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General Psychology

TOPIC TITLE: LEARNING

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the topic session the students are expected to:

Cognitive:

1. Define learning.
2. Enumerate the kinds of learning.
3. Identify the components and timing of classical conditioning.
4. State the phases and levels of classical conditioning.
5. Discuss the concept of Thorndike’s law of effect.
6. Describe operant conditioning through B.F. Skinner’s
experimental analysis of behavior.
7. Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning.
8. Identify the difference between reinforcement and punishment.
9. Discuss the concept of observational learning.

Affective:

1. Listen to others with respect.


2. Participate in class discussions actively.

Psychomotor:

1. Follow the instructions given in the short activities.

MATERIALS/EQUIPMENT:

o Topic Slides
o OHP
o Student Handout 2 – Albert Bandura’s Bobo Dolls Experiment

TOPIC PREPARATION:

o Incorporate various kinds of strategies while discussing the


suggested topics. The instructor may use the suggested learning
activities below to facilitate a thorough and creative discussion of
the course topic.
o The first two sessions (Week 8 Sessions 21-22) will focus on
classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational
learning (types of learning).
o Prepare the slides to be presented in the class.

TOPIC PRESENTATION:

The topic will revolve around Learning. Discussions will include


Definitions, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning and
Observational Learning.

This will be the suggested flow of discussion for Definitions of Learning


and Classical Conditioning.

1. Introduce the new topic to the class. Ask the students to define
“learning.” The following are the suggested definitions of the
aforementioned concept.

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


Page 1 of 18
General Psychology

Learning

v Refers to the process of acquiring skill or knowledge


through self-study, instruction or experience.
v PacifiCorp Foundation defines learning as a “… concerted
activity that increases the capacity and willingness of
individuals, groups, organizations and communities to
acquire and productively apply new knowledge and skills,
to grow and mature and to adapt successfully to changes
and challenges.”

- http://www.pacificorpfoundation.org/index.htm

2. Afterwards, ask the students to share what comes to their minds


when they hear the word “learning.” Learning can be associated
to a teacher, pencil, books, a pair of eyeglasses, school and etc.
The association of a particular thing depends on the individuals’
(in this case, students’) perception of the word.
3. State that during this session, learning should be perceived
according to its psychological context. Learning, as a
psychological concept, involves various approaches on how to
acquire different learning methodologies. The instructor may
emphasize the pioneering works of Ivan Pavlov and John B.
Watson on the development of classical conditioning.
4. The instructor may use the following exercise to evaluate their
skills on pairing (associating) the following stimuli.

Exercise:

v An eraser must be paired to: ___________. (some would


state chalk and the other would state blackboard)
v Bread must be paired to: ___________. (some would state
butter and the other would state cheese)

5. Ask the students if they can still recall Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.
Afterwards, state that the association of a particular thing to the
other stimulus simply explains Pavlovian conditioning. The
exercise and the Pavlovian conditioning are both related and
unrelated. Although the conditioning involves four components
(as compared to the previous exercise wherein there are only
two), it is somewhat similar to the classical conditioning in the
sense that we respond to a given situation based on our relative
perceptions. However, these two also vary because Pavlovian
conditioning has a control variable (conditioned/neutral
stimulus).
6. After explaining the concepts involved in classical conditioning
(i.e. components and timing), encourage the students to
construct their own examples of its four components.

