CONTENTS

Preface ....................................................................................... Address to the Holy Father – by Nicola Cabibbo..................... Address of the Holy Father John Paul II on the Occasion of the Jubilee Plenary Session of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences... Programme of the Working Group .............................................. List of Participants................................................................... Programme of the Jubilee Plenary Session............................... List of Participants................................................................... COMMEMORATION
OF

13 15 17 21 23 32 35

ACADEMICIANS 40 43 44 45 48 50

André Lichnerowicz – by P. Germain ..................................... James Robert McConnell – by G.V. Coyne ............................. Gerhard Herzberg – by C.N.R. Rao ........................................ Carlos Chagas Filho – by C. Pavan ......................................... Hermann Alexander Brück – by M.J. Rees ............................ Johanna Döbereiner – by C. Pavan ......................................... SELF-PRESENTATIONS
OF THE

NEW MEMBERS 53 54 55 55 56

Te-Tzu Chang .............................................................................. Claude Cohen-Tannoudji ............................................................ Raffaele Farina............................................................................ Nicole M. Le Douarin ................................................................. Mario J. Molina...........................................................................

10

SCIENCE AND THE FUTURE OF MANKIND

Joseph E. Murray........................................................................ Sergio Pagano ............................................................................. Frank Press.................................................................................. Rafael Vicuña .............................................................................. Chen Ning Yang .......................................................................... Ahmed H. Zewail ........................................................................ Antonino Zichichi ....................................................................... THE PIUS XI GOLD MEDAL AWARD – SELF-PRESENTATIONS Mark M. Davis............................................................................. Gillian P. Bates ............................................................................ Stephen W. Davies ......................................................................

57 58 59 60 62 62 63

67 69 70

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS PART I: Science for Man and Man for Science (Working Group) W. ARBER: Context, Essential Contents of, and Follow-up to, the World Conference on Science Held in Budapest in June 1999 ........................................................................... P. GERMAIN: Technology: between Science and Man ............. R. HIDE: Spinning Fluids, Geomagnetism and the Earth’s Deep Interior ..................................................................... Y.I. MANIN: Mathematics: Recent Developments and cultural aspects ................................................................................ J. MITTELSTRASS: Science as Utopia......................................... G.V. COYNE: From Modern Research in Astrophysics to the Next Millennium for Mankind ......................................... P. CRUTZEN: The Role of Tropical Atmospheric Chemistry in Global Change Research: the Need for Research in the Tropics and Subtropics ..................................................... E. MALINVAUD: Which Economic System is Likely to Serve Human Societies the Best? The Scientific Question ...... P.H. RAVEN: Sustainability: Prospects for a New Millennium ... B.M. COLOMBO: Choice, Responsibility, and Problems of Population.......................................................................... J. MARÍAS: The Search for Man ...............................................

75 80 86 89 95 100

110 115 132 156 163

CONTENTS

11

F. JACQUES: Science Facing the Crisis of Sense ...................... M. SELA: The Fight against Disease: Comments Related to “Science for Man and Man for Science” ......................... A. BLANC-LAPIERRE: Society in the Face of Scientific and Technological Development: Risk, Decision, Responsibility.. T.-T. CHANG: Challenges for Agricultural Scientists ............... L.A. CAFFARELLI: The Mathematisation of Science.................

166 183 188 197 201

PART II: Science and the Future of Mankind (Jubilee Session) C. COHEN-TANNOUDJI: Light and Matter................................... E. BERTI: The Relationship Between Science, Religion and Aristotelian Theology Today ............................................... A. ESCHENMOSER: Design Versus Selection in Chemistry and Beyond................................................................................ C.N.R. RAO: Chemical Design of New Materials ..................... N.M. LE DOUARIN: Developmental Biology: New Trends and Prospects ............................................................................ G. COTTIER, O.P.: Erreur, Correction, Réhabilitation et Pardon ... C.H. TOWNES: Logic and Uncertainties in Science and Religion.............................................................................. R. SWINBURNE: Natural Theology in the Light of Modern Cosmology and Biology .................................................... J.-M. MALDAMÉ: The Progress of Science and the Messianic Ideal.................................................................................... W.E. CARROLL: Creation and Science ...................................... W. SINGER: The Transition from Biological to Cultural Evolution............................................................................ F. PRESS: Earth Sciences: Remarkable Scientific Progress ... M.J. MOLINA: Global Change and the Antarctic Ozone Hole ... M. MOSHINSKY: Science for Man and Man for Science: the View from the Third World .............................................. R.L. MÖSSBAUER: Physics in the Last Century and in the Future................................................................................. S.L. JAKI: The Christological Origins of Newton’s First Law... V.I. KEILIS-BOROK: Colliding Cascades: a Model for Prediction of Critical Transitions ......................................................... 213 228 235 252 266 283 296 310 318 333 350 360 368 378 385 393 408

12

SCIENCE AND THE FUTURE OF MANKIND

A.H. ZEWAIL: Time and Matter – Science at New Limits ....... A.H. ZEWAIL: The New World Dis-Order – Can Science Aid the Have-Nots? .................................................................. M. ODA: Why and how Physicists are Interested in the Brain and the Mind ..................................................................... V.C. RUBIN: A Millennium View of the Universe .................... R. OMNÈS: Recent Trends in the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics .......................................................................... P. CARDINAL POUPARD: Christ and Science ............................... J. MITTELSTRASS: On Transdisciplinarity ................................. M. HELLER: ‘Illicit Jumps’ – The Logic of Creation................

426 450 459 464 475 484 495 501

Proposed Declaration on Sciences and Scientists at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century Drafted by P. Germain... Study-Document on the Use of ‘Genetically Modified Food Plants’ to Combat Hunger in the World with an Introductory Note by President Nicola Cabibbo ............................................

507

516

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS 1

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

INTRODUCTION Until 1800 AD, the ability to record the timing of individual steps in any process was essentially limited to time scales amenable to direct sensory perception – for example, the eye’s ability to see the movement of a clock or the ear’s ability to recognize a tone. Anything more fleeting than the blink of an eye (~0.1 second) or the response of the ear (~0.1 millisecond) was simply beyond the realm of inquiry. In the nineteenth century, the technology was to change drastically, resolving time intervals into the sub-second domain. The famous motion pictures by Eadweard Muybridge (1878) of a galloping horse, by Etienne-Jules Marey (1894) of a righting cat, and by Harold Edgerton (mid-1900’s) of a bullet passing through an apple and other objects are examples of these developments, with millisecond to microsecond time resolution, using snapshot photography, chronophotography and stroboscopy, respectively. By the 1980’s, this resolution became ten orders of magnitude better [see Section III], reaching the femtosecond scale, the scale for atoms and molecules in motion (see Fig. 1). For matter, the actual atomic motions involved as molecules build and react had never been observed before in real time. Chemical bonds break, form, or geometrically change with awesome rapidity. Whether in isolation or in any other phase of matter, this ultrafast transformation is a dynamic process involving the mechanical motion of electrons and atomic nuclei. The speed of atomic motion is ~ 1 km/second and, hence, to record atomic-scale dynamics over a distance of an angström, the average time required
1

Adapted from the Lecture published in Les Prix Nobel (1999).

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

427

Figure 1. Time scales of cosmological, geological, human and molecular events; from the big bang to the femtosecond age.

is ~ 100 femtoseconds (fs). The very act of such atomic motions as reactions unfold and pass through their transition states is the focus of the field of femtochemistry. With femtosecond time resolution we can “freeze” structures far from equilibrium and prior to their vibrational and rotational motions, and study physical, chemical, and biological changes. Ultrafast pulsed laser techniques have made direct exploration of this temporal realm a reality (Sections III & IV). Spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and diffraction play the role of “ultra-high-speed photography” in the investigation of molecular processes. A femtosecond laser probe pulse provides the shutter speed for freezing nuclear motion with the necessary spatial resolution. The pulse probes the motion by stroboscopy, i. e. by pulsed illumination of the molecule in motion and recording the particular snapshot. A full sequence of the motion is achieved by using an

428

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

accurately-timed series of these probe pulses, defining the number of frames per second. In order to study the motion, there exist three additional requirements. First, we need to clock the motion by defining its zero of time, also accurate to tens of femtoseconds. Second, the motion must be synchronized since millions of molecules are typically used in the recording of molecular motion. Third, molecular coherence (see below) must be induced to localize the nuclei. These requirements are satisfied by using a femtosecond pump (initiating) laser pulse, in what is referred to as a pump-probe configuration. For femtosecond studies, where femtosecond control of relative timing is needed, the laser pump and probe pulses are produced in synchrony, then the probe pulse is diverted through an adjustable optical path length. The finite speed of light translates the difference in path length into a difference in arrival time of the two pulses at the sample; 1 micron corresponds to 3.3 fs. The individual snapshots combine to produce a complete record of the continuous time evolution – a motion picture, or a movie – in what may be termed femtoscopy (femtosecond stroboscopy). Applications are numerous. For example, studies in femtochemistry have spanned the different types of chemical bonds – covalent, ionic, dative and metallic, and the weaker ones, hydrogen and van der Waals bonds. In femtobiology, studies have continued to address the nature of dynamics in complex molecular systems, such as proteins and DNA. Studies have been made in the different phases of matter: gases and molecular beams; mesoscopic phases of clusters, nanostructures, particles and droplets; condensed phases of dense fluids, liquids, solids, surfaces and interfaces. New opportunities are also emerging with current interest in controlling molecular dynamics and in advancing diffraction methods for structural studies. II. COHERENCE, DUALITY, AND THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE The femtosecond time scale is unique for the creation of coherent molecular wave packets on the atomic scale of length, a basic problem rooted in the development of quantum mechanics and the duality of matter (Fig. 2). Molecular wave functions are spatially diffuse and exhibit no motion. Superposition of a number of separate wave functions of appropriately chosen phases can produce the spatially localized and moving coherent wave packet (Fig. 3). The packet has a well-defined (group) velocity and position which now makes it analogous to a moving classical marble, but at atomic resolution, and without violation of the uncertain-

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

429

Figure 2. Light and matter – some historical milestones, with focus on duality and uncertainty.

430

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

Figure 3. Coherent, localized wave packet (de Broglie length ~0.04 Å) of a diatomic molecule (iodine); 20 fs pulse. The contrast with the diffuse wave function limit (quantum number n) is shown. The inset displays a schematic of Thomas Young’s experiment (1801) with the interference which is useful for analogy with light.

ty principle; this point regarding violation of quantum uncertainty was of major concern to many scientists and has been detailed elsewhere. As long as the wave packet (typical width ~0.05 Å) is sufficiently localized on the scale of all accessible space (~0.5 Å or more), as in the figure, a description in terms of the classical concepts of particle position and

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

431

momentum is entirely appropriate. In this way, localization in time and in space are simultaneously achievable for reactive and nonreactive systems, as discussed below. The observation of motion in real systems requires not only the formation of localized wave packets in each molecule, but also a small spread in position among wave packets formed in the typically millions of molecules on which the measurement is performed. The key to achieving this condition is generally provided by the well-defined initial, equilibrium configuration of the studied molecules before excitation and by the “instantaneous” femtosecond launching of the packet. The spatial confinement (in this case ~0.05 Å) of the initial ground state of the system ensures that all molecules, each with its own coherence among the states which form its wave packet, begin their motion in a bond-distance range much smaller than that executed by the motion. The femtosecond launching ensures that this narrow range of bond distance is maintained during the entire process of preparation, as shown below. Unless molecular and ensemble coherences are destroyed by intra- and/or inter-molecular perturbations, the motion is that of a single-molecule trajectory (Fig. 4). This powerful concept of coherence was a key advance in observing the dynamics with atomic-scale resolution. The realization of its importance and its detection by selectivity in both preparation and probing were essential in all studies, initially of states and orientations, and culminating in atomic motions in reactions. With these concepts in mind, the marriage of ultrafast lasers with molecular beams proved to be essential for the initial development. Laser-induced fluorescence was the first probe used, but later we invoked mass spectrometry and non-linear optical techniques. Now numerous methods of probing are known and used in laboratories around the world. III. ARROW OF TIME: A CENTURY OF DEVELOPMENT Time resolution in chemistry and biology has witnessed major strides, which are highlighted in (Fig. 5). Systematic studies of reaction velocities were hardly undertaken before the middle of the 19th century; in 1850 Ludwig Wilhelmy reported the first quantitative rate measurement, the hydrolysis of a solution of sucrose. A major advance in experiments involving sub-second time resolution was made with flow tubes in 1923 by H. Hartridge and F.J.W. Roughton for solution reactions. Two reactants were mixed in a flow tube, and the reaction products were observed

432

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

Figure 4. Concept of coherence, fundamental to the dynamics with atomic-scale resolution and in the control of reactivity. For details, see references by the author in the section, Further Reading.

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

433

Figure 5. Arrow of Time in chemistry and biology – some of the steps in over a century of development (see text).

at different distances. Knowing the speed of the flow, one could translate this into time, on a scale of tens of milliseconds. Such measurements of non-radiative processes were a real advance in view of the fact that they were probing the “invisible”, in contrast with radiative glows which were seen by the naked eye and measured using phosphoroscopes. Then came the stopped-flow method (B. Chance, 1940) that reached the millisecond

434

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

scale. The stopped-flow method is still used today in biological kinetics. Before the turn of the 20th century, it was known that electrical sparks and Kerr cell shutters could have response times as short as ten nanoseconds. In an ingenious experiment, Abraham and Lemoine (1899) in France demonstrated that the Kerr response of carbon disulfide was faster than ten nanoseconds; it has now been measured to be about two picoseconds (with fs response). They used an electrical pulse which produced a spark and simultaneously activated a Kerr shutter. Light from the spark was collimated through a variable-delay path and through the Kerr cell (polarizer, CS2 cell and analyzer). The rotation of the analyzer indicated the presence of birefringence in the cell for short optical delays; this birefringence disappeared for pathlengths greater than several meters, reflecting the total optical/electrical response time of 2.5 ns. They demonstrated in 1899 the importance of synchronization in a pump-probe configuration. The setting of time delays was achieved by varying the light path. Around 1950, a stride forward for time resolution in chemistry came about when Manfred Eigen in Germany and R.G.W. Norrish and George Porter in England developed techniques reaching the microsecond time scale. For this contribution, Eigen and Norrish and Porter shared the 1967 Nobel Prize. Flash photolysis utilized the above pump-probe approach, but one of the flashes was made very intense to generate high concentrations of free radicals and hence their utility in chemical and spectroscopic applications. Eigen developed “the relaxation method”, which reached the microsecond and close to the nanosecond scale. By disturbing the equilibrium of a solution by either a heat jump, a pressure jump, or an electric field, the system shifts from equilibrium. This is the point of time zero. Then the system equilibrates, and its kinetics can be followed. (At about the same time, shock-tube methods were used to provide kinetics on similar time scales.) Eigen called these reactions “immeasurably fast” in his Nobel lecture. There was a feeling that this time resolution was the fastest that could be measured or that needed to be measured for relevance to chemistry (see below). The invention of the laser has changed the picture. Shortly after the realization of the first (ruby) laser by Maiman (1960), the generation of giant and short pulses became possible: nanoseconds by Q-switching (Hellwarth, 1961) and picoseconds (De Maria, et al 1966) by mode-locking (1964). Sub-picosecond pulses from dye lasers (Schäfer and Sorokin, 1966) were obtained in 1974 by Chuck Shank and Eric Ippen at Bell Labs, and in 1987 a six fs pulse was achieved. In 1991, with the generation of fs pulses from solid-state Ti-sapphire lasers by Sibbett and col-

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

435

leagues, dye lasers were rapidly replaced and fs pulse generation became a standard laboratory tool; the state-of-the-art, once 8 fs, is currently ~ 4 fs and made it into the Guinness Book of World Records (Douwe Wiersma’s group). The tunability is mastered using continuum generation (Alfano & Shapiro) and optical parametric amplification. In the late sixties and in the seventies, picosecond resolution made it possible to study non-radiative processes, a major detour from the studies of conventional radiative processes to infer the non-radiative ones. As a beginning student, I recall the exciting reports of the photophysical rates of internal conversion and biological studies by Peter Rentzepis; the first ps study of chemical reactions (and orientational relaxations) in solutions by Ken Eisensthal; the direct measurement of the rates of intersystem crossing by Robin Hochstrasser; and the novel approach for measurement of ps vibrational relaxations (in the ground state of molecules) in liquids by Wolfgang Kaiser and colleagues. The groups of Shank and Ippen have made important contributions to the development of dye lasers and their applications in the ps and into the fs regime. Other studies of chemical and biological nonradiative processes followed on the ps time scale, the scale coined by G.N. Lewis as the “jiffy” – the time needed for a photon to travel 1 cm, or 33 picoseconds. IV. THE BIRTH OF THE FIELD Stimulated by earlier work done at Caltech in the 1970’s and early 80’s on coherence and intramolecular vibrational-energy redistribution (IVR), we designed in 1985 an experiment to monitor the process of bond breakage (ICN* –> I + CN). The experimental resolution at the time was ~400 fs and we could only probe the formation of the CN fragment. We wrote a paper, ending with the following words: “Since the recoil velocity is ~ 2 x 10 5 cm/s, the fragment separation is ~ 10Å on the time scale of the experiment (~500 fs). With this time resolution, we must, therefore, consider the proximity of fragments at the time of probing, i.e., the evolution of the transition state to final products.” This realization led, in two years time, to the study of the same reaction but with ~40 fs time resolution, resolving, for the first time, the elementary process of a chemical bond and observing its transition states. One year later in 1988, we reported on the NaI discovery which represents a paradigm shift for the field. There were two issues that needed to be established on firmer bases: the issue of the uncertainty principle and the influence of more complex potentials on the ability of the technique to

436

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

probe reactions. The alkali halide reactions were thought of as perfect prototypes because they involve two potentials (covalent and ionic) along the reaction coordinate: the separation between Na and I. The resonance motion between covalent and ionic configurations is the key to the dynamics of bond breakage. How could we probe such motion in real time? We did the femtochemistry experiments on NaI and NaBr, and the results were thrilling and made us feel very confident about the ability to probe transition states and final fragments. The experiments established the foundation for the following reasons: First, we could show experimentally that the wave packet was highly localized in space, ~ 0.1Å, thus establishing the concept of dynamics at atomic-scale resolution. Second, the spreading of the wave packet was minimal up to a few picoseconds, thus establishing the concept of single-molecule trajectory, i.e., the ensemble coherence is induced effectively, as if the molecules are glued together, even though we start with a random and noncoherent ensemble – dynamics, not kinetics. Third, vibrational (rotational) coherence was observed during the entire course of the reaction (detecting products or transition states), thus establishing the concept of coherent trajectories in reactions, from reactants to products. Fourth, on the fs time scale, the description of the dynamics follows an intuitive classical picture (marbles rolling on potential surfaces) since the spreading of the packet is minimal. Thus, a time-evolving profile of the reaction becomes parallel to our thinking of the evolution from reactants, to transition states, and then to products. The NaI case was the first to demonstrate the resonance behavior, in real time, of a bond converting from being covalent to being ionic along the reaction coordinate. From the results, we obtained the key parameters of the dynamics such as the time of bond breakage, the covalent/ionic coupling strength, the branching of trajectories, etc. In the 1930’s, Linus Pauling’s description of this bond was static at equilibrium; now we can describe the dynamics in real time by preparing structures far from equilibrium. Numerous theoretical and experimental papers have been published by colleagues and the system enjoys a central role in femtodynamics. The success in the studies of elementary (NaI and ICN) reactions triggered a myriad of other studies in simple and complex systems and in different phases of matter. These studies of physical, chemical, and biological changes are reviewed elsewhere (see Further Readings Section). Fig. 6 gives a summary of the scope of applications in femtochemistry, and Fig. 7 lists four general concepts which emerged from these studies. Fig. 8 highlights

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

437

Figure 6. Areas of study in femtochemistry (and femtobiology) and the scope of applications in different phases.

438

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

Concepts
Coherence
single-molecule dynamics

Resonance
non-equilibrium dynamics

Transition-state Landscape
family of structures in dynamics

Reduced Molecular Space
directed dynamics
Figure 7. Concepts central to dynamics with femtosecond resolution. For details, see references by the author in the section, Further Reading.

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

439

Figure 8. Some other areas of advances, from physics to medicine to technology. For reviews, see Further Reading section.

