap of a 7th, the Neapolitan 6th and chromatic t u r n on 'core',

and the f i n a l slow statement of 'non sdegnera'.

182.
I n an otherwise t y p i c a l l y b r i g h t a r i a L'Amore Divino has a

sombre phrase i n minims i n the t o n i c minor key. A previous reference

to t h i s appeared i n the s i n f o n i a . C a f f a r e l l i suggests that t h i s

r e p r e s e n t s the coldness of death. Again a d e s c r i p t i v e e f f e c t appears

on ' a l c i e l o v o l e r a ' when the shape of the quaver runs suggests f l i g h t

heavenward.

1
'Appena s p i r a aura soave i s a further expressive aria^with two

oboes added to the o r c h e s t r a l s t r i n g s i n an accompaniment which

r e p r e s e n t s the movement of waves as the s h i p begins to s a i l . A gentle

s w e l l and f a l l i n the ornate v o c a l l i n e occurs on each word ( ' l ' a u r a

p l a c i d o , p l a c i d o , ' which i s a l s o played by oboes i n 3 r d s ) as the s h i p

gently r i s e s and f a l l s on the open s e a . 'Andante' {k/k) and F major

give way to 'Larghetto' ( 3 / ^ ) and F minor a t the s t a r t of the c o n t r a s t -

ing s e c t i o n , which dwells on the sweetness of dying c l o s e to the

V i r g i n Mary and C h r i s t . The key p a t t e r n progresses to B f l a t minor

and r e s o l v e s on a f i r s t i n v e r s i o n of the t o n i c chord, but on 'dolce

e s p i r a r ' the D f l a t i s changed enharmonically to C sharp and a

diminished 7th produces the key of D minor. T h i s i s a t r u l y moving

piece of modulation. (C)

The V i r g i n ' s f i r s t a r i a has a gentle, charming melody which i s

only s l i g h t l y ornamented and has a l i g h t t e x t u r e . I n form i t i s

quite conventional, but i s r a t h e r unusual regarding the key, i n that

P e r g o l e s i r a r e l y s e l e c t s E major i n h i s sacred works.

He employs considerable ornamentation i n S. Giuseppe's ' I n te

ripone i l core', which i s more e x p r e s s i v e by the a d d i t i o n of an

a r c h l u t e and v i o l a d'amore. D e l i c a t e handling of the v o c a l l i n e

a g a i n s t h i g h l y figured accompaniment passages adds to the beauty and

183.
expressiveness of the number. A conventional form i s observed, but

the middle s e c t i o n contains one p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e modulation

from the r e l a t i v e minor ( E minor) to i t s dominant minor (B minor)

on the words 'Ohime, Giammai da me f i a che t'asconda'.

The V i r g i n i s ' P e l l e g r i n c h ' i n cupo o r r o r ' f o l l o w s a conven-

t i o n a l p a t t e r n of form and key. Subsequent use of the f i g u r e i n v e r t s

the o r i g i n a l opening arpeggio. P e r g o l e s i i n c l u d e s passages of both

dominant and t o n i c pedals w i t h i n the second statement. The middle

s e c t i o n i s a v e r b a l and t o n a l c o n t r a s t , but the musical content i s

drawn e n t i r e l y from the main s e c t i o n .

The da capo form i s employed f o r the b e a u t i f u l l y moving duet

' I I Signor vuol ch'a me s o l o * . S. Giuseppe's opening i s sung i n the

t o n i c ; the V i r g i n ' s r e p l y uses the same m a t e r i a l i n the dominant,

followed by a s h o r t passage i n which the v o i c e s enter i n t o conversation.

The second statement commences with the o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l i n the

dominant. I t i s then developed i n s h o r t phrases and sung a l t e r n a t e l y

by the two v o i c e s , but ensemble s i n g i n g i s r e s t r i c t e d to passages

moving i n 6 t h s . (D)

S. Giuseppe's a r i a "Dolce a u r e t t a che a l l e t t a ' r e a l l y demands a

tenor v o i c e , a s extensive use i s made of the upper G, and even A.

Oboes and horns are added to the u s u a l s t r i n g accompaniment, and an

easy charm i s acquired through the use of 3/8 rhythm. C e r t a i n of

P e r g o l e s i ' s mannerisms are evident\ p a r t i c u l a r l y the s h o r t repeated

phrase, changing notes, and "pairs of semiquavers j u s t before a cadence.

( i ) The score bears a bass c l e f , presumably i n d i c a t i v e of the i n t e n -

t i o n to use a baritone v o i c e ; C a f f a r e l l i ' s index s p e c i f i e s e i t h e r

tenor or baritone.

18*+.
A f t e r a s h o r t opening r e c i t a t i v e the second p a r t continues with

L'Amore Divino's 'Gia i n te r i n a s c e r e ' , which i s a b r i g h t a r i a , making

e f f e c t i v e use of repeated fragmented phrases and i n c l u d i n g a number

of examples of the pause. The second statement i s extended and

developed from the f i r s t . A pedal i s employed i n the v i o l a p a r t ,

and t h e r e a f t e r the melody l i n e and bass run p a r a l l e l to one another.

Thoughts i n the middle s e c t i o n turn towards the V i r g i n Mary; the

s h o r t phrases, punctuated with c a r e f u l l y placed r e s t s , a d d p a r t i c u l a r l y

to the meaningfulness of the words.

Two f l u t e s moving d e l i c a t e l y i n 3rds and o c c a s i o n a l sustained

horn notes colour the o r c h e s t r a t i o n of the V i r g i n ' s ' P a s t o r e l l o i n

mezzo a i f i o r i * . The t r i p l e measure has i t s customary ease of flow,

and i s decorated by some ornate f i g u r e s i n the f i r s t v i o l i n p a r t .

A c e r t a i n amount of development takes p l a c e i n the second statement,


it

and^is extended by s e q u e n t i a l r e p e t i t i o n of phrases. The middle

s e c t i o n i s e q u a l l y e x p r e s s i v e , but provides a marked c o n t r a s t . The

flow i s d i s t u r b e d by a more f o r c e f u l harmonic content which i n c l u d e s

a number of diminished 7ths and a p a r t i c u l a r l y powerful e f f e c t on the

words 'vinto l'impeto d e i v e n t i ' . Not unexpectedly, the diminished

7th appears a t p o i n t s of f o r c e f u l expression; but on the first


1
s y l l a b l e of v i n t o ' what can best be described as an appoggiatura

G produces such an impact that i t s r e s o l u t i o n on to F sharp on the

following s y l l a b l e can only give a f e e l i n g of r e l i e f that the wind's

fury i s now overcome. (E) T h i s appears to be the only such e l a b o r a -

t i o n upon the diminished 7th i n P e r g o l e s i ' s works. Unity w i t h the

main s e c t i o n i s achieved by r e i n t r o d u c t i o n , towards the end, of the

e a r l i e r f l u t e and v i o l i n f i g u r e s .

185-
1
S t . Michael's a r i a 'Vola intorno a l prima r a g g i o i sa clear

d e s c r i p t i o n i n sound of the l i g h t , happy f l u t t e r i n g s of a gold-

finch. An a i r y phrase i n semiquavers on the word 'vola' i s answered

by the v i o l i n s , and throughout there i s a f e e l i n g of bouyancy. The

middle s e c t i o n i s more s e r i o u s . P e r g o l e s i ' s s h o r t repeated phrase

i s prominent, and on each occasion i t i s introduced by the same v i o l i n

semiquaver r u n .

From the point of view o f i t s harmonic s t r u c t u r e , the t r i o

sung between S t . Michael, li'Amore Divino and S. Giuseppe d i f f e r s from

Much of P e r g o l e s i ' s other music. I t i s a t r a n q u i l movement which

produces much o f i t s p e a c e f u l e f f e c t by g e n t l e s t r i n g arpeggio semi-

quavers, and passages of stepwise movement i n 3rds, sung between

S t . Michael and L'Amore Divino. The dominant of the dominant i s

reached (G major), then a moving passage i s sung by S. Giuseppe on

the words 'dolcezza a l l e g r a z z a ' ever the p r o g r e s s i o n C minor, A f l a t

major, F minor 7, D minor, D major, G major. S t . Michael and

L'Amore Divino s t i l l moving together i n 3rds break up S. Giuseppe's

phrases, and a r e thereby fragmented themselves. Harmonic s t r u c t u r e

i s p a r t i c u l a r l y simple a t the c l o s e where a tonic pedal of seven

bars' d u r a t i o n l e a d s to an imperfect cadence. Most touching i s the

passage i n the t o n i c minor which l e a d s to the dominant. Here S. Giuseppe

has a slow-moving l i n e on the words 'Ecco cedo a l tuo ardor i n pace'

as he r e s i g n s h i m s e l f to death. At the same time the other v o i c e s

s i n g an i m i t a t i v e phrase, then a l l j o i n together w i t h a diminished 7 t h

which r e s o l v e s on a C major chord to focus a t t e n t i o n on 'pace'.

V e r b a l emphasis i s produced i n the V i r g i n ' s a r i a by s p l i t t i n g the

words w i t h r e s t s :

Sposo X va vera quel d i \

186.
A f t e r t h i s f a l t e r i n g s t a r t the melodic l i n e becomes more continuous.

Obvious e f f e c t s a r e present, such as an ascending semiquaver run over


1
the range of an octave f o r 'dal monte , followed by a compensating
1
run i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n f o r 'del mar , and again, a g e n t l e r o c k -

ing f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g wave movement.

As S. Giuseppe prepares to d i e the intimate nature of the r e c i t a -

t i v e i s so moving that P e r g o l e s i choses to change i n t o the accompanied

s t y l e , and b r i n g s back to the v i o l i n p a r t s the p e a c e f u l semiquaver

f i g u r e heard p r e v i o u s l y i n the t r i o .

F minor i s an appropriate c h o i c e o f key f o r S. Giuseppe's final

a r i a , which i s e s p e c i a l l y tender and quiet.. (PPP being s p e c i f i e d a t

certain points). A f t e r a b r i e f f i r s t statement, which commences on

the repeated note F, the second statement a c h i e v e s g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y

by a r i s i n g chromatic passage. The g e n t l e v i o l i n semiquaver f i g u r e uU.ic.1

appeared;; i n the t r i o and the p r e v i o u s r e c i t a t i v e again appears

briefly. The pause i s used and diminished ? t h s occur f r e q u e n t l y f o r

harmonic power. The b r i e f middle s e c t i o n i s fragmentary and

declamatory, more i n the nature of a r e c i t a t i v e stromentato, a s

S. Giuseppe a f f i r m s h i s love f o r C h r i s t .

The a c t u a l death i s represented by the r e t u r n of the 'Larghetto'

passage from the s i n f o n i a . T h i s i s y e t a f u r t h e r example of P e r g o l e s i

t r a n s f e r r i n g themes and u s i n g h i s s i n f o n i a a s a means of mental

p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the work to f o l l o w .

St. Michael's f i n a l a r i a i s a t h a n k f u l , j o y f u l number, i n a b r i g h t

s t y l e and w i t h a t y p i c a l l y l i g h t t e x t u r e , The second statement i s

longer than the f i r s t and i s n o t i c e a b l e f o r i t s climax on a h i g h G

s u s t a i n e d f o r e i g h t and a h a l f b e a t s . The middle s e c t i o n d e r i v e s i t s

music l a r g e l y from the second statement w i t h the s u s t a i n e d note s u i t a b l y

transposed.

187.
The t r a d i t i o n of operas c l o s i n g with a chorus i n f l u e n c e s the

end of t h i s work. The f i n a l quartet i s r e a l l y a f o r m a l i t y a s regards

the drama, but s e r v e s m u s i c a l l y as a c l e a r - c u t conclusion. Ternary

form, w i t h a c o n t r a s t i n the r e l a t i v e minor, i s employed as the j o y -

f u l s t r a i n s give out the C h r i s t i a n message that death holds no t e r r o r .

188.
f f i tip Nf
/ * C
" ^ — 1
1— - * 1 1 1 1—

1
7 *T-» t* ¥—
s mm

Kv* v
y
J \—
fr'—c—^ —
- i - H
5
\ )
1— I
\— -J
cc s{>t -_ tr a_f •

^ 1
g. M
ni *—-ir^i—V
i ^ J
1
n

o l — 1r 1 efeo
^ —
-*
i /v bU y , 1
—1 \

3>
i ^
k c
; i / r < — v •- n > h <

I i k— 1—^—i *
» 7 ' : 5= ^ 1 v r•> —
h _ I ^ — < p K
co/" dC ^^j8_-^.e. vl cirr oU. e k e v^z-te^ Ok eke. °^ -

—>—»
/— 7 — - . . — * —
x ** ^ • • r
1— ;
L r — 1 1'
1 ** J-

hi i pi P
— — y — — / if (- \l r I 1 V-f r r •
) k • x
— J
u
u / i—V- - t — r - l — ^
t^o-rz. o k ck«- - ffc ( _ c»-r -d.^.^ 0 Di - o cLi. SfC-
y
cor,

^ s r r
1^ y U V
COf.

b
— f 1 T— 1 tc— f
i
i
-A
tor *^u.«- i t © ^v«Lo

_ +

T—C——f—
V V \f
1
-f —

5
to to cUC v/*-v\.t

1
O ^ M f ^ - f f f t T
Ft
5
MASS IN F MAJOR FOR TEN VOICES

(TWO OHOIRS, TWO ORCHESTRAS AND TWO ORGANS)

I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h i s s e t t i n g o f the Mass ( K y r i e and G l o r i a )

was the work performed on 29th December 1732, the occasion on which

i n admiration Leonardo Leo i s reputed to haveembraced P e r g o l e s i

publicly.

With a s u p e r f i c i a l glance a t the score i t appears to be a l a r g e -

s c a l e s e t t i n g , i n v o l v i n g two f i v e - p a r t c h o i r s , two o r c h e s t r a s

( i n c l u d i n g oboes and horns) and two organs; but the d i v i s i o n i s

frequently f o r antiphonal purposes only. Nevertheless i t affords

scope f o r a more complex o r c h e s t r a l texture when r e q u i r e d , although

the v o i c e s are seldom worked out i n more than f i v e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s

a t any time.

The o p e r a t i c s i n f o n i a had begun breaking boundaries, w i t h the

r e s u l t t h a t o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n s became popular to s e t t i n g s o f

the Mass. As we f i n d P e r g o l e s i adopting such a p r a c t i c e elsewhere

i n s m a l l e r works i t i s r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g i n t h i s case t h a t the v o i c e s

enter on the very f i r s t beat.

The opening K y r i e i s e n t i r e l y on the t o n i c chord which i s spread

over s i x b a r s . P e r g o l e s i produces a sonorous opening by making each

v o i c e o f the second c h o i r enter i m i t a t i v e l y h a l f a bar a f t e r the

corresponding voice i n the f i r s t c h o i r , and s u s t a i n i n g the chord

a g a i n s t a j u b i l a n t o r c h e s t r a l accompaniment. Having repeated the


1
process i n the dominant he proceeds i n the t o n i c minor to C h r i s t e

Eleison'. T h i s i s i n a f l o r i d contrapuntal s t y l e with considerable

doubling o f p a r t s i n the longer melodic s t r a n d s . There i s a sense

of urgency i n the subsequent runs i n which a l l resources are employed.

191.
By comparison, the f o l l o w i n g K y r i e i s b r i e f , but i t i s a l s o the

most e x p r e s s i v e and d i s t i n c t i v e of the three s e c t i o n s . I t commences

on the r e l a t i v e minor with a homophonic v o c a l texture which i s s p i c e d

with diminished 7ths. (A) The f i r s t v i o l i n p l a y s an obbligato

l i n e decorated with a number of chromaticisms. A^polyphonic t e x t u r e

develops, but the obbligato l i n e remains.