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General Psychology

Learning [ See Learning, Page 1 - 2 of 12 ]


Page 1 of 12
Definitions of Learning
General Psychology

Learning There are different ways to define “learning.” There is also a fine line
between learning and education. Learning, just like education, allows the
o Definitions individual to grow intellectually through the acquisition of knowledge;
v allows the individual to grow intellectually mentally through the development of skills; psychologically by boosting
through the acquisition of knowledge
the person’s self-esteem and making them realize their true potentials;
v learning refers to a relatively constant
change in the emotional and intellectual
and at times, even spiritually by inculcating upright values. Educated
behavior which can be acquired through
experience and instruction individuals also have more opportunities for stable jobs and a wide
v one of the most important psychological
range of career development.
processes

v we can possibly survive without learning Psychologically speaking, learning refers to a relatively constant change
• however, learning is as important as an
instrument for survival because it enables
in the emotional and intellectual behavior which can be acquired through
us to be flexible and makes us adjust to
whatever changes that the environment can experience and instruction (either by self-study or with the assistance of
produce
an educational institution).
Learning * Property of STI
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Learning is considered as one of the most important psychological


processes. Like language, it also separates us from the other non-
human organisms because we are able to think and behave rationally.

We can possibly survive without learning (we could only be a “creature


of instinct and nothing more”). However, when time comes when the
environment needs to change, learning is as important as an instrument
for survival because it enables us to be flexible and makes us adjust to
whatever changes that the environment can produce. Thus, learning can
make us versatile.

Learning Kinds of Learning


Page 2 of 12
¦ Classical/Pavlovian Conditioning
General Psychology

Learning The classical/Pavlovian conditioning subscribes to the empiricists


view on acquiring human knowledge (or learning as the case may
o Kinds be) by using various kinds of methods and styles through
v classical/Pavlovian conditioning experiment and senses in order to prove a scientific phenomenon.
• empirical view on acquiring human
Classical conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov in the early
knowledge
• developed by Ivan Pavlov in the early part part of the 1900’s. He was a Russian psychologist who accidentally
of 1900’s
performed an experiment on classical conditioning while studying
§ a Russian psychologist who accidentally
performed an experiment on classical
conditioning while studying the digestive
the digestive tracks of dogs. Classical conditioning is very important
tracks of dogs

• refers to the association between neutral


to animal trainers because it enables them to communicate (and at
stimulus (CS) and a particular emotional
and/or physical response UR or CR)
the same time understand their pets’ response) from a given
stimulus.

It refers to the association between neutral stimulus (CS) and a


Learning * Property of STI
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particular emotional and/or physical response (UR or CR). Note that
this response did not originate from the stimulus. In order for us to
understand the given definition, let us enumerate and explain the
four components and timing of classical condition.

v Components of Classical Conditioning (Pavlov’s Experiment)

Conditioned response (CR), conditioned stimulus (CS),


unconditioned response (UR) and unconditioned stimulus (US)
are the four components of classical conditioning. Unconditioned
stimulus (US) refers to an object (or anything such as movement
and etc.) which draws out a predictive and automatic response.
Unconditioned response pertains to the reaction of the
object/subject when introduced to the unconditioned stimulus.

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General Psychology

Learning [ See Learning, Page 3 of 12 ]


Page 3 of 12
The conditioned stimulus, on the other hand, refers to an object
General Psychology

which elicits the same response because of the existence of the


Learning previous stimulus. And finally, the conditioned response refers
to the learned attitude/behavior (which is resulted by the
o Kinds repetitive association of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned
v classical/Pavlovian conditioning stimulus) that is identical to the unconditioned response. To
• 4 components: explain how these concepts work, let us analyze the following
§
§
conditioned response (CR)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
example:
§ unconditioned response (UR)
§ unconditioned stimulus (US)

• timing
• Joey is an ophidiophobic (fear of snakes). Because of the
§ standard pairing - CS immediately begins
before the onset of the US
§ delay conditioning - delay on the occurrence
snake’s slimy and cold skin (not to mention its forked
of CS & US
§ trace conditioning – termination of CS tongue that produces a hissing sound and venom), Joey
§ simultaneous conditioning - if the CS and the
US exist at the same time
§ backward conditioning - US occurs before
developed an absurd feeling towards the creature.
the CS
§ temporal conditioning - fixed time interval
between the start of the US and the CS
Whenever he sees Max (his father), Joey hears jokes about
it biting him like an anaconda (Max’s favorite past time is to
Learning * Property of STI
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scare his son). Max finds this funny and so decides to do it
whenever he sees Joey. Years later, whenever his father
jokes around that there is a snake; Joey started to develop
an extreme form of ophidiophobia even without the
presence of such creature.