440

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

some general applications of femtoscience and femtotechnology, which are the results of advances made in new limits of time resolution, wavelength extension, and intensity or brightness (see Further Reading). V. OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE FUTURE Three areas of study are discussed here: (A) Transient Structures from Ultrafast Electron Diffraction Electron diffraction of molecules in their ground state has been a powerful tool over the past 50 years, and both electron and x-ray methods are now being advanced in several laboratories for the studies of structural changes. We have reported the latest advance in UED, by which major challenges were surmounted: the very low number densities of gas samples; the absence of the long-range order that is present in crystals, which enhances coherent interference; and the daunting task of determining in situ the zero-of-time when diffraction changes are on the ps and sub-ps time scale. The direct observation of transient structural changes in the course of a reaction was published recently in PNAS and in Science. This leap in our ability to record structural changes on the ps and shorter time scales bodes well for many future applications to complex molecular systems, including biological systems. We have completed a new apparatus equipped with diffraction detection and also with mass spectrometry. This universal system (Fig. 9) is capable of studying complex systems in the gas and other phases. It holds great promise with opportunities for the future. (B) Biological Dynamics There have been important contributions to femtobiology and these include: studies of the elementary steps of vision; photosynthesis; protein dynamics; and electron and proton transport in DNA. In proteins such as those of photosynthetic reaction centers and antennas, hemoglobins, cytochromes and rhodopsin, a femtosecond event, bond breaking, twisting or electron transfer occurs. There exist global and coherent nuclear motions, observed in these complex systems, and it is possible that the complexity is not as complicated as we think. Our efforts in this direction have so far focused on DNA twisting dynamics, electron transfer in DNA assemblies, DNA base-pair models, and on protein-ligand dynamics.

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

441

Figure 9. Ultrafast electron diffraction machine built at Caltech for the studies of molecular structures with spatial and temporal resolution on the atomic scale.

For DNA, we found that the local involvement of the base pairs controls the time scale of electron transfer. The degree of coherent transport critically depends on the time scale of molecular dynamics defining the socalled dynamical disorder. Static disorder, on the other hand, is governed by energetics. The measured rates and the distance range of the transfer suggest that DNA is not an efficient molecular wire. For proteins, our current interest is in the studies of the hydrophobic forces and electron transfer, and oxygen reduction in models of metalloenzymes. For the former, we have studied, with fs resolution, the protein Human Serum Albumin (HSA), probed with small (ligand) molecules. This protein is important for drug delivery. The ligand recognition is controlled by the time scale for entropic changes which involves the solvent. For model enzymes of O2 transport, we examined novel picket-fence structures which bind oxygen to the central metal with ~ 85% efficiency at room temperature. In this system, we observed the release of O2 in 1.9 ps and the

442

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

recombination was found to occur on a much longer time scale. These are fruitful areas for future research, especially in that they provide prototype systems for O2 reduction in the transition state at room temperature. Studies in femtobiology are continuing in our laboratory and include the recognition in protein-DNA complexes (Fig. 10). (C) Reaction Control Our interest in this area goes back to the late 1970’s when a number of research groups were reporting on the possibility of (vibrational) modeselective chemistry with lasers. At the time, the thinking was directed along two avenues. One of these suggested that, by tuning a CW laser to a given state, it might be possible to induce selective chemistry. It turned out that its generalization could not be made without knowing and controlling the time scales of IVR in molecules. Moreover, state-selective chemistry is quite different from bond-selective chemistry. The second avenue was that of IR multiphoton chemistry. In this case, it was shown that the initial IR coherent pumping could be used for selective isotope separation. Such an approach has proven successful, even on the practical scale, and Vladelin Letokhov has called the process “incoherent control”. In 1980, I wrote a Physics Today article in a special issue on laser chemistry suggesting the use of ultrashort pulses (not CW or long-time lasers) to control the outcome of a chemical reaction (Fig. 11). The title of the paper was: Laser Selective Chemistry – Is it Possible? The subtitle stated the message, ”With sufficiently brief and intense radiation, properly tuned to specific resonances, we may be able to fulfill a chemist’s dream, to break particular selected bonds in large molecules.” Ultrashort pulses should be used to control the system in the desired configuration by proper choice of the coherence time (duration) and delay and the ability to localize the system in phase space. Experimentally, we had already developed methods for the control of the phase of the field of optical pulses with the idea of using the phase (“pulse shaping”) to control molecular processes – collisions, inhomogeneous broadenings and even photon locking which could inhibit relaxation; the time scale was ns and for the control of IVR, fs pulses were needed. Prior to this work, the optical pulse field, E(t) = Eo A(t) cos[ t + (t)], was simply defined by the envelope A(t) and the frequency ; the phase (t)

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

443

Figure 10. The protein (histone I)/DNA system studied in this laboratory, with the aim of elucidating the dynamics and the elements important in molecular recognition and chromatin condensation.

444

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

Figure 11. Matter control with ultrashort laser pulses; suggestion made in the 1980 paper and the experimental demonstration and theoretical justification published nearly 20 years later.

was unknown. By controlling (t) we were able to make sequences of phasecoherent multiple pulses (optical analogue of NMR) and to tailor a composite “single” pulse with a prescribed (t). For example, with composite shaped-pulses, a sequence of phase segments and tilt angles (in the rotating frame) of, e.g., 60 x – 300 x – 60 x we showed experimentally that the emission of a molecule can be made twice that as when a normal single pulse was – used. Similarly, by choosing pulse sequences such as x-y-x ( x) we experimentally locked the system and thus lengthened its relaxation time considerably. On the fs time scale, we studied some elementary reactions, and recently, we turned our attention to complex molecular systems, but this time to implement the 1980 idea. In a series of molecules of increasing complexity, but retaining the same reaction coordinate, we studied selectivity control (IVR and entering near the transition state); the rate of reaction was two to three orders of magnitude larger than the expected statistical limit. This work was published in Science and promises to be significant for achieving non-statistical chemistry by localization at high energy, in time and space (see Figs. 4, 11). The concept suggests that control at high (chemical) energies is more realistic, in contrast with the conventional wisdom which asserts the need for low energies – time is of the essence! Further studies should explore other systems.

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

445

In the future, there will be extensions and new directions in fs light-matter control based on the temporal coherence of light and its interference with matter waves. Applications of the Tannor-Rice-Kosloff scheme will continue in this area of control on the fs time scale. One area that holds promise is the use of fs pulses to induce selectivity by utilizing the three parameters of the pulse, the central frequency, the width and the chirp, in an iterative algorithm; the chirp is, in a way, similar to a composite pulse of the type described above. The technique of liquid-crystal-display developed by Andy Weiner for fs pulse shaping, combined with the evolutionary feedback idea of Herschel Rabitz, makes possible the generation of the desired complex E(t) field to achieve (combinatorial) control. This optimal control has been demonstrated for a targeted second harmonic generation or a yield of chemical reaction as reported by Gustav Gerber’s group in Würzburg. Kent Wilson showed the importance of chirped pulses in focusing and reflecting wave packets and, in a more recent contribution, he, with Warren Warren, used the evolutionary feedback approach to optimize the fluorescence of a molecule in solution. It should be noted that all of the above schemes change the coherent composition of the initial packet and hence the evolution in different channels – but the evolution dictated by the natural forces of the atom remains unchanged! Intense fields may do so. We did not discuss here CW control schemes such as the one advanced by Paul Brumer and Moshe Shapiro. VI. PERSPECTIVES The key to the explosion of research can perhaps be traced to three pillars of the field. (A) Time Resolution – Reaching the Transition-State Limit Three points are relevant: (i) The improvement of nearly ten orders of magnitude in time resolution, from the 1950’s (milli)microsecond time scale to present femtosecond resolution, opened the door to studies of new phenomena and to new discoveries; (ii) the cornerstone of reactivity, the transition state of structures in motion, could be clocked as a molecular species TS ‡, providing a real foundation to the theoretical hypothesis for ephemeral species [TS] ‡, and leading the way to numerous new studies. Extensions will be made to study transition state dynamics in complex systems, but the previous virtual status of the transition state has now given

446

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

way to experimental reality; (iii) inferences deduced from “rotational periods” as clocks in molecular reactions can now be replaced by the actual clocking of the nuclear (vibrational) motion. In the 1960’s, there was some thought that the relevant time scale for chemistry and biology was the microsecond (or longer) regime. Moreover, the uncertainty principle was thought to represent a severe limit of the utility of shorter time resolution; coherence was not part of the thinking in deciphering fs nuclear motion, as detailed above and summarized below. (B) Atomic-Scale Resolution Two points are relevant: (i) The transition from kinetics to dynamics. On the femtosecond time scale, one can see the coherent nuclear motion of atoms – oscillatory or quantized steps instead of exponential decays or rises. This was proved to be the case for bound, quasi-bound or unbound systems and in simple (diatomics) and in complex systems (proteins). (ii) the issue of the uncertainty principle. The thought was that the pulse was too short in time, thus broad in energy by the uncertainty principle ∆t ∆E~h , but localization is consistent with the two uncertainty relationships and coherence is the key. The energy uncertainty ∆E should be compared with bond energies: ∆E is 0.7 kcal/mol for a 60 fs pulse. At the 1972 Welch Conference, in a lively exchange between Eugene Wigner and Edward Teller, even picosecond time resolution was of concern because of the perceived fundamental limitation imposed on time and energy by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. (C) Generality of the Approach Three points are relevant: (i) In retrospect, the femtosecond time scale was just right for observing the “earliest dynamics” at the actual vibrational time scale of the chemical bond; (ii) the time resolution offers unique opportunities when compared with other methods. Processes often appear complex because we look at them on an extended time scale, during which many steps in the process are integrated; (iii) the methodology is versatile and general, as evidenced by the scope of applications in different phases and of different systems. It is worth noting that both excited and ground state reactions can be studied. It has been known for some time that the use of multiple pulses can populate the ground state of the system and, therefore, the population and coherence of the system can be monitored. The

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

447

use of CARS, DFWM, SRS, π-pulses or the use of direct IR excitation are some of the approaches possible. Two recent examples demonstrate this point: one invokes the use of IR fs pulses to study reactions involving hydrogen (bond) motions in liquid water, work done in France and Germany; and the other utilizes CARS for the study of polymers in their ground state, as we did recently. Ground-state dynamics have also been studied by novel fs photodetachment of negative ions, and the subfield of fs dynamics of ions is now active in a number of laboratories. VII. EPILOGUE As the ability to explore shorter and shorter time scales has progressed from the millisecond to the present stage of widely exploited femtosecond capabilities, each step along the way has provided surprising discoveries, new understanding, and new mysteries. In their editorial on the tenth anniversary of femtochemistry, Will Castleman and Villy Sundström put this advance in a historical perspective. The recent Nobel report addresses with details the field and its position in over a century of developments (see Further Readings). Fig. 6 summarizes areas of study and the scope of applications in different phases and Fig. 8 highlights some advances in other areas, including medicine, nanotechnology, and metrology (see Further Reading). Developments will continue and new directions of research will be pursued. Surely, studies of transition states and their structures in chemistry and biology will remain active for exploration in new directions, from simple systems to complex enzymes and proteins, and from probing to controlling of matter. Since the current femtosecond lasers (4.5 fs) are now providing the limit of time resolution for phenomena involving nuclear motion, one may ask: Is there another domain in which the race against time can continue to be pushed? Sub-fs or attosecond resolution may one day allow for the direct observation of the coherent motion of electrons. I made this point in a 1991 Faraday Discussion review and, since then, not much has been reported except for some progress in the generation of sub-fs pulses. In the coming decades, this may change and we may view electron rearrangement, say, in the benzene molecule, in real time, recalling, as in the femtosecond domain, “the uncertainty problem” is not a problem provided coherence of electron states is created. Additionally, there will be studies involving the combination of the “three scales”, namely time, length and number. We should see extensions

448

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

to studies of the femtosecond dynamics of single molecules and of molecules on surfaces (e.g. using STM). Combined time/length resolution will provide unique opportunities for making the important transition from molecular structures to dynamics and to functions. We may also see that all of femtochemistry can be done at micro-to-nano Kelvin temperatures, utilizing lasers and other cooling techniques. It seems that on the femtosecond to attosecond time scale we are reaching the “inverse” of the big bang time, with the human heartbeat “enjoying” the geometric average of the two limits (Fig. 1). The language of molecular dynamics is even similar to that of cosmos dynamics. Cosmologists are speaking of energy landscapes and transition states for the big bang and universe inflation. Perhaps we are approaching a universal limit of time and matter!

FURTHER READING Reports and Articles (1) J.-M. Hopkins and W. Sibbett, “Ultrashort-Pulse Lasers”, Scientific American, 283 (Sept. Issue), 73-79 (2000). (2) A.H. Zewail, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond using Ultrafast Lasers”, in Les Prix Nobel, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 110-203 (1999); Angewandte Chemie, Intern. Ed., 39, 2586-2631 (2000); German Ed., 112, 2688-2738 (2000) (3) A.H. Zewail, “Laser Selective Chemistry – Is it Possible?”, Phys. Today 33, 2-8 (1980). (4) A.W. Castleman and V. Sundström (eds.), “Ten years of Femtochemistry: Time Resolution of Physical, Chemical and Biological Dynamics”, J. Phys. Chem. – Special Issue (1998), pp. 4021-4404 (5) http://www.nobel.se/announcement-99.html (6) B.M. Garraway and K.-A. Suominen, “Wave Packet Dynamics: New Physics and Chemistry in Femto-time”, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58, 365-419 (1995).

Some Books (1) V. Sundström (ed.), Femtochemistry & Femtobiology, World Scientific, Singapore (1997) [Nobel Symposium]. (2) P. Gaspard and I. Burghardt (eds.), Chemical Reactions and Their Control on the Femtosecond Time Scale, Adv. Chem. Phys. 101, Wiley, New York (1997) [Solvay Conference].

TIME AND MATTER – SCIENCE AT NEW LIMITS

449

(3) A.H. Zewail, World Scientific, Femtochemistry – Ultrafast Dynamics of the Chemical Bond, Vols. I and II, New Jersey, Singapore (1994). (4) E. Schreiber, Femtosecond Real-Time Spectroscopy of Small Molecules & Clusters, Springer, New York (1998). (5) H.C. von Baeyer, Taming the Atom, Random House, New York (1992). (6) P. Ball, Designing the Molecular World, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton (1994).

THE NEW WORLD DIS-ORDER – CAN SCIENCE AID THE HAVE-NOTS?
AHMED H. ZEWAIL1

On our planet, every human being carries the same genetic material and the same four-letter genetic alphabet. Accordingly, there is no basic genetic superiority that is defined by race, ethnicity, or religion. We do not expect, based on genetics, that a human being of American or French origin should be superior to a human from Africa or Latin America. Moreover, it has been repeatedly proven that men and women from the so-called developing or underdeveloped countries can achieve at the highest level, usually in developed countries, when the appropriate atmosphere for excelling is made possible. Naturally, for any given population, there exists a distribution of abilities, capabilities and creativity. In our world, the distribution of wealth is skewed, creating classes among populations and regions on the globe. Only 20% of the population enjoys the benefit of life in the “developed world”, and the gap between the “haves” and “have-nots” continues to increase, threatening a stable and peaceful coexistence. According to the World Bank, out of the 6 billion people on Earth, 4.8 billion are living in developing countries; 3 billion live on less than $2 a day and 1.2 billion live on less than $1 a day, which defines the absolute poverty standard; 1.5 billion people do not have access to clean water, with health consequences of waterborne diseases, and about 2 billion people are still waiting to benefit from the power of the industrial revolution.

1 Ahmed Zewail received the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and currently holds the Linus Pauling Chair at Caltech.

THE NEW WORLD DIS-ORDER – CAN SCIENCE AID THE HAVE-NOTS?

451

The per capita GDP 2 has reached, in some western, developed countries, $35,000, compared with about $1,000 per year in many developing countries and significantly less in underdeveloped populations. This factor of 40-100 times the difference in living standards will ultimately create dissatisfaction, violence and racial conflict. Evidence of such dissatisfaction already exists and we only have to look at the borders of developed-developing/underdeveloped countries (for example, in America and Europe) or at the borders between the rich and poor within a nation. Some believe that the “new world order” and “globalization” are the solution to problems such as population explosion,3 the economic gap and social disorder. This conclusion is questionable. Despite the hoped-for new world order between superpowers, the globe still experiences notable examples of conflict, violence and violations of human rights. The world order is strongly linked to political interest and national self-interest, and in the process many developing countries continue to suffer and their development is threatened. Globalization, in principle, is a hopeful ideal that aspires to help nations prosper and advance through participation in the world market. Unfortunately, globalization is better tailored to the prospects of the able and the strong, and, although of value to human competition and progress, it serves the fraction of the world’s population that is able to exploit the market and the available resources. Moreover, nations have to be ready to enter through the gate of globalization and such entry has requirements. Thomas Friedman, in his book “The Lexus and the Olive Tree”, lists the following eight questions in trying to assess the economic power and potential of a country: “How wired is your country? How fast is your country? Is your country harvesting its knowledge? How much does your country weigh? Does your country dare to be open? How good is your country at making friends? Does your country’s management ‘get it’? and How good is your country’s brand?” These

2 Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in U. S. dollars is the total unduplicated output of economic goods and services produced within a country as measured in monetary terms according to the U. N. System: Angola (528), Canada (19,439), China (777), Hong Kong (24,581), Egypt (1,211), Israel (17,041), North Korea (430), South Korea (6,956), Switzerland (35,910), U. S. A. (31,059), and Yemen (354). From U. N. Statistics Division. 3 Overpopulation of the world, and its anticipated disasters, is not a new problem. It has been a concern for many millennia, from the time of the Babylonians and Egyptians to this day. Joel Cohen, in his book “How Many People Can the Earth Support?” provides a scholarly overview of the global population problem.

452

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

“eight habits of highly effective countries”, according to Friedman, are the attributes countries need to succeed in the new era of globalization. The picture in mind is that countries are becoming like global companies, with the aim of being prosperous (in a timely manner). Organization and management and the technical know-how are essentials for a country to prosper; location, history, natural resources or even military might are no longer decisive! Before attempting to address solutions, it is important to examine the origin of the problem by looking at the “anatomy of the gap”. In my view, there are four forces which contribute to the barriers to achieving developed-world status: Illiteracy: In many countries, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere, the illiteracy rate reaches 40-50% among the general population. Even worse, in some countries, the illiteracy rate among women is above 70%. These rates reflect the failure of educational systems, and are linked to the alarming increase in unemployment. One cannot expect to seriously participate in the world market with this state of unpreparedness. In the west, illiteracy on this scale has been essentially eliminated, and nowadays often means a lack of expertise with computers, not the inability to read and write! Of course, some now developed countries had high illiteracy rates when they began their development, but we must recall that scientific knowhow was possessed by a significant portion of the population. Incoherent Policy for Science & Technology: The lack of a solid science & technology base in the world of have-nots is not always due to poor capital or human resources. Instead, in many cases, it is due to a lack of appreciation for the critical role of science & technology, an incoherent methodology for establishing a science & technology base, and an absence of a coherent policy addressing national needs, human and capital resources (even in some developed countries, we are witnessing the consequences of the latter). Some countries believe that science and technology are only for rich nations. Others consider scientific progress to be a luxury, not a basic need, that it is only necessary to pursue after the country has solved other demanding problems. Some rich, but developing, countries believe that the base for science and technology can be built through purchases of technology from developed countries. These beliefs translate into poor, or at most, modest advances and in almost all cases the success is based on individuals, not institutional teamwork. These complex problems are made worse by the fact that there are many slogans, reports and showcase efforts which do not address the real issues and are intended for local consumption.

THE NEW WORLD DIS-ORDER – CAN SCIENCE AID THE HAVE-NOTS?