I n the G l o r i a P e r g o l e s i p r a i s e s h i s maker with a j o y f u l h e a r t .

Exuberantly the second c h o i r i m i t a t e s the f i r s t c h o i r ' s t o n i c f i g u r e

before the triumphant homophonic * i n e x c e l s i s Deo'. After repetition

i n the dominant the ' i n e x c e l s i s ' f i g u r e i s sung a n t i p h o n a l l y and

works towards a climax. At t h i s point n o t a t i o n changes from c r o t c h e t s

and quavers to semibreves and minims, and the r e l a t i v e minor i s


1
adopted for the pianissimo entry of 'et i n t e r r a . . . . In this

and subsequent renderings of the statement there are i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s


1
on 'et i n t e r r a ' and 'bonae v o l u n t a t i s , but the h e a r t of the message -

'pax hominibus' i s sung homophonically over V, i c , V i n D minor. (B)

The f o r c e of the passage l i e s i n i t s u t t e r s i m p l i c i t y . With renewed

vigour there i s a f r e s h outburst of the G l o r i a ^ w h i c h develops w i t h

antiphonal statements c o n t r a s t i n g ' i n e x c e l s i s g l o r i a ' with 'et i n

t e r r a pax'. A c a r e s s i n g phrase on the f i r s t v i o l i n produces an

atmosphere of peace. The movement c l o s e s simply w i t h four pianissimo

(dropping f i n a l l y to PPP) c r o t c h e t s on 'pax'. (£) Through i t s

e c s t a c y i n the passages of triumph, and i t s sheer s i m p l i c i t y i n those

of peace, t h i s must s u r e l y rank amozig P e r g o l e s i ' s f i n e s t pages of

c h o r a l music.
1
'Laudamus t e i s rendered as a soprano s o l o ^in B minor^ and

employs the l i t t l e used 6/8 measure. I n the extended i n t r o d u c t i o n the

l i n e which subsequently i s heard as the v o c a l p a r t appears as an oboe s o l o .

192.
Accompaniment i s l a r g e l y i n semiquaver movement, a g a i n s t which there

i s a s o l o decorated w i t h t r i p l e t s and mordants. (D)

A s o f t s u s t a i n e d Largo ( i n G minor) of four bars' d u r a t i o n

covers ' G r a t i a s agimus' before the lengthy and s p i r i t e d rendering

of 'Propter magnam gloriam tuam'. T h i s commences with three concurrent

s u b j e c t s which are t r e a t e d s t r i c t l y a t f i r s t , but then become f r e e i n

t h e i r development. The two c h o i r s combine f o r c e s except f o r the

o c c a s i o n a l antiphonal phrase, but f o r much o f t h i s s e c t i o n the f l o r i d

accompaniment r e q u i r e s the separate s e r v i c e s of two o r c h e s t r a s .

A charming duet for c o n t r a l t o and soprano f o l l o w s on 'Domine Deus,

rex c o e l e s t i s ' , adopting 6/8 time and E minor. To an accompaniment

l a r g e l y of semiquaver arpeggios the c o n t r a l t o e n t e r s w i t h a serene

melody, ( E ) , which i s b e a u t i f u l l y phrased, e s p e c i a l l y by.use of r e s t s

at 'Deus P a t e r ' . The soprano p a r t d o v e t a i l s i n t o t h i s statement and

continues the words to a more f l o r i d v o c a l l i n e . When the p a r t s

e v e n t u a l l y combine there i s a tender moment on ' f i l i u s P a t r i s ' a s they

i m i t a t e each other a t a major 7th. T h i s passage subsequently r e t u r n s

with e n t r i e s r e v e r s e d and a t an i n t e r v a l of a 2nd. Once more, a t

•Agnus D e i f i l i u s P a t r i s ' , s u b t l e t y of r e s t s and a s e r i e s of d i s c o r d s

r e s o l v i n g from strong to weak beats u n d e r l i n e the worids and give them

extra force. ( F )

The chorus f o r 'Qui t o l l i s ' commences i n C minor w i t h a fragmented

chordal v e r s i o n of the phrase. Diminished 7ths are employed and there

i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y powerful chromatic s t e p onto a French 6th which

emphasises the weight o f 'peccata'. (G) A tender i m i t a t i v e l i n e w i t h

syncopated s t r i n g accompaniment answers on 'miserere nobis*. The key

changes to F minor, and with an i n c r e a s e i n speed the two o r c h e s t r a s

give out i n a passage of twenty-seven bars what then proves to be the

m a t e r i a l o f the next c h o r a l v e r s i o n of 'Qui t o l l i s ' .

193-
A c h e e r f u l phrase, sung a t f i r s t c a n o n i c a l l y between a l t o s and

basses of the f i r s t c h o i r , i s answered by the second c h o i r w i t h a

syncopated statement of 'suscipe deprecationem nostram', and i s

developed to some considerable l e n g t h . The movement c l o s e s n e a t l y

by r e c a l l i n g the twenty-four bars of the f i r s t statement o f

'Qui t o l l i s ' f o r use a t 'Que sedes', and r e p e a t i n g them e x a c t l y , but


V i l l i bW iS

for a s l i g h t rhythmic manipulation^necessary. Here, again, i n the

p r o t r a c t e d middle s e c t i o n of the movement, we f i n d P e r g o l e s i a s l a v e

to polyphony, which he works out a s s i d o u s l y , but f a i l s to capture

t h a t h e a r t f e l t c r y i n the simple eloquence o f the outer s e c t i o n s .

The f i n a l s o l o appears on 'Quoniam t u s o l u s * . I t i s a movement

devoid of a l l powerful chromatic e f f e c t s , but p r o g r e s s i n g f o r much of

i t s course simply i n semiquavers over a stepwise quaver bass l i n e .

Beauty and s i n c e r i t y of e x p r e s s i o n l i e once more i n the s i m p l i c i t y

and charm. P e r g o l e s i achieves a wonderful Climax, (H), t a k i n g a


1 1
t y p i c a l s h o r t phrase f o r t u s o l u s s a n c t u s and modifying i t i n

sequence f o r 'tu s o l u s Dominus'. Then, by gradual reshaping and

developing, and i n c r e a s i n g i t s i n t e n s i t y through ' tu s o l u s


1
a l t i s s i m u s * , he reaches h i s goal on ' J e s u .

The f i n a l s e c t i o n commences w i t h a bold statement of f i v e b a r s '

duration, i n which the bass announces the cantus firmus to the words

'Cum sancto s p i r i t u ' . ( I ) Three s u b j e c t s a r e then worked out over

i t c o n c u r r e n t l y i n an e x u l t a n t ending.

19^.
LA

£E5

i >i—I
%-*
n

^ 0 — fM —

us:

5 r • ^ c
l TT

P a x Pa.>r .

t — ^ - f 7 — t "* U < ,' J < - '— J — ¥ — = —


1
— H — ~ > K 1
"

C
pp 1 j - i — M rn r
1

A-
1 . J
— 1 M of— —

^ ' T
i . i 'I

+
3l
1 \& H ij" 3 ^

H i* / r Ir r u \ ; <•
0>- - VAAA.S.

. .. J^E-ET
J
^—«r ° r rf • — x J;-
Do f-vL - /\«,
li=»i.s..frMtat--...-,ir
J
1^ ' 1 1
' ' w ' ' V V' ' C -' ' V k r I

V' V ' — H

F
it/- f

—I C 7 > ^ — f — r — 7 "1/
X~s i~7 ' sr 1
H

Y Y
u
f L i
4 - H j — r — , — r K c — . =; £ —
K — M 1
' - ^ M 1 r J - l
3 «' ' ~^— f 1

T
I ,) J ^ 1 1 -
J » , —-fJU r! .i —.. .
zr~*T q^ — f 7 —
1 * X i \S 1
1
1
j

• I L 1 r m. i 1 i—TH v J— i 1
—i—V —=—4 *— —i—-

i
i •"~
r=- -A rv.
\
— - *» »—
i i
1 f1 —-

_l ' Z 1 ; 1 i i
/S
1

— - — f - . —f f—*h*—H— 1
... -i
11 1
1 — i1 J 1
1
r\
? ? \ 1
* i- f r ^ i
11 11 '

1
V
i J- 1 I
— H — f — f — = —
= ¥—I— — i — i \—

w
* t
i •
^ 1/ X
1
tm_ So- V.iA-i X o<^ -

z
is
U s

R I
^ 3

23 i
SP
MASS IN D MAJOR

There i s a popular legend i n Naples that the Mass i n D was

w r i t t e n f o r the occasion o f Donna Maria S p i n e l l i (with whom

P e r g o l e s i was reputed to have been i n love) taking the v e i l i n

1733. While t h i s i s only s p e c u l a t i o n , we do know that he decided to

emulate h i s previous s e t t i n g by r e a r r a n g i n g t h i s work a l s o f o r double

c h o i r , double o r c h e s t r a and two o r g a n s . I t i s the o r i g i n a l s e t t i n g ,

however, which concerns us now.

An o r c h e s t r a o f s t r i n g s , horns and trumpets provides an i n t r o d u c -

t i o n of one bar and a h a l f to the K y r i e . Immediately upon the entry

of the basses there i s a change to the t o n i c minor key. This short

opening passage i s coloured with German 6ths and diminished 7ths on

s y l l a b l e s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l emphasis. The bulk o f the movement i s the

' C h r i s t e E l e i s o n * with i t s a cappella.; s t y l e a s s o c i a t e d with earlier

periods. To avoid obtrusion the o r c h e s t r a shows l i t t l e independence

from the v o i c e s , and then such independence i s g e n e r a l l y only i n the

o c c a s i o n a l phrase o f homophony. The s e c t i o n ends on a s u s t a i n e d

diminished 7th which suggests a modulation to the dominant, but the

K y r i e r e t u r n s f o r three bars, and the movement concludes i n the t o n i c

major.

Although t h i s work i s o f s m a l l e r proportions than the Mass i n F

f o r ten v o i c e s , the G l o r i a s have c e r t a i n marked s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t y l e

and c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f l o r i d repeated f i g u r e s over a boldtytreading

bass l i n e , ( A ) , are d i s t i n c t l y Handelian, and b u s t l i n g w i t h energy.

I n c o n t r a s t , repeated quavers accompany the following statement.

1
( i ) The manuscript o f P e r g o l e s i s rearrangement i s housed i n the

Conservatorio, Naples.

198.
The basses give out a bold, calm l i n e on 'et i n t e r r a ' , ( B ) , w i t h

a l l v o i c e s j o i n i n g on 'pax hominibus'. The triumphant c r i e s of


1
'Gloria r e t u r n , and the movement continues w i t h f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t s

of 'pax' amid the j u b i l a t i o n .

I n common w i t h the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned s e t t i n g , 'Laudamus t e '

i s rendered as a soprano s o l o . I t i s a f i n e example of the a r i e t t a

d i c h i e s a which was subsequently favoured by Mozart. I t has bouyancy

and d e l i c a c y of s t y l e t y p i c a l of P e r g o l e s i , and l i g h t h e a d e d n e s s

appropriate to the words. The movement i s i n b i n a r y form and uses

much the same m a t e r i a l f o r both s e c t i o n s , but employs a d i f f e r e n t

modulatory p a t t e r n f o r each.

Again i n f l u e n c e of the Mass i n F i s presents a f t e r a r e s t r a i n e d

rendering of ' G r a t i a s agimus t i b i ' there i s a triumphant outburst on

•propter magnam gloriam tuam', but t h i s s e t t i n g continues i n a s t r i c t

P a l e s t r i n i a n s t y l e u n t i l the f i n a l phrases, which are sung homophoni-

cally.

The e n t i r e duet 'Dominus Deus' i s borrowed from the previous

s e t t i n g of the Mass. P o s s i b l y t h i s was due to shortage of. time i n

which to supply a f u r t h e r s e t t i n g , but i t i s more l i k e l y that the move-

ment was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l on the previous o c c a s i o n .

Again P e r g o l e s i takes the format of 'Qui t o l l i s ' from t h a t of the

previous s e t t i n g . The f i r s t statement i s dramatic i n the manner i t

d e p i c t s the sentiment of the words. A bold octave f i g u r e , descending

s e q u e n t i a l l y , introduces the t e n t a t i v e v o c a l phrases i n which the word

'peccata' i s coloured by a diminished 7th over a dominant pedal. (C_)


1
A tender, i m i t a t i v e , descending phrase f o l l o w s on 'miserere n o b i s .

S t i l l i n f l u e n c e d by h i s previous s e t t i n g P e r g o l e s i q u i t s C minor f o r

F minor, and i n a passage of f i t e e e n bars the o r c h e s t r a expounds the

m a t e r i a l f o r the subsequent statement.

199.
Two main ideas are used i n c o n t r a s t : an i m i t a t i v e phrase on 'qui

t o l l i s ' and a three p a r t s t r a n d on 'suscipe deprecationem nostram*.

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that during t h i s l a t t e r s e c t i o n the 'cello

gains independence from the double b a s s . As i s to be expected, the

opening of the movement r e t u r n s f o r 'Qui sedes'. Once again, the

s h o r t e r and simpler statement proves to be the more e x p r e s s i v e .

The expected soprano s o l o on 'Quoniam' ( D i ) towers above the r e s t

of the work i n i t s exuberant expression of j o y . I t i s an e x c e p t i o n a l l y

good example of P e r g o l e s i ' s " s t i l e dolce e nuovo", and both i n form and

content could have o r i g i n a t e d from Mozart's pen. Although i n b i n a r y

form, i t owes much to the composer's o p e r a t i c a r i a s by the combination

of wide l e a p s , decorative dotted f i g u r e s , t r i p l e t s , syncopation and

contrary runs i n a c l e a r , b r i g h t t e x t u r e . At the same time, i t gives

a superb rendering of the t e x t and captures i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e with

ecstasy. (Dii)

'Cum sancto s p i r i t u * commences w i t h three solemn b a r s , and then

a j o y f u l extended a l i a breve f o l l o w s . F i n a l l y the movement breaks

out i n t o a P r e s t o (3/8) i n which the continuous o r c h e s t r a l t e x t u r e


1
i s punctuated w i t h e x u l t a n t c r i e s of 'Amen .

200.
Mass irv

1M h;Hffl
%-± * —

(jlo r (3I0
=
-M=
» f t - e e l -SiS £LO*VCL .

C 1
—A

X y X \ X.t X
— 1
V *'. <'L _ •k — r1 -f r
i V' 1 '

- t**L — -

- Hn (- 1 ^ 1 I
1
- e — * — . -
=9=

#
— = —
~ — ± =3=

i /* Lr = — fi - - dJ 1
4—1-1
r 1
i L_@ -Z—t-r- =t:
V\.o - rA.i - *vi
pec. -co. - b a

ft*
- • f — ^ Ml/—
> J- >
/N • 1 1 I I I T q p f
C
l- b ^ . . 1/ / iy i/

1 :
* " —
^ —

- 4 -
' ^ J * — *

^ 1 I


i i v" -
' • 1 i' «- r
\/ y v

— i
— ?

1 —
1 t- ill br ( f * iiu
L J - — — ^ — ^ — y —

-r 1f-^—r*1 ^
? x*»
^
I
" — c f — ^ — ?
^I T ^ •
s
1
— T• H1 — HI — i
I I
1
1
11
Lisy ^ ^ —i—b—i
1 y.—\ i-P ———»
1—^ 1

1
I —. ; -• 1 ' "* * r
]1
1 1 H{
^ ^ ' M ^ fe=jj ^
MASS IN F MAJOR

F I V E VOICES

T h i s l a t e r s e t t i n g o f the Mass, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y d a t i n g from

173^» y i e l d s somewhat to conventions o f the day, but g e n e r a l l y shows

l e s s dependence on the composer's e a r l i e r works than did h i s Mass i n

D, s e t the previous y e a r .