§ Unconditioned Stimulus - actual snake


§ Unconditioned Response - absurd feeling towards the
creature (ophidiophobic)
§ Conditioned Stimulus - presence/jokes of his father
§ Conditioned Response - extreme form of ophidiophobia
(even without the presence of the creature)

v Timing of Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning also involves timing so as to accurately


measure the response of the subject whether the stimulus is
delayed, temporal, simultaneous or backward. It also determines
the effectiveness of the given means of producing learning.

We can state that classical conditioning is on a standard pairing


if the CS immediately begins before the onset of the US. If there
is a delay on the occurrence of both CS and US, delay
conditioning occurs. Trace conditioning, on the other hand, is the
same as delay conditioning. However, the distinction between
the two occurs when the CS is aborted (terminated) for a while
on the onset of the US. This type of conditioning also states that
the CS should be in effect for some time before the onset of the
CR. To demonstrate how trace conditioning works, let us take a
look at this example:

• For instance, because of the snake’s slimy and cold skin,


Joey developed an absurd feeling towards the creature
(UR). Whenever he sees his father (and attempts to touch a
snake), his father makes jokes about it biting him like an
anaconda (CS). One day, his father ceased to tease him
about the snake (note that the joke/presence of his father
causes Joey to be in an absurd mood; termination of the
CS). His father decided to bring an actual snake in order for
his son to conquer his fear. And at some point thereafter,
Joey received the snake from his father (US).

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General Psychology

If the CS and the US exist at the same time and if the US occurs
before the CS, then simultaneous and backward conditioning
develop. Temporal conditioning, on the other hand, occurs when
there is a fixed time interval between the start of the US and the
CS.
Learning
Page 4 of 12 [ See Learning, Page 4 - 5 of 12 ]

General Psychology
¦ Watson and “Little Albert” Experiment
Learning th
Born during the late 19 century, John B. Watson believed that all
o Watson and “Little Albert” Experiment
human reactions and emotions are learned (as opposed to the
v John Watson - believed that all human
other notion that reactions are innate to every human). Watson
reactions and emotions are learned performed an experiment involving a nine-month old child (Little
v Little Albert - nine-month old child Albert). He wanted to prove that human reactions and emotions are
v during the experiment, Watson introduced
white and fuzzy things to Little Albert in
learned through experience. During the experiment, Watson
an absurd way
introduced white and fuzzy things (i.e. white rabbit and Santa Claus’
• every time Little Albert was given a white
rabbit, Watson made a loud and strange
noise to elicit fear and absurd feeling to
beard) to Little Albert in an absurd way. Every time Little Albert was
the child
given a white rabbit, Watson made a loud and strange noise to elicit
fear and absurd feeling to the child. The same process continued
and he observed that Little Albert eventually established an odd
feeling/reaction towards white and fuzzy things.
http://www.greenhead.ac.uk/subjects/psychology/explained.htm

Learning * Property of STI


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¦ 4 Phases of Classical Conditioning

Learning v Acquisition - conditioned response increases during this phase;


Page 5 of 12 CS + US = CR
General Psychology

• Whenever Joey hears/discovers the jokes/presence of his


Learning father (CS), he easily associates it to a snake (US). He
feels an extreme form of ophidiophobia (CR).
o Phases of Classical Conditioning

v acquisition – CS + US = CR v Extinction - it refers to the absence of response to the presented


v extinction - absence of response to the stimulus (that is, the CS). This phase can be achieved in two
presented stimulus (that is, the CS)
ways: (1) if the CS is presented without the US --- let us assume
spontaneous recovery - explains what’s
v
next after the extinction of the CR; a that the CS is initially introduced to Joey without any concept of
phenomenon by which the conditioned
response surfaces even without the the US (snake), a joke/presence of his father that previously had
presence of US
preceded fear would no longer precede fear and (2) if the
v savings - if the CS is briefly presented
again with the US, the learner (organism) subject (organism) is frequently exposed to the CS --- the
can go back into the acquisition phase for
it connotes that learning occurs again organism would eventually be desensitized and may forget the
established response during the classical conditioning.