453

Restrictions on Human Thought: Real progress requires the participation of knowledgeable people working together to address key problems and possible solutions. In the west, this participation involves senior and junior people and their different areas of expertise in exchanges of human thought and knowledge. The result is a planned recommendation, designed to help different sectors of the society. In many developing countries, although this practice is true on paper, it is usually not followed in reality. The reasons are many, including hierarchical dominance, strong seniority systems and the centralization of power; all limit people’s ability to speak freely. Although western democracies are not the only successful models for government, a lack of democratic participation suppresses collective human thought and limits “due process of the law”, which unfairly stifles human potential. Fanatical Mix-ups of State Laws and Religious Beliefs: Confusion and chaos result from the misuse of the fundamental message of religion, namely the ethical, moral and humanistic ingredients in the life of many, a significant fraction of world population. For example, in Islam the message is clear, fully expressed in the Holy Quran to Muslims, who are close to one billion in global population. The Quran makes fundamental statements about human existence and integrity, on everything from science and knowledge to birth and death. “READ” is the first word in the first verse of the direct Revelation to The Prophet [Sura Alaq 96:1] and there are numerous verses regarding the importance of knowledge, science and learning; Muslims position scientists along with the prophets in the respect they are due. The Quran also emphasizes the critical role that humans must play in the struggle to achieve and develop, stating, “Verily! Allah will not change the good condition of the people as long as they do not change their state of goodness themselves.” [Sura Al Ra’d 13:11]. All societies and religions experience some fanaticism, but the current disparity in the world economy, with the dominance of the west, and the new role of invading media and politics trigger real fear for the possible loss of religious and cultural values. This situation, with increased unemployment, results in rigidity towards progress and the release of frustration in different ways. The west is seen by many as responsible for some of the mix-up, first because there is inconsistency in political actions by the west, and second because of the gap between the rich and the poor; between billionaires and the homeless. What is needed to solve these problems? The answer to this question is non-trivial because of the many cultural and political considerations that are part of the total picture. Nevertheless, I believe that the four issues iden-

454

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

tified above point to the essentials for progress, which are summarized in the following: (1) Building the human resources, taking into account the necessary elimination of illiteracy, the active participation of women in society, and the need for a reformation of education: (2) Rethinking the national constitution, which must allow for freedom of thought, minimization of bureaucracy, development of a merit system, and a credible (enforceable) legal code; (3) Building the Science Base. This last essential of progress is critical to development and to globalization and it is important to examine this point further. There is a trilogy which represents the heart of any healthy scientific structure: First, the Science Base. The backbone of the science base is the investment in the special education among the gifted, the existence of centers of excellence for scientists to blossom, and the opportunity for using the knowledge to impact the industrial and economical markets of the country and hopefully the world. In order to optimize the impact, this plan must go hand-in-hand with that for the general education at state schools and universities. This base must exist, even in a minimal way, to ensure a proper and ethical way of conducting research in a culture of science which demands cooperation as a team effort and as a search for the truth. The acquisition of confidence and pride in intellectual successes will lead to a more literate society. Second, the Development of Technology. The science base forms the foundation for the development of technologies on both the national and international level. Using the scientific approach, a country will be able to address its needs and channel its resources into success in technologies that are important to, for example, food production, health, management, information, and, hopefully, participation in the world market. Third, the Science Culture. Developing countries possess rich cultures of their own in literature, entertainment, sports and history. But, many do not have a “science culture”. The science culture enhances a country’s ability to follow and discuss complex problems rationally, and based on facts, while involving many voices in an organized, collective manner – scientific thinking becomes essential to the fabric of the society. Because science is not as visible as entertainment, the knowledge of what is new, from modern developments in nutrition to emerging possibilities in the world market, becomes marginalized. With a stronger scientific base, it is possible to enhance the science culture, foster a rational approach, and educate the public about potential developments and benefits. The above trilogy represents a major obstacle to the have-nots, as many feel that such a structure is only for those countries which are already

THE NEW WORLD DIS-ORDER – CAN SCIENCE AID THE HAVE-NOTS?

455

developed. Some even believe in conspiracy theories – that the developed world will not help developing countries and that they try to control the flow of knowledge. The former is a chicken/egg argument because developed countries were developing before they achieved their current status. The recent examples for success in the world market in countries such as developing China and India and others are because of the developed educational system and technological skills in certain sectors – India is becoming one of the world leaders in software technology and “Made in China” goods are now all over the globe. As for the conspiracy theory, I personally do not give significant weight to it, preferring to believe that nations “interact” in the best of their mutual interests. If the gap is too large, the interest becomes marginalized, but if the gap narrows, the flow of information (including science and technology) becomes easier, even if the two nations involved “do not really have an affinity to each other.” What is needed is acceptance of responsibility in a collaboration between developing and developed countries. I see two sets of responsibilities in what I term a “proposal for partnership”. The proposal highlights the following three points for each of them. Responsibilities of Developing Countries: (1) Restructuring Education and Science. The force of expatriates in developed countries should be organized and used for help in a serious manner. Expatriates can help the exchange between developed-developing cultures and assist in bringing modern methods of education and research. This will not be successful without the genuine participation of local experts. (2) Creation of Centers of Excellence. These centers should be limited to a few areas in order to build confidence and recognition and should not be just exercises in public relations. They are important not only for research and development, but also in preparing a new population of experts in advancing technologies. They would also help reduce the brain drain many developing countries experience. (3) Commitment of National Resources. These resources are needed to support research and development in a selective way, following well-established criteria that are based on merit and distinction. To guide national policy, government at the highest level should create an overseeing “Board for Science & Technology”, formed from national and international experts. Without serious commitment to such an effort, progress will remain limited.

456

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

Some developing countries have made admirable progress in these areas, and the results from, e.g., India, South Korea, and Taiwan reflect healthy educational reforms and excellence in some science and technology sectors. In Egypt, the University of Science and Technology (UST) is an experiment, initiated with the hope of establishing a center of excellence that will satisfy the criteria of the above trilogy: nurturing the science base, developing technologies important to the region and the world, and fostering the science culture. So far we have had success in structuring an academic foundation and, with the commitment of President M. Hosni Mubarak, we now have a 300-acre parcel available to build a campus on the outskirts of Cairo. We are awaiting the approval of a new law which will position UST as a non-profit, non-governmental organization. This will be a unique experiment where both developing and developed countries can participate, helping a region rich in human capital and potential but in need of peace and prosperity. By the time UST reaches its final stage, it should have satellites benefiting other countries in the area. Responsibilities of Developed Countries: (1) Focusing of Aid Programs. Usually an aid package from developed to developing countries is distributed among many projects. Although some of these projects are badly needed, the number of projects involved and the lack of follow-up (not to mention some corruption) means that the aid does not result in big successes. More direct involvement and focus are needed, especially to help Centers of Excellence achieve their mission, and with criteria already established in developed countries. (2) Minimization of Politics in Aid. The use of an aid program to help specific regimes or groups in the developing world is a big mistake, as history has shown that it is in the best interests of the developed world to help the people of developing countries. Accordingly, an aid program should be visionary in addressing real problems and should provide for long-term investment in the development program. (3) Partnership in Success. There are two ways to aid developing countries. Developed nations can either give money that simply maintains the economic and political stability or they can become a partner and provide expertise and a follow-up plan. This serious involvement would be of great help in achieving success in many different sectors. I believe that real success can be achieved provided there exists a sincere desire and serious commitment to a partnership, which is in the best interests of both parties.

THE NEW WORLD DIS-ORDER – CAN SCIENCE AID THE HAVE-NOTS?

457

What is the return to rich countries for helping poor countries? And what payoff do rich countries get for helping poor countries get richer? These two questions were asked by Joel Cohen in his book mentioned before. At the level of a human individual, there are religious and philosophical reasons which make the rich give to the poor – morality and selfprotection motivate us to help humankind. For countries, mutual aid provides (besides the issue of morality): insurance for peaceful coexistence and cooperation for preservation of the globe. If we believe that the world is becoming a village because of information technology, then in a village we must provide social security for the unprivileged, otherwise we may trigger revolution. If the population is not in harmony, grievances will be felt throughout the village and in different ways. Healthy and sustainable human life requires the participation of all members of the globe. Ozone depletion, for example, is a problem that the developed world cannot handle alone – the use of propellants with chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is not only by the haves. Transmission of diseases, global resources, and the Greenhouse Effect are global issues and both the haves and have-nots must address solutions and consequences. Finally, there is the growing world economy. The market (and resources) of developing countries is a source of wealth to developed countries and it is wise to cultivate a harmonious relationship for mutual aid and mutual economic growth. I heard of a recent phrase, “Give us the technology and we will give you the market!”, used to describe the US-China relationship. A powerful example of visionary aid is the Marshall Plan given by the United States to Europe after World War II. Recognizing the mistake made in Europe after W.W.I, the U. S. decided in 1947 to help rebuild the damaged infrastructure and to become a partner in the economical (and political) developments. Western Europe is stable today and continues to prosper – likewise its major trading partner, the United States of America. The U. S. spent close to 2% of its GNP on the Marshall Plan for the years 194851. As pointed out by Cohen, a similar percentage of the $6.6 trillion of the 1994 U. S. GNP will amount to $130 billion, almost ten times the $15 billion a year currently spent for all non-military foreign aid and more than 280 times the $352 million the U. S. gave for all overseas population programs in 1991. The commitment and generosity of the Marshall Plan resulted in a spectacular success story. The world needs a rational commitment to aid and aid partnerships. It is in the best interest of the developed world to help developing countries become self-sufficient and a part of the new world order and market.

458

AHMED H. ZEWAIL

Some developed countries are recognizing the importance of partnership, especially with neighbors, and attempts are made to create new ways of support and exchanges for the know-how. Examples include the United States and Mexico and Western and Eastern Europe. The rise of Spain’s economic status is in part due to the partnership within Western Europe. In the next 25 years, 2 billion human beings will be added to the planet, with 97% of those 2 billion people living in the developing world. This uneven population explosion, with its impact on world resources, the environment and regional conflicts, threatens our existence and calls for serious and active involvement. The consequence when developing countries acquire an “underdeveloped status” is ugly, not only because of the human costs and sufferings, but also because of the impact on world peace and stability. It is equally in the best interests of developing countries to address these issues seriously, not through slogans, but with a commitment of both will and resources in order to achieve real progress and to take a place on the map of the developed world. We may picture the current situation by likening it to a “Ship in a Flood”. Underdeveloped countries are near to sinking under the deluge; developing countries are trying to make it onto the ship; and developed countries sailing, but in a flood of the unprivileged. The choices are clear: The sailing ship must seriously attempt to help those who are trying to make it. Those trying to make it should not regard the ship without a willingness to put forth their own effort, and without wasting their energy on conspiracy theories – being on the ship is more important! Meanwhile, everyone must make every attempt to rescue those at the bottom. To be part of a civilized planet, every human must matter. The notion of “us” and “them” is not visionary and we must speak of global problems and solutions. At the heart are poverty, illiteracy, and human freedom.

WHY AND HOW PHYSICISTS ARE INTERESTED IN THE BRAIN AND THE MIND
MINORU ODA

Hitherto, brain research has been carried out with pathological, physiological and psychological approaches. Apart from the experts in neuroscience, scientists in general are now more interested in brain research, as I have emphasised here in this Academy on some occasions in the past [1, 2]. And meetings by physicists have been held. Ever since Masao Itoh founded a Brain Research Institute in the RIKEN Institute, Japan, and gathered together there a group of (experimental and theoretical) neuroscientists, as well as scientists from a variety of disciplines, more and more physicists have become interested in the brains of humans, small animals such as cats, dogs, apes, fish, and insects such as bees and ants. Three approaches adopted by physicists may be delineated: 1) understanding the brain as though it were a computer; 2) producing new concepts where the computer is seen as an imitator of the brain; 3) observing physical traces left on the brain caused by the activities of the brain. If, as suggested, the traces left in the brain are observable more or less randomly and can be freely detected, then the relevant issues may be listed as follows: The brain of the foetus: when and how does the brain of human and animal foetuses grow to be brain-like in the mother’s body? What is the physical mechanism involved? What should be said about the imprinting of the brains of chicks as discovered by K. Lorenz? When we or animals sleep what happens to our brains?

460

MINORU ODA

How do tropical fish control their ‘millisecond’ reaction of motion? How do the brains of adult salmon or baby eels recognise their original mother-river so that they can return to it after their long journeys in the ocean? What controls the swift group motion of birds and fish? The visual cognition of stellar constellations (?) as opposed to traces in the brains of migrating birds (if they exist)? The question of auditory cognition versus traces in the brain: noisy and musical sounds; group singing (e. g. cricks, sparrows). How do the brains of spring-singing birds evolve into those of autumn-singing birds? The human brain: are there any differences in the brain which underlie Western or Eastern languages? The brains of musicians: how do the brains of pianists, violinists, and conductors work differently? How do the brains of painters work? When the drawing is started and when the painting is about to be finished. The social behaviour of groups of animals, birds, fish, and insects can be watched and followed by means of telemetry. The relationship which exists between instincts and evolution: how does a group of animals or insects develop or acquire and fix its instinct? How do insects such as bees or ants acquire differentiation as regards soldiers, workers, and the queen? How are instincts developed and fixed? The Observation of the Brain Now, what could be the techniques to look into traces in the brain which have a high spatial resolution? The X-ray astronomy technique, which we may call the Fourier Transform Telescope (FTT), can be converted. The principle of the FTT, which was conceived as a high angular-resolution telescope for the angular resolution of arc-seconds for X-ray imaging, may be understood with reference to Fig. 1. The metal grid structure shown in Fig. 2 (see p. XIII) is attached to a solid structure and fixed with a certain relative distance. Combination of the grid units with a certain spatial frequency and a unit of the same frequency, a quarter phase displaced, and with a certain angular orientation with the corresponding grid, can produce a point on the Fourier u-v plane as shown in Fig. 3. The configuration of the points on the u-v plane produces an image. The principle of the FTT can be converted to that of the Fourier Transform Microscope (FTM) to achieve high-resolution images of the traces in the brain.

WHY AND HOW PHYSICISTS ARE INTERESTED IN THE BRAIN AND THE MIND

461

Fig. 1

462

MINORU ODA

Fig. 3

Among the variety of ways by which to produce X-ray sources in the brain, Fig. 4 (see p. XIII) illustrates how a minus muon beam produced by a facility of the RIKEN/Rutherford Appleton Laboratory can irradiate targets in the brain and produce muonic atoms which in turn produce LX-rays. Thus, images of metal concentrations in the brain, which are normally physiological or pathological, can be produced. The combination of grids at the distances corresponds to the point on the Fourier u-v plane by which the image can be reproduced with a high spatial resolution. Group Evolution to Instinct The relationships within social evolution as described by the late Dr. Motoo Kimura and by Freeman Dyson, and the development and fixing of the instinct of the group, can be experimentally understood in the case of the differentiation of soldiers, workers, and queens in the case of insects, such as bees or ants. Such experiments on the relationship between evolution and the acquisition of instinct by insects can be attempted using the combination of techniques of FTM, telemetry, and the technique of the freezing and

WHY AND HOW PHYSICISTS ARE INTERESTED IN THE BRAIN AND THE MIND

463

defrosting after some length of time of eggs and sperm, as developed in a laboratory of the RIKEN, the Yokohama Institute. Brain science as seen from the viewpoint of experimental physicists has in this paper thus been described and discussed.

REFERENCES

[1] Proc. Japan Acad., 71 (1995), pp. 1-4. [2] A memo on this subject was circulated during the Meeting of October 1998.

A MILLENNIUM VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE
VERA C. RUBIN

We live in a universe that is amazingly beautiful, enormously large, and incredibly complex. Only during the 20th century have we had the tools and the technology to discover some of its secrets. Progress in understanding the universe has been one of the major intellectual achievements of this century. Yet our understanding is far from complete. I believe that there are deep mysteries that we have yet to uncover. Due principally to the work of Kapteyn, De Sittter, Oort, Einstein, Lemaître, Hubble, Shapley, and others, 70 years ago we learned that we live in a Galaxy, that the universe is populated with billions of other galaxies, and that galaxies are moving away from each other. The best explanation is that the universe originated in an enormously hot, dense singularity, and has been expanding and cooling ever since. As the universe evolves, galaxies evolve, stars evolve, planets evolve, and life evolves. Only recently have we understood how interrelated are all the features of the universe. Almost a century ago, John Muir (1915) wrote, “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe”. It is these connections that I would like to identify today. From observations of the nearby universe, we have learned: (1) The universe is lumpy; stars form into galaxies, galaxies join into clusters, and clusters merge into superclusters. (2) Gravity is the dominant force. Over large regions of space, whole streams of galaxies are being pulled toward regions of higher density. (3) Most of the matter in the universe is dark. At least 90%, perhaps as much as 99%, has never been observed directly. Some of it may be conventional matter that is too faint to detect or for which radiation is not one of its properties. Some of it may be unconventional matter of a form predicted by some theories. It could be something we have not yet imagined.

A MILLENNIUM VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE

465

(4) Almost all research questions that we have asked have yet to be finally answered. We do not know the age of the universe, the ages of the oldest stars, the density of the universe, how life originated on Earth, how soon galaxies originated following the big bang, and the ultimate fate of the universe. We do not know what the dark matter is. These are the questions that will be answered in the future. Let me start with a description of what we can see and what we know, by describing the geography of the universe around us. When you look at the sky on a dark night from the northern hemisphere, every star that you see is a member of our own spiral Galaxy. That means the stars are gravitationally bound, all orbiting in concert about the very distant center of our Galaxy. The stars are not distributed at random, but are flattened to a plane. The sun, our star, is located in the plane. And when we look through the plane we see on the sky a band of millions of stars, which we call the Milky Way. Most ancient civilizations told stories to explain the Milky Way. It was not until 1609 that Galileo turned his newly perfected telescope to the sky and discovered that the Milky Way was composed of “congeries of stars”. I like to say that Galileo advanced science when he took a cardboard tube, and placed a small lens at one end and a large brain at the other. Galileo’s great genius was not only that he discovered things never before seen in the sky, but that he was able to understand and interpret what he saw. Our Galaxy contains more than just stars. It contains clouds of gas and dust which may obscure more distant objects. From our position in the Galaxy we cannot see all the way to its center. When we use the telescope to look away from the plane of our Galaxy, we see external galaxies, each an independent agglomeration of billions of stars. In each galaxy, all the stars are gravitationally bound to that galaxy. Telescopic views of external galaxies convince us that we understand the structure of our Milky Way. For the purposes of what I am going to be discussing today, there are two major facts to remember. In a galaxy, stars are very, very far apart. Relative to their diameters, the average distance between one star and the next is enormous. That is not true for galaxies. Virtually every galaxy has a companion galaxy within a few diameters. The second fact is that gravity is the force that controls stellar motions. Gravity is also the dominant force in the evolution of galaxies. Figure 1 (see p. XIV) is a near-infrared photograph of the center and about 90 degrees on either side of the disk of our Galaxy. It was made by the orbiting COBE Satellite. This is the best picture I know of our Galaxy, and this is the photograph that should hang in schoolrooms around the

466

VERA C. RUBIN

world. Just as students should know about continents and oceans and polar caps and volcanoes, so they should also know about galaxies and the structure of the universe. Seen face on, our Galaxy would look like the wide open spirals (Figure 2; see p. XIV) that we photograph with our telescopes; our sun is located far from the nucleus on the edge of a spiral arm. The sun, carrying the planets with it, has an orbit which carries it once around the galaxy in two hundred million years. Hence the sun has orbited about 20 or 30 times around the Galaxy since its formation. The spiral arms of a galaxy are not fixed loci of stars, but regions in which the stellar density is high. A star will move into an arm and out of an arm, spending a longer period in the arm because of the higher gravity there. A fair analogy is a traffic jam on a road. If you look at a road where there is a bottleneck you will always see cars there, but from one time to the next they will not be the same cars. As the universe cooled following the hot big bang, atoms of hydrogen and helium eventually formed, and from these elements the first generation of stars was made. It takes two things to form a star: gas, and gravity sufficient to cause the gas to contract to high density. As more gas particles are gravitationally attracted to the increasingly massive protostar, their infall energy is transformed to heat, raising the central temperature. Ultimately, the central temperature will be high enough that the star will start fusing atoms of hydrogen into helium, and helium atoms into heavier elements. During its lifetime, a star is a chemical factory for making elements more complex than the elements from which it formed. As it forms elements up to iron, energy is released, producing the starlight to which our eyes are sensitive. It is not a coincidence that human eyes have their peak sensitivity in the region of the spectrum which matches the peak of the visible solar radiation. Ultimately, the star reaches an energy crisis, for it takes energy to produce chemical elements heavier than iron. The star reaches the end of its life, either gently, by shedding its outer atmosphere (Figure 3; see p. XV) or explosively by becoming a supernova (Figure 4). In either case, the star enriches the gas between the stars with heavier elements; these are the building blocks of future generations of stars. In some cases, it is the shock wave from the exploding supernova that compresses nearby gas, thus initiating a new generation of star formation. These stars are composed of atoms including carbon and nitrogen and oxygen, the elements necessary for life. Star formation is a messy process, and the forming star is left with a residual disk of debris particles. Planets will ultimately form in this disk

A MILLENNIUM VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE

467

Figure 4. An image of NGC 4526, a galaxy in the Virgo cluster, taken with the Hubble orbiting telescope. The bright star is a supernova in that galaxy, SN 1994D. Credit: V.Rubin, STScI, and NASA.

from the merging of dust particles. From these particles will emerge the Earth with its iron core and its floating continents, and its biology and its living creatures. Without our Galaxy to gravitationally retain the gas atoms and molecules, without stars to make the heavy elements, and without the debris from our forming sun, the Earth and its living forms would not exist. John Muir would have liked to know this story.