Unlike the e a r l i e r s e t t i n g s there i s a s i n g l e - movement

i n t r o d u c t i o n which employs s t r i n g s , oboes, horns and organ. No f u r t h e r

r e f e r e n c e i s made to i t i n the work. Consequently, even C a f f a r e l l i

admits i t s s o l e purpose i s to o b t a i n from the audience s i l e n c e and

attention.

A b r i e f polyphonic s e t t i n g o f the K y r i e i n F minor i s accompanied,

f i r s t by organ, then by s t r i n g s . ' C h r i s t e ' r e c e i v e s i t s accustomed

e x t e n s i v e a l i a breve rendering, but i n the dominant minor. The f i n a l

K y r i e , which i s four bars i n duration, r e t u r n s to the t o n i c major.

The G l o r i a shows more o r i g i n a l i t y by employing a t v a r i o u s times

s o l o i s t s i n d i v i d u a l l y , c o l l e c t i v e l y ( u s u a l l y i n 3rds) and w i t h the

chorus, thereby producing a v a r i e t y o f tone-colour. Considerable

s t r e n g t h i s gained by the homophonic chorus c r i e s on the phrase 'in

excelsis'. Having b u i l t up to a climax, P e r g o l e s i exchanged h/k,

' A l l e g r o * , for a t r i p l e measure a t 'Largo*, on 'et i n t e r r a pax',

words f o r which he always showed the utmost concern. Imitative

e n t r i e s appear on 'bonae v o l u n t a t i s ' , and the r e t u r n o f 'pax' i s

accompanied pianissimo by trumpets i n a low r e g i s t e r . T h i s i s an

unusual, but c u r i o u s l y appropriate e f f e c t . The o r i g i n a l time and

speed are then resumed f o r the c l o s i n g b a r s .

203.
'Laudamus te' i s s e t i n i t s customary way f o r soprano s o l o .

Binary form i s adopted, but a number of mannerisms to be found e l s e -

where i n the composer's s e c u l a r works a r e a l s o included. The s h o r t

phrases on i n d i v i d u a l statements of 'laudamus, benedicamus, adoramus'

are appropriate alongside the developed e x u l t a n t phrases on

•glorificamus'. (A)

A three bar statement (Largo) of ' g r a t i a s agimus t i b i ' leads into

a l i v e l y rendering of a 'propter magnam gloriam', which i s s e t upon

conventional l i n e s .

Following the example of the e a r l i e r Masses i n F and D,

'Dominus Deus' takes the form of a duet f o r c o n t r a l t o and soprano.

The t o n i c statement of the lower v o i c e i s rendered i n the dominant

by the soprano, followed by a new s e t t i n g i n 3rds. The order i s then

reversed to r e - e s t a b l i s h the t o n i c , and i s followed by f u r t h e r passages

of 3rds and 6 t h s . Compared with the i m i t a t i o n , diminished 5ths and

augmented 2nds on 'Agnus Dei' i n the e a r l i e r s e t t i n g s , t h i s harmony

i s p l e a s a n t but l a c k i n g i n force and emotion.

The customary t r i p a r t i t e s e t t i n g of 'Qui t o l l i s ' appears here

w i t h P e r g o l e s i making p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e use of h i s s o l o i s t s .

The f i r s t statement, i n G minor, a s s i g n s 'Qui t o l l i s ' to the soprano

s o l o i s t s and r e s t r i c t s the chorus to 'miserere nobis'. An orchestral

i n t r o d u c t i o n precedes the second s e t t i n g , which i s i n C minor. All

s o l o i s t s are again employed i n a wonderful web of polyphony on

•Qui t o l l i s ' , w i t h the chorus e n t e r i n g only on 'suscipe deprecationem

nostram'. (B)

The second soprano s o l o i s t i s assigned to 'Quoniam' which i s a

b r i g h t , syncopated a r i a w i t h j o y f u l wide l e a p s and extended runs. (C)

2C4.
V e r b a l accents are t r e a t e d with s p e c i a l care i n repeated short

phrases, the l i k e of which can be found f r e q u e n t l y i n P e r g o l e s i ' s

operatic scores. Twice he turns to the t o n i c minor, which i s a course

of a c t i o n f r e q u e n t l y adopted for the stage but seldom found i n h i s

religious settings.

'Cum sancto s p i r i t u ' i s despatched i n an e i g h t bar homophonic

statement, and there f o l l o w s a lengthy f u g a l Amen of i n t e n s e beauty^

which R a d i c i o t t i exaggeratedly compares f o r emotional height with

Handel's famous ' H a l l e l u j a h ' .

205-
Mass i r\ F (Five, Voices
JL
I r

_ l —
\ \ \ \ 1 /. '',' '
<
hJ»1 HI;' i ^ i ^ d

. , k
1 -4-^ }n\<.\ — iri-r 1
f i ' / •1

-I ^ c U . 1'— f
' /l V y
(*M-S tfc [ G_^-dw«. -

-t \r — r i' -i t f
V ' '
*
•4 v; T V
4 Qui to I - Ls pet- p-CC -

Ui u
= h-3 H i ft Kv—
J !_ 3
7
r— \ 1
ID, ) TY
(U
-—-r—
\roL- U* pe.c-
V

•7h^5—b-— I — " — ? — c ' J'

U I ' M / —C I 1 1 r-4 H
J
GU
—s Y- Y— — ! 1—f J — *
u
— i 1~)
0\\J . .Ft \ =JT-~ ** 1 T
1 " 1 1
J- *' *•
v-gj

i /1> ar "i
QiA.<L fc"»l- U'i pec - CO. —-

— \ — u — ^ -t^ 1^—:—
Co- u

i
— ) .
-rrp
^ > — —i r f

to.

• • • |
— i — i 1

—4^ 1
— i
' *
STABAT MATER

As so many other works have been s u b j e c t s of doubt regarding

authorship or time o f w r i t i n g , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to l e a r n that

there has been conjecture concerning the Stabat Mater. Although i t

i s now g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t i t was h i s f i n a l work, and the testimony

of h i s f r i e n d Francesco Feo would subscribe to t h i s , there was a

strong opinion i n the century following P e r g o l e s i ' s death that a

s e t t i n g of the Salve Regina was w r i t t e n l a s t , and t h a t the Stabat Mater

was of s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r o r i g i n . P a i s i e l l o , so many o f whose remarks

seem to have been aimed a t damaging P e r g o l e s i ' s r e p u t a t i o n , maintained

that the work dates from the period immediately a f t e r h i s days a t the

Conservatoiio.

I t was a l s o contended that i t appeared almost simultaneously with

L'Olimpiade i n the year p r i o r to the composer's death. Villarosa tells

us t h a t P e r g o l e s i was commissioned to w r i t e a Stabat Mater s e t t i n g

p r i o r to h i s journey to Rome f o r the performance of t h a t opera. I t

i s therefore p o s s i b l e that confusion arose between the dates of

commission and completion. Another theory, from a l a t e r period, has

been s e t f o r t h that P e r g o l e s i died l e a v i n g t h i s work incomplete and

that Leonardo Leo was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 'Quando corpus'. As the o r i g i n a l

score of t h i s movement i s c l e a r l y i n P e r g o l e s i ' s hand t h i s theory can

be dismissed. Perhaps t h i s e r r o r o r i g i n a t e d by comparison w i t h Mozart's

f i n a l work, the Requiem Mass, which was completed by h i s p u p i l SUssmayr.

Many composers, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the Roman C a t h o l i c faith,

have s e t the medieval Stabat Mater to music. Authorship of t h i s

b e a u t i f u l poem, meditating on the V i r g i n Mary's agony and sorrow a t

the foot of the Cross, i s u n c e r t a i n , but i s g e n e r a l l y considered to be

the work of Jacapone da Todi, c 1230 - 1306.

207.
E a r l y s e t t i n g s of the poem, notably those by J o s q u i n des P r e s ,

c lM+5 - c 1521, and P a l e s t r i n a , c 1525 - 159^, although d i v i d e d by

the o c c a s i o n a l double bar, have no break i n t h e i r c o n t i n u i t y . By

the l a t e r p a r t of the Seventeenth Century the poem came under the

i n f l u e n c e of the c a n t a t a form. I n s t r u m e n t a l accompaniments were

added, and the whole t r e a t e d as a s u c c e s s i o n of s h o r t movements. One

of the drawbabks of such a system i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r equal d i s t r i b u -

t i o n of i n t e r e s t between s o l o i s t s . T h i s may l e a d to musical balance,

but i t may also r e s u l t frequently i n a r t i f i c i a l i t y .

T h i s s e t t i n g i s q u i t e unusual i n i t s l a y - o u t . S e t t i n g s o f the

Stabat Mater by composers a t the beginning of the Eighteenth Century,

notably S t e f f a n i and d'Astorga, employed four to s i x v o i c e s , an

o r c h e s t r a mainly of s t r i n g s and o c c a s i o n a l l y some wind. The work by

S c a r l a t t i which our present work was to r e p l a c e was of a s m a l l and

unconventional p a t t e r n , scored f o r soprano and c o n t r a l t o c a s t r a t i w i t h

string orchestra. P e r g o l e s i was requested to preserve t h a t s t y l e . -

E i n s t e i n ^ a p o l o g e t i c a l l y remarks that S c a r l a t t i ' s s e t t i n g was made

during h i s l a t e period of w r i t i n g and t h a t " i t remains one of h i s

roughest and most w i l f u l compositions, and might e a s i l y have f a i l e d

to s a t i s f y the fashionable t a s t e of those occupying the boxes i n the

Teatro San Bartolomeo".

R o b e r t s o n ^ * ^ maintains S c a r l a t t i ' s s e t t i n g i s stronger i n

c o n s t r u c t i o n and more imaginative i n conception, coming from the pen

of a much more g i f t e d composer. Although S c a r l a t t i ' s speeds range

from 'adagio' through to ' a l l e g r o ' , the r a p i d speed i s only used f o r

'Virgo Virginum p r a e c l a r a ' , ( a passage P e r g o l e s i did not choose to s e t )

and the Amen, Both of these s e c t i o n s are p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate f o r

robust treatment.

( i ) 'Forward' to miniature score No. 973, p b l . Eulenburg, ed. E i n s t e i n ,


Munich, 192?.

( i i ) Requiem, Music of Mourning and Consolation - Alec Robertson,


pbl. C a s s e l l , 1967.
Contemporary w i t h P e r g o l e s i was C a l d a r a (1670 - 1738), a w i d e l y

t r a v e l l e d composer o f operas and o r a t o r i o s . He w r o t e a s e t t i n g o f

the S t a b a t Mater u s i n g t h e c u r r e n t V e n e t i a n s t y l e , b u t f u s e d w i t h i t

elements o f P a l e s t r i n a ' s s t r i c t s t y l e . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a work o f

c l a r i t y , d i g n i t y and coneiseness, scored f o r f o u r s o l o i s t s , four-part

c h o i r , o r c h e s t r a o f s t r i n g s , two trombones and organ. I t has eleven

s h o r t movements, (compared w i t h e i g h t e e n by S c a r l a t t i and t w e l v e by

P e r g o l e s i ) and uses a s h o r t e n e d t e x t . S i x are f o r chorus, the first

o f w h i c h i n c l u d e s a s o l o q u a r t e t , b u t t h e remainder are f o r d u e t ,

t r i o and q u a r t e t r a t h e r than s o l o numbers.

W r i t i n g f o r an audience w h i c h would be w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h c a n t a t a

s t y l e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d P e r g o l e s i ' s s e t t i n g o f t h e poem. I t was

necessary t o v a r y speeds w i d e l y i n o r d e r t o a v o i d monotony and t o make

the slow passages s u f f i c i e n t l y i m p r e s s i v e . B e a r i n g i n mind these

c o n d i t i o n s and t h e f a c t t h a t we assume t h i s was t h e death-bed work

o f a young composer who had t a s t e d h i s g r e a t e s t success i n opera,

p a r t i c u l a r l y opera b u f f a , we a r e n o t s u r p r i s e d t o encounter passages

w h i c h are s e c u l a r i n s p i r i t and t h e a t r i c a l i n t r e a t m e n t .

From t h e b e g i n n i n g o p i n i o n s d i f f e r e d r a d i c a l l y about t h e q u a l i -

t i e s o f t h e work. I n I t a l y Padre M a r t i n i r e f e r r e d t o i t as b e i n g

'•less t h a n good", w i t h n o t h i n g i n i t s s t y l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from

La Serva Padrona.

A t t h e t i m e o f "La Guerre des B o u f f o n s " i t took P a r i s by storm,

but i n the f o l l o w i n g century B e r l i o z considered i t a "musical n i g h t -

mare". More r e c e n t l y i t has been d e s c r i b e d as " c o n v e n t i o n a l " by

Tovey/^ " h a u n t i n g l y m o u r n f u l " by Ruth B e r g e s ^ ^ , and "a v e r y uneven


C iii)
work w i t h b a r r e n and p u r e l y c o n v e n t i o n a l passages" by Frank Walker.

( i ) The Forms o f Music, p b l . O.U.P.


( i i ) Opera O r i g i n s and S i d e l i g h t s , p b l . Thos. Y o s e l o f f .
( i i i ) Groves D i c t i o n a r y o f Music and M u s i c i a n s , V o l . V I , p b l . M a c M i l l i a n ,
5th E d i t i o n .

2091
I t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n s i d e r such a work as t h i s from the

p o i n t o f view o f l a r g e - s c a l e church s e t t i n g s . I t i s f a r more p e r s o n a l

and i n t i m a t e , i n t e n d e d , a c c o r d i n g t o E i n s t e i n , " f o r t h e e d i f i c a t i o n o f

a s m a l l c i r c l e " and c o u l d w e l l be d e s c r i b e d as "sacred chamber music".

A l t h o u g h now n o r m a l l y sung by female t w o - p a r t chorus w i t h s o l o s

and d u e t s , i t s b e s t q u a l i t i e s are d i s p l a y e d when performed by two

s i n g e r s capable o f r e n d e r i n g t a s t e f u l l y a l l t h e ornamentation

o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t we can no l o n g e r reproduce

the v o c a l t i m b r e o f P e r g o l e s i ' s c a s t r a t i .

An i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r s t r i n g s and organ, c o n t a i n i n g P e r g o l e s i ' s

r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s o f t h e f a l s e c l o s e and f i n a l a r p e g g i o descent onto

the t h i r d o f t h e t o n i c , precedes t h e f i r s t movement. The a n g u i s h of

t h e V i r g i n Mary s t a n d i n g a t t h e f o o t o f t h e Cross i s p o r t r a y e d by

v o i c e s e n t e r i n g i n canon a t t h e 2nd, (A). This i n t e r v a l i s p a r t i c u l a r l y

e f f e c t i v e i n e x p r e s s i n g such g r i e f . We a r e reminded o f Mozart u s i n g

t h e same d e v i c e f o r a s i m i l a r e f f e c t i n h i s f i n a l work, t h e 'Recordare*

from t h e Requiem i n D minor. (B)

The second statement commences i n t h e dominant and r e v e r s e s the

order o f e n t r y , consequently t h e canonic i n t e r v a l i s now the ? t h .

F u r t h e r emphasis i s g i v e n t o ' j u x t a crucem' t h r o u g h i m i t a t i o n a t t h e

fourth. P e r g o l e s i ' s s t r e n g t h i n r h y t h m i c e x p r e s s i o n i s amply demonstra-

t e d on 'dum pendebat', ' d o l o r o s a ' and ' l a c r i m o s a ' by s i m p l e b u t e f f e c -

t i v e use o f r e s t s . Suspensions are p o w e r f u l and h e l p t o c r e a t e a

p i c t u r e o f m i s e r y and d e j e c t i o n . T h e i r presence i n t h e work i s

s u g g e s t i v e o f C o r e l l i ' s music, b u t by comparison P e r g o l e s i ' s phrase

work i s n e a t e r , more c o n c i s e and more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .

'Cuius animus', a soprano s o l o i n C m i n o r , i s preceded by a l e n g t h y

i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t r o d u c t o r y statement. The s o l o p a r t i s syncopated and

makes c o n s i d e r a b l e use o f the s h o r t phrase r e p e a t e d i n sequence. ( C ) .

210.
1 1
Dramatic e f f e c t i s produced on p e r t r a n s i v i t by a c h r o m a t i c d e s c e n t ,

The second s t a t e m e n t modulates t h r o u g h t h e subdominant and employs an

augmented 2nd f o r t h e s t a r k e f f e c t on 'animam gementem'.

One o f t h e most e x p r e s s i v e o f a l l P e r g o l e s i ' s movements i s s t h e

s e t t i n g o f *0 quam t r i s t i s ' . As we so o f t e n d i s c o v e r , he i s most

e f f e c t i v e when t h e music i s s t r i p p e d o f a l l u n e s s e n t i a l d e c o r a t i o n .

G minor i s s e l e c t e d ; no i n t r o d u c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , b u t t h e v o i c e s

e n t e r t o g e t h e r i n c r o t c h e t s w i t h a l i n e w h i c h i s p u n c t u a t e d by an

a r p e g g i o on t h e d i m i n i s h e d 7 t h . A g a i n power o f e x p r e s s i o n l i e s i n t h e

very s i m p l i c i t y o f the statement. 'Mater* i s h i g h l i g h t e d by b e i n g

sung i n minims a g a i n s t g e n t l e major a r p e g g i o s commencing o f f t h e b e a t

for v i o l a and ' c e l l o . T h i s a l m o s t produces t h e e f f e c t o f a h a l o i n

sound. (E)

The c o n t r a l t o s o l o 'Quae moerebat' i n E f l a t major has been

d e s c r i b e d by Frank W a l k e r ^ as " n o t f a r removed f r o m t r i v i a l i t y " .

T h i s c e r t a i n l y i s a movement i n w h i c h P e r g o l e s i p r o v i d e s ammunition

for h i s c r i t i c s who accuse him o f b e i n g t h e a t r i c a l . The s h o r t , light-

w e i g h t , syncopated phrase abounds, t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h e a t r e - p i t - s t y l e

syncopated accompaniment. Even t h e f l o u r i s h e s on t h e word 'poenas?

are s t y l i s t i c a l l y misplaced. (F)

1
'Quis e s t homo p r o v i d e s a complete c o n t r a s t ; i t s b e a u t y and

a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s a r e a l l t h e more marked as a r e s u l t o f f o l l o w i n g

'Quae moerebat'. No i n t r o d u c t i o n i s employed, b u t t h e v o i c e s e n t e r

i n d i v i d u a l l y on a s i m p l e , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d phrase over a c h r o m a t i c a l l y

descending bass w h i c h reaches i t s peak o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s on * t a n t o

supplicio'. (G).

(i) Ibid.

211.
As t h e v o i c e s j o i n t o g e t h e r , moving m a i n l y i n 3rds on an e x t r e m e l y

s i m p l e melodic o u t l i n e , i t i s y e t a g a i n t h e r h y t h m i c t r e a t m e n t which

b r i n g s o u t t h e meaning o f t h e words, t h r o u g h t h e break a f t e r t h e word


1
'quis and t h e d r o o p i n g l i n e a t ' t a n t o s u p p l i c i o * . F o r much o f t h i s

s e c t i o n t h e accompaniment i s i n two d i f f e r e n t p a r t s w i t h v i o l a and

' c e l l o d o u b l i n g each o t h e r a t t h e o c t a v e , w h i l e t h e v i o l i n s p l a y a

sobbing phrase i n u n i s o n .

P e r g o l e s i i n t e n d e d 'Pro peccata' t o f o l l o w i m m e d i a t e l y as p a r t

o f t h e same movement d e s p i t e a change o f t h e t i m e and speed, and o f

t h e key t o t h e r e l a t i v e minor. C e r t a i n e d i t i o n s o f t h e v/ork t r y t o

break up t h i s n a t u r a l f l o w by c r e a t i n g s e p a r a t e movements b o t h h e r e and

between 'Quando corpus' and t h e Amen. The v i o l i n s p l a y t o g e t h e r i n

3rds, e v e n t u a l l y moving i n t o u n i s o n , w h i l e t h e v i o l a and ' c e l l o double

each o t h e r . Use o f 6/8 metre p r o v i d e s a r e f r e s h i n g change, b u t t h e

g e n t l e rhythm and d i a t o n i c harmonies a r e soon exchanged f o r b o l d

s t r o k e s on ' e t f l a g e l l i s ' , w h i c h a r e s t r e n g t h e n e d by d i m i n i s h e d 7 t h s .

I n common w i t h t h e bass, b o t h v o i c e s produce a p e d a l G on ' V i d i t suum

Jesum i n t o r m e n t i s ' . The p l a i n , unadorned l i n e p o r t r a y s t h e r e a l i t y

o f t h e scene w i t h u t t e r s i m p l i c i t y . Pergolesi's intended u n i t y o f

t h e two s e c t i o n s o f t h e movement i s demonstrated by t h e e v e n t u a l r e t u r n

t o t h e t o n i c a f t e r t h e second s e c t i o n had d i g r e s s e d t o t h e r e l a t i v e

minor.

C u r i o u s l y h i s c r i t i c s a r e o f t e n s i l e n t about ' V i d i t suum dulcem

natum', which i s a movement w i t h a c e r t a i n amount o f r h y t h m i c e l a b o r a -

t i o n and p o w e r f u l harmony. Over a c h r o m a t i c a l l y descending bass l i n e

moving i n minims, i s sung t h e phrase 'morientem, desolatum' ( H ) . I t

has an e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e o u t l i n e , b u t t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t d e c o r a t i o n

t o g i v e emphasis t o v i t a l syllables.

212.
I

The f i n a l phrase, ('dum e m i s i t s p i r i t u r a ' ) i s fragmented against

v i o l i n s y n c o p a t i o n and g i v e s a most Eea±±a±as p o r t r a y a l o f C h r i s t

gasping f o r His f i n a l b r e a t h . I t i s expressed so r e a l i s t i c a l l y and

enhances t h e b e a u t y and s t r e n g t h o f t h e movement t h r o u g h i t s r h y t h m i c

and harmonic s i m p l i c i t y .

•Eja Mater' i s t h e movement w h i c h has most f r e q u e n t l y been h e l d

up t o r i d i c u l e . The r h y t h m i c sense and melodic shape o f ' f a c u t


1
tecum l u g e a m , ( I ) , a r e superb and t h e phrase i s as w o r t h y o f i n c l u ^

s i o n as any s e c t i o n o f t h e work. The main m u s i c a l i d e a s , however,

a r e t r i v i a l and f u s s y and c o u l d w e l l have appeared i n a number o f

f l o w e r y and s e n t i m e n t a l passages w i t h i n P e r g o l e s i ' s stage w o r k s .

One i s prompted t o pause and c o n s i d e r how much r e v i s i o n might

have been made i f t h i s had n o t been t h e h a s t i l y w r i t t e n swan-song

o f a d y i n g man. T h i s movement i n p a r t i c u l a r i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h

i t s e l f , b u t improves as i t proceeds. We h a v e ' a l r e a d y observed t h e

much c r i t i c i s e d opening and t h e n t h e e x p r e s s i v e r e a l i s a t i o n o f ' f a c


1
u t tecum l u g e a m ; t w i c e more t h i s phrase i s sung as a t o n i c pedal

w i t h s t r i n g s accompanying i n o c t a v e s . A f r e s h statement o f ' E j a Mater',

( J ) , appears towards t h e end. T h i s i s sung and p l a y e d i n octaves t o

a t e n d e r phrase w h i c h i s t r e a t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y . T h e a t r i c a l i t may be,

b u t i t i s a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e and e f f e c t i v e .

'Fac u t a r d e a t ' has a l s o been c r i t i c i s e d f o r b e i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e

t o t h e mood o f t h e words and f o r P e r g o l e s i ' s r e v e r s i o n t o t h e a

c a p p e l l a s t y l e o f an e a r l i e r e r a . I t would appear t h a t some e a r l i e r

movement has p r o v i d e d t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s s e t t i n g , w h i c h i s l a r g e l y

f u g a l , and i n t h r e e p a r t s w i t h t h e o r c h e s t r a l bass p r o v i d i n g t h e t h i r d

voice. Weight i s added t o t h i s t h e o r y where, i n b a r 20, t h e a l t o line

i s manipulated i n t o a h i g h e r r e g i s t e r t o keep w i t h i n t h e v o c a l r a n g e .

213.
There i s one passage o f s t r e t t o and a f u r t h e r passagg i n canon, b u t

these t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e s p r o v i d e n o t h i n g more i n t h e way o f e x p r e s s i o n

t h a n do t h e v o c a l passages o f p r o l o n g e d trills.

'Sancta Mater' commences a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f d u e t s i n P e r g o l e s i ' s

e a r l i e r sacred works, h a v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e m e n t s by b o t h v o i c e s

f o l l o w e d by c o n t i n u a t i o n i n 3rds. T h i s i s o n l y t h e second movement

t o be i n a major key. T h i s c o n t r a s t o f mode, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e

s e r e n i t y o f t h e music, suggests g e n t l e n e s s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e

V i r g i n Mary. The movement develops by f u r t h e r v o c a l e n t r i e s o f t h e

opening m u s i c a l phrase, and shows g r e a t e r freedom i n a passage w h i c h

employs the r e l a t i v e minor, mediant minor and s u p e r t o n i c minor. This

i s f o l l o w e d by r e c a p i t u l a t o r y s t a t e m e n t s , ( m a i n l y i n t h e t o n i c ) , and

s u r e l y i n d i c a t e s t h e way P e r g o l e s i was p r o g r e s s i n g w i t h h i s approach

to form. The v i o l i n s , a l t h o u g h moving i n u n i s o n f o r much o f t h e move-

ment, have an importance o f t h e i r own almost e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e

voices.

•Fac u t portem' i s one o f t h e more p o w e r f u l movements i n t h e

setting. I t s a r r e s t i n g u n i s o n opening m o t i v e appears i n G m i n o r , t h e n

descends s e q u e n t i a l l y t h r o u g h F minor t o E f l a t major. Each b o l d

s t a t e m e n t i s f o l l o w e d by a pause w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e impact

almost as much as t h e m o t i v e i t s e l f . A c e r t a i n amount o f f l o r i d

t r e a t m e n t f o l l o w s , f o r b o t h v o i c e and v i o l i n s , which a g a i n p l a y i n

u n i s o n almost t h r o u g h o u t , w h i l e t h e v i o l a and ' c e l l o p l a y t h e bass i n

octaves.

Amidst solemn v e r s e s s e t t o minor modes comes t h e b r i g h t r a y

of hope f o r t h e Day o f Judgement. W i t h 'Inflammatus* P e r g o l e s i

employs a major key and produces a melody i m p e l l e d by a r d o u r and a

sense o f urgency, ( K ) . S t y l i s t i c elements n o r m a l l y t o be found

i n $ h i s opere b u f f e a r e i n c l u d e d , b u t seem q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s

2lk.
context. The soprano makes t h e f i r s t s t a t e m e n t ; the c o n t r a l t o ' s

answer i n t h e dominant i s i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e soprano r e - e n t e r i n g a

^ t h above, and p r o c l a i m i n g a l l t h e more a r d e n t l y t h e C h r i s t i a n

message o f r e l i a n c e on C h r i s t ' s P a s s i o n . P e r g o l e s i must have had

remarkable f a i t h i n o r d e r t o s e t t h i s movement so z e a l o u s l y , k n o w i n g

t h a t he was dying.

A f t e r t h e impact o f 'Inflammatus' 'Quando Corpus i s an anti-

c l i m a x y d e s p i t e i t s earnestness and t h e c a r e o b v i o u s l y l a v i s h e d upon

writing i t . Most o f t h e movement has a t w o - p a r t accompaniment w i t h

a p e r s i s t e n t v i o l i n semiquaver f i g u r e w h i c h seems t o p o r t r a y t h e

r e l e n t l e s s approach o f d e a t h . The a c a p p e l l a s t y l e Amen i s a s e c t i o n

w h i c h has been much c r i t i c i s e d f o r i t s p a u c i t y o f m u s i c a l and emotional

content. Compared w i t h some o f t h e r e v e r e n t l y p r o f o u n d movements

w h i c h precede i t , t h i s c r i t i c i s m i s j u s t l y made.

Alec Robertson points o u t ^ ^ t h a t i n order t o understand the

i n t i m a c y o f t h i s s e t t i n g we s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e N e a p o l i t a n s * atti-

tude t o the V i r g i n Mary. No home would be w i t h o u t a p i c t u r e o r a

s t a t u e ; n e i t h e r would a bar o r , perhaps, even a b r o t h e l . To t h e

N e a p o l i t a n s she i s a human b e i n g who understands. She may be tragic,

o r c o n t e m p l a t i v e , o r s o r r o w f u l , b u t she a l s o s m i l e s . Such t h e n a r e

t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e V i r g i n t h a t P e r g o l e s i has t r i e d t o convey i n

t h i s s e t t i n g o f the S t a b a t Mater.

( i ) Op. cit.

215-
1
J r-M 1
r :
i [ ^ Z5Z
-T bat Ha-- te' d o — lo- ro

^ 5 I
Stc -bat H a . - ter d o _ Vo - ro

33
3
i Pp
1
* r

Ok. (vox
5
3_a

ten.

ly»« i n i [4 1 > 1 qE ; ;

per — t^c~s> _ , - v v t ^U>- — cU ~ ^ •

n 1
, 1
r .+ —
\ 1 1
fljV g C | 4
: _ t - -H—1— 1 1 * }
/1 , <• 1«—i*-?—r— 1—1— —
—<1 j
1 1
J A , , at af -
ft \ , . . 1
— = 1 \ —— 1 1 — 1 1 —
- frf - t '
^ —'— '
vc — — h J —? 1 &
~ — 1 —
1 1— L
1

I
s I -t—I-
- q-e. - ^

-y—t-

* 4-4-

v^-ft. t^r

1
=3F r i r ui

\—v
<vo. - Cc p© e. -— *va.s C*.

a
_£ «c 1 ^

.ju n i l
u-f ,

w
—f-
E

H /• / / r i I
1 I

in
K'.fr b
r — r ~
t
I.. , i w \ " V- f
y — ^
" f l t —
tr

IbV f f 1
-H 1-^-
&° > 1 — u^ = t: Pf 1 f ;
f
J ru>- ri - - • lev - tuu^ i e . - & o - •
(
la. - tw-«- (

<Y- H p HP 9p -4^
M i l 1 X
-h-i-t - I f — ? —

• 1 v 1 V 1 r 1 —
i
i * 1 L , r i ii l
_L4_v—-— 1| 1• X JI
V
m

\ 1 — 1 1 \ 1—
- J 4 G) - i - J
m-^ — sCt SfC —

'—T
Y
\\—7V— —f—, 1 i \\ 1
——Vi—fejV—^ > v. ^ « V • V

X
=s
1 Jt i > . 3 . ^ = • I 1
\Ly *z—[ 1 —

J
1
nun K v \
y ^ > i-ij — ^ - h - o r i- vug,
J
^ J - ^

'J~T~\ 1 r« K JH \—
; J
i J n j) i 1r i
Vi*^. do - V o - r i s / vi**. <io •

b
-f—? ; y — V
^
/U r r f ' M ^ M l \ ft ' f
f ' ; f ft r T i —
J
Mf l x
1
A
MAGNIFICAT

Perhaps no o t h e r work, e i t h e r s a c r e d o r s e c u l a r , s t i l l attributed

t o P e r g o l e s i has so l i t t l e evidence o f a u t h e n t i c i t y as t h e M a g n i f i c a t

i n B f l a t f o r f o u r v o i c e s , s t r i n g s and c o n t i n u e We have no Knowledge

o f dates o f composition o r f i r s t performance, and as no h o l o g r a p h

v e r s i o n e x i s t s we cannot be p o s i t i v e r e g a r d i n g t h e composer. The

o n l y s e r i o u s contender f o r t h e honour o f a t t r i b u t i o n , o t h e r than

P e r g o l e s i h i m s e l f , would be h i s t u t o r Francesco D u r a n t e , who had

exerted a considerable i n f l u e n c e upon h i s p u p i l . I n i t s simplicity,

beauty o f melody and i n v e n t i o n i t shov/s g r e a t e r o r i g i n a l i t y t h a n we

encounter i n t h e works o f t h e o l d e r man. Consequently s c h o l a r s a r e

prompted t o c l a i m t h a t P e r g o l e s i was i n f a c t t h e composer.