v Spontaneous Recovery - this phase explains what’s next after


Learning * Property of STI
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the extinction of the CR. Modern clinical psychologists believe


that conditioned response has not been extinguished at all.
Spontaneous recovery refers to a phenomenon by which the
conditioned response surfaces even without the presence of US.

• For instance, Joey’s conditioned response of trembling


(extreme form of ophidiophobia) will often, after it has been
extinguished, reappear when he later discovers/hears the
presence/joke of his father.

v Savings - let us assume that the CS and the US are not


associated with each another. Now, let us assume that the CS is
presented with the US. If the CS is briefly presented again with
the US, the learner (organism) can go back into the acquisition
phase for it connotes that learning occurs again.

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General Psychology

Learning [ See Learning, Page 6 of 12 ]


Page 6 of 12
¦ Levels of Classical Conditioning
General Psychology

Learning v Stimulus Generalization - this occurs when the organism tends


to relate a particular thing (and produce a similar response,
o Levels of Classical Conditioning conditioned response that is) to the other things with slightly
v stimulus generalization - organism tends to similar characteristics to that of the conditioned stimulus.
relate a particular thing to the other things
with slightly similar characteristics to that


of the conditioned stimulus
Little Albert Experiment is a clear demonstration of this
• example: Little Albert experiment
level. At the end of the experiment, Little Albert associated
v stimulus discrimination - organism
(subject) has already determined the all furry and white things to a frightening and strange noise.
difference between a new stimulus and the
original conditioned stimulus

v preparedness - organism learns how to v Stimulus Discrimination - this level occurs when the organism
anticipate on a particular fear
(subject) has already determined the difference between a new
stimulus and the original conditioned stimulus.
Learning * Property of STI
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v Preparedness - this level occurs when the organism learns how
to anticipate on a particular fear. In addition, preparedness
reflects evolutionary programming (Sternberg 2004: 223).

This will be the suggested flow of discussion for Operant Conditioning.

1. Have the students share what they would possibly do if


confronted with the following situation: Suppose that you bought
a “pirated” DVD copy (22 movies in 1) of James Bond (from
Sean Connery to Daniel Craig) in Greenhills, San Juan. When
you got home, you excitedly inserted the disc in your DVD
player. Unluckily, the disc that you previously bought was
rejected by your player. Through a number of attempts, you
found out that the disc has a defect. You wanted to return the
“pirated” DVD to the vendor but eventually decided not to
because you are too far from that place. Dying to have a
collector’s edition of James Bond, you decided to purchase an
original DVD copy of the movies at a legitimate movie store in
Cebu.

v Possible answers:

• from that experience, never buy pirated DVD/VCD/CD


copies from sellers; and
• in the psychological context, you have learned
something about the pirated DVD/VCD/CD copies

The stated situation demonstrates the concept of operant


learning.

2. Ask the class to answer the following questions:

v Have you ever been punished? Can you share what kind of
punishment that was?
v What did you feel before, during and after the punishment?
v Did you learn something (insights and inputs) from that
punishment?