468

VERA C. RUBIN

Our Galaxy is not alone in space. We have two small nearby satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds, visible in the sky with the naked eye from the southern hemisphere. The Magellanic Clouds orbit our Galaxy, and each orbit carries them through the gas layer of our disk. The gas between the stars is tidally disrupted as the Clouds move through. The Clouds lose energy, and their orbits diminish. Ultimately the Magellanic Clouds will cease to exist as separate galaxies. Instead, they will merge and become part of our Galaxy. A tidal tail of gas, pulled out of the Magellanic Clouds on a previous passage, is observed today by radio telescopes as a large arc of gas across the sky. The Sagittarius Dwarf, an even closer galaxy located beyond the nucleus on the other side of our Galaxy, is currently being pulled apart. Such smaller galaxies are gravitationally fragile, and hence at risk of capture by nearby, more massive galaxies. Our Galaxy has another relatively close, but very large, companion, the Andromeda galaxy (M31). This nearest large galaxy to us has long been a favorite for study. M31 also has two bright satellite galaxies, and many fainter ones. The Andromeda galaxy and our own Galaxy are dominant members of the Local Group of galaxies. The Local Group consists of about twenty known galaxies, only a few of them large. Most are small irregular objects, each lacking a massive center. Hence they are gravitationally very fragile when they pass near larger galaxies. Ultimately, they will probably each merge with the more massive galaxy. The halo of our Galaxy contains sets of stars which were probably acquired in this fashion. We live in an age when clusters of galaxies are forming. In some regions of space, the mutual gravity of the galaxies has overcome the expansion of the universe, and numerous galaxies gravitationally clump into one large system. Our Local Group is an outlying member of the Virgo Supercluster. Like clusters and superclusters, the Virgo Cluster contains many spheroidal galaxies. Many of these spheroidal galaxies probably formed from the merger of two or more disk galaxies, an occurrence expected frequently in the high galaxy density core of a cluster of galaxies. Spheroidal galaxies are a favorite laboratory for studying stellar motions. This is the lumpy structure of the nearby universe is emphasized in Figure 5. We live in a spiral Galaxy that has one major companion in the Local Group. This group of galaxies is an outlying member of a large supercluster of thousands of galaxies centered on the Virgo Cluster. The gravitational attraction of the Virgo Cluster on our Galaxy is slowing down our expansion. We are expanding from Virgo due to the expansion of the universe, but at a lower speed than we would have if the Virgo galaxies were

A MILLENNIUM VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE

469

Figure 5. A sketch of the observed luminous universe, emphasizing the lumpy structure. We live on a planet orbiting a star; the star is located on the edge of a spiral arm of our Milky Way Galaxy, which is one galaxy in the Local Group of galaxies. The Local Group is an outlying member of the Virgo Supercluster, which forms one of the knots in the lumpy universe.

not there. At the center of the Virgo Cluster, the local gravitational field is so great that the expansion of the universe has been halted. The core of the cluster is not expanding, for the galaxies are all gravitationally bound to each other. When we map the distribution of the bright galaxies on the sky, we find that their distribution is not uniform and not random. Instead, the galaxies are distributed in clusters, and the clusters form superclusters. There are galaxies in lace-like chains connecting the superclusters, as well as large regions in which no galaxies are seen. We do not know if these dark regions are void of all matter, or only void of bright matter.

470

VERA C. RUBIN

I now want to turn to the evidence that there is very much dark matter in the universe. For many years I had been interested in the outer boundaries of galaxies, a subject relatively far from the mainstream of astronomy. I devised an observing program to take advantage of the new large telescopes, which would permit us to discover how stars in the outer disk orbit their galaxy center. Most of the observations were made at the Kitt Peak National Observatory outside of Tucson; others come from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the cap. O of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in Chile. By analogy with planets in the solar system, it was assumed that stars far from the galaxy center would orbit with velocities much slower than those near the galaxy center. Since before the time of Isaac Newton, scientists knew the orbital periods of the planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, and their distances from the sun. The planet closest to the sun, Mercury, orbits very rapidly while Saturn, the planet distant from the sun, orbits very slowly. Newton taught us that gravitational forces fall off as the square of the distance from the sun, the source of the gravitational attraction in the solar system. And the planets, as all physics students know, are actually falling to the sun, but their forward motion is so great that they never reach the sun, but instead they describe an orbit. From their distances from the sun and their orbital periods, we can deduce the mass of the sun. By similar reasoning, the mass within a galaxy can be determined from the orbital velocities of stars or gas at successive distances within that galaxy, until we reach the limit of the optical galaxy. My colleague Kent Ford and I would use at a telescope a spectrograph that splits the light from a galaxy into its component colors. Hydrogen atoms within the stars and gas produce spectral lines whose positions vary with the velocity of the source. Lines are shifted to the red for a source moving away from an observer, and shifted to the blue for sources moving toward the observer. The long slit of the spectrograph accepts light from each point along the major axis of that galaxy (Figure 6). The rotation of the galaxy carries the stars toward us on one side (therefore blue shifted), and away from us on the other side (red shifted). By measuring the positions of the lines with great accuracy, I deduce the velocity for each observed position in the galaxy. I have obtained hundreds of spectra of galaxies, which I then study at my office. Now I record the observations and carry them via computer rather than photographic plates. In virtually all cases, the orbital velocities of stars far from the nucle-

A MILLENNIUM VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE

471

Figure 6. Images, spectra, and rotation velocities for 5 spiral galaxies. The dark line crossing the upper three galaxies is the slit of the spectrograph. The spectra show emission lines of hydrogen and nitrogen. The strongest step-shaped lines in each are from hydrogen and ionized nitrogen in the galaxy. The strong vertical line in each spectrum comes from stars in the nucleus. The undistorted horizontal lines are from the Earth’s atmosphere. The curves at right show the rotation velocities as a function of nuclear distance, measured from emission lines in the spectra.

us are as high or even higher than orbital velocities of stars closer to the bright galaxy center. Figure 6 shows five galaxies, their spectra, and their measured velocities. Whether the galaxies are intrinsically small, or intrinsically large, the

472

VERA C. RUBIN

rotation velocities remain high far from the nucleus. If you are a first year physics student, you know that in a system in equilibrium, a test particle orbiting a central mass M at a distance R moves with velocity V, such that the M is proportional to R times V (squared). The mass of the test particle does not enter. Thus the velocity of a gas cloud or a star (or any other test object) does not enter into the equation. This is what Galileo was trying to show when he dropped objects from the Tower of Pisa. It is not the mass of the falling (or orbiting) object which determines its velocity; it is the mass of the attractor, be it Earth or a galaxy. As we see in Figure 6, orbital velocities are almost constant independent of distance. These tell us that the mass detected within the galaxy continues to rise with increasing distance from the center of the galaxy. Although the light in a galaxy is concentrated toward the center, the mass is less steeply concentrated. We do not know the total mass of a single galaxy; we know only the mass interior to the last measured velocity. These high rotational velocities far out in a galaxy are one piece of evidence that most of the matter in a galaxy is dark, and that the dark matter extends beyond the optical galaxy. Stellar velocities remain high in response to the gravitational attraction of this extended distribution of dark matter. Some galaxies have hydrogen disks that extend well beyond the optical galaxy. Observations of velocities in these extended disks reveal that the rotation velocities remain high across the disks. The hydrogen gas is not the dark matter, but it too responds to the gravitational attraction of the extended dark matter. Astronomers call the distribution of dark matter a halo, but actually mean a spheroidal distribution in which the galaxy disk is embedded. Questions concerning the dark matter remain; astronomers and physicists cannot yet supply the answers. Does it exist? Where is it? How much is there? What is it? I will briefly give the current thinking on each of these, from the view of an observer. Does it exist? Most astronomers believe that it does. There are only two explanations that can explain these unexpectedly high orbital velocities in spiral galaxies. One possibility is that Newtonian gravitation theory does not apply over distances as great as galaxy disks, for this theory underlies our analysis. There are physicists who are attempting to devise cosmological models in which Newtonian gravitational theory is modified. But, if you accept Newton’s laws, as most astronomers do at present, then the explanation is that the star velocities remain high in response to much matter that we cannot see.

A MILLENNIUM VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE

473

Where is it? Fritz Zwicky, over sixty years ago, discovered that in a cluster of galaxies like the Virgo Cluster, many individual galaxies are moving with velocities so large that galaxies should be leaving the cluster. But evidence that clusters are not dissolving led Zwicky to suggest that there is more matter in the cluster than can be seen, and this unseen matter is gravitationally holding the cluster together. Zwicky called this “missing mass.” However, astronomers now prefer the term “dark matter,” for it is the light, not the mass that is missing. We know now that dark matter dominates the mass of both individual galaxies and also clusters of galaxies. Direct evidence for the high dark matter mass in galaxy clusters comes from the discovery of gravitational lensing. Light from background galaxies, passing through the dense core of an intervening cluster, is gravitationally deflected, and the background galaxy images are warped into arcs and rings. A recent Hubble Space Telescope view of this effect is shown in Figure 7. Thus massive clusters act as natural telescope that enhance the intensity of the light. Nature made telescopes before Galileo did. How much is there? Now the questions get harder to answer. The best answer is “We don’t know.” The amount of matter in the universe is fundamental to understand whether the universe will expand forever, or the

Figure 7. Galaxy cluster Abell 2218. The arcs are gravitationally lensed images of background galaxies, whose light is distorted by the mass of the foreground cluster. Credit: A. Fruchter and ERO team, STScI.

474

VERA C. RUBIN

expansion will halt, and perhaps even recollapse. The galaxy and the cluster observations offer evidence that almost all the matter in a galaxy is dark. But even this high fraction of unseen matter describes a universe of low density, a universe that will continue to expand forever. However, theoretical cosmologists prefer a universe of higher density, so that the amount of matter is just sufficient to ultimately bring the expansion asymptotically to a halt. Such a high-density universe is the basis of the inflationary model of the Big Bang. What is it? This is the question that really exposes our ignorance. Production of particles following the big bang puts a limit on the number of conventional particles in the universe. This limit suggests that only a small fraction of the dark matter can be baryonic, that is, conventional matter such as the familiar elementary particles and atoms known on Earth and in stars. Whatever constitutes the baryonic dark matter, it must be invisible: faint stars in enormous quantities, too faint to have been detected, mini-black holes, brown dwarfs, dark planets. All of these possible candidates have been looked for, and not found in significant numbers. Some of the dark matter must be of an exotic nature unlike the atoms and molecules that compose the stars, the Earth, and our bodies. These might be neutrinos which are not massless, or those particles dreamed up but not yet detected; axions, monopoles, gravitinos, photinos. Physicists are currently devising laboratory experiments in an attempt to detect these still unknown particles. Maybe none of these ideas are correct. Observational cosmology has taught us that our imaginations are very limited. Most cosmological knowledge has come not from thinking about the cosmos, but from observing it. This is the universe that we describe today. It would be a mistake to believe that we have solved the problems of cosmology. We have not. There are surely major features of the universe we have not yet imagined. Someday humans on Earth will know if the universe will expand forever, if the expansion is accelerating or decelerating, if life is ubiquitous throughout the universe. Most important, they will attempt to answer questions we do not now know enough to ask.

RECENT TRENDS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
ROLAND OMNÈS

Max Planck discovered the existence of quanta one century ago and the basic laws of this new kind of physics were found in the years 19251926. They have since withstood the test of time remarkably well while giving rise to a multitude of discoveries and extending many times their field of validity. Quantum mechanics was certainly the most important breakthrough in science in the past century with its influence on physics and on chemistry and beyond, including many features of molecular biology. Almost immediately, however, it was realized that the new laws of physics required that the foundations of the philosophy of knowledge be drastically revised because quantum rules conflicted with various deep traditional assumptions in philosophy such as causality, locality, the realistic representation of events in space and time, and other familiar ideas. For a long time, the so-called Copenhagen interpretation provided a convenient framework for understanding the quantum world of atoms and particles but it involved at least two questionable or badly understood features: a conceptual split between quantum and classical physics, particularly acute in the opposition between quantum probabilism and classical determinism, and a mysterious reduction effect, the “collapse of the wave function”, both difficulties suggesting that something important was still to be clarified. Much work is still presently going on about these foundations, where experiments and theory inspire and confirm each other. Some results have been obtained in the last two decades or so, probably important enough to warrant your attention and I will try to describe a few of them.

476

ROLAND OMNÈS

VON NEUMANN’S THREE PROBLEMS I believe the best way to introduce the topic will be to show it in a historical perspective by going back to the work by Johann (later John) von Neumann. In a famous book, Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik, published in 1932, he identified some basic problems. It may be interesting to notice that von Neumann was a mathematician, indeed among the greatest of his century. This was an asset in penetrating the essentials in a theory, quantum mechanics, which can be characterized as a typical formal science; that is to say a science in which the basic concepts and the fundamental laws can only be fully and usefully expressed by using a mathematical language. He was in addition a logician and he had worked previously on the theoretical foundations of mathematical sets. That was also a useful background for trying to master the quantum domain where logical problems and possible paradoxes were certainly not easier than those arising from sets. It is also worth mentioning that von Neumann had been a student of David Hilbert, and Hilbert’s conception of theoretical physics was very close to the contemporany trends in research. He thought that a mature physical theory should rest on explicit axioms, including physical principles and logical rules, from which the theory had to be developed deductively to obtain predictions that could be checked by experiments. Von Neumann contributed decisively (along with Dirac) to the formulation of the basic principles, unifying the linear character of quantum states with the non-commutative properties of physical quantities within the mathematical framework of Hilbert spaces and defining dynamics through the Schrödinger equation. He also made an important step towards “interpretation”, but this is a protean word that must be explained. It can mean interpreting the abstract theoretical language of physics into a common-sense language closer to the facts and experiments, just like an interpreter would translate a language into another; but interpretation can also mean “understanding” quantum physics, notwithstanding a drastic epistemic revision if necessary. We shall use the word with both meanings but von Neumann’s contribution, which we are about to discuss, was definitely a matter of translation. He assumed that every significant statement concerning the behavior of a quantum system can be cast into the form of an “elementary predicate”, a statement according to which “the value of some observable A lies in a range of real numbers” (By now, this assumption has been checked

RECENT TRENDS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

477

in all kinds of circumstances). He also found, as a consequence of his investigations on quantum observables, that a predicate of that kind can always be associated with a definite mathematical object, namely a subspace of the Hilbert space or, equally as well, the operator of projection over the subspace. The main point in the second version is that a projection operator can only have two values (“eigenvalues”), which are 0 or 1. We are now accustomed from the logic of computers (to which von Neumann contributed later decisively) to the fact that 1 can mean “true” while 0 means “false”, so that projection operators can implement Aristotle’s rule for the definite truth of propositions while using a basically probabilistic theory. The proposal was both deep and potentially useful, since it provided a convenient language for the description of physical events, a language that was, moreover, directly rooted in the principles of the theory. Its existence might have had a great influence on interpretation but, unfortunately, it was immediately disregarded because of three dire difficulties. Von Neumann himself observed them as follows: 1. After devising a model for a measurement where the system to be measured and the measuring apparatus both obey quantum mechanics, he found the apparatus to be generally in a state of superposition, representing one measuring result and other ones. Since measuring devices are macroscopic, this meant the existence of macroscopic superpositions if quantum mechanics is universal, whereas such states are never observed. This difficulty became famous a few years later when it was explained by Schrödinger with a cat included in the device. 2. Physics becomes classical at a macroscopic level, but classical properties are not simple predicates. They refer not to the range of values for one observable but generally to two non-commuting physical quantities such as position and momentum, whose values are given together within some range of possible error. Von Neumann did not succeed in extending to classical properties the translation of a predicate by a projection operator. It looked, therefore, as if his language was restricted to atoms and particles and was deprived of universality. 3. The last difficulty jeopardized in some sense the whole process: If every elementary predicate is considered as a possible proposition, the language makes no sense because it cannot satisfy the elementary rules of standard logic.

478

ROLAND OMNÈS

THREE ANSWERS The progress that has recently been accomplished in interpretation is best expressed by saying that von Neumann’s three problems have now been solved. Let us review the answers. Macroscopic superpositions versus decoherence The problem of Schrödinger’s cat never existed because of a physical effect, which is called decoherence. Its origin is to be found in the fact that the wave function of a macroscopic object does not depend only on the few collective quantities which are effectively measured or controlled, such as the position of a pointer on a voltmeter dial or the electric potential in a computer memory. The wave function depends typically upon some 1027 degrees of freedom or so, to take care of the internal atoms, the electrons inside the atoms and outside, the atmosphere molecules around the object and photons in surrounding light. All these uncontrolled degrees of freedom describe what is called the environment of the object, although there is as much internal “environment” as external. Decoherence is easy to understand if one thinks of a pointer on an oldfashioned voltmeter dial. Let us consider a case where the voltmeter registers the result of a quantum measurement and does it by having the pointer pointing vertically up or down according to the measurement result. The crux of the Schrödinger cat paradox is to deal with a quantum state where the two positions “up” and “down” are superposed and the possibility of observing interferences between the two positions. But think of what really happens. When the pointer begins to move towards the “up” position, the atoms near the pointer axis suffer some sort of a cataclysm or, at least, their partial wave functions are strongly affected, with wild changes in their local phase. The same thing happens when the pointer moves towards the “down” position, except that the environment wave function has no reason to keep any sort of phase coherence with its value in the “up” motion. This is the decoherence effect, which suppresses every possibility of quantum coherence between “up” and “down”, every kind of interferences between them: the state of the pointer is only either “up” or “down” as it would be in a standard probabilistic description. After being recognized [1], the decoherence effect began to be investigated on models, from which quantitative results were first obtained: it is by far the most efficient quantum effect acting at a macroscopic level. Later,

RECENT TRENDS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

479

it was recognized as a more or less standard kind of irreversible process. For a long time, it could not be observed experimentally for a rather peculiar reason, because it is so quick that it has already acted before one can see it in action. Finally, it was observed not long ago, with excellent agreement between the predictions and the observations [2]. Clearly, older considerations about reduction (wave function collapse) must take this important result into account. Classical properties versus mathematics A powerful technique was developed by mathematicians in the seventies for studying linear partial differential equations and related topics. It is called “microlocal analysis” or “pseudo-differential calculus”. Two basic results from this theory have yielded an answer for the second von Neumann problem. The first is concerned with a classical property allowing large errors in position and momentum as compared with Heisenberg’s uncertainty limit. A theorem says that such a property of that kind cannot be associated with a unique projection operator in Hilbert space but anyway, it is very well represented, qualitatively and quantitatively, by a set of “equivalent” projection operators. Another theorem says how quantum evolution acts on these representative operators, in a way reflecting almost exactly the evolution of the classical property under classical dynamics. It means in a nutshell that the old and rather fuzzy “correspondence principle” has been replaced by explicit and precise statements, which directly derive from the true principles (Hilbert space formalism and Schrödinger dynamics). Another way to express these results would be to say that the von Neumann language using projection operators is universal: it can describe classical physics, classical situations, just as well as it suits quantum properties. One must therefore certainly revise the Copenhagen standpoint according to which physics had to be split into a classical domain and a quantum one, both having independent laws except for the loose connection of “correspondence”. Standard logic and consistent histories The last problem, namely the apparent conflict between the language of projection operators and standard logic, has also been solved by finding the right “grammar” for the language, in terms of so-called “consistent his-