Sacred works o f t h a t p e r i o d d i d n o t u s u a l l y show t h e same r a t e

o f advance as d i d N e a p o l i t a n opera, b u t r e t a i n e d many o f t h e o l d e r

s t y l e s and t r a d i t i o n s . A f e e l i n g o f u n i t y o f mood i s p r e s e n t i n

t h i s work by t h e i n c l u s i o n i n t h e o u t e r movements o f a m u s i c a l idea

based upon a p l a i n c h a n t s e t t i n g o f t h e M a g n i f i c a t . I t i s interest-

i n g t o observe t h a t M o n t e v e r d i used t h i s same tone (Tone I ) i n t h e

M a g n i f i c a t o f h i s Vespers over a c e n t u r y earlier.

As w i t h a g r e a t number o f m a n u s c r i p t s , the t e x t suffered badly

a t t h e hands o f c o p y i s t s who were f r e q u e n t l y c o n t e n t (particularly

i n r e l i g i o u s works w i t h well-known t e x t s ) t o i h s e r t o n l y t h e o p e n i n g

words o f a l i n e , p l a c i n g them r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e notes t o w h i c h t h e y

were i n t e n d e d t o b e l o n g . A considerable amount o f guesswork has been

necessary i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f modern p u b l i c a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n

passages r e q u i r i n g r e p e t i t i o n o f words.

219.
The u n i f y i n g m o t i v e , ( A ) o f t h e f i r s t movement, based on t h e

above-mentioned p l a i n c h a n t t o n e , i s i n t r o d u c e d by t h e sopranos and

repeated by t e n o r s . Subsequently i t appears i n t h e dominant f o r

a l t o s , and t h e n as t h e l i n k f o r t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s i n t h e mediant

minor and t o n i c . I t i s a j o y f u l movement w i t h j u b i l a n t passages on

"et e x u l t a v i t s p i r i t u s meus". Chord s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e most p a r t i s

extremely simple. There a r e a number o f i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s , b u t t h e r e

a r e passages ( a s i n ensemble s e c t i o n s o f P e r g o l e s i ' s i n t e r m e z z i ) when

basses and sopranos, w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f t h e i n n e r p a r t s , s i n g i n

t e n t h s ; elsewhere a l t o s and t e n o r s s i n g .together i n s i x t h s and t h i r d s .

The s e c t i o n " q u i a f e c i t m i h i magna" p a i r s t h e two l o w e r voices

i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e upper v o i c e s , and v o i c e s p r o g r e s s m a i n l y i n p a r a l l e l

thirds. There a r e some p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c i t i n g moments f o r t h e basses

i n t h e i r b o l d quaver r u n s and heavy c r o t c h e t t r e a d s .

The second movement, " E t m i s e r i c o r d i a " , w h i c h commences i n G

minor w i t h a soprano s o l o has an accompaniment w e l l s p i c e d w i t h suspen-

sions. A f t e r modulating t o t h e dominant minor t h e m a t e r i a l i s

repeated i n t h e new k e y as an a l t o s o l o . The chorus i s added t o g i v e

s t r e n g t h a t " f e c i t potentiam". A t t h i s p o i n t bold repeated t o n i c and

dominant chords a r e used. The f i g u r e " d i s p e r s i t superbos" o c c u r s

t h r e e times i n D major and i s connected by f l o r i d r u n s i n t h e bass

voice. On each o c c a s i o n t h e e f f e c t becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y more i n t e n s e .

On t h e f i r s t o c c a s i o n t h e f l a t t e n e d s u p e r t o n i c i s used, n e x t t h e

d i m i n i s h e d 7th, and f i n a l l y an I t a l i a n 6th. (B) The movement t a k e s

the r a t h e r u n u s u a l course o f e n d i n g i n t h e mediant m i n o r .

The t h i r d movement ( i n D m i n o r ) has a u n i f y i n g f i g u r e w h i c h i s

treated fugally. (C) Once more t h e m o t i o n i n t e n t h s between o u t e r

p a r t s and t h i r d s between i n n e r p a r t s i s f a v o u r e d . When a new f i g u r e

i s i n t r o d u c e d t h e opening f i g u r e i s s t i l l r e t a i n e d as a c a n t u s f i r m u s

and used a l o n g s i d e i t .

220.
A d u e t f o r t e n o r and bass f o l l o w s ; i t i s c l e a r l y t h e most

r h y t h m i c a l l y o r n a t e o f a l l movements i n t h e work. A tender opening

m o t i v e on t h e words " s u s c e p i t I s r a e l " i s f r e e l y i m i t a t e d b o t h by

v o i c e s and v i o l i n s i n t h e accompaniment. (D) Not o n l y has i t b e a u t y

i n i t s melodic l i n e , b u t t h e movement a l s o c a r r i e s w i t h i t an atmosphere

o f t r u e tenderness.

The chorus " S i c u t l o c u t u s e s t " i s i n D m i n o r , b u t modulates b o t h

t o t h e dominant major and dominant minor. The opening phrase w h i c h i s

sung by sopranos a l o n e i s t h e motto f o r t h i s movement. I t is

i m m e d i a t e l y r e p e a t e d by t h e basses i n t h e c h o r u s , and l a t e r appears

i n t h e a l t o p a r t b e f o r e b e i n g r e p e a t e d by t h e basses. With the f i n a l

cadence i n D minor s t i l l r i n g i n g i n t h e l i s t e n e r ' s e a r s t h e o p e n i n g

o f t h e G l o r i a makes an impact merely by r e t u r n i n g t o B f l a t major

( t h e f l a t t e n e d submediant o f t h e p r e v i o u s k e y ) and s t a t i n g t h e new

t o n i c chord t h r e e t i m e s b e f o r e m o d u l a t i n g t o t h e r e l a t i v e minor -

G minor. (E)

The f i n a l movement commences a t " s i c u t e r a t i n p r i n c i p i o " , and

t h e p l a i n c h a n t heard a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e work r e a p p e a r s . I tisa

j u b i l a n t movement w i t h b o i s t e r o u s passages i n b o l d r u n s f o r t h e

basses. The main f i g u r e appears on " e t i n s e c u l a seculorum", ( F ) ,

and a m i d s t f l o r i d polyphony i s sung f i r s t by t e n o r s i n t h e t o n i c and

t h e n r e p e a t e d on f o u r t e e n o c c a s i o n s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e dominant,

t o n i c , mediant minor and r e l a t i v e minor k e y s .

Throughout t h i s s e t t i n g o f t h e M a g n i f i c a t , whether t h e mood i s

t e n d e r and p o r t r a y e d i n g e n t l e c a r e s s i n g s t r a i n s , o r j o y f u l and

e c s t a t i c ( t h e t r i p l e measure c a r e f u l l y b e i n g a v o i d e d even i n moments

o f j u b i l a t i o n ) , a t a l l t i m e s t h e music i s a p p r o p r i a t e , and f a i t h f u l

to the t e x t .

221.
n
4-
tn \

l
r rr \

3C
L0L U
f- r
? y 1 1 T 111 i g 5=
J^t-s pje.rsit siA_-p4.<"^»s s^-p*A>c>&
; A t ^ p a - T i t t Sw-p-e^o*, J»^p*/-Woi

1- ^

^m XT"
J

1
r=~
L
a

1
In •' 1
' I I I I I I ' * 1 J J'
0 pot-.eX'- Us de s «-it

3>
6

1 fU
el
I A.
s«. - CIA. a.

J. >
7y P Ii

a.
i

i i l-jri A
i

11%
SALVE REGINA

No d o u b t has been c a s t upon t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the four settings

o f t h i s sacred a n t i p h o n t o t h e B l e s s e d V i r g i n Mary. Dates o f

c o m p o s i t i o n and performance a r e n o t known; i n d e e d we o n l y h a z a r d a

guess i n d a t i n g t h e f i n a l s e t t i n g a t 1735* A l l four are t y p i c a l o f

the composer and have a common bond o f s t y l e i n t h e i r c l a r i t y , brevity,

h e i g h t o f i n s p i r a t i o n , b e a u t y and i n t e n s i t y o f melody. Frank W a l k e r ^ ^

r e f e r s t o them as b e i n g good examples o f P e r g o l e s i i n h i s " r a t h e r

sentimental, saccharine but nevertheless h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e o f

r e l i g i o u s music", and he s t a t e s t h a t t h e y c o u l d be m i s t a k e n f o r no

o t h e r composer.

V a r i o u s a d a p t i o n s and arrangements o f t h e works appeared d u r i n g

the c e n t u r y f o l l o w i n g P e r g o l e s i ' s d e a t h . The t h i r d s e t t i n g , w h i c h i s

g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e b e s t , perhaps s u f f e r e d t h e g r e a t e s t i n

t h i s respect. Each work i s accompanied by s t r i n g s , b u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l

scores a r e as f o l l o w s :

No. 1, i n A m i n o r , f o r Soprano s o l o i s t .

No. 2, i n C m i n o r , f o r Soprano and Bass s o l o i s t s .

No. 3, i n F m i n o r , f o r two Soprano soloists.

No. k, i n C m i n o r , f o r Soprano s o l o i s t .

(i) Op. c i t .

22k.
FIRST SETTING

There i s no great depth i n the opening S a l v e Regina movement.

The words are s e t f a i t h f u l l y w i t h dramatic e f f e c t r e s t r i c t e d to the

o c c a s i o n a l diminished 7th, but there i s a descending minim motive

which appears f i r s t d i a t o n i c a l l y , then f l a t t e n e d , and finally

c h r o m a t i c a l l y as the emotional i n t e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s .

1
A f l o r i d l i n e i s employed f o r 'Ad te clamamus , which i s w r i t t e n

i n the key of C major. The opening r i s i n g arpeggio i s i n v e r t e d i n

the second statement, and then developed f u r t h e r u n t i l the dominant

i s reached. A b r i e f statement then appears i n t h i s new key before

being transposed and extended i n the o r i g i n a l key. Towards the end

of t h i s statement a chromatic bass l i n e f e a t u r e s prominently.

The l i n e of 'Ad te suspiramus' i s fragmented a t f i r s t but g r a d u a l l y

becomes more continuous. At • f l e n t e s ' the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the t o n i c

minor key i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to accompany the weeping. The

misery of the v a l e of t e a r s i s brought out by two upward l e a p s of a

diminished 5th, a downward l e a p of an augmented ^fth and a chromatic

bass l i n e . (A)

For ' E j a ergo advocata n o s t r a ' P e r g o l e s i s e l e c t s F major and

p r e s e n t s a lengthy o r c h e s t r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n . Much word-painting i s


1
evident on statements of m i s e r i c o r d e s occulos ad nos converte', a s

the keys pass r a p i d l y through C major, C minor and G major. The second

p a r t of the movement, which i s sung to ' e t Jesum benedictum fructum

v e n t r i s t u i ' , i s l e s s f l o r i d and a t the same time l e s s o r i g i n a l i n

concept. I t v/ould c e r t a i n l y appear t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t P e r g o l e s i i s

more concerned w i t h h i s m u s i c a l e f f e c t r a t h e r than appropriate

r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the words.

225.
J o y f u l , almost t r i v i a l , l i g h t h e a r t e d phrases appear s e q u e n t i a l l y ,

and the s e c t i o n ends w i t h a w e l l t r i e d melodic phrase. (B)

The f i n a l movement r e t u r n s to A minor and modulates to the

r e l a t i v e major i n the f i r s t statement. The voice enters a s though

pleading on '0 clemens, o p i a , o d u l c i s v i r g o ' , and the fragmented

v o c a l l i n e i s s u b t l y woven i n t o the accompanying f i g u r e to produce


1
continuity. (C) 'Dulcis provides scope f o r word-painting: a halo

of sound i s produced i n a f i g u r e which l e a p s a diminished ? t h , curves

back i n descent and i s then repeated i n sequence. The f i r s t interval

i s then modified to the g e n t l e r minor 7th f o r the second statement,

a f t e r which 'Salve Virgo Maria' makes a b r i e f r e t u r n .

226.
SECOND SETTING ( i )

Although t h i s i s the s h o r t e s t of the four s e t t i n g s ; i n some

r e s p e c t s i t shows more thought and care i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n than

p a r t s of the longer s e t t i n g s . F i r s t l y , the choice of soprano and

bass s o l o i s t s provides f u r t h e r r e s o u r c e s f o r the composer to e x p l o i t .

Secondly, although there a r e passages of p u r e l y mechanical counter-

point i m i t a t i n g a t the kth. and 5th, there a r e a l s o moments o f extreme

s t r e n g t h , e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e x p r e s s i o n . Particularly outstanding


1
among them a r e the chromatic descent on 'gementes e t f l e n t e s , ( D ) ,

and the powerfully d i s c o r d a n t ' i l l o s tuos m i s e r i c o r d e s occulos* ( E ) ,

both of which c l e a r l y focus a t t e n t i o n upon the t e x t .

The gentle movement i n lOths over a s l o w l y moving chord s t r u c t u r e

a t 'nobis post e x i l i u m ostende', although i n a t r i p l e measure, owes

much to the p a s t o r a l e f o r i t s s t y l e and atmosphere o f peace. The

c l o s i n g movement commences w i t h the v o i c e s announcing the t e x t i n 6ths.

Some development takes place by antiphonal renderings o f statements

which e v e n t u a l l y j o i n together f o r the l a s t 'Virgo Maria'.

( i ) C a f f a r e l l i i s of the opinion t h a t t h i s s e t t i n g dates from the

l a t t e r p a r t of P e r g o l e s i ' s study under Gaetano Greco a t the

Conservatorio.
THIRD SETTING

T h i s , the most expansive and profound of the s e t t i n g s , i s a l s o the


most h i g h l y decorated. Unlike the other three s e t t i n g s , the f i r s t
movement i s confined to a working out of the words 'Salve Regina'.
A f t e r the i n i t i a l statements, one i n the t o n i c , the other i n the
dominant, the v o i c e s proceed together i n 3rds or 6ths w i t h a bold y e t
r e v e r e n t s a l u t a t i o n , which c o n s t a n t l y v a r i e s i n i t s dynamics. The
dominant i s reached; a f t e r a s h o r t o r c h e s t r a l passage the second s t a t e -
ment f o l l o w s and r e t u r n s to the t o n i c .

'Mater m i s e r i c o r d i a e ' i s i n the subdominant major and employs

only the f i r s t soprano. Again binary form i s favoured and the word

'Mater' i s coloured with turns and chromatic a s c e n t s . Towards the end

of the movement the melodic flow i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a r e t u r n of ' s a l v e '

on which there i s an e f f e c t i v e pause. The theme then continues unimpeded

to i t s conclusion.