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General Psychology

Learning [ See Learning, Page 7 - 8 of 12 ]


Page 7 of 12
¦ Operant Conditioning
General Psychology

Learning This type of learning was introduced by Edward Thorndike, an


American psychologist and a professor at Teacher’s College in
o Operant Conditioning Columbia University. Moreover, operant conditioning was the result
v introduced by Edward Thorndike, an of his experiment involving a cat inside a cage (the cage was
American psychologist and a professor at
Teacher’s College in Columbia University eventually dubbed as Thorndike’s Puzzle Box).
v “operant” - an attitude that is expected to
bring either positive or negative effects in
the environment The word operant simply means an attitude that is expected to bring
v Thorndike’s puzzle box experiment either positive or negative effects in the environment. Holding your
lover’s right hand, requesting for a tissue paper from a fast food
crew and asking for help are some of the examples of the
aforementioned concept.
“After many trials, the cat will, when put in the box,
immediately claw the button or loop in a definite way to

v Thorndike’s Puzzle Box Experiment


release the latch.” – Edward Thorndike

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A cat was placed inside a cage. Outside the cage, Thorndike


placed a plate of fish. The cage was locked with a simple latch.
The cat eventually saw the plate of fish. Its initial reaction was to
extend its paws between the space located in the middle of
cage’s wooden bars and reached for the plate. Realizing that the
initial method was ineffective, the cat tried to jump and scratch
around. The cat performed a series of trial and error. When it
accidentally unlocked the latch, the door of the cage easily
opened which enabled the cat to reach and eat the fish.
Afterwards, Thorndike placed the same cat inside the cage. He
performed similar procedure as to that of the initial experiment
recording how much time the cat could easily unlock the latch.
As Thorndike described,” After many trials, the cat will, when put
in the box, immediately claw the button or loop in a definite way
to release the latch.”
Learning
Page 8 of 12 v Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning
General Psychology

Differences between classical and operant conditioning:


Learning
• In classical conditioning, the individual has no control on the
o Operant Conditioning
process of learning. The four components (US, CS, UR and
v classical vs. operant
CR) are responsible for eliciting behavior. Operant
• in classical conditioning, the individual has
no control on the process of learning;
operant conditioning gives the individual an
conditioning, on the other hand, gives the individual an
option to control the whole learning process
• in classical conditioning, important option to control the whole learning process by letting him
relationship exists between the CS & the
US; operant conditioning involves crucial
relationship that exists between the
emit an appropriate behavior.

released behavior and the environmental
effects that it produces
• 3 phases of operant conditioning:
In classical conditioning, important relationship exists
§ acquisition - individual releases a particular
between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned
and appropriate set of behaviors
§ extinction - occurs when the individual
ceased to release such behaviors
stimulus. In operant conditioning, crucial relationship exists
§ discrimination - “… if the range of behavior
that is reinforced becomes increasingly
narrowed” (Sternberg)
between the released behavior and the environmental
effects that it produces.
Learning * Property of STI
• Like classical conditioning, operant conditioning has also
Page 8 of 12
three phases namely, acquisition, extinction and
discrimination.

§ Acquisition - individual releases a particular and


appropriate set of behaviors
§ Extinction - this phase occurs when the individual
ceased to release such behaviors

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General Psychology

§ Discrimination - “… if the range of behavior that is


reinforced becomes increasingly narrowed” (Sternberg
2004: 228)
Learning
Page 9 of 12
[ See Learning, Page 9 - 10 of 12 ]

General Psychology v Thorndike’s Law of Effect

Learning Recall that Edward Thorndike performed a series of experiments


on animal learning. His experiments were focused on the
o Operant Conditioning
behavioral approach wherein he emphasized the role of law of
v Thorndike’s law of effect

• “… a process among reactions … by


effect that serves as the basis for operant conditioning.
eliminating the unsuitable reaction directly
by discomfort, and also by positively
selecting the suitable one by pleasure … It
is tremendous usefulness”
Law of effect, as defined by Thorndike, pertains to “… a process
v B.F. Skinner’s experimental analysis of
behavior among reactions … by eliminating the unsuitable reaction
• reinforcement – reward directly by discomfort, and also by positively selecting the
§ reinforcer - escalates the probability rate
(of existence) of an emitted operant
suitable one by pleasure … It is tremendous usefulness.” Moral
behavior
laws mandate our actions and behaviors to maximize
Ø positive reinforcer
Ø negative reinforcer
pleasurable consequences and to minimize, if not eliminate
undesirable consequences.
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Operant conditioning can be clearly explained through the use of


B.F. Skinner’s experimental analysis of behavior. Skinner’s
Learning analysis involves the distinctive relationship between
Page 10 of 12 reinforcement and punishment.