480

ROLAND OMNÈS

tories” [3]. The idea is to restrict explicitly a description of physical events by expressing it through a time-ordered sequence of relevant statements, which are either predicates (about atoms and particles) or classical properties (about macroscopic devices: preparation and detection for instance). Each statement of either kind is associated with a projection operator. Explicit “consistency conditions”, which are equations involving these operators and the initial state, make sure that there exists a probability distribution (on a “family” of histories reviewing the various possible occurrences). Quite remarkably, it was also found that standard logic holds inside such a family of consistent histories and no “exotic” logic is necessary for interpretation. A simple example of how the theory works is provided by a famous example from an interference experiment: it is indeed logically impossible to assert that a photon (or an atom) went through a single arm of an interferometer, because the corresponding histories do not satisfy the necessary consistency conditions. Conversely, the language most frequently used in books and papers on physics, in which cautious rules cleverly avoid paradoxes, can be fully justified from the consistency of the underlying histories. Finally, a strong connection between the three kinds of new results should be mentioned: decoherence ends up most often with a classical situation, and logical consistency is also most often a consequence of decoherence or of the recognized validity of classical physics. A NEW INTERPRETATION Using the answers to the three problems, interpretation can be cast into a completely deductive sub-theory inside the theory of quantum mechanics [4]. Its physical axioms have been already mentioned (i.e., the Hilbert space framework and Schrödinger dynamics) whereas the logical axioms amount to the use of von Neumann’s language under the constraints of consistent histories. The well-known rules of measurement theory are among the main results and they have become so many theorems in this approach. A few other aspects are worth mentioning: – Probabilities become still more intimately linked with quanta. In this approach, they appear first in the logical axioms (where they define logical implication) and from there on one can prove (in the resulting logic) the necessity of randomness among physical events. This new

RECENT TRENDS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

481

vision of probabilities may be rather deep but its implications are not yet fully appreciated. – Three “privileged” directions of time must enter the theory: one in logic (for the time ordering of predicates in histories), one for decoherence (as an irreversible process), and the familiar one from thermodynamics. The three of them must necessarily coincide. The most interesting aspect of these results is certainly that the breaking of time reversal symmetry is not primarily dynamical but logical and a matter of interpretation, at least from the present standpoint. – There is only one kind of basic laws in physics in this construction, and they are quantum laws. The validity of classical physics for macroscopic bodies (at least in most circumstances) emerges from the quantum principles. In particular, classical determinism can be proved to hold in a wide domain of application. Its conciliation with quantum probabilism is finally very simple if one notices that determinism claims essentially the logical equivalence of two classically meaningful properties occurring at two different times (one property specifying for instance position and velocity for a tennis ball at an initial time and the other property being similar for reception at a later time). Their logical equivalence holds with a very small probability of error. This very small (and known) probability of error allows determinism to assume a probabilistic character, although a very safe one. PHILOSOPHICAL CONSEQUENCES It should be stressed first of all that this approach brings nothing new concerning the reality of quantum properties. Complementarity is still there and even more so, because it is now a trivial consequence of the history construction. The most interesting philosophical consequences are therefore concerned with the understanding of classicality in the ordinary world of macroscopic objects or, in a nutshell: why is common sense valid? The technical answer to this question lies in considering histories where only classically meaningful properties of every kind of macroscopic objects enter. There is no problem of complementarity with such histories and therefore no problem with reality: the set of consistent histories describing our common experience turns out to be unique, sensible (i.e. satisfying the relevant consistency conditions), and the logical framework resulting from the quantum axioms in these conditions is what we might call “common sense”. There is therefore no conflict between quantum theo-

482

ROLAND OMNÈS

ry and common sense and the first implies the second, except that one should be careful not to extend excessively the domain where common sense is supposed to be valid. More precisely, one may refine common sense by making explicit in it familiar and traditional philosophical assumptions: causality (or determinism), locality in ordinary space, separability (except for measurements of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair of particles), reality (as used in a philosophical discourse, i.e. the consistency of all the – classical – propositions one may assert about the – macroscopic – world). The fourth has just been mentioned and the three first share a common character: they are valid at a macroscopic scale, except for a very small probability of error (or invalidity). When one tries, however, to extend them towards smaller and smaller objects, the probabilities of errors keep growing and finally, when one arrives at the level of atoms and particles, these traditional principles of the philosophy of knowledge have such a large probability of error that they are plainly wrong. There is a lesson in this: When dealing with physis, the principles that have been reached by science after much work stand on a much firmer basis that many traditional principles in the philosophy of knowledge. The concepts and laws of physics have been checked repeatedly and very carefully in a wide domain and, as indicated in this talk, they imply the validity of older more philosophical principles in ordinary circumstances. Conversely, the old principles are limited in scope and the purpose of understanding in their light the essentials of quantum mechanics is illusory. Some sort of a “premiss reversal” in the philosophy of knowledge is therefore suggested [5]. Open questions Some important questions are still a subject of controversy. All of them revolve around a central one: why or how is there a unique datum at the end of a measurement? Some questions concerning the ultimate meaning of decoherence are very close to this problem of actuality, or objectification, and the diversity of the proposed answers is too wide for them to be mentioned here. My own inclination goes towards an apparently new direction, which is why I mention it, addressing myself particularly to the philosophers and theologians in this Academy. I wonder whether the question of actuality is a problem in physics or about physics. In the second case, it would open wide philosophical perspectives, the most obvious one being a

RECENT TRENDS IN THE INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

483

renewal of the old question: up to what point does physics reach reality and, outside this reach, should it be said to preserve appearances? After all, everything we observe can be derived directly from the quantum principles except for the uniqueness of empirical reality, but this uniqueness can be shown to be logically consistent with the basic principles, or preserved by them. More generally, I think we should be more inquisitive about the essential role of mathematics in basic science, considering that we do not know conclusively what is the status or the nature of mathematics. One may question particularly the possible limits of the “Cartesian program”, according to which one assumes – perhaps too easily – the possibility of a mathematical description for every aspect of reality.

REFERENCES [1]. H. D. Zeh, Found. Phys. 1, 69 (1970), reprinted in the book by J. A. Wheeler and W. H. Zurek, Quantum theory and measurements, Princeton University Press, 1983. [2]. M. Brune, E. Hagley, J. Dreyer, X. Maître, A. Maali, C. Wunderlich, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4887 (1996). [3]. R. B. Griffiths, J. Stat. Phys. 36, 219 (1984). [4]. R. Omnès, Understanding quantum mechanics, Princeton University Press, 1999 (French version: Comprendre la mécanique quantique, EdP Sciences, Les Ulis, 2000). [5]. R. Omnès, Quantum philosophy, Princeton University Press, 1999 (a translation by A. Sangalli of Philosophie de la science contemporaine, Gallimard, Paris, 1994, with added material).

CHRIST AND SCIENCE
PAUL CARDINAL POUPARD

Jesus Christ is the most fascinating person who has ever existed. It is worth getting to know Him more than any other person, and no human discipline could ever find a better subject to study. However, science, or at least experimental science as we know it today, has not paid much attention to Him. Scientists throughout history have been very interested in God, to such a degree that, paradoxically, scientists may be considered to be more religious than other intellectuals. This was the case not only in the past but also today. Copernicus, Galileo and Newton were deeply religious men. But even Einstein, Max Planck and Kurt Gödel felt the need to speak about God, and more recently Stephen Hawking, Roger Penrose, Steven Weinberg and Lee Smolin have said a great deal more about God, and perhaps even to God, than many philosophers and theologians of our time.1 The existence of God is an ever-present challenge, even for those who simply want to deny it: is the God-hypothesis necessary or not to explain the world scientifically? And if one admits that there is one eternal, omniscient God, how can this fit into the image of the world that science offers? It is difficult to escape these questions, once one attempts to see the world in terms which are broader than strictly empirical data. Scientists and Jesus While scientists have studied and reflected on God, this has not been the case with Jesus. The question of the historical Jesus who is believed by

1 Cf. R. Timossi, Dio e la scienza moderna. Il dilemma della prima mossa (Mondadori, Milan, 1999).

CHRIST AND SCIENCE

485

Christians to be truly God and truly human does not seem to have found a place in scientific reflection. There were numerous attempts in the course of the twentieth century to approach the figure of Jesus ‘scientifically’, above all in exegesis and the various biblical sciences. These disciplines set themselves the task of studying the person, actions and sayings of Jesus not from the point of view of traditional interpretation, inasmuch as this was considered too partial, but with a new, scientific, rational method, which approached the object being studied, in this case the figure of Jesus, from a neutral point of view. We owe to these disciplines significant progress in understanding the historical circumstances in which Jesus and the first Christian communities lived, as well as the origins of the first Christian writings. However, these approaches to the figure of Jesus, though they claimed to be scientific, were often heavily laden with preconceptions and a priori philosophical positions, which definitely compromised the objectivity of their results. ‘Scientific’ critical exegesis tended to be critical of everything but itself and lacked a sound epistemological foundation. The claim that this kind of approach made to being ‘scientific’ aroused strong objections, not only among researchers trained in the empirical sciences but also among those trained in the humanities.2 More recently, other scientific disciplines have attempted to subject the figure of Jesus to the proofs of science. I am thinking of studies carried out on objects and relics which were presumed to have had contact with Jesus, in particular the analyses and tests carried out on the Turin Shroud in 1978 and, more recently, in 1998.3 The results of some of these tests are still controversial and there was some criticism of the fact that they were carried out at all. Clearly, a scientific investigation carried out on these objects will never provide absolute proof that they belonged to Jesus, much less prove that He existed. On the other hand, it is also true that these relics of Jesus, despite being very important and worthy of veneration by Christians, are not an object of faith in the strict sense. However, such investigations can help to give support, on a rational basis, to the authenticity of certain relics or facts linked to the figure of Jesus. They can also help to identify and

2 Cf. J. Ratzinger et al., Schriftauslegung im Widerstreit (Herder (Quaestiones disputatae 117) Freiburg, 1989). 3 See, for example, E.M. Carreira, “La Sábana Santa desde el punto de vista de la Física” and J.P. Jackson, “La Sábana Santa ¿nos muestra la resurrección?” in Biblia y Fe, XXIV (1998).

486

PAUL POUPARD

avoid those that are false. Studies like these are always ultimately based on the desire to come to a rationally based knowledge of the case of Jesus, something which Christianity has always claimed to have as the religio vera. Faith has nothing to fear from reason,4 so science can never be a threat when it wants to investigate Jesus. Anyone who has visited the Holy Land will know that, next to every church or sanctuary, and often under them, there is an archaeological dig, which is an attempt, in that particular context, to verify rationally what has been handed down as part of tradition. One can only hope that such research will be extended to many more objects or facts that are said to be miraculous. In these cases, science can help faith to rid itself of the leftovers of superstition and find solid foundations for belief.5 Obviously, these investigations touch Jesus Christ only indirectly, even though, when they speak of the resurrection of Jesus, it is impossible not to ask oneself about Him. Nevertheless, the link between Christ and science and scientists is still largely unexplored. One important lacuna is that there is no serious study on what Christ means for scientists, a thorough treatment of the way scientists have contemplated Christ across the centuries, and how they have approached Him. Father Xavier Tilliette did such a thing for philosophers in his book Le Christ de la philosophie, the sub-title of which is quite significant: Prolégomènes à une christologie philosophique.6 The prolegomena for a similar ‘scientific Christology’ have still to be written. Allow me to refer en passant to one very noteworthy attempt made in this area: Father Pierre Teilhard de Chardin’s work entitled Science and Christ.7 It was only an attempt, and it may well have attracted some criticism, but it was a noble effort on the part of one of the twentieth century’s great anthropologists to bring his scientific knowledge face to face with

John Paul II, ‘Address to those who took part in the Jubilee of Men and Women from the World of Learning, 25 May 2000’. 5 ‘Science can purify religion from error and superstition’. Cf. John Paul II, ‘Letter to Father George V. Coyne, 1 June 1988’. The text is in Pontificium Consilium De Cultura, Jubilee for Men and Women from the World of Learning (Vatican City, 2000), p. 59. 6 X. Tilliette, S.J., Le Christ de la philosophie (Cerf, Paris, 1990). See the same author’s Le Christ des philosophes, (Institut Catholique de Paris, Paris, 1974). 7 P. Teilhard de Chardin, ‘Science et Christ’, a conference held in Paris on 27 February 1927. It was published in Science et Christ (Œuvres de Teilhard de Chardin, IX, Paris, 1965), pp. 47-62. See also E. Borne, ‘Teilhard de Chardin’, in P. Poupard (ed.), Grande Dizionario delle Religioni (Piemme, Casale Monferrato, 3rd. edn., 2000), pp. 2125ff.

4

CHRIST AND SCIENCE

487

Christ. In his study of matter, this great Jesuit anthropologist perceived a strong urge to unification and synthesis, an excess of energy which enabled matter to transcend itself more and more. He saw this as evidence of a process which would culminate in Christ. Teilhard was obviously not so naïve as to try to deduce Christian doctrine from the simple study of the properties of matter. He wrote that science, left to itself, cannot discover Christ, but Christ fulfils the desires which arise in our hearts when we are at the school of Science.8 For Teilhard, Christ was so much a part of nature, as a unifying element, that he did not always acknowledge Christ’s individuality. But at least he was looking in the right direction in his attempt to build a bridge between scientific research and the person of Christ. Christianity recognises that Christ is the incarnate Logos. The divine Logos is the Mind of the Universe,9 to use the provocative expression Mariano Artigas borrowed from Seneca. With its affirmation that, in the beginning, there was the Logos, Christianity invests in the rationality of the universe rather than in chaos. It builds a bridge that links the intelligibility of nature – which is what makes science possible – with the designer of the universe. As a matter of fact, the rationality of nature is a necessary precondition for scientific activity. It is a hypothesis which cannot be proved scientifically, but it is, nonetheless, indispensable for the very existence of science. Far from dismissing this hypothesis, scientific progress seems to prove its substantial correctness and to broaden its significance.10 Paul Davies conceded that ‘one cannot prove the world to be rational...Yet the success of science is at the very least strong circumstantial evidence in favour of the rationality of nature.’11 The recovery of the concept of Logos applied analogously to Him who is hypostatically the Logos, and to its participation in created beings, is thus revealed as a rich and promising idea which ought to be further explored in order to link Christ with nature in a coherent and articulate way. To avoid confusion, this ought to be done with-

8 ‘La Science, seule, ne peut découvrir le Christ, mais le Christ comble les voeux qui naissent dans notre coeur à l’école de la Science’, in ‘Science et Christ’, p. 62. 9 M. Artigas, The Mind of the Universe (Templeton Foundation Press, PhiladelphiaLondon, 2000), pp. xx ff. Seneca uses the expression in Quaestiones Naturales I, 13. 10 M. Artigas, ‘Science et foi : nouvelles perspectives’, in P. Poupard (ed.), Après Galilée (Desclee, Paris, 1994), p. 201. Cf. J. Ladrière, ‘Scienza-Razionalità-Credenza’, in P. Poupard (ed.), Grande Dizionario delle Religioni (Piemme, Casale Monferrato, 3rd. edn., 2000), pp. 1942-1947. 11 P. Davies, The Mind of God: The Scientific Basis for a Rational World (Simon & Schuster, New York & London, 1993), p. 191.

488

PAUL POUPARD

out turning Christ into some sort of soul of the universe and at the same time avoiding a radical separation where Christ has no place in nature. The Science of Christ I would like to approach the subject assigned to me in another way: by revisiting the mediaeval question known by the title De Scientia Christi, which refers to Christ’s knowledge, the sort of knowledge Christ himself had. I realise this terminology may appear bizarre and far removed from the kinds of questions people like yourselves face every day in your work. I am well aware of the risk involved, but I would still like to make a tentative incursion into the rich mystery which is the person of Christ, and to draw out what is relevant to the ever-present question of the links between science and faith. For the Christian Faith, Christ, who is God incarnate, is truly God and truly human. As such, he possesses the fullness of divine nature and of human nature, each with its respective properties. As far as knowledge is concerned, this means that, as God, Christ had a knowledge of reality which was divine, in other words perfect, infinite and all-embracing. At the same time, as a human being he had a mode of knowing which was human, and therefore limited, susceptible to experience and change. In the Middle Ages, people’s approach to this question was not driven by an interest in history or by a preoccupation with studying the parts of the Bible which addressed this subject. They had a strictly speculative approach to what they saw as a philosophical problem. For them it was more a sort of Gedankenexperiment, a mental exercise, but one whose point of departure was a datum of faith: the historical person of Jesus of Nazareth, a first-century Jew, whom they believed to be both divine and human. If we align ourselves with that perspective, either by accepting the hypothesis that there existed such a being with both the mind of God and the brain of a human being, or because we believe in Him, the question of Christ’s knowledge – scientia Christi – puts before us a vast range of unresolved questions: the possibility of infinite and perfect knowledge, the limits of human knowledge, the incarnation of that sort of divine intelligence within the limits of the ontological horizon of the finite. These are all variants, perhaps extreme ones in some cases, of the modern question par excellence, the question of the essence of knowledge. Inasmuch as He was the incarnate Word and God – “The Father and I are one” (Jn 10.30) – Jesus had an infinite divine intellect, which missed

CHRIST AND SCIENCE

489

no detail. But the idea of an infinite intellect capable of knowing infinite things has posed numerous problems, which were studied during the past century by Kurt Gödel in his incompleteness theorems. The first problem is to find out whether infinite things exist, or, in other words, whether there is something infinite which actually exists rather than a merely potential infinite. Knowledge of an actual infinite thing poses a further problem: if an intellect is able to know and comprehend something infinite, the very fact of comprehending it imposes a limit on it, since the knowledge would be a greater infinite thing than the infinite known – the universe. Then there is the whole question of whether the infinite holiness of God is compatible with infinite knowledge, one of whose objects would be evil.12 These are but a few of the questions which arise from a consideration of the divine intellect. But they become even more difficult when one considers what happened in the Incarnation, when God decided to lower Himself and allow Himself to be enclosed within the narrow limits of a human nature (cf. Phil 2.5-11). Jesus, who was known as the carpenter’s son, was a man with a human intellect. He had a brain, with neuronal connections which allowed Him to think, to have ideas, to express emotions and to hazard guesses. But there is still the whole question of knowing what link there was between his divine capacity for knowing the world and his human intelligence with all its limits. The human element in Christ’s knowledge is known in mediaeval terminology as ‘experimental knowledge’, which He acquired throughout his life. The Gospels actually tell us that Jesus grew ‘in wisdom, in stature, and in favour with God and men’ (Lk 2.52). He was also painfully shocked by the lack of faith of the people from his home-town of Nazareth (Mk 6.6). But only someone who did not know everything and expected a different reaction would be capable of such amazement. The man Jesus did not know everything. He Himself admitted that He did not know anything about certain aspects of God’s plan for saving the world: “as for that day and hour, nobody knows it, neither the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only” (Mt 24.36). That text encapsulates a problem which has always perplexed theologians: how can it be that Jesus, who was God and had infinite knowledge, and therefore could even know the future, said that He did not know the date of the end of the world? It
See, for example, Saint Bonaventure’s Quaestiones disputatae de Scientia Christi, in the recent edition by F. Martínez Fresneda, ITF (Murcia 1999), and the very interesting introduction by M. García Baró.
12

490

PAUL POUPARD

is his human, experimental knowledge, which also makes Him closer to us. The Jesus who is speaking here is the man who has learned from his teachers how to read the book of the Law and the book of Nature, both of which He turns out to know very well. Jesus and the Science of his Time Perhaps it is opportune at this point to make a few remarks about the kind of scientific knowledge Jesus had, or at least about his attitude to science. At first glance, Christ does not appear to think science is terribly important. In fact, He appears to see it as an obstacle to entering the Kingdom of heaven. He even says, “I bless you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, for hiding these things from the learned and the clever and revealing them to mere children” (Lk 10.21). He deliberately picked his close associates from people who were not very well educated (Acts 4.13), and asked St. Paul to give up the arguments of persuasive reason (1 Cor 2.4). But it would be wrong to think that, in this way, he looked down on scientific research. In these cases he was emphasising the primacy of love and the superiority of that knowledge which comes from God, in order to topple human pride which always tries to take God’s place through a Promethean urge. Jesus also taught the parable of the talents (Mt 25.14-30) to stimulate selfimprovement in every aspect of our lives, which would include science. Whoever refused to learn would be like the lazy servant who hid his talent and was condemned for it by his master (verses 26-27). Christ never refuted the teachings of the Old Testament and the Wisdom Literature where the study of nature and of human values has an important role. The more human beings get to know nature, the more they will praise its Author (Wis 13.2-5). Besides, the man Jesus knew a certain amount about some phenomena in nature – albeit in a limited way and subject to the conditioning of the time when He lived. He grew up in a rural area, so it is obvious that there would be images taken from the natural world in his teachings. Jesus knew and spoke about the cycles of life, especially in agriculture. He knew that plants grow from seeds (Mk 4.1ff.), and that they develop of their own accord (Mk 4.27). While he admitted that He knew little about the actual mechanisms involved in the development of seeds, their growth is never ascribed to spirits, or even to God, but to the power of nature itself. Perhaps the passage which reveals a more accurate degree of scientific knowledge is the one in which Jesus makes the connection between various atmospheric phenomena. “In the evening you say, ‘It will be fine; there is a red

CHRIST AND SCIENCE

491

sky’, and in the morning, ‘Stormy weather today; the sky is red and overcast” (Mt 16.2f.). Jesus scolded the people from His home town because, while they could read the face of the sky, they were unable to read the signs of his coming. But what He said contains a clear allusion to a certain accumulated experience of observing the atmosphere and, by implication therefore, to the intelligibility of nature. These are only very weak indications, but they do still reveal the man Jesus as someone who observed nature carefully, someone who was curious about the phenomena surrounding life in the countryside, and someone who could draw from the book of nature teachings for living. There are just a few hints elsewhere in the Gospel about the scientific activity of those times. There is a reference to what doctors do. The evangelist Mark is quick to point out that a poor widow had suffered a great deal at the hands of doctors whose services had cost her all her money, but Luke – the doctor so dear to St. Paul (Col 4.14) – may be speaking with a certain sympathy and esprit de corps when he says that nobody had been able to cure her. Even astrologers, to whom we owe the beginnings of the science of astronomy, have a special place in the life of Jesus, since they were the first non-Jews to adore the new-born baby. The wise men from the east were known as ‘Magi’, a term that is quite vague, but conjures up the image of someone who studies the heavens. In recognising the coming of the Messiah, they stole a march on Israel’s wise men, the experts on the Scriptures. This marks a clear victory for scientists over theologians. The one who declared Himself to be the Truth could surely never refuse those who struggle in their search for a better knowledge of nature, life and the world. Faith and Reason: the Two Ways to Reach the Truth In Jesus there are two modes of knowledge which differ in nature but have the same object. That is why He is able to say He is one with the Father, and yet admit that He does not know when the hour of judgement will come. As Logos, He is the creative wisdom which was there at the beginning of creation, as its architect (Prov 8.30), and yet He is unaware of how the seed sown by the sower grows. In Christ, divine knowledge and experimental knowledge are not opposed to each other, nor do they cancel each other out. They are different modes of knowledge which are united without confusion or change, without division or separation, according to the formula used by the Council of Chalcedon to describe the relationship between the two natures of Christ (DS 302).