B i n a r y form and the key of E f l a t major a r e s e l e c t e d f o r the

second soprano's 'ad te clamamus'. P a r t i c u l a r l y picturesque and

e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s movement i s the upward l e a p of a minor 7th followed

by a descent on 'gementes' and 'flentes'. The i n t e r v a l i s then

extended to a minor 9th for the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the phrase. (F)

Towards the c o n c l u s i o n of the movement the misery of the v a l e of

t e a r s i s portrayed i n a most powerful manner through exceeding

simplicity: a l l decoration i s removed and the words a r e sung i n a

descending minim s c a l e a g a i n s t tremolo s t r i n g s and a bass pedal. (G)

The phrase which included the minor 7th on 'gementes' then r e t u r n s to

complete the movement and produce a formal u n i t y .

228.
1
Both v o i c e s a r e used i n the key of G minor f o r ' E j a e r g o , and

b i n a r y form once more i s employed. A f t e r the r e v e r e n t opening phrase

which i s sung i n d i v i d u a l l y , the v o i c e s move together i n 3rds on ' I l l o s

tuos m i s e r i c o r d e s occulos' i n a manner which can only be d e s c r i b e d a s

trivial.

'Et J e s u ' ( i n C minor) again i s i n b i n a r y form but i s sung a s

two separate s o l o s . Although i t i s more embellished, p a r t i c u l a r l y on

•benedictum' and 'ostende', the music i s r e v e r e n t and s u i t e d to the

s p i r i t of the words.

The most e x p r e s s i v e movement i s '0 clemens, o p i a ' , which r e t u r n s

to F minor. The v o i c e s interweave a g a i n s t a r i c h l y ornate string

texture f o r a l l i n t e r j e c t i o n s , but move i n 3rds together w i t h the

s t r i n g s on every mention of the holy name 'Virgo Maria'. (H)

229.
FOURTH SETTING

I t i s thought that the f i n a l s e t t i n g was w r i t t e n , along w i t h the

c a n t a t a Orfeo, during P e r g o l e s i ' s period of convalescence i n the l a t e

months of 1735« Development i n the composer's own s t y l e i s e v i d e n t ,

p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the presence of the flowery s e n t i m e n t a l i t y t y p i c a l

of c e r t a i n pages i n F l a m i n i o . C e r t a i n phrases from t h i s work were

subsequently borrowed f o r the Stabat Mater. P a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable

among them i s the opening to both works, i n which the v i o l i n s i m i t a t e

each a t the 2nd, although i n t h i s s e t t i n g there i s a l s o i m i t a t i o n a t

the octave between the v i o l a and the b a s s .

The f i r s t statement modulates to the dominant minor, but the

second modulates f r e e l y , passing through G minor, F minor and B f l a t

minor on the r e t u r n to the t o n i c .

A f t e r the f l o r i d opening movement 'Ad t e clamamus' ( i n G minor)

comes a s a g e n t l e r e l i e f . I t s v o c a l l i n e flows a g a i n s t s t r i n g s which

are a l s o sustained, w i t h the exception of a quaver f i g u r e which i s

passed g e n t l y around. Once again b i n a r y form i s adopted, and i n the

second s e c t i o n the s u s t a i n e d l i n e i s broken by repeated c r i e s o f

'clamamus' and 'exules' which a r e sung w i t h wide c o n t r a s t s of dynamics.

'Ad t e suspiramus* r e t u r n s to C minor and employs an apt s i g h i n g

phrase on 'gementes' and ' f l e n t e s ' . ( I ) L a t e r treatment of these

words degenerates to a prolonged note decorated with a s e r i e s of

shakes, and f a i l s to evoke the emotion and e x p r e s s i o n produced e a r l i e r .

I n ' E j a ergo' (D minor) P e r g o l e s i g i v e s way somewhat to the

g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the s i n g e r ( p a r t i c u l a r l y on 'converte') and pays but

l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to h i s t e x t .

230.
But w i t h 'et Jesum' peace and beauty l i e i n the sheer s i m p l i c i t y of

a w e l l s u s t a i n e d , easy flowing, l i n e a g a i n s t a syncopated v i o l i n

accompaniment. (J)

The f i n a l s t a n z a , '0 clemens, o p i a ' , (C minor) i s b r i e f w i t h

c r i e s of ' d u l c i s * and • p i a ' i n t e r s p e r s e d between a v i o l i n arpeggio

figure. An appropriate e f f e c t i s produced on the f i r s t statement


1
of ' d u l c i s , when a Neapolitan 6th i s used a s a p i v o t to modulate to

the submediant, ( K ) , from which the phrase q u i c k l y modulates again

and concludes i n the r e l a t i v e major.

231-
rJ— i ^-n v.
^ r-
yf "
r&-^ ^\ K *fJ" ^ k L J r i
11 — C -
1
^J 1
— — — va.1 -la.

- "c F T — f ^ f ' ' 1 ' J ^ \ ' f - V 1 1


"1 T T T "
1 ^ l±=3=k±- ^ l±z 1 Jj

1
o - st 2, w

c O <^L^~ Ci'S

n \—l m K JI< /
/Ir ^ i A ' ' " '\ A
.j -• p f L j d
<y j * r ^*v -f- +

-^v f < f-^ p 1r ^


-4^7 \ - \ / 1

Vi*> -qo * cv.S

—vfi-t——{ I L I

-Mr
-k
i
etc
1
—t—^^i y—' )
14
LUj ^ :

r
• — & ?,. y
1
1 LUj=: u
/ f |) i r Y Y f 1 f —
($) *> P
v ^—I—L 1 1 — - 1 — u- + — t — 1 —

<^V( I i l l
- V t — F
c T
1 / U •

C\Q- - <A.e»N.

'—\
- P \ i'^L .
1
f — \ \ r -
1 V M \\ '

• * f - ~
— U i - y
— ^ - i 1
L I U 1
fces Wat lat«-t-^o.

f—r—
1 f i r >' •
TV
i { f — P r f * . y f
- 4I
?5
1 T''

1 UJJ l 1
— i —

i/> r. r r i
1
4> * < ^ [r H 1
—t

J il- lo* k M—1 1


Cor
• •
1
ev.,b ~3 1-7—T7" \ i " "C:—T7 i~s—17"'
a
—t 1/ lr -U—i
il-los t ^ * - - OS t\i-se.-ri —

' \ f *
'f h 1
7

Lii i i L I '4
y
' i

o - ct»» - los .

—r r— < ( | ri — r— 1
1
ki 1/ j/ i — \
1
r
Cor O - Cw.- l o S .
/ y

Wat IOL -
d J
i A.
v/Q.1 - Ve
1
6 g

>1 I

H
*3

3 1
i

1
n lr }
4
3 "
>X 3 * -

} lit (

i »

t
a:
3^ IP^ XXX
1
(

K
a.

i 5
h i
/i
13 " M \ 1 1^
J?

' p b

s
i
7
£2
a—^
•3
3
SUPER FLUMINA

A number o f s e t t i n g s of the Psalms have been a t t r i b u t e d to

P e r g o l e s i , o f t e n w i t h l i t t l e supporting evidence o f authorship;

consequently we f e e l sure there a r e m i s a t t r i b u t i o n s among them.

Although the date and place of performance a r e unknown we have no

reason to doubt the a u t h e n t i c i t y of Super Flumina, a motet based

on Psalm 137, and scored f o r two soprano s o l o i s t s , mixed chorus,

o r c h e s t r a and organ. The manuscript upon which p u b l i c a t i o n i s based

i s housed i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , P a r i s .

F l u t e s announce the theme i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the f i r s t move-

ment throughout which a semiquaver rhythm i s maintained. Three

v o i c e s enter together (in G minor) w i t h slow moving p a r t s , the a l t o

making i t s own separate entry i n the *+th bar. V a r i e t y of t o n a l colour

i s supplied mainly through use of the diminished 7th, by which C and

F minors a r e r a p i d l y achieved, and a r e t u r n to the t o n i c e s t a b l i s h e d ,

a l l i n the opening e i g h t b a r s . T h i s i s followed by i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s

on * dum recordaremur Sion', a s the key p a t t e r n moves a g a i n through

F minor towards B f l a t minor. I n a l l , s i x d i f f e r e n t s h o r t statements

of t h i s opening v e r s e a r e made, each s t y l i s t i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n

i t s e l f and l i n k e d to the others by the semiquaver motion o f the

accompaniment. The d i f f e r e n c e s of s e t t i n g s and the number of keys

throughout the movement suggest the I s r a e l i t e s s t r i v i n g f o r some form

of c o n s o l a t i o n i n the land of t h e i r e x i l e . T h e i r sadness i s r e f l e c t e d

i n a descending bass l i n e , ( A ) , w i t h prominent chromatic s t e p s on

'sedimus' and 'flevimus'.

236.
The second movement ( i n G minor) comprises a s o l o f o r the f i r s t

soprano, s e t e n t i r e l y on ' I n S a l i c i b u s medio e j u s suspendimus organa

nostra'. I t continues f o r 102 d e c o r a t i v e b a r s , which i s an abnormally

longwinded r e n d e r i n g f o r a P e r g o l e s i a n s e t t i n g . The movement f a l l s

i n t o three s e c t i o n s :

(a) statement i n the t o n i c , moving to the dominant,

(b) statement commencing i n the dominant and r e t u r n i n g to the t o n i c ,

( c ) a s h o r t e x t r a statement which would be c o n v e n i e n t l y r e f e r r e d to

as a coda ( p a s s i n g through the r e l a t i v e minor and dominant).

Each of the v o c a l statements i s l i n k e d by h i g h l y decorated o r c h e s t r a l

passages.

The second soprano s o l o i s t then s i n g s 'Quia i l l i c interrogaverunt',

the music of which could e a s i l y have come from one of the h e a v i e r s e c -

t i o n s of Adriano i n S i r i a or L'Olimpiade. Oboes and horns a r e added

for t h i s movement i n order to produce a m i l i t a r y e f f e c t i n the

accompaniment; but as f o r the v o c a l l i n e , P e r g o l e s i i s g u i l t y here

of n e g l e c t i n g the reverence expected to be accorded to the words, and

w r i t e s f o r the glory of h i s s i n g e r . (B) As i s the case w i t h the


followed by
previous numbe^ there are two main v o c a l s e c t i o n s w i t h a f u r t h e r s h o r t

s e c t i o n which could be considered as a coda.

A lengthy i n t r o d u c t i o n w i t h oboes and horns precedes the chorus

'Himnum c a n t a t e ' , which i s a s h o r t , b r i g h t fugue w i t h a Handelian

subject. By way of c o n t r a s t , the u n c e r t a i n t y and unhappiness of the

I s r a e l i t e s i s portrayed i n a hollow phrase - 'quomodo cantabimus' , ( C ) ,

i n the dominant minor, sung i n 6ths by sopranos and tenors, and

accompanied only by s t r i n g s . 'Himnum c a n t a t e ' r e t u r n s , but a f t e r the

entry of a l l four v o i c e s the counterpoint develops f r e e l y w i t h soprano

and c o n t r a l t o semiquavers running together i n 3rds.

237-
1
As 'Quomodo cantabimus r e t u r n s , the music makes p a r t i c u l a r use of

the supertonic and r e l a t i v e minors and becomes more ornate, w i t h semi-

quaver runs prominent i n the bass l i n e . The f i n a l r e t u r n of 'Himnum

cantate* commences w i t h i m i t a t i o n i n a l l p a r t s , but t h e r e a f t e r continues

f r e e l y w i t h sopranos and c o n t r a l t o s i n semiquaver running 6ths. I n the

c l o s i n g bars the tenors and basses r e p e a t e d l y s i n g 'cantate', i n a

passage which i s an overwhelming demand by the captors f o r the

I s r a e l i t e s to s i n g a song from S i o n .

There follows a lengthy, w e l l developed duet f o r the two soprano

s o l o i s t s , accompanied by wind and s t r i n g instruments. A number o f

P e r g o l e s i ' s r e g u l a r rhythmic f e a t u r e s a r e present, together with h i s

t y p i c a l c a d e n t i a l approaches. The f i r s t soprano's statement of ' S i

o b l i t u s fuero t u i , Jerusalem', f o l l o w s a customary p a t t e r n by modula-

t i n g from C to G major. A f t e r the second soprano has commenced the

complementary statement i t i s q u i c k l y j o i n e d i n 3rds by the f i r s t

voice a l s o . There i s an abrupt and e f f e c t i v e change a t 'Adhereat

l i n g u a mea': 'Andantino' (3/8) gives way to 'Allegro' (k/k) and the

key s t e p s up by a semitone from G to A f l a t major. F o r the f i r s t

statement the v o i c e s have a slow-moving l i n e a g a i n s t an accompaniment

of upper s t r i n g s which a r e syncopated a g a i n s t the b a s s . Modulation

i s f r e e , passing through F minor, B f l a t minor, F major, C minor and

F major. A second statement o f the m a t e r i a l shows g r e a t e r r e s t r a i n t

and passes only from D to G minors. The gentle t r i p l e measure and C


1 1
major a r e r e s t o r e d f o r the r e t u r n of o b l i v i s c a t u r me , which i s sung

by the v o i c e s i n 3**ds over a c l e a r t e x t u r e based mainly on t o n i c and

dominant harmonies.

238.
Compound duple time i s r a r e l y employed by P e r g o l e s i , but

reserved as on t h i s occasion to provide f o r s p e c i a l e f f e c t s . The

f i n a l chorus has a twice-heard motto 'Memente, Domine, f i l i o r u m Edom',

f i r s t l y moving from G minor to C minor. The v e r b a l sense i s broken

by a complete change of s t y l e and speed f o r * i n d i e Jerusalem^

which i s a vigorous passage with accompaniment mostly i n o c t a v e s .


1
By the time 'qui d i c u n t i s reached the l i n e which has been sung i n

6ths by sopranos and tenors i s i m i t a t e d by a l t o s and b a s s e s . The

passage ends with an e n e r g e t i c , i m i t a t i v e run, (D)., between tenors

and basses on 'ad fundamentum i n ea', which g i v e s a c o l o u r f u l impression

of Jerusalem being shaken down to the foundations.

The above s e c t i o n ends i n D minor, and immediately the motto

r e t u r n s w i t h a masterstroke of c o l o u r i n g , ( E ) , r e c a l l i n g once more the

g r i e f c r e a t e d by the Edomites. Commencing i n E f l a t minor i t modulates

to F minor i n a passage of i n t e n s e l y emotional harmony.

The r a p i d s e c t i o n s of ' i n d i e Jerusalem' and 'qui d i c u n t ' r e t u r n

i n F major and G minor r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i n a l l y over a c h r o m a t i c a l l y

descending bass, a f e e l i n g of doom i s c r e a t e d as the 6/8 metre makes

one more b r i e f appearance f o r 'ad fundamenta i n ea'. (F)

239.
per y-1

i Q \ b f — J
\ HP 1r• a c 1 if / • ~
i
/ i? c
[.I i i 1
^~ — i -1—i^-
lie w —
©

dv.*.^ cz-oo - dies- — f>C- • #w f cl ^ l A v c ^ - c o r - dux —

^ • p
3 *

Cs

i l IN.

*
ft


E E
3

^
a *c
I kh \ ^"-
— M — ^ —
r •t r — p — :
— \
V >lr i =:

^ " -f- f " -f"

Q,ft „ 1 b 11 1 — b 1* n-p • —
z) ..-ji_ C — » K —y. Y- 1
... L
us

t
Y
V v

1—r

m mm

a s

5 5
ex. .