General Psychology

Reinforcement
Learning
This can be accurately linked to the concept of “reward.” A
o Operant Conditioning reinforcer refers to a kind of stimulus which escalates the
v B.F. Skinner’s experimental analysis of
behavior
probability rate (of existence) of an emitted operant
• punishment - decreases the possibility of an
behavior. It minimizes unpleasant stimulus in which at the
operant behavior to be repeated in a similar
situation same time encourages desirable ones. It should be made
§ positive - exercise of undesirable stimuli
§ negative - termination of a pleasant stimulus
clear that the term operant pertains to the action that has
• consequences if the punishment is wrongly
been emitted before reinforcing the stimulus. There are two
applied:
kinds of reinforcer, namely, positive and negative reinforcer.
§ may bring physical and emotional injury to
the punished individual
§ person may develop an aggressive form of
The former refers to the stimulus that brings pleasurable
behavior
§ may find ways to avoid the punishment
without altering the operant behavior
effects to the individual (reward). Negative reinforcers
§ may produce an extreme form of fear
§ punished individual’s self-esteem may
decrease
(reinforcement by removal), on the other hand, should be
avoided (or terminated) in order to strengthen the
Learning * Property of STI
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probability of the operant behavior to be performed again.

Furthermore, it comes in two varieties, namely, primary and


secondary reinforcers. The primary reinforcers pertain to
the natural stimuli such as water, food and sexual contact.
Secondary reinforcers, on the other hand, refer to the
conditioned stimuli which involve values that are embedded
within the primary reinforcers (i.e. value of a coin and not its
metallic characteristic, features of a Nokia N-Series mobile
phone and etc.).

• Punishment

Punishment decreases the possibility of an operant


behavior to be repeated in a similar situation. Like
reinforcement, punishment has two kinds, namely, positive
and negative punishment. The former refers to the exercise
(materialization) of undesirable stimuli such as kicking your
dog, slapping your girlfriend and hitting your brother.

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


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General Psychology

The latter, on the other hand, refers to the total termination


of a pleasant stimulus. This involves restrictive laws
enumerated in prohibitive laws (i.e. penal laws).

Punishment should be applied within the bounds of moral


and legal wisdom. It should be served according to the
weight of the operant behavior. Furthermore, it should be
dispensed outside the influence of an arbitrary and
capricious “punisher.” The following are the consequences
if the punishment is wrongly applied:

§ It may bring physical and emotional injury to the


punished individual.
§ As a normal reaction, the person who will be punished
may develop an aggressive form of behavior (hostility
towards the “punisher”).
§ An individual may find ways to avoid the punishment
without altering the operant behavior.
§ It may produce an extreme form of fear.
§ The punished individual’s self-esteem may decrease.

This will be the suggested flow of discussion for Observational Learning.

1. Motivation: “Why do you think kids like to imitate adults?” This


question will serve as your springboard for the discussion of
observational learning). Give students a brief background about
this theory.
2. Show the picture of Albert Bandura to the class. He was the first
psychologist who founded the social-cognitive theory (social and
emotional development of children and adolescents).
Furthermore, he also provided an experiment which proved that
social learning is acquired through experience. Afterwards,
briefly discuss his personal history.
3. Introduce modeling/observational learning as one of the
components of this theory. Explain the steps of modeling and
self-regulation. Encourage the students to provide examples or
scenario on how modeling occurs in the classroom or in
everyday situations.
4. To expound on the topic (modeling), give each student a copy of
the Bobo Doll experiment handout. Ask the students to read and
study this experiment conducted by Albert Bandura.
5. Explain self-cognitive theory through the model made by
Bandura.