492

PAUL POUPARD

In this way Christ Jesus is an extreme case of the relationship within the human person between faith and reason, and between science and faith. What there is in Christ in a unique and special way, the unity of two natures in a single hypostasis or person, is replicated analogously in Christians. Faith is the way they participate in the knowledge of God, which He Himself has revealed. Faith is, therefore, seeing things in God’s own light. Faith also opens up a broad field of objects which would otherwise be inaccessible to human knowledge; the disputed questions on the Scientia Christi are an example of this. But faith never replaces experimental knowledge, which human beings acquire by their own efforts, as they attempt to unravel the secrets of nature. Faith does not annul reason and reason does not expel faith. They are both like ‘wings on which the human spirit rises to the contemplation of the Truth’ (Fides et Ratio 1). A right understanding of the links between science and faith is absolutely essential if scientists are to avoid foundering in dire straits, steering clear as much of the Scylla of fideism as of the Charybdis of scientism, and if they are to avoid denying the problem by taking refuge in syncretistic solutions. Fideism13 thinks it can save faith by denigrating the capacity of human reason to reach the truth, and it has been a defence mechanism used by many believers in the face of scientific progress. But to deny reason its rights in order to save faith always impoverishes faith, which is then forced into pious sentimentality. Christianity’s original claim was that it was the religio vera, that it possessed a truth about the world, history and humanity which would hold up in the face of reason. I like to remember what Chesterton said about going to church. We take off our hats, but not our heads. This attitude crops up in another guise, in a sort of exhumation of the mediaeval theory of twin truths, whereby faith and reason each have their own province of knowledge, and it is thus possible to deny in one what one could affirm in the other. Scientists who were also believers have often adopted this compromise solution in order to deal with what they saw as an insurmountable conflict between the biblical account of creation and evolutionary theories. This means living in two separate worlds which can never be on a collision course because there is no contact between them. But this is yet another form of fideism which denies not
See my article ‘Fideismo’, in Grande Dizionario delle Religioni (Piemme, Casale Monferrato, 3rd. edn., 2000), pp. 753ff, and my Un essai de philosophie chrétienne au XIX siècle. L’abbé Louis Bautain (Paris, 1961).
13

CHRIST AND SCIENCE

493

the capacity of reason, but its right to enter into dialogue with revelation and faith. The other danger which threatens the work of scientists is the temptation of scientific reductionism, or the belief that science is the only acceptable form of knowledge. Buoyed up by the unstoppable conquests of science, the scientist may play down other dimensions of human knowledge, regarding them as irrelevant. This applies not only to faith, but also to philosophy, literature, and ethics. Science needs to be open to other disciplines and to be enriched by data that come from other fields of investigation.14 Science is not capable of explaining everything. Paul Davies admits as much in The Mind of God, when he says that his desire to explain everything scientifically always comes up against the old problem of the chain of explanations. For him, ultimate questions will always remain beyond the realm of empirical science.15 I am happy to recall the symposium entitled Science in the Context of Human Culture, organised jointly by the Pontifical Council for Culture and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in October 1990. Its great richness lay in its exploration of the need for greater interdisciplinary co-operation between scientists, philosophers, and theologians. Let me renew today the appeal I made then for dialogue, which becomes more and more difficult the more people’s work becomes specialised. The remarkable experience of dialogue in those few days was formulated much more recently in the Pontifical Council for Culture’s document Towards a Pastoral Approach to Culture (Vatican City 1999): In the realm of knowledge, faith and science are not to be superimposed, and their methodological principles ought not to be confused. Rather, they should overcome the loss of meaning in isolated fields of knowledge through distinction, to bring unity and to retrieve the sense of harmony and wholeness which characterizes truly human culture. In our diversified culture, struggling to integrate the riches of human knowledge, the marvels of scientific discovery and the remarkable benefits of modern technology, the pastoral approach to culture requires philosophical reflection as a prerequisite so as to give order and structure to this body of knowledge and, in so doing, assert reason’s capacity for truth and its regulatory function in culture (no. 11).
Cf. Paul Poupard, Science in the Context of Human Culture II (Pontifical Academy of Sciences-Pontifical Council for Culture, Vatican City, 1997). 15 Cf. The Mind of God (Simon & Schuster, London, 1992), pp. 14, 15, 232.
14

494

PAUL POUPARD

Scientia Christi My dear and learned friends, we have spent time together along the intricate paths of human knowledge. Having spoken at length of Christ and science, I feel obliged to offer one final reflection on the knowledge of Christ: not on what He knew, but on the science which has Him as its object, the true science of life. On this subject, I am reminded of some words spoken some forty years ago by Paul VI. It was in 1963. Paul VI had just been elected Pope and was welcoming the Members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences for the first time. Perhaps some of you were present, along with me, then one of the Pope’s youngest colleagues. He expressed his joy over a stimulating certainty: ‘the religion we are happy to profess is actually the supreme science of life: thus it is the highest and most beneficial guide in all the fields where life manifests itself’. He concluded by developing a very beautiful thought: ‘religion may appear to be absent when it not only allows but requires scientists to obey only the laws of life; but – if we look more closely – religion will be at their side to encourage them in their difficult task of research, reassuring them that the truth exists, that it is intelligible, that it is magnificent, that it is divine’.16 Christ may appear to be absent, but He is not. Ladies and gentlemen, in this Jubilee Year, dedicated to Jesus Christ, allow me to invite you most sincerely to do all you can to acquire this supreme science.

16 Paul VI, ‘Discorso alla Sessione Plenaria della Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze, 13 October 1963’, in Pontificia Academia Scientiarum, Discorsi indirizzati dai Sommi Pontefici Pio XI, Pio XII, Giovanni XXIII, Paolo VI, Giovanni Paolo II alla Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze dal 1936 al 1986 (Vatican City, 1986), pp. 109-111.

ON TRANSDISCIPLINARITY
JÜRGEN MITTELSTRASS

In my contribution on “Science as Utopia” at the Preparatory Meeting last year, I touched upon the concept of transdisciplinarity, pointing to the fact that research is moving beyond its disciplinary limits. Let me add a few remarks and observations to this concept. In the course of a long institutional route, our academic system has become disturbingly unfathomable.1 This is the case not only with regard to the ever accelerating growth of knowledge in all scientific fields, but also with regard to the organisational and institutional forms of academic research. There is an increasing particularisation of disciplines and fields; whereas the capacity to think disciplinarily – that is, in terms of larger theoretical units – is decreasing. Thus it is no surprise that there has been much talk about the desirability of interdisciplinarity, and this for some time now. Sitting alone on one’s disciplinary island, one is likely to be drawn to one’s mates on neighbouring islands, and it is perhaps not so important who these disciplinary neighbours are. The borders between fields and disciplines, to the extent that they are still observed at all, threaten to become less institutional borders than cognitive ones. And thus the concept of interdisciplinarity comes to include the notion of an improvement, which should lead in time to a new scientific and academic order. Interdisciplinarity is in consequence neither something normal, nor indeed something really new, nor simply the scientific

1 For the following, cf. J. Mittelstrass, “Interdisziplinarität oder Transdisziplinarität?”, in: L. Hieber (ed.), Utopie Wissenschaft. Ein Symposium an der Universität Hannover über die Chancen des Wissenschaftsbetriebs der Zukunft (21./22. November 1991), Munich and Vienna 1993, pp. 17-31, also in: J. Mittelstrass, Die Häuser des Wissens. Wissenschaftstheoretische Studien, Frankfurt/Main 1998, pp. 29-48.

496

JÜRGEN MITTELSTRASS

order itself. When it succeeds, it corrects defective academic and theoretical developments, thereby making clear that we have lost the capacity to think in larger disciplinary units. A coherent whole should be regenerated out of particularities, and we should thereby regain something that was the academic norm in the history of European academic institutions before the “discovery” of interdisciplinarity. Nevertheless, it is not this “institutional” perspective, that is to say the re-establishing of real disciplinarities, that should be in the foreground here, but instead the role of structures and strategies in research extending beyond fields and disciplines (and thus indirectly in teaching as well). Here one should first make clear that these fields and disciplines came into being in the course of the history of the sciences, and that their borders are founded primarily neither in objects nor in theory, but are historical as well. At the same time, their historical identities are shaped by definite research objects, theories, methods, and goals, which often do not comprise a coherent disciplinary definition, but in fact interfere interdisciplinarily. This is expressed not only in the fact that disciplines are governed in their work by methodological and theoretical concepts, which cannot themselves be generated within each discipline, but also in the fact that the problems addressed by academic disciplines often cannot be enclosed within a single disciplinary frame. Thus in the history of the theoretical description of Heat, for instance, disciplinary responsibility often changed. At first, Heat was considered as an internal motion of matter and thus as an object of physics. It became an object of chemistry, however, in the light of the caloric theory formulated by Boerhaave at the beginning of the eighteenth century and later developed by Lavoisier, since it was then considered to be a kind of matter. Finally, Heat changed its disciplinary allegiance yet again with the kinetic theory, and once more became an object of physics. This shows that it is not the objects (alone) which define a discipline, but the manner in which one deals with them theoretically. This is often clear enough in the context of research, but not necessarily in teaching. This example from the history of science can be generalised so as to show that there are certain problems that escape the confines of a single discipline. Far from being marginal ones, these are often central problems, like, for example, the environment, energy and health. There is an asymmetry between the development of problems and that of disciplines, and this asymmetry is accentuated by the fact that the development of fields and disciplines is determined by increasing specialisation. Ecological problems are complex, and they may be solved only through the co-operation of

ON TRANSDISCIPLINARITY

497

many disciplinary competencies. The same is true of energy and health. But this means that the term interdisciplinarity is concerned not merely with a fashionable ritual, but with forces that ensue from the development of the problems themselves. And if these problems refuse us the favour of posing themselves in terms of fields or disciplines, they will demand of us efforts going as a rule well beyond the latter. In other words, whether one understands interdisciplinarity in the sense of re-establishing a larger disciplinary orientation, or as a factual increase of cognitive interest within or beyond given fields or disciplines, one thing stands out: interdisciplinarity properly understood does not commute between fields and disciplines, and it does not hover above them like an absolute spirit. Instead, it removes disciplinary impasses where these block the development of problems and the corresponding responses of research. Interdisciplinarity is in fact transdisciplinarity. While scientific co-operation means in general a readiness to co-operation in research, and thus interdisciplinarity in this sense means a concrete co-operation for some definite period, transdisciplinarity means that such co-operation results in a lasting and systematic order that alters the disciplinary order itself. Thus transdisciplinarity represents both a form of scientific research and one of scientific work. Here it is a question of solving problems external to science, for example the problems just mentioned concerning the environment, energy or health, as well as a principle that is internal to the sciences, which concerns the order of scientific knowledge and scientific research itself. In both cases, transdisciplinarity is a research and scientific principle, which is most effective where a merely disciplinary, or fieldspecific, definition of problematic situations and solutions is impossible. This characterisation of transdisciplinarity points neither to a new (scientific and/or philosophical) holism, nor to a transcendence of the scientific system. Conceiving of transdisciplinarity as a new form of holism would mean that one was concerned here with a scientific principle, that is to say a scientific orientation, in which problems could be solved in their entirety. In fact, transdisciplinarity should allow us to solve problems that could not be solved by isolated efforts; however, this does not entail the hope or intent of solving such problems once and for all. The instrument itself – and as a principle of research, transdisciplinarity is certainly to be understood instrumentally – cannot say how much it is capable of, and those who construct and employ it also cannot say so in advance. On the other hand, the claim that transdisciplinarity implies a transcendence of the scientific system, and is therefore actually a trans-scientific principle, would mean that

498

JÜRGEN MITTELSTRASS

transdisciplinarity was itself unbounded, or that it was bounded by arbitrary terms which were themselves beyond scientific determination. Put otherwise: transdisciplinarity is – and remains deliberately – a science-theoretical concept which describes particular forms of scientific co-operation and problem-solving, as opposed to forms lying outside of scientific boundaries. For what could be the point of looking to trans-scientific considerations, i.e. at relations lying outside the scope and responsibility of the sciences, to find an organising principle for the latter? Furthermore, pure forms of transdisciplinarity are as rare as pure forms of disciplinarity. For the latter are most often realised and understood in the context of neighbouring scientific forms, for instance in the sociological components of a historian’s work, or the chemical components of a biologist’s. To this extent, disciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are also principles governing research, or ideal forms of scientific work, hybrids of their normal forms. What is important is only that science and academic research are conscious of this, and that productive research not be bounded by out-dated restrictions (which are mostly a product of routine) confining it to given fields or disciplines. Such a confinement serves neither scientific progress, nor the world which, in reflecting on its own problems, seeks less to admire science than to use it. In other words, transdisciplinarity is first of all an integrating, although not a holistic, concept. It resolves isolation on a higher methodological plane, but it does not attempt to construct a “unified” interpretative or explanatory matrix. Second, transdisciplinarity removes impasses within the historical constitution of fields and disciplines, when and where the latter have either forgotten their historical memory, or lost their problem-solving power because of excessive speculation. For just these reasons, transdisciplinarity cannot replace the fields and disciplines. Third, transdisciplinarity is a principle of scientific work and organisation that reaches out beyond individual fields and disciplines for solutions, but it is no trans-scientific principle. The view of transdisciplinarity is a scientific view, and it is directed towards a world that, in being ever more a product of the scientific and technical imagination, has a scientific and technical essence. Last of all, transdisciplinarity is above all a research principle, when considered properly against the background I have outlined concerning the forms of research and representation in the sciences, and only secondarily, if at all, a theoretical principle, in the case that theories also follow transdisciplinary research forms. What may seem quite abstract here has long found concrete forms in academic and scientific practice. Indeed it is being increasingly encouraged

ON TRANSDISCIPLINARITY

499

institutionally, for instance in the case of new research centres which are being founded in the USA, in Berkeley, Chicago, Harvard, Princeton and Stanford,2 where a lot of money is in play. The “Centre for Imaging and Mesoscale Structures” under construction in Harvard calls for a budget of thirty million dollars for a building of 4.500m2. Here scientists will be investigating questions it would be senseless to ascribe to a single field or discipline. The focus is on structures of a particular order of magnitude, and not on objects of a given discipline. And there are other institutional forms possible, which are not necessarily housed in a single building, for instance the “Centre for Nanoscience (CeNS)” at the University of Munich. Such centres are no longer organised along the traditional lines of physical, chemical, biological and other such institutes and faculties, but from a transdisciplinary point of view, which in this case is following actual scientific development. This is even the case where individual problems, as opposed to wide-scope programmes, are the focus, as for example in the case of the “Bio-X”-Centre in Stanford 3 or the “Centre for Genomics and Proteomics” in Harvard.4 Here, biologists are using mature physical and chemical methods to determine the structure of biologically important macro-molecules. Physicists like the Nobel-prize-winner Michael Chu, one of the initiators of the “Bio-X” programme, are working with biological objects which can be manipulated with the most modern physical techniques.5 Disciplinary competence therefore remains the essential precondition for transdisciplinarily defined tasks, but it alone does not suffice to deal successfully with research tasks which grow beyond the classical fields and disciplines. This will lead to new organisational forms beyond those of the centres just mentioned, in which the boundaries between fields and disciplines will grow faint. Naturally this holds not just for university research, but for all forms of institutionalised science. In Germany, for instance, these present a very diverse picture, which ranges from university research, defined by the unity of research and teaching, to the Max Planck Society’s research, defined by path-breaking research profiles in new scientific developments, to large-

Cf. L. Garwin, “US Universities Create Bridges between Physics and Biology”, Nature 397, January 7, 1999, p. 3. 3 Cf. L. Garwin, ibid. 4 Cf. D. Malakoff, “Genomic, Nanotech Centers Open: $200 Million Push by Harvard”, Science 283, January 29, 1999, pp. 610-611. 5 Cf. L. Garwin, ibid.

2

500

JÜRGEN MITTELSTRASS

scale research, defined by large research tools and temporally constrained research and development tasks (that were earlier quite openly announced as lying in the national interest), to industrial research, defined through its tight connection between research and development. But the logic of such a system, which bears witness not only to scientific reason, but also to extraordinary efficiency, is becoming problematic. For it leads to the autarchy of the component systems, whereas in fact – as in the case of the new centres I just mentioned – the emphasis should be on networking at the lowest institutional level, and not on the expansion of independent systemic units on the high institutional plane. This means that temporary institutionalised research co-operatives should take the place of component systems which are increasingly opposed and isolated. And this can be easily justified from the point of view of the sciences: The scientific system must change, when research changes. At the moment, the situation is often rather the reverse: It is not research that is searching for its order, but rather an increasingly rigid order which is already laid out in component systems that is searching for its research. And in such a case, the scientific order becomes counterproductive. This cannot be the future of research, or of a scientific system. As we have seen, the increasing transdisciplinarity of scientific research has wide-ranging institutional consequences – at least it ought to have them.