4 5

-y * A- ^ 3
1
•hh 1
f
i • v ''
V

4Mr —1 -V
to
it . | f\e - ^e^v —-

4fcMf—w - J s
—-&-4—J r i? -bM -
-/- •
J> J >• J I
7>g i ;
- 1 "1

1 ? ^ ^ 1H l"^ ? 7^ 1
• r-f i
\ " \ 1
\
1 ' V \ -f
v^e.'v — (TO
— 4- c. - ^

1 1 i i i

' » = l
E —- dLo«* f~ •
i /hi r —
/ *

' 1 1V — i
] -V.*
I 'I !=!:

" T I •• 4*- , . J, . . it .
-rl i•
r
ii
) ^ i
Vl V I H —J-fl ^l l p — J
! L
4 l • 1
/ y • 1
&—! — 1 ^ l*—
T i 1 i i — 1 *—1
t i l - b xi ±- i
A . - i - -J-
-QfrTTTi 1 H— !
ii " i i ! 1 l—X—s V i 11
-/-H '
I
1 •1 "
i Y I I ^ ( 1
1
1
MISERERE

I n Opera Omnia there are two s e t t i n g s of Miserere. They i n c l u d e

chorus, s o l o s , duets, t r i o s and one q u a r t e t i n each c a s e . No. 1 is

scored f o r s t r i n g s and organ, and No. 2 f o r Oboe, s t r i n g s and organ.

Once again we are without strong evidence of authorship. L i k e a number

of P e r g o l e s i ' s works they c o n t a i n many pages of c a r e f u l l y w r i t t e n but

u n i n s p i r e d music, and, then i n complete c o n t r a s t , passages of extreme

beauty and e x p r e s s i o n . C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given here to c e r t a i n of the

f i n e r movements.

I n the f i r s t s e t t i n g the chorus 'Asperges me hyssop' has a strong

homophonic opening on the words 'Asperges me', followed by a s u s t a i n e d

e x p r e s s i v e l i n e on 'hyssop' f o r the sopranos. Thereafter a contra-

puntal t e x t u r e i s adopted; i t i s f l o r i d but has a c e r t a i n f r e s h n e s s of

its own.

The j o y f u l bass s o l o 'Auditui meo d a b i s gaudium' i s marked " A l i a

breve". (A) I t s t e x t u r e i s bold and c l e a r , and the phrases are longer

than those found i n the m a j o r i t y of P e r g o l e s i ' s movements.

T h i s f i r s t s e t t i n g ends w i t h a f i n e extended fugue on 'Tunc

imponent'. I n c o n t r a s t to t h i s the second s e t t i n g of the words ends

i n the same way as the 'Cum sancto s p i r i t u ' i n P e r g o l e s i ' s masses:

there i s a bold homophonic statement followed by complex contrapuntal

working out. T h i s l a t t e r v e r s i o n i s a f i n e , l i v e l y s e t t i n g of the

t e x t , but shows no innovation.


1
The second s e t t i n g opens w i t h a s t r i k i n g chorus on 'Miserere m e i .

The v o i c e s enter i m i t a t i v e l y a t f i r s t i n i n t e r v a l s of 9th, 5th and 2nd.

S t r i d e n t c l a s h e s of a semi-tone between p a r t s r e f l e c t the anguished

c r i e s f o r mercy.

2^3-
Ample scope i s provided f o r the composer's c o l o u r f u l harmonic e f f e c t s ,

w i t h German 6ths and diminished 7ths f e a t u r i n g prominently. Unexpected

modulations add to the musical i n t e r e s t , the example quoted^(B)^being

p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p r e s s i v e . Having returned from the dominant to the

t o n i c we a n t i c i p a t e that the soprano D f l a t i s to be harmonised on the

f o l l o w i n g chord by a Neapolitan 6th and the key remain as C minor; but

there i s an u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c change to a diminished 7th and then a

modulation to the subdominant, i n a moment of r a r e beauty.

The t r i o i n E f l a t f o r c o n t r a l t o , tenor and bass ' S a c r i f i c i u m Deo'

i s e x p r e s s i v e and appropriate l a r g e l y through the care taken over

rhythmic s e t t i n g . I t i s mainly homophonic w i t h a v i o l i n rhythmic

ostinato figure. L a t e r there i s v a r i e t y provided by syncopation of

the soprano l i n e .

'Benigne f a c Domine' i s a soprano s o l o w i t h oboe obbligato. It

i s a b e a u t i f u l movement with an e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l w r i t t e n oboe p a r t

showing g r e a t e r understanding of the instrument's e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s

than one would assume from other passages P e r g o l e s i wrote f o r i t .


A.
tl;
1/ Qbi . 1 ^
—p—'
i1 i
fe ,
tr t
< & ' c» 1
1 TT { I 1
^^ O i l i I < 1 I I 1
1
1 > I
1—1—

•1- + '
4—i- ' 1
> 1

— K —

5 4 ^T4V 1=3
1
Co/ — — — r <L\.&.'"\- V^.«l - S*. - -

fl

l l \

J _ : L
-\T- ' /

— dU

T
( \ f
r
f^v. - 5-4- -

<- i
+ \ \ \

-£L-

~ 5-C — — C o r _ cJ,J — G^v.


REQUIEM

Considerable doubt i s attached to t h i s s e t t i n g of the Requiem.

I t s o v e r a l l s t y l e suggests i t could have o r i g i n a t e d from P e r g b l e s i ' s

day, but melodic mannerisms and harmonic content are not c o n s i s t e n t l y

typical. Rhythmic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which occur f r e q u e n t l y i n works of

proven a u t h e n t i c i t y are h a r d l y present i n t h i s work, and diminished

7ths and augmented 6ths are not to be found w i t h t h e i r u s u a l degree

of r e g u l a r i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , as so many works have been a t t r i b u t e d

to P e r g o l e s i , e s p e c i a l l y works to t e x t s of the Roman Church, i t would

be convenient and f i t t i n g f o r him to be c r e d i t e d w i t h a s e t t i n g having

the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Requiem.

I t i s scored f o r four v o i c e s , s t r i n g s , two horns and organ, and

i n c l u d e s those passages of the t e x t most f r e q u e n t l y s e t .

'Requiem aeternam' i s a t y p i c a l polyphonic opening chorus. This

i s followed by a duet f o r soprano and c o n t r a l t o on 'Te decet hymnus',

which i s a p l e a s a n t movement, i n binary form, with v o i c e s proceeding

mainly i n 3 r d s .

The K y r i e takes the form of a fugue. I f the work i s a u t h e n t i c

t h i s i s remarkable, as P e r g o l e s i f r e q u e n t l y employed fugato passages

but was not i n c l i n e d ( i n wopko known to bo gonuino) towards i n c l u d i n g

a s t r i c t fugue.

Among the f o l l o w i n g movements the s e t t i n g of 'Tuba mirum' i s

p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e as a martial-sounding duet for tenor and b a s s ,

and the 'Huic ergo* has b e a u t i f u l moments when employing the f l a t t e n e d

submediant.

2k6.
• S p i r i t u s meus' i B u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of P e r g o l e s i i n i t s number

of changes of mood and speed. A strong ' A l i a breve* s e t t i n g i s used

a p p r o p r i a t e l y f o r ' L i b e r a me'; but i n the remainder o f the work

conventional and uninspired harmonies occur, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n such

choruses as 'Mors s t u p e b i t ' and 'Sanctus'.

The f i n a l movement, c u r i o u s l y , i s the Benedictus, which i s a

duet f o r soprano and c o n t r a l t o . Binary form i s p r e f e r r e d , with florid

p a r t s moving i n 3 r d s . S t y l i s t i c a l l y i t belongs r a t h e r to the o p e r a t i c

aria.

247.
MOTETS

We can only keep an open mind about the volume e n t i t l e d M o t e t t i

i n Opera Omnia. S t y l i s t i c a l l y there i s no strong evidence to argue

e i t h e r f o r or a g a i n s t the a u t h e n t i c i t y of i t s contents.

Adoro te devote soprano and o r c h e s t r a ,

Ave verum soprano and s t r i n g s ,

Domine ad Adiuvandum five voices.

Dorme, Benigne J e s u p a s t o r a l e f o r soprano and s t r i n g s ,

I n C o e l e s t i b u s Regnis " a n t i f o n a " f o r c o n t r a l t o and s t r i n g s ,

I n hac Die f i v e v o i c e s and o r c h e s t r a ,

Magnificat (discussed i n d e t a i l previously),

0 Sacrum Convivium four v o i c e s ,

Pro J e s u dum Vivo soprano and o r c h e s t r a ,

S i s t e , Superbe Fragor bass, o r c h e s t r a and organ,

V e x i l l a Regis "inno" (Hymn) f o r four v o i c e s .

( i ) The only exception i s the Magnificat f o r which a strong case

can be argued purely through s t y l e .

248.
DUE MESSE E FRAMMENTI

I n h i s volume e n t i t l e d 'Due Messe E Frammenti' C a f f a r e l l i

i n c l u d e s fcwo e a r l i e r Masses estimated as o r i g i n a t i n g from 1727/30,

namely Messa Solenne and Messa E s t e n s e , and the following fragments:

Credo - four v o i c e s .

Incarnatus - soprano.

Sanctus - three v o i c e s .

Sanctus - four v o i c e s .

Agnus Dei - three v o i c e s .

Agnus Dei - four v o i c e s .

Some of the fragments could w e l l be genuine; they a r e

stylistically appropriate and i t i s q u i t e conceivable that P e r g o l e s i

should have l e f t behind a number of incomplete works.

The two Masses are more open to doubt. C a f f a r e l l i asks us to

accept t h e i r e a r l y date of composition a s though they were immature

works o r i g i n a t i n g from the composer's teenage y e a r s . Unlike the

s e t t i n g s known to be a u t h e n t i c , the f u l l Mass i s s e t i n these cases,

and a four p a r t chorus i s employed r a t h e r than the f i v e p a r t s i n the

l a t e r works.

2k9.
Chapter V

PERGOLESI'S INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC

250.
PERSOLESI'S INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC

The problems of a u t h e n t i c i t y i n opera and sacred music a r e

encountered again when we turn to the many i n s t r u m e n t a l works

a t t r i b u t e d to P e r g o l e s i . A number have proved genuine, others to

be the work of d i f f e r e n t composers and have l e f t us w i t h the s m a l l

problem of s e t t i n g records a r i g h t ; but there i s a t h i r d category of

s i g n i f i c a n t numbers which could be q u i t e p o s s i b l y genuine but l a c k

any supporting evidence.

Among the works by C o r e l l i (1653 - 1713) were four e a r l y s e t s

of t r i o sonatas (12 i n each) and a s e t of s o l o sonatas which were


1
used as prototypes by composers of P e r g o l e s i s day. Most of the

t r i o sonatas were i n a four movement p l a n of slow, f a s t , slow, f a s t ,

as f o l l o w s :

F i r s t movements u s u a l l y had two i m i t a t i v e p a r t s a g a i n s t a moving

bass l i n e i n a complex t e x t u r e .

Second movements were f u g a l , w i t h a number of redundant e n t r i e s which

gave an impression of more v o i c e s than were a c t u a l l y employed.

S u b j e c t s were often t r e a t e d f r e e l y , though l i t t l e melodic develop-

ment took p l a c e . T h i r d movements were u s u a l l y homophonic and i n the

t r i p l e measure of the sarabande.

Fourth movements f r e q u e n t l y were gigues, even i n the church sonatas.

The s o l o sonatas were not as stereotyped as the t r i o sonatas;

C o r e l l i f r e q u e n t l y employed dance forms though omitting t h e i r t i t l e s .

He u s u a l l y avoided v i r t u o s i t y for i t s own sake, but i n c l i n e d towards

i t i n h i s "perpetuum mobile" movements which, by t h e i r very nature,

required such an approach.

251.
Composers of the l a t e Bologna school, notably A l b i n o n i ,

Bonporti and dall'Abaco modelled t h e i r works upon those o f C o r e l l i ,

and were i n turn used a s prototypes by J . S. Bach. I n a d d i t i o n to

the works of these composers, P e r g o l e s i would' i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y be

acquainted a l s o w i t h some of the instrumental works by Handel and

the h i g h l y organised three movement c o n c e r t i of V i v a l d i .

I t a l y produced a number of i n s t r u m e n t a l composers i n the l a t e

Baroque e r a , among whom i n p a r t i c u l a r L o c a t e l l i , Somis, T e s s a r i n i

and Francesco V e r a n c i n i played no s m a l l p a r t i n advancing s t y l e s and

forms. V e r a n c i n i ' s v i o l i n sonatas (1721 - Op. 1 . , 1744 - Op.4.) have

an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e which forshadowed the end of the e r a and the dawn

of the C l a s s i c a l period. We hear that audiences i n London and Dresden

approved of h i s performance but were l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c about the

adventurous harmonies and galant melodies o f h i s works.

C o r e l l i ' s l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r the d i s t i n c t i o n between church and

chamber sonatas was c a r r i e d f u r t h e r inasmuch a s the i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s

of s t y l e were f r e q u e n t l y merged and separate i d e n t i t i e s disappeared.

T a g l i e t t i (1660? - ? ) modelled h i s sonatas on the da capo a r i a . This

i n t r o d u c t i o n of some form o f r e c a p i t u l a t i o n l e d to a general favouring

of ternary form i n place of the accepted b i n a r y form. I n particular

Somis expanded the conventional b i n a r y p a t t e r n by adding a f u l l

r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i n the tonic key. Such a p a t t e r n was adopted i n

P e r g o l e s i ' s t r i o sonatas and T a r t i n i ' s s o l o works.

O r c h e s t r a l forms i n use were the s u i t e , concerto grosso, and,

more r e c e n t l y , the s i n f o n i a which was of I t a l i a n o r i g i n and destined

to be one of the most important f e a t u r e s i n the advance of form.

K e i s e r (1674 - 1739) supplied h i s opera Groesus w i t h a French Overture

f o r i t s o r i g i n a l performance i n 1711, but h i s subsequent r e v i s i o n i n

1730 commenced w i t h a Neapolitan three movement s i n f o n i a .

252.
T r i o Sonatas and Sonata Form

The fourteen t r i o sonatas a t t r i b u t e d to P e r g o l e s i , i f genuine,

would have been composed about 1732/3 during the composer's p e r i o d

of employment by the P r i n c e of S t i g l i a n o and are probably the few

s u r v i v o r s of a much l a r g e r output. Assuming f o r now t h e i r authen-

t i c i t y , they make a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development of

sonata form, as they are f a r i n advance of anything e l s e w r i t t e n a t

t h a t time. Burney makes r e f e r e n c e to t h e n / ^ but maintains they are

i n a s t y l e worn out before P e r g o l e s i began to compose. Obviously he

was mistaken i n t h i s c l a i m , but n e i t h e r he nor any of h i s contempor-

a r i e s seems to have been aware of any s i g n i f i c a n t advances i n form

during t h i s p e r i o d .

Both Burney and Hawkins were somewhat dubious of the '-'popular

impression t h a t P e r g o l e s i was t h e i r composer. T h i s point has^

subsequently been a r e g u l a r s u b j e c t of debate, p a r t i c u l a r l y a s so

many works a t one time considered to be w r i t t e n by P e r g o l e s i have

s i n c e been proved to be m i s a t t r i b u t i o n s . Arguments a g a i n s t t h e i r

being a u t h e n t i c are twofold: Naples was not renowned f o r i t s i n s t r u -

mental music, and so was h a r d l y the p l a c e to produce such an advance.

These two sonatas have but few p o i n t s i n common w i t h P e r g o l e s i ' s

proven works. I f he had been i n c l i n e d towards experimenting w i t h the

form of i n s t r u m e n t a l movements the s i n f o n i e to h i s operas would

almost c e r t a i n l y have undergone s i g n i f i c a n t changes; but d e v i a t i o n s

from accepted p a t t e r n s are few i n those movements.