Observational Learning

¦ Social Learning

v Albert Bandura (Personal History)

Born on December 4, 1925 in Alberta, Canada, Bandura


received his bachelor’s degree in Psychology from the
University of British Columbia in 1949. In 1952, he went to the
University of Iowa where he received his doctorate degree (in
the same field). His theory has been previously known as
“Social Learning Theory” but renamed it “Social Cognitive
Theory” to encompass further developments.

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General Psychology

Learning [ See Learning, Page 11 - 12 of 12 ]


Page 11 of 12
At his age (82 years old), he still believes that people acquire
General Psychology

behaviors through observation of others, and then imitate what


Learning they have observed.

o Observational Learning v Bandura’s Observational Learning (Modeling)


v Albert Bandura

• his theory has been previously known as • Attention - a person learns if he or she pays attention to the
“Social Learning Theory” but renamed it
“Social Cognitive Theory” to encompass
further developments
features of modeled behavior.
v Bandura’s observational learning
• Retention - people store the behaviors they observed in the
• attention
form of mental images or verbal descriptions, and are then


retention
reproduction
able to recall the image/description later to reproduce the
• motivation activity with their own behavior.
v self-regulation – the process on how
humans are able to control their behavior
• Reproduction - the process of converting symbolic
representations into appropriate actions.
Learning * Property of STI
• Motivation - incentives are reinforcers that people use to be
Page 11 of 12
motivated.

v Self-Regulation - refers to the process on how humans are able


to control their behavior.

• Self-observation - humans look at themselves and their


behavior and keep track of their actions.
• Judgment - humans compare these observations with
standards such as rules set by society, or standards that
the individual sets for himself.
• Self-Response - if, after judging himself, the person does
well in comparison with the set standards, he will give
himself a rewarding self-response. If the person does
poorly, he then administers a punishing self-response to
himself.
Learning
Page 12 of 12
v Self-Efficacy - a belief in one’s capabilities to organize and
General Psychology execute the courses of action required to manage prospective
situations (Bandura, 1995).
Learning
• Self-efficacy can influence the choices we make, the effort
o Observational Learning
we put forth, how long we persist when we confront
self-efficacy - a belief in one’s capabilities
v
to organize and execute the courses of
obstacles and how we feel.
action required to manage prospective
situations

v self efficacy vs. self concept


v Self-Efficacy vs. Self-Concept
• self-efficacy - a context-specific assessment
of competence to perform a specific task or
a range of tasks in a given domain Self-efficacy is a context-specific assessment of competence to
• self-concept - a cognitive appraisal
integrated across various dimensions that
individuals attribute to themselves
perform a specific task or a range of tasks in a given domain
References: while self-concept is a cognitive appraisal integrated across
Melucci, N.J., (2004), Psychology: The Easy Way, New York, Barron’s Educational Series

Sternberg, R.J., (2004), Psychology (4th Edition), Canada, Thomson Wadsworth various dimensions that individuals attribute to themselves,
Instructor’s Guide (Week 9 Sessions 24-26): Social and Emotional Development of Children
and Adolescents. Child and Adolescent Development-. STI Education Services Group, 2006

PacifiCorp Foundation, (2004), Definition of Learning, Retrieved June 4, 2007 from


typically accompanied by self-evaluative judgment of self-worth.
http://www.pacificorpfoundation.org/Article/Article16920.html

Learning * Property of STI


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References:

Melucci, N.J., (2004), Psychology: The Easy Way, New York, Barron’s
Educational Series
th
Sternberg, R.J., (2004), Psychology (4 Edition), Canada, Thomson
Wadsworth

Instructor’s Guide (Week 9 Sessions 24-26): Social and Emotional


Development of Children and Adolescents. Child and Adolescent
Development. STI Education Services Group, 2006

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General Psychology

PacifiCorp Foundation, (2004), Definition of Learning, Retrieved June 4,


2007 from http://www.pacificorpfoundation.org/Article/Article16920.html

EVALUATION/GENERALIZATION:

Activity # 1 (Individual Activity)

Identify the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned


stimulus and conditioned response from the following situation:

If you have pets and you feed them with canned food, what happens
when you hit (which produces the sound of) the can opener? Sure, the
animals come running even if you are opening a can of tomato sauce.

Unconditioned stimulus: canned food


Unconditioned response: the animals come running towards you
Conditioned stimulus: sound produced when you the can opener
Unconditioned response: the animals come running towards you (they
have associated the sound of the opener with the canned food)

Activity # 2 (Class Discussion)

Ask the class to restate the difference between classical conditioning


and operant conditioning.

Activity # 3 (Group Activity)

Divide the class into groups of four members. Instruct them to conduct a
brainstorming activity in answering the following questions:

1. Discuss why someone who agrees with Bandura’s theory would


be very concerned about the content of children’s television
programs.
2. What are the benefits of Albert Bandura’s theory on education
and child rearing?

Ask the group representatives to present the consolidated answers of


their respective groups.

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


Page 11 of 18
General Psychology

TOPIC TITLE: MEMORY

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the topic session the students are expected to:

Cognitive:

1. Define memory.
2. Identify the difference between recall and recognition.
3. Name the types of recall.
4. Enumerate the three memory stores (functional storage
locations) according to Richard Shiffrin and Richard Atkinson.
5. Explain how memory processes information.
6. Name the three alternative models of memory.
7. Discuss the concepts of amnesia and mnemonist.

Affective:

1. Listen to others with respect.


2. Participate in class discussions actively.

Psychomotor:

1. Follow the instructions given in the short activities.

MATERIALS/EQUIPMENT:

o Topic Slides
o OHP
o Tray/plate
o 20 small items (e.g. button, paper, pencil, eraser, I.D., paper clip
and etc.)
o cloth or towel
o Paper and pen

TOPIC PREPARATION:

o Incorporate various kinds of strategies while discussing the


suggested topics. The instructor may use the suggested learning
activities below to facilitate a thorough and creative discussion of
the course topic.
o Prepare the slides to be presented in the class.

TOPIC PRESENTATION:

The topic will revolve around Memory.

This will be the suggested flow of discussion for Basic Concepts, The
Multiple-Store Model of Memory, Alternatives to the Traditional Models
of Memory and Memory Disorders and Outstanding Memories.

1. As an introductory activity, facilitate a memory game to measure


how good they are in remembering things.
2. The following activities purport to test the class’ short-term
memory. Here are the mechanics of the activity.

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


Page 12 of 18
General Psychology

Mechanics of the First Game:

v Encourage at least four participants from the class. Each of


them must bring a paper and a pen.
v Prepare the materials to be used in the activity. Put twenty
objects on the tray and then cover them with a towel or
cloth.
v Inform the participants that the tray contains different objects
and instruct them to remember as many items as they can.
Remind them that they will only have thirty seconds to view
the objects on the tray.
v Take off the cover from the tray. After thirty seconds, cover
up the tray. Instruct the participants to write down all the
items that they can remember. The student who can recall
most number of items wins.

Mechanics of the Second Game:

v Encourage at least four participants from the class. Prepare


the materials again for the second round of activity.
v Call another set of students (this time, you only need two
participants). Ask the students to view the objects for a
minute. Afterwards, cover up the tray.
v Instruct the participants to close their eyes (no peeking).
Remove one item from the tray. Show the tray and
remaining items to the participants again.
v Ask them to identify what is missing. The student who can
first recall the missing item wins.

- http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chmemory.html

3. State that we often rely on our memory for everyday life


functions which are simple enough to be overlooked such as
answering a simple question or remembering the name of the
person we meet on campus. These little things alone make
memory an integral and basic to most of our cognitive functions
such as decision-making and analysis.
4. Discuss the following concepts: recall and recognition, explicit
and implicit memory, procedural and declarative memory,
encoding, storage and retrieval and etc.

Memory