‘ILLICIT JUMPS’ – THE LOGIC OF CREATION
MICHAEL HELLER

1. In spite of the many breath-taking achievements in neuroscience we still do not know the most important thing of all: how do neural signals become transformed into consciousness? The following remarks are aimed at expressing this ignorance in a quasi-logical way. It is essential to clearly know what (and how) we do not know. This seems to be a precondition to even starting to move in the right direction. 2. The logic of language is traditionally divided into three parts: (1) syntaxis, which investigates the relations between the expressions of a given language; (2) semantics, which investigates the relations between a language and what that language refers to; and (3) pragmatics, which investigates the relations between the expressions of a language and its users. Syntactic investigations remain inside the language, whereas semantical and pragmatic investigations go from the language to the world it describes and to the people who speak it, respectively. In the following paper, I shall base my considerations on the interplay between syntaxis and semantics, putting aside, for the time being, their pragmatic aspect. After all, pragmatics is certainly a less developed branch of the logic of language. 3. There exist languages which completely lack a semantic aspect. They are purely formal languages and are often called artificial languages. In all other languages syntaxis and semantics are in a constant interplay with each other. Terms such as ‘meaning’, ‘reference’, and ‘denotation’ are semantic terms, or better, ‘semantic operators’. They ‘act’ on the language, and have their ‘values’ in the world the language describes. Owing to such operators a given language can be a language about something.1
Sometimes one speaks about a meaning in relation to purely formal languages but, in such a case, the meaning of a given expression is to be inferred from the rules of how this expression is used within the language.
1

502

MICHAEL HELLER

4. It can happen that a language refers to itself. If we treat a reference as a semantic operator then this language operates on itself. Strictly speaking, we should distinguish here two languages: the language that operates – which is called a ‘metalanguage’ (or the language of the second order) – and the language which is operated on: this is just called ‘language’ (or the language of the first order). There can be languages of many orders. Here we must be on our guard against sophisticated traps. On the one hand, jumping from a language to the metalanguage (or vice versa) can create antinomies (the so-called semantical antinomies) such as, for example, the famous antinomy of the liar (“what I am saying now is a lie” – is this statement true or false?). On the other hand, however, a skilful manipulating of the languages of various orders can be a very efficient method by which to prove subtle theorems related to the foundations of logic and mathematics. For instance, Kurt Gödel proved his outstanding incompleteness theorem by, first, translating utterances about arithmetics into numbers, then by performing arithmetical calculations on these numbers, and finally by translating the obtained results back into the language about arithmetics. This strategy is called the ‘self-reference method’, and nowadays is more and more appreciated. In general, however, jumping from one linguistic level to another linguistic level, if done without a rigorous logical control, is dangerous and trouble-generating. 5. In fact, this rigorous logical control is possible only as far as purely formal languages are concerned. Although, in principle, such languages have no semantics at all, semantics can be ‘artificially’ attached to them, and precisely because it is ‘artificial’ we obtain full control of the process. This is done by creating an interpretation of a given purely formal language. The truly ingenious idea is to create a purely formal linguistic substitute of the reality the language has to describe. This substitute is called a (semantical) model of a given language (I shall not here go into technical details). When such a model is created we say that the considered formal language has acquired its (semantic) interpretation. Having at our disposal a formal language and its model, the rules of going from the language to its model, and vice versa, can be fully codified. To do this is the principal goal of semantics. Tarski’s famous definition of truth says that an utterance (belonging to a given formal language) is true if and only if it asserts something about its model and this really occurs in the model. However, if we go beyond the realm of formal languages a mess dominates the scene. Almost every transition from syntaxis to semantics (and

‘ILLICIT JUMPS’ – THE LOGIC OF CREATION

503

vice versa), is from the point of view of strict logic an ‘illicit jump’. In spite of this, we all speak natural languages and surprisingly often we understand each other (with a degree of accuracy sufficient to act together and communicate with each other). But this is a pragmatic side of the story which I have decided to put to one side. 6. In traditional philosophy, going back to medieval scholasticism, there was a fundamental distinction between the epistemological (or logical) order (or level) and the ontological order (or level). It roughly corresponded to the modern distinction between syntaxis and semantics with a shift of emphasis from the relationship between language and what it describes (the modern distinction) to the relationship between ‘what is in the intellect’ and ‘what is in reality’ (the traditional distinction). The latter distinction appeared, for example, in the criticism by St. Thomas Aquinas of the famous ‘ontological argument’ for the existence of God proposed by St. Anselm of Canterbury. ‘God is something the superior of which cannot be thought of (aliquid quo nihil majus cogitari possit). And what does exist is greater than what does not exist. Thus God does exist’ – claimed St. Anselm. St. Thomas did not agree: the statement ‘God is something the superior of which cannot be thought of’ belongs to the epistemological order, whereas ‘God does exist’ belongs to the ontological order, and the ‘proof’ consists of the ‘illicit jump’ between the two orders. This distinction became one of the corner stones of the Thomist system and was strictly connected with its epistemological realism. Discussions like that between St. Anselm and St. Thomas (and its continuation by Descartes, Leibniz and Kant) paved the way for the modern logical analysis of language. 7. Strangely enough, modern tools of linguistic analysis can be used to more effectively understand the functioning of the universe, or, more strictly, to see more clearly where the gaps in our knowledge of it are located. The point is that nature seems often to employ linguistic methods in solving some of its fundamental problems. I shall briefly touch upon three domains in which this ‘linguistic strategy’ of nature can be seen quite transparently. All these domains are in fact fundamental as far as our understanding of the world is concerned. 8. The first of these domains is the genetic code. In fact ‘code’ is here a synonym for ‘language’. As is well known, it consists of linear strings of only four bases playing the role of letters in the ‘alphabet of life’. ‘The linear sequence of these four letters in the DNA of each species contains the information for a bee or a sunflower or an elephant or an Albert

504

MICHAEL HELLER

Einstein.’ 2 This is clearly the syntactic aspect of the genetic code. The point is, however, that the ‘syntactic information’ must be implemented within the biological machinery. Syntaxis must generate semantics. And do even more than this. After all, living beings are not purely linguistic concepts, but things that are real. For this reason, the old philosophical vocabulary about the epistemological and ontological orders seems to be more adequate in this context. The vocabulary but not the rules of traditional philosophy! The phenomenon of life testifies to the fact that, contrary to these rules, the ‘illicit jump’ from the epistemological order to the ontological order has been made. The genetic code does not only describe certain modes of acting, but also implements the action within the concrete biological material. Jacques Monod sees this ‘semantic antinomy’ in the following way. The biological code would be pointless without the possibility of being able to decode it or to translate it into action. The structure of the machine which does that is itself encoded into the DNA. The code cannot be decoded unless the products of the code itself are involved. This is the modern version of the old omne vivum ex ovo. We do not know when and how this logical loop was closed.3 9. Another domain in which nature uses linguistic tricks to solve its problems is the functioning of the brain. In this case, the language consists of electric signals propagating along nerve fibres from neuron to neuron across the synaptic clefts. In this case the ‘illicit jump’ does not consist of changing from a purely linguistic level to something external which it describes, but rather in creating something real which did not exist previously, namely, consciousness. The problem at stake is much more complex here and our knowledge about it is less adequate. Let us notice that it is consciousness that has produced human languages and, in this way, the linguistic property, the starting point of our analysis, is not the beginning but rather the final product of the whole evolutionary process. 10. The third domain in which a ‘linguistic approach’ seems to be essential is the universe itself or, to be more precise, the laws of nature which constitute it or structure it. It is a commonplace to say that the laws of nature are expressed in the language of mathematics. Our textbooks on physics are full of mathematical formulae which are nothing but a certain formal
J. V. Nossal, Reshaping Life: Key Issues in Genetic Engineering (Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 14. 3 Le hasard and nécessité (Éd. du Seuil, 1970), p. 182.
2

‘ILLICIT JUMPS’ – THE LOGIC OF CREATION

505

language (although rather seldom a purely formal language, i. e., one put into the form of an axiomatic system). Physicists claim that some of the formulae of this language express the laws of nature. This means that the language has its ‘semantic reference’, that it is an interpreted language. Very roughly speaking, the universe is its ‘model’. I put the word ‘model’ in quotation marks because the universe is not a set of utterances and consequently it is not a model in the technical, semantic sense. In fact, logicians and philosophers of science construct such semantic models. The strategy they adopt is the following. They try to express all experimental results, relevant for a given physical theory, in the form of a catalogue of sentences reporting these results (these are called empirical sentences), and then compare the two languages: the theoretical language consisting essentially of mathematical formulae with the catalogue of empirical sentences. Physicists are usually not impressed by this procedure and prefer to stick to their own method of approaching the ‘language of nature’. Here we also encounter an ‘illicit jump’ from the empistemological order to the ontological order. After all, no mathematical formula, even if it is semantically interpreted in the most rigorous way, is a law of nature operating in the universe. In the case of the genetic code and of the neural code, the language in question could be regarded as a ‘language of nature’ (the sequences of bases in DNA and electrical signals in neural fibres are products of natural evolution), and in this context how to change from syntaxis to semantics seems to be a non-trivial problem. However, as far as the laws of nature are concerned the mathematical language in which they are expressed is the language created by us. By using this language we only describe certain regularities occurring in the real universe, and we could clain that the problem of the mutual interaction between syntaxis and semantics is no more complicated than in our human languages. I do think, however, that there is a subtle and deep problem here. Every property of the world can be deduced from a suitable set of laws of nature, i.e., from a suitable set of suitably interpreted mathematical formulae – all with the exception of one, the most important, namely, existence. Nowadays physicists are able to produce models of the quantum origin of the universe out of nothingness, but in doing so they must assume (most often they do so tacitly) that the laws of quantum physics exist a priori with respect to the universe (a priori in the logical sense, not necessarily in the temporal sense). Without this assumption, physicists would be unable even to start constructing their models. But somehow the universe does exist. Is

SCIENCES AND SCIENTISTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY*
PAUL GERMAIN

INTRODUCTION Let us recall first three recent international events which show that the situation of sciences and scientists is significantly changing: 1 – The World Conference on Science, Budapest 26 June-1 July 1999 organised by ICSU and UNESCO. Nearly 1,800 participants from 155 countries took part. The Declaration on Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge, the Agenda of Framework for Action, and other documents were published in a special issue of Science International, the bulletin of ICSU (ISSN 1011-6257, September 1999, 27 pages). The Pontifical Academy of Sciences was represented by Nicola Cabibbo, the President, Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, the Chancellor, and myself . 2 – The Conference of Academies, Tokyo, May 2000, on ‘Transition of Sustainability in the 21st Century’ organised by the IAP – the Inter-Academy Panel on International Issues. A Statement on the subject of the conference was adopted and signed by sixty-three Academies of Sciences (including our own Academy) after a critical examination of it by these Academies. Our colleague Peter Raven represented our Academy at this important meeting.
This is a proposed declaration drawn up by Prof. P. Germain, Academician and Councillor of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, which the Council of the Academy decided to publish in the Proceedings of the Jubilee Session.
*

508

PAUL GERMAIN

3 – Organization of cooperation between Academies of Sciences. During and after this Tokyo Conference, the cooperation between the Academies of Sciences was greatly reorganised. a) The IAP Prior to the Tokyo Conference this was a friendly association of eightytwo Academies which did not have any formal defined procedure. But, in Japan in May 2000 a provisional executive committee was elected with two co-chairs – Yves Quéré (France) and Eduardo Krieger (Brazil). The IAP Secretariat is chaired by Mohammed Hassan (TWAS) in Trieste. This committee held its first meeting in France on 6-8 July 2000. The Statutes are presently at the stage of adoption. I hope that the Pontifical Academy of Sciences will decide to apply for membership as soon as possible. b) The IAC-Inter Academy Council This is something like a ‘working force’ which will carry out studies for international organisations such as the World Bank and committees connected with UNO (the United Nations). It is chaired by two countries, and these countries at the present time are the USA and India. The Secretariat is in the Netherlands. The Board has fifteen members. One of the co-chairs of the IAP attends the meetings of the IAC Board. These three events are very important. They show that the situation of sciences and scientists in relation to society is undergoing a major change. The first and traditional task of the sciences and scientists remains, of course, the development of our knowledge in all the scientific disciplines. At the international level, the ICSU is the organisation which stimulates this progress and promotes the necessary cooperation. The second task is rather new. It requires a ‘New Commitment’. As was written in the ‘Declaration of Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge’ of Budapest: ‘The sciences should be at the service of humanity as a whole and should contribute to providing every one with a deeper understanding of nature and society, a better quality of life and a sustainable and healthy environment for present and future generations’. For this second task, the Academies of Sciences seem ready to play an important role and this is why they have recently created new tools with which to face this new duty together with the IAP and the IAC.

SCIENCES AND SCIENTISTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

509

To describe what is implied in this new task the following three lines of thought will be analysed: I. Science as a necessary basis of technology II. Science at the heart of culture III. Science, a fundamental goal of education

I. SCIENCE AS A NECESSARY BASIS OF TECHNOLOGY A dialogue between science and its application has always existed. But it has become more effective in recent decades thanks to large institutions and companies which have organised networks of scientific results and technical achievements in order to offer goods, products, possibilities, and many improvements in living conditions, in a most effective way. One such network is called a technology. I.1 The beneficial consequences We may mention just a few by way of example: – equipment and consumer goods produced by industry; – agricultural and food products produced by biotechnology; – health produced by biomedical technology; – travel and means of transport produced by the aeronautical and aerospace industries; – instant communications produced by the telephone, television, and Internet; – the maintenance of peace and security by the defence industries. All these advances in technology have been very beneficial for people. Their material existence has been greatly improved. They live longer and have better health. They can enjoy a very rich cultural life. I.2 The current problems faced by society But these forms of technology have also had other consequences, which can cause serious problems to society. They are partly due to, or increased by, the main goal of companies whose chief concern is the money that their shareholders will receive. Let us briefly describe some of these problems.

510

PAUL GERMAIN

– The management of non-renewable resources, for instance oil, gas, and minerals; – the deterioration of biodiversity, in particular the diminution in the number of species (plants, insects, animals) and the areas devoted to forests; – the deterioration of the environment due to pollution, the greenhouse effect, the increase in world temperature, and the modification of the climate; – the exhaustion of resources brought about by population growth (food, water, energy); – the dangers of nuclear arms or the risks of accidents in nuclear power plants; – the social and ethical problems produced by excessively rapid technological evolution. I.3 The need for scientific expertise Governments and political authorities encounter difficulties in analysing the reasons behind these situations and in discussing what can be done to overcome them. It is a natural step to ask the scientific community to help them to understand causes and to tell them what can be done in order to avoid these negative consequences. That is precisely the role of scientific expertise. Scientific expertise must be seen in a more positive light by the scientific community. At the present time the provision of scientific expertise is one of that community’s major tasks. Publications and journals devoted to this kind of scientific work should exist. Scientific experts must be independent of the authority which asks them for expertise. They must investigate all the possibilities which are available and not report only on that which obtains the majority preference among the members of the committees of experts – committees which should be composed of scientists representative of all the various scientific disciplines. It may happen that they recommend further research into a problem. Some of the questions which have been listed above require the constant application of expertise. Lastly, we should strongly remind decision-makers that it is their duty to ask for expertise on matters where science and technology are competent and can consequently provide useful information. II. SCIENCE AT THE HEART OF CULTURE Despite the fact that the production and justification of scientific results are

SCIENCES AND SCIENTISTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

511

independent of philosophical, political, ethical, and religious considerations, the development of scientific knowledge has many cultural consequences. II.1 Views of the world more realistic – The geocentric view of the world was replaced by a heliocentric view which appeared immediately after the emergence of modern science. – In the nineteenth century the history of life and of living beings was described by evolution. – In the twentieth century it was discovered that the Laplacian view of the world based on Newton’s mechanics, with its notions of absolute time and absolute space, and which was thought for more than two hundred years to be an accurate description of the world, was only a very good approximation to Albert Einstein’s conception. His theories of relativity gave rise to perceptions of new relations between space and time, and between matter and energy. – Progress in astrophysics led us to see that the universe, like life, has a history. It is in expansion and we have begun to investigate its billions of galaxies, stars, and planets. – Physics discovered that matter, energy, and radiations appear to be the work of elementary particles ruled by quantum mechanics for which at this level the usual concepts of causality, locality and separability lose their relevance, and in such a way that their universal character may be questioned. – Biology has indisputably reached the status of being a science of chemistry, with the discovery of the double helix, DNA, the genetic code, and the genome, which, indeed, has already been completely mapped. Further demonstrations of our understanding and mastering of the world can be easily described. Let us mention two examples: the possible complexity of the behaviour of dynamic systems known as deterministic chaos which may prevent us from making long-term predictions, and the domestication of electronics which has given rise to the fantastic possibilities – which are steadily increasing – of communications. II.2 The temptations of a totalitarian claim This fantastic history has very often given rise to “ideologisation” – the belief that scientific results have a “metaphysical implication” and that they provide the only valid knowledge. This was especially the case during the nineteenth century and in particular during its last decades when many

512

PAUL GERMAIN

people believed that scientific development would continue to produce similar progress in the field of human and social problems. Such a view was too optimistic. International and social problems are not solved by scientific development. On the contrary: the wars of the twentieth century were terrible as a consequence of the progress of science. This progress has also shown that our various forms of science can build astounding models of the “real” world, but it has also shown that these are models which can always be improved. We are grateful that today we have a better understanding of what science is and what it may continue to tell us. We encounter too much disenchantment today. We still have much to learn by studying phenomena because they still have much to offer us. Yet we should not ask them things they cannot tell us. II.3 The role of scientific knowledge within human knowledge Scientific knowledge has played, and will continue to play, a very important role within human knowledge. But it cannot claim to replace or supplant other sources of knowledge. Two may be mentioned here: – The human, social and economic sciences. These are more recent and have been produced by mankind through a critical analysis of facts, taking account, when possible, of the results of the natural sciences. They are concerned almost exclusively with the past and the present, and their techniques and results are often coloured by the cultural context of their authors. – The “humanities”. Human thought has a long history which goes back several centuries before our present era. From thought emerged man’s knowledge and our present-day sciences. But all these sciences cannot exhaust the wealth of this thought which is the basis and the source of our perception of human dignity, our personality, in which is to be found most of our foundations and aspirations. II.4 Science and ethics Scientific activity and results have to be integrated into the culture of the society in which, and for which, the scientists are working, but without forgetting about the ethical principles of science. – Scientific work requires freedom of thought and expression and, more generally, everything that is required by human rights.

SCIENCES AND SCIENTISTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

513

– The ethics of science imply that every scientist obeys a code of “good behaviour” of a deontological nature. – There is no frontier to scientific knowledge. But the scientific community must not forget that the progress of science and its application must always respect human dignity and benefit the whole of mankind, each country of the world and future generations, and work to reduce inequalities. – Scientific expertise is often provided by committees of ethics which have to be rigorously controlled, in which scientists can use their own expertise. But in many cases, in the case of very serious problems which are of great importance for the dignity of the person, or for the future of humanity, one must prevent scientific experts from dealing with positions or questions which are the proper concern of the decision-making bodies of a democracy. Meeting such a requirement is not easy. One can appoint a multi-disciplinary committee and add a few people working with scientists who can represent non-scientists. One can also organise debates, especially between those various schools of belief or opinion which are very concerned with the destiny of man, in such a way that they can exchange and compare their positions. III. SCIENCE, A FUNDAMENTAL GOAL OF EDUCATION The scientific community has always been concerned with the education of future scientists (researchers, lecturers, engineers, doctors). But in the present context of the new commitment of science and technology within society a far more important involvement in education of a broad public is of primary importance in order to make the actions which have been analysed in the two preceding sections more effective. III.1 A paradoxical and even dangerous situation Science and technology are, without any doubt, the “motor” of our rapidly changing world. The recent new developments described in section II. 1, and the new problems faced by society, are factors which bring out the truth of this statement. But at a more simple level the same may be said of the experience of daily life. People are surrounded by the products of technology which make their lives easy, interesting, and fruitful, although sometimes also tiring. Their world is largely shaped by science. Nonetheless, in

514

PAUL GERMAIN

most cases, they have no idea of why this is so. That is something which remains mysterious. They do not understand science and, what is even more serious, they think that they will never understand it. From this point of view, they are scientifically illiterate. That is not a satisfactory situation. Firstly, because access to knowledge, especially to that knowledge which shapes our lives, is an important component of the human being and human dignity. Secondly, because it produces a number of people who feel that they are excluded from society. Such a feeling of exclusion must be avoided. Lastly, because it prevents the sound working of democracy. As has already been observed above, such an exercise is necessary in order for the right decisions to be taken on questions which may affect the future of humanity. III.2 Who will be involved in this great education project? The answer is simple: everybody. Children in elementary schools, teenagers in high schools, students in universities, future teachers and lecturers, and the general public as well. The idea is to promote different kinds of initiatives and experiences in order to spread knowledge about the progress and results of the world of science. In elementary schools, for example, interesting initiatives have already been taken: in the United States of America there is the “Hands On” project, in France there is “La Main à la Pate”, and similar initiatives have been promoted in China. The aim is to provide children with the opportunity to engage in a practical experience, to discover something, and to report their results. This is a complete educational exercise. It shows children what a scientific achievement is, irrespective of the position of their parents within society, their nationality, or their political ideas. In short, it tells them what scientific research really involves at a practical level. III.3 Who will be the actors in this project? Of course, in the front line, there will be scientists. Not only those who teach in departments devoted to the preparation of future teachers and lecturers, but also scientists, researchers, lecturers and engineers who could draw up new teaching methods well suited to a specific public, new paths by which to make people participate in new knowledge. But also scientists from other disciplines, from the history and philosophy of science for example, and – why not? – scholars from other branches of knowledge. One

SCIENCES AND SCIENTISTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

515

may also think of scientific journalists or experts in public communications – active in radio and TV in particular. And of course there are all the possibilities opened up by the use of the “Web”. In general, all those people who are ready to take part in this great education project form the broad scientific community, which works for the integration of the achievements of science into the culture of every society and of humanity as a whole. CONCLUSION We are living in curious times, in a contemporary world which is like a train equipped with a very powerful engine. Scientists are the engineers who have built the engine, who are most able to master it, and, consequently, who are able to master the train itself. The people sitting in the train are happy to be in it but they are also very concerned about what might happen. The duty of the scientific community is to understand their fears and their questions, and to make the journey as comfortable as possible. That, today, is the new task of this community, and one which this message has tried to analyse. Some scientists and philosophers think that humanity is today undergoing a dramatic period which is unprecedented in history – with the exception of when our ancestors found out how to use seeds and thereby engage in agriculture or how to domesticate animals and set them to work. At that time it was impossible to foresee what would happen in the future. At the beginning of the third millennium are we not perhaps in a similar situation? We may also bring to mind that wonderful work of science-fiction by Aldous Huxley, ”Brave New World”, which was published in 1932. Are we now entering this new world?