On the other hand, even such a s t e r n c r i t i c of P e r g o l e s i ' s music

as P r o f . E . J . Dent r e f e r r e d to the t e r z e t t o i n Lo F r a t e 'Nnamorato

as being "a masterpiece of form" and forshadowing sonata form. This

and other h i g h l y developed examples w i t h i n h i s works a t l e a s t show he

was capable of w r i t i n g i n t h a t s t y l e .

( i ) A General H i s t o r y of Music - V o l . IV, p. 557-


The f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of any of these works appears to have been

by B r e i t k o p f i n 1766, and included the work now known as the T r i o Sonata

No. 13, i n G minor. I n 1771 Robert Bremner of London published this

same p i e c e as The P e r i o d i c a l T r i o No. 1., marking i t as being " i n the

s t y l e of the concerto grosso f o r s o l i w i t h t u t t i passages." L i k e an

o p e r a t i c s i n f o n i a i t has three movements, but i s otherwise the most

r e t r o g r e s s i v e of the whole s e t . At t h a t same time Bremner published

T r i o Sonata No. Ik as P e r i o d i c a l T r i o No. 2, and on the cover he

a d v e r t i s e d P e r g o l e s i ' s twelve works a l r e a d y published (we assume) i n

1770/1. Again the a l t e r n a t i v e arrangement f o r a l a r g e r ensemble i s

a d v e r t i s e d : "12 sonatas f o r 2 v i o l i n s and bass, or an o r c h e s t r a " .

The t i t l e page r e f e r s to them as having been brought from I t a l y by a

"curious gentleman of fortune"; a copy i n the Pendlebury Library,

Cambridge, has an a d d i t i o n "A Mr. Bridges", about whom nothing else

i s known.
i

I t would appear t h a t the c o l l e c t i o n was of eighteen works, as

Bremner's o r i g i n a l p u b l i c a t i o n of twelve a d v e r t i s e s s i x more works

about to be published, of which the P e r i o d i c a l s would have been two.

O r c h e s t r a l and chamber music had progressed simultaneously along

the same l i n e s with no d i s t i n g u i s h i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n development,

consequently the appearance of these works was an h i s t o r i c a l landmark.

The monumental four movement sonata had given way to the three move-

ment form, and the massive a r c h i t e c t u r e and broad l i n e s were r e p l a c e d

by f l u e n t and g r a c e f u l thematic p l a y .

F i r s t movements of these t r i o sonatas showed an advance

exceeding the l a t e r movements. The p r a c t i c e h i t h e r t o was a b i n a r y

movement w i t h two c o n t r a s t i n g t o n a l i t i e s i n each s e c t i o n : e.g.

1) . Tonic and dominant

2) . Dominant and tonic.

254.
Phrase groups i n the tonic were u s u a l l y so u n i f i e d i n s t y l e , shape

and mood they could r i g h t l y be r e f e r r e d to a s " f i r s t theme", but the

dominant s e c t i o n l a c k e d that u n i t y and could seldom have been given

the l a b e l of "second theme". A p a r a l l e l can be drawn here w i t h the

s i n g l e movement sonatas by Domenico S c a r l a t t i .

P e r g o l e s i , i n company w i t h Sammartini and T a r t i n i , employed

c o n t r a s t s of rhythm, q u a l i t y and shape. (A) These c o n t r a s t s are

p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n the second of the t r i o sonatas which i s i n

a miniature sonata form w i t h three w e l l defined themes, and c o n t a i n s

some development and a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i n the t o n i c .

I t i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e that the whole s e t of t r i o sonatas i s

genuine. Sonata form was i n i t s i n f a n c y during P e r g o l e s i ' s day:

Conti as e a r l y a s 1721 p r e f e r r e d to employ t e r n a r y form i n h i s

s i n f o n i a to P a l l a d e T r i o n f a n t e . But e a r l y examples are r a r e and not

as w e l l developed a s these t r i o sonatas. I f indeed genuine they are

quite remarkable, p a r t i c u l a r l y as they appear mature and confident i n

s t y l e w i t h no obvious s i g n of experiment. But then, as a l r e a d y seen

i n works whose authorship i s above s u s p i c i o n , P e r g o l e s i could a t one

time be completely "run of the m i l l " and a t another wonderfully inven-

tive. Should they date from h i s l i f e t i m e i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine

many of h i s contemporaries capable of showing the r a r e c r e a t i v e spark

necessary to engender them.

A s m a l l p o i n t e r towards the argument of P e r g o l e s i being t h e i r

o r i g i n a t o r l i e s i n the dynamics which are of an elementary nature,

merely c o n t r a s t i n g f o r t e and piano. I f they had dated from the time

of t h e i r f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n the dynamics would a s s u r e d l y have been more

subtly defined.

255-
1
Charles Cudworth considers i t " r a t h e r improbable" t h a t they are

by P e r g o l e s i , but r a t h e r by a s l i g h t l y l a t e r composer. Galant

cadences, he points out, occur i n slow movements of Nos. k and 9» but

such devices were r a r e u n t i l a f t e r P e r g o l e s i ' s death.

Strength i s added to the argument of p o s s i b l e authorship by the

development which took place i n the s i n f o n i a during P e r g o l e s i ' s day.

Although forward looking i n many r e s p e c t s , S c a r l a t t i and Pergolesi


+
showed but l i t t l e development i n the s i n f o n i e to t h e i r operas. Bu±

i n these works and i n works by some contemporaries (Sammartini i n

Milan and c e r t a i n Viennese) a more complex p a t t e r n emerged.

I n t o the conventional binary form of these t r i o sonatas, there

i s an i n s e r t i o n of a f u r t h e r s e c t i o n which can reasonably be looked

upon as a forerunner of the development s e c t i o n . Within the second

p a r t , i n s t e a d of the f i r s t theme appearing i n the dominant and the

f i n a l statement of the second theme i n the t o n i c , both themes are i n

the t o n i c . These are preceded by a passage ( l a r g e l y dominant) c o n t a i n -

ing some development i n shape and key, and s e r v i n g as a t r a n s i t i o n

between s e c t i o n s . Such a p r a c t i c e was adopted i n e i g h t of the trio

sonatas:

Theme First Second Transitional First Second


passage
Main key Tonic Dominant • Tonic Tonic

I n the quarter century a f t e r h i s death t h i s p r a c t i c e was adopted

for f i r s t and even t h i r d movements of v a r i o u s works, not only i n I t a l y ,

but a l s o through A u s t r i a and Germany, and e v e n t u a l l y a l l Europe.

(i) Notes on Instrumental Works a t t r i b u t e d to P e r g o l e s i ,

M. & L., V o l . XXX, (19^9).

256.
The Gavotte i n Arne's Harpsichord Sonata No. 5 i n B f l a t f o l l o w s

Pergolesi's example and includes a t r a n s i t i o n a l section which shows

considerable signs o f developments The form o f the movement i s as

follows:

1 s t Theme - i n two sections - four bars t o a p e r f e c t cadence,

recommencing but modulating t o the dominant - k bars. (B)

2nd Theme - two f i g u r e s ( f o u r bars each), the second repeated -

e n t i r e l y i n the dominant; Da Capo.

The T r a n s i t i o n a l Section passes through C minor, E f l a t major, B f l a t

major, G minor and ends i n D minor.

1 s t Theme - I n t h i s r e c a p i t u l a t o r y s e c t i o n Arne reverses the order o f

his phrases, modulating t o the dominant i n the f i r s t and r e t u r n i n g t o

the tonic i n the second.

2nd Theme - an exact t r a n s p o s i t i o n , now i n the t o n i c .

The t r a n s i t i o n a l and r e c a p i t u l a t o r y sections are then repeated.

With the development i n the form o f instrumental music o f the

period the texture o f the s i n f o n i a underwent change also. There was

a departure from the p r i n c i p l e o f a continuo bass and a s i n g l e melody

l i n e w i t h harmonic " f i l l i n g i n " . Pergolesi and h i s contemporaries

l a i d greater emphasis on the middle voices and gave them a c e r t a i n

amount o f melodic m a t e r i a l , mainly i n arpeggio form. Sustained notes

were broken up i n t o rhythmic patterns, and thereby added i n t e r e s t t o

the p a r t i c u l a r parts and u n i t y o f s t y l e t o the work as a whole.

Emancipation o f the inner parts lessened the importance o f the bass

l i n e , which then could be released from i t s customary r o l e and take

some o f the melodic m a t e r i a l .

By 1 7 ^ the s i n f o n i a had even gained independence from the opera

w i t h Georg Monn's four movement Symphony i n D, which i s considered t o

be the f i r s t recognisable work i n that form.

257.
Symphonic form took on c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t e s o f the Neapolitan

sinfonia; particularly i t s lighter, ingratiating style i n prefer-

ence t o severe counterpoint w i t h extensive i m i t a t i o n . Melodies

generally consisted o f short phrases w i t h vigorous rhythm and clear

tonality. These foundations l a i d down by Pergolesi, Sammartini, and

then composers o f A u s t r i a , Bohemia (notably the Stamitz f a m i l y i n

Mannheim) and Northern Germany l e d t o the C l a s s i c a l forms, while

fugues, s u i t e s and c o n c e r t i grossi continued t o appear from the pens

of other composers i n diminishing numbers over a prolonged period.

258.
t<XS

I7
I —
-»* t -

J
LU I U i jr

J, T
5
Jtr —
i f A f t I p-f?- r f i—;—r—I l l - ' - , 1
1
^ ! U — U —f—V-,
^- -f-
f-t—t f-r
-t
— ~ ~ r r ~ \ — n - - ~ m — : — — f i
*—
/ 1
i —
*

J |' I I—p A & I ——<< m . »•


n——T" 1 1

U 1

—t = i dHtif i _ ^ . .... * lip —p


—4
-, ^
1—

x$9
Other Instrumental Works

Compared w i t h h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o opera, the amount o f Pergolesi's

instrumental music i s not vast, even a l l o w i n g f o r works of d o u b t f u l

origin. De Brosses w r i t i n g as e a r l y as 1739 maintained t h a t

A. S c a r l a t t i , Leo, V i n c i , Rinaldo da Capua, L a t i l l a and Pergolesi

were concerned mainly w i t h vocal music. This i s a clear i n d i c a t i o n

of how l i t t l e Pergolesi's instrumental music was known even i n I t a l y .

C a f f a r e l l i ' s Opera Omnia includes p i a n o f o r t e arrangements of

two Sinfonie d i Apertura which we are supposed t o accept as belonging

to operas now l o s t . Charles Cudworth^^ observes t h a t No. 1 , i n D,

i s more l i k e l y to be a North German symphony than an I t a l i a n overture.

Firstly, i t i s i n da capo form, which was rare i n operatic s i n f o n i e a t

that time. Even as a chamber symphony i t i s i n o r d i n a t e l y long and f a r

o u t l a s t s any of Pergolesi's operatic s i n f o n i a movements. I n the

u n l i k e l y event of i t being authentic i t must be placed a t the very end

of h i s career when he was more disposed t o experiment. The second

( i n G) i s more i n keeping w i t h Pergolesi's operatic s i n f o n i e both i n

regard t o l e n g t h and s t y l e , and i n the absence of contrary evidence

there i s no reason t o doubt a u t h e n t i c i t y .

The S i n f o n i a f o r v i o l o n c e l l o and continuo, which i s r e a l l y a

sonata, was not documented during Pergolesi's l i f e t i m e , but

s t y l i s t i c a l l y i t i s conceivably genuine. We can assume he wrote f o r

the ' c e l l o as h i s patron, the Prince of S t i g l i a n o , was a ' c e l l i s t o f

repute, and Leonardo Leo i s known to have w r i t t e n s i x works f o r him.

(i) Op. c i t .

260.
The Sonata ' i n s t i l e d i concerto' f o r solo v i o l i n and s t r i n g

orchestra, which was a t y p i c a l work of the period and had no

s i g n i f i c a n t innovations i n form or s t y l e , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i s

genuine. The f a c t that Pergolesi himself was an accomplished

v i o l i n i s t supports t h i s argument. V i l l a r o s a w r i t i n g i n I 8 3 I seems

to be acquainted w i t h t h i s work alone i n the realm o f Pergolesi's

instrumental music.

Among many i n t e r e s t i n g manuscripts i s the Concerto 'a due v i o l i n e e

basso', housed i n the Reid L i b r a r y , Edinburgh. I n v e s t i g a t i o n has

shown t h i s t o be a clever arrangement (by an unknown hand) o f the

s i n f o n i a to Flaminio.

SONATE E SUITES

The volume i n Opera Omnia containing s i x harpsichord sonatas,

three s u i t e s and a f u r t h e r sonata f o r organ i s worthy o f a t t e n t i o n .

Copies of the s i x single-movement sonatas are kept i n the

Conservatorio a t Naples. The f i r s t (which could be an e a r l i e r work

than the others) i s on a separate manuscript. This movement also

appears on a manuscript i n the Rowe Music L i b r a r y a t King's College,

Cambridge, being one of four movements o f a sonata f o r v i o l i n and

continuo a t t r i b u t e d to Pergolesi. C a f f a r e l l i d i d not acknowledge

the existence o f t h i s sonata, which i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i s genuine,

but accepted the t r a n s c r i p t i o n f o r the harpsichord.

We are less c e r t a i n of the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the remaining f i v e :

Numbers 2 and 5 are nearer i n s t y l e and content t o some of

Pergolesi's operatic a r i a s than h i s instrumental works.

261.
Number 3 i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y more acceptable but f o r the passages i n

which t r i p l e t quavers and semiquavers move simultaneously. Numbers

k and 6 a n t i c i p a t e many decorative features o f the f u l l s t y l e g a l a n t .

The theory t h a t a l l f i v e are genuine and t h a t h i s c r i t i c s d i d not

appreciate Pergolesi's prophetic talent does not r e a l l y hold water.

I f he was so progressive i n these pieces he would i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y

have advanced much f u r t h e r i n h i s operatic s i n f o n i e l

Among l i s t e d works are s i x t e e n Lessons f o r Harpsichord (published

i n London, 1771 and 1778), three o f which appear i n the present

volume as Suites. S t y l i s t i c a l l y there i s no reason t o doubt t h a t

they are genuine. They are by no means r e v o l u t i o n a r y , but conform

to patterns o f the day and have an i n g r a t i a t i n g s t y l e such as we

f i n d i n many o f Pergolesi's works. Binary form p r e v a i l s , and there

i s a consistency o f key throughout each s u i t e .

No. 1 i n E major

The Sarabanda and Giga are conventional i n s t y l e , and the Rondo

i s a two p a r t contrapuntal movement w i t h a number o f canonic e n t r i e s .

The Minuetto i s i n binary form w i t h customary repeats; l i k e w i s e the

T r i o w r i t t e n , i n accordance w i t h contemporary p r a c t i c e , i n the r e l a -

t i v e minor.

No. 2 i n E major

Again the Preludio and Allemanda conform t o current p r a c t i c e o f

t h a t day. The Minuetto contains some thematic development and i s

unusually lengthy f o r a s i n g l e movement o f t h a t type. Its first

s e c t i o n consists o f twenty-two bars which modulate t o the dominant

and are then repeated. The second s e c t i o n has a dominant statement

of twenty-one bars followed by a f u r t h e r f u l l statement i n the t o n i c

before being repeated also. No second minuet i s employed.

262.
No. 3» i n D major

The s u i t e commences w i t h a conventional Allemanda, followed by

a Minuetto, which aloo shows a c e r t a i n amount of freedom from conven-

t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n again i s twenty-two bars long w i t h

some i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s , and i s repeated. The second s e c t i o n commences

w i t h an i n v e r s i o n of the subject and then develops, modulating f r e e l y

through the supertonic minor, r e l a t i v e minor and mediant minor i n a

passage of some t