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’ TO COMBAT HUNGER IN THE WORLD

I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE

BY

PRESIDENT NICOLA CABIBBO

During the closed session of the Academy held during the Plenary Session many Academicians expressed deep concern at the distorted way in which recent scientific results, and in particular those relating to genetically improved plant varieties, have been presented to the public. It was decided to establish a committee with the task of producing a document on this subject. The chairman of the committee was A. Rich and its other members were W. Arber, T-T. Chang, M.G.K. Menon, C. Pavan, M.F. Perutz, F. Press, P.H. Raven, and R. Vicuña. The document was examined by the Council at its meeting of 25 February 2001, submitted to the members of the Academy for their comments, and then sent to the committee for the preparation of the final version. The document, which is included in the Proceedings, expresses the concerns of the scientific community about the sustainability of present agricultural practices and the certainty that new techniques will be effective. At the same time, it stresses the need for the utmost care in the assessment and evaluation of the consequences of each possible modification, and on this point we cannot but recall the exhortation of John Paul II regarding biotechnologies made in his speech of 11 November 2000 on the occasion of the Jubilee of the Agricultural World: ‘they must be previously subjected to rigorous scientific and ethical control to ensure that they do not give rise to disasters for the health of man and the future of the earth’. The document also expresses concern about excesses with regard to the establishment of ‘intellectual property’ rights in relation to widely used crops – excesses which could be detrimental to the interests of developing nations.

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

517

A further recommendation, clearly stated in the document, is that the examination of the safety of newly developed cultivars should be based on well-documented methods and that the methods and results should be openly discussed and scrutinised by the scientific community. The Academy will devote an ad hoc meeting to the subject of genetically modified food plants. This meeting will provide an opportunity to examine in depth many issues which are raised in the document and which are of special concern: the methods used in the testing and licensing of the new cultivars; the comparative risks associated with different methods of pest control; and the many scientific, ethical and social issues raised by the introduction of a new and powerful technology directed towards agricultural improvement. II. RECOMMENDATIONS The Challenge 1. The rapid growth of the world population requires the development of new technologies to feed people adequately; even now, an eighth of the world’s people go to bed hungry. The genetic modification of food plants can help meet part of this challenge. 2. Agriculture as it is currently practiced is unsustainable, as is indicated by the massive losses of topsoil and agricultural land that have occurred over the past few decades, as well as by the unacceptable consequences of massive applications of pesticides and herbicides throughout most of the world. Techniques to genetically modify crop plants can make important contributions to the solution of this common problem. The Potential of Genetically Modified Food Plants 3. Virtually, all food plants have been genetically modified in the past; such a modification is, therefore, a very common procedure. 4. The cellular machinery of all living organisms is similar, and the mixing of genetic material from different sources within one organism has been an important part of the evolutionary process. 5. In recent years, a new technology has been developed for making more precise and specific improvements in strains of agricultural plants, involving small, site-directed alterations in the genome sequence or sometimes the transfer of specific genes from one organism to another.

518

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

6. Genetically modified food plants can play an important role in improving nutrition and agricultural products, especially in the developing world. Conditions for the Beneficial Use of this New Technology 7. The scientific community should be responsible for the scientific and technological research leading to the advances described above, but it must also monitor the way it is applied and help ensure that it works to the effective benefit of people. 8. There is nothing intrinsic about genetic modification that would cause food products to be unsafe. Nevertheless, science and scientists are and should further be – employed to test the new strains of plants to determine whether they are safe for people and the environment, especially considering that current advances can now induce more rapid changes than was the case in the past. 9. The methods used for testing the safety of new genetically modified strains (or more precisely, cultivars) of plants should be publicly available, as should the results of these tests, in both the private and public sectors. 10. Governments should have the responsibility for ensuring that the tests and their results are conducted in line with the highest criteria of validity. The protocols of evaluation should be made widely accessible. 11. Governments should increase their funding for public research in agriculture in order to facilitate the development of sustainable and productive agricultural systems available to everyone. 12. Intellectual property rights should not inhibit a wide access to beneficial applications of scientific knowledge. In the development of this modern genetic technology for agriculture, efforts should be made to facilitate cooperation between the public and private sectors and to secure the promotion of solidarity between the industrialised and developing worlds. 13. Special efforts should be made to provide poor farmers in the developing world with access to improved crop plants and to encourage and finance research in developing countries. At the same time, means should be found to create incentives for the production of vegetable strains suitable to the needs of developing countries. 14. Research to develop such improvements should pay particular attention to local needs and to the capacity of each country to engage in a necessary adaptation of its traditions, social heritage, and administrative practices in order to achieve the success of the introduction of genetically modified food plants.

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

519

Recommendation for the Scientific Community 15. In order to help governments, state-funded researchers, and private companies to meet the above conditions, and in order to facilitate the development of common standards and approaches to this problem in both developing and industrialised countries, the scientific community, represented by its established worldwide umbrella organisations, should offer its expertise. A suitably composed international scientific advisory committee could be entrusted with this all-important task. III. BACKGROUND The Pontifical Academy of Sciences has traditionally stressed the application of science to world food problems. Most recently, the study week proceedings on “Food Needs of the Developing World in the Early TwentyFirst Century” and “Science for Survival and Social Development,” two conferences held in 1999, emphasized the special role of modern biotechnology in improving the characteristics of plants. Here, the members of the Pontifical Academy are considering newer aspects of these applications in a global context. The world’s people have grown in number from 2.5 billion to more than 6 billion over the past fifty years. One out of four lives in extreme poverty, and one out of eight is chronically malnourished. These problems are in part related to patterns of distribution of the available food, in part to the low productivity of agriculture in certain regions, including the loss of crops to pests, and in another part to an unbalanced nutritional value in the daily diet. Enhanced production of qualitatively improved food under sustainable conditions could greatly alleviate both poverty and malnutrition. These are goals that will become even more urgent as our numbers increase by an estimated two billion additional people over the next few decades. Modern science can help meet this challenge if it is applied in an appropriately constructive social and economic context. Historical Use of GM Plants Genetically modified (GM) plants can play an important role in alleviating world food problems. Recent discussions concerning GM plants have often overlooked the fact that virtually all commonly used foods have been genetically modified, often extensively, during the long history of agricul-

520

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

ture. Ever since the start of agriculture about 10,000 years ago, farmers have selected plant variants that arose spontaneously when they offered increased productivity or other advantages. Over time, new methods for producing desirable genetic variants were introduced, and have been used extensively for some two centuries. Cross-breeding of different plant varieties and species, followed by the selection of strains with favorable characteristics, has a long history. That process involves exchanging the genetic material, DNA, from one organism to another. DNA contains genes, and genes generally act by expressing proteins; thus the newly modified plant obtained by genetic crossing usually contains some proteins that are different from those in the original plant. The classical method of crossing plants to bring in new genes often results in bringing in undesirable genes as well as desirable ones since the process could not be controlled. New Technology to Develop GM Plants Almost 30 years ago scientists developed a new technology called recombinant DNA that made it possible to select the particular gene that one wanted to transfer to a plant. This process is very specific and avoids the inclusion of genes that are undesirable. A number of useful new plant strains have been developed in this way. Even though such strains are considered to be genetically modified (GM), the same label could be applied equally appropriately to all strains that have been modified genetically by human activities — a process that owes its success to selection for desirable properties. We now know a great deal about the DNA in organisms. It contains the codes for manufacturing different proteins. At the molecular level, the products of genes, usually proteins, are made from the same materials in plants, animals and microorganisms. The recent development of technical means for sequencing the components in DNA gives us insight into the similarities among organisms. All living organisms share genes because of their common evolutionary descent. For example, the sequence of a small worm was completed recently, and it was found that the worm shares some 7,000 of its estimated 17,000 genes with humans.1 Likewise, the genes found in microorganisms are often very similar to those found in humans as well as in plants.2
1 The C. elegans Sequencing Consortium, 1998. ‘Genome Sequence of the Nematode C. elegans: A Platform for Investigating Biology’. Science 282: 2012-18. 2 The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. 2000. Analysis of the Genome Sequence of the Flowering Plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 408:796-815.

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

521

A large number of genes in all placental mammals are essentially the same, and about a third of the estimated 30,000 genes in humans are common to plants, so that many genes are shared among all living organisms. Remarkably, one has discovered another reason for the similarities between DNA sequences in different organisms: DNA can at times move in small blocks from one organism to another, a process that is called lateral transfer. This occurs at a relatively high rate in microorganisms, and it also occurs in plants and animals, albeit less frequently. Once this has taken place, the genetic material that has been transferred becomes an integral part of the genome of the recipient organism. The recent sequence of the human genome revealed that over 200 of our estimated 30,000 genes came from microorganisms,3 demonstrating that such movements are a regular part of the evolutionary process. The new technology has changed the way we modify food plants, so that we can generate improved strains more precisely and efficiently than was possible earlier. The genes being transferred express proteins that are natural, not man-made. The changes made alter an insignificantly small proportion of the total number of genes in the host plant. For example, one gene may be introduced into a plant that has 30,000 genes; in contrast, classical cross-breeding methods often generated very large, unidentified changes in the selected strains. Many of the statements made here in abbreviated form have been dealt with more thoroughly in a number of publications. Among the more significant is a report entitled “Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture”, which was prepared by a committee representing the academies of sciences of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, the U.K. the U.S, and the Third World Academy of Sciences. In summary, it reached the conclusion that foods produced from genetically modified plants were generally safe, that any new strains needed to be tested and that further investigation of the potential ecological problems associated with such new strains also needed further consideration. The French Academy of Science also issued a very useful report, commenting on many aspects of this issue and dealing especially with the problems of deployment of GM plants in developing countries. The accumulating literature in this field has become quite extensive. Traditional methods have been used to produce plants that manufacture their own pesticides, and thus are protected from pests or diseases.
3 Venter, J. Craig et al. 2001. ‘The Sequence of the Human Genome’. Science 291:1304-51.

522

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

They have also been employed to produce herbicide-resistant plants. When such plants are grown, specific herbicides are used to efficiently control the weeds growing among them without harming the basic crop. Another goal of traditional agriculture has been the nutritional enhancement of foods, either in terms of amino acid balance or in enhancing the presence of vitamins or their precursors. All of these goals can be attained more efficiently and precisely with the use of methods that are now available involving the direct transfer of genes. Newer goals, mostly unattainable earlier, include the development of plant strains that can manufacture desired substances, including vaccines or other drugs. How to Make Sure GM Plant Products are Safe These goals are highly desirable, but the questions that have arisen often concern the method of genetic modification itself, not its products. The appearance of these products has generated a legitimate desire to evaluate carefully their safety for consumption by human beings and animals, as well as their potential effects on the environment. As is usual for complicated questions, there are no simple answers, and many elements need careful consideration. Contrary to common perception, there is nothing intrinsic to the genetic modification of plants that causes products derived from them to be unsafe. The products of gene alteration, just like the products of any modification, need to be considered in their own right and individually tested to see if they are safe or not. The public needs to have free access to the methods and results of such tests, which should be conducted not only by companies that develop the genetically altered plants, but also by governments and other disinterested parties. Overall, widely accepted testing protocols need to be developed in such a way that their results can be understood and can be used as a basis for consumer information. One of the present concerns is that new genetically modified plants may include allergens that will make them unhealthy for some people. It is possible to test these plants to determine whether they have allergens. Many of our present foodstuffs, such as peanuts or shellfish, have such allergens, and they represent a public health hazard to that part of the population with corresponding allergies. It is important that any genetically modified crop varieties, as well as others produced by traditional breeding methods, be tested for safety before they are introduced into the food supply. In this connection, we also note that the new technologies

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

523

offer ready methods for removing genes associated with allergens, both in present crops and newly produced ones. Another issue concerns the potential impact of genetically modified plants on the environment. Cultivated plants regularly hybridize with their wild and weedy relatives, and the exchange of genes between them is an important factor in plant evolution. When crops are grown near relatives with which they can produce fertile hybrids, as in the case of maize and its wild progenitor teosinte in Mexico and Central America, genes from the crops can spread to the wild populations. When this occurs, the effects of these genes on the performance of the weeds or wild plants needs to be evaluated. There is nothing wrong or unnatural about the movement of genes between plant species. However, the effects of such movement on the characteristics of each plant species may vary greatly. There are no general reasons why we should fear such gene introductions, but in each case, scientific evaluation is needed. The results should be verified by the appropriate government agency or agencies, and full disclosure of the results of this process should be made to the public. Improved Foods There are many opportunities to use this new technology to improve not only the quantity of food produced but also its quality. This is illustrated most clearly in the recent development of what is called “golden rice”,4 a genetically modified rice that has incorporated in it the genes needed to create a precursor of Vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency affects 400 million people,5 and it often leads to blindness and increased disease susceptibility. Use of this modified rice and strains developed with similar technologies will ultimately make it possible to help overcome Vitamin A deficiency. “Golden rice” was developed by European scientists, funded largely by the Rockefeller Foundation and using some methods developed by a private company. However, that company has agreed to make the patents used in the production of this strain freely available to users throughout the world. When successfully bred into various local rice strains and expressed at high enough levels, it offers the possibility of helping to alleviate an important nutritional deficiency. This is just one of several plant modifications that has the potential for producing healthier food.
Potrykus, Ingo. 2001. ‘Golden Rice and Beyond’. Plant Physiology 125: 1157-61. Ye, Xudong et al. 2000. ‘Engineering the Provitamin A (b-Carotene) Biosynthetic Pathway into (Carotenoid-Free) Rice Endosperm’. Science 287: 303-5.
5 4

524

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

More Government-sponsored Research is Needed Research involving the use of recombinant DNA technology to develop genetically modified plants is carried out worldwide. It involves government laboratories, independent institutes and private corporations. During the period following World War II, most international crop research was funded by the public sector and through charitable foundations. This led to a spectacular doubling or tripling of crop yields in large parts of Asia and Latin America. This “Green Revolution” met the needs of millions of poor farmers and consumers and alleviated starvation for tens of millions of people. The revolution was a consequence of the production of “dwarf” wheat and rice plants by the introduction of genes from dwarf varieties into high-yielding strains of grain. Substantial public sector agricultural research still exists in North America, Australia, Europe, China, India, Brazil and in the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research which comprises 16 international research centers. In recent decades, however, public funding for agricultural research has dwindled, while funding from corporations has increased markedly. Governments should recognize that there is an important public interest element in this research, even in market-driven economies. Public contributions are important because the results of such research work are made available to everyone. At the same time it makes possible various opportunities for public and private collaboration, so that the benefits of the new technologies for genetic modification are brought to all of the people throughout the world. It is also important that such research not be inhibited by overprotective intellectual property measures. Special Needs of Poor Farmers A significant distinction must be made between the use of genetically modified plants in the developed world and their use in the developing world. In the developed world, farmers can often afford to pay for expensive seeds that yield disease-resistant crops that require lower levels of pesticides or that produce more food per hectare. This is also true for many farmers in the developing world. For poor farmers in the developing world, however, governments must intervene if they are to be able to obtain the benefits of modern crop improvement technology. Several private corporations engaged in agricultural research have indicated their willingness to make available the results of their research without charge for use in devel-

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

525

oping countries. Their willingness should be recognized and encouraged. In this connection, we endorse the recommendation of the seven-academy group mentioned above that an international advisory committee should be established to assess the implications of genetically modified plants, especially in developing countries. The committee would identify areas of common interest and opportunity between institutions in the private and public sectors. This could be one way of assuring that the benefits of these new technologies are made widely available. Intellectual property issues are of special importance in this context. We recommend that this committee participate in the development of generally accepted standards for testing and approval of new plant strains and the foods derived from them, a development of great importance for world commerce. The Crisis in Agriculture The loss of a quarter of the world’s topsoil over the past fifty years, coupled with the loss of a fifth of the agricultural land that was cultivated in 1950,6 indicates clearly that contemporary agriculture is not sustainable. To become sustainable, agriculture will need to adopt new methods suitable for particular situations around the world. These include greatly improved management of fertilizers and other chemical applications to crops, integrated pest management to include improved maintenance of populations of beneficial insects and birds to control pests, and the careful management of the world’s water resources. (Human beings currently use 55% of the renewable supplies of fresh water, mostly for agriculture.) It will also be necessary to develop strains of crop plants with improved characteristics to make them suitable for use in the many diverse biological, environmental, cultural and economic areas of the world. Genetically modified plants can be an important component of efforts to improve yields on farms otherwise marginal because of limiting conditions such as water shortages, poor soil, and plant pests. To realize these benefits, however, the advantages of this rapidly growing technology must be explained clearly to the public throughout the world. Also, results of the appropriate tests and verifications should be presented to the public in a transparent, easily understood way.
Norse, D. et al. 1992. ‘Agriculture, Land Use and Degradation’. pp. 79-89. In Dooge, J.C.I. et al. (eds.). An Agenda of Science for Environment and Development into the 21st Century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
6

526

STUDY-DOCUMENT ON THE USE OF ‘GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PLANTS’

An estimated 85 million birds and billions of insects 7 are killed annually in the United States alone, as a result of the application of pesticides on crops. Some 130,000 people become ill in this connection each year. Genetically modified plants currently in use have already greatly reduced the use of such chemicals, with great ecological benefits. It is expected that such benefits will be significantly enhanced as research and development efforts continue. Hope for the Future Finally, it is important that scientists make an effort to clearly explain to the public the issues concerning risk. All technological developments have elements of risk, whether we refer to the introduction of vaccines, new forms of therapy, new types of foodstuffs or new pesticides. Risk cannot be avoided, but it can be minimized. The long-term aim is to develop plants that can produce larger yields of healthier food under sustainable conditions with an acceptable level of risk. The latter can be determined by scientific studies, with the results made freely available to the public. The developments we have discussed here constitute an important part of human innovation, and they clearly offer substantial benefits for the improvement of the human condition worldwide. They are essential elements in the development of sustainable agricultural systems capable of feeding not only the eighth of the world’s population that is now hungry, but also meeting the future needs of the growing world population. To make the best use of these new technologies and the agricultural management opportunities they create is a moral challenge for scientists and governments throughout the world.

7 Pimentel, D. et al. 1992. ‘Environmental and Economic Costs of Pesticide Use’. BioScience 42: 750-59.

506

MICHAEL HELLER

there here a similar ‘illicit jump’ as in the case of the genetic and neural codes? If so, this ‘illicit jump’ would be no more and no less than the mystery of creation itself. 11. We would fall victim to a facile temptation if we treated the above considered ‘illicit jumps’ as gaps in the structure of the universe which could be (or even should be) filled in with the ‘hypothesis of God’. The true duty of science is never to stop asking questions, and never to abandon looking for purely scientific answers to them. In my view what seems to be an ‘illicit jump’ from the point of view of our present logic is in fact nature’s fundamental strategy in solving its most important problems (such as the origin of life and consciousness). The limitations of our logic are too well known to be repeated here (Gödel’s theorems, problems with applications of the standard logic to quantum theory, etc.). My hypothesis is that our ‘Aristotelian logic’ is too simplistic to cope with the problems we are considering at this conference. What we need is not another ‘non-standard’ logical system which is constructed by changing or rejecting this or that axiom or this or that inference rule. What we need is something radically new: a far-reaching revolution comparable with that in changing from linear physics to non-linear physics. I do not think that we would have any chance of inventing such a logic by experimenting with purely symbolic operations and having it at our disposal to successfully apply it to solving the problem of life and consciousness. On the contrary, such a logic will probably emerge from the analysis of concrete empirical investigations, and will constitute only one component of the solution of the problem.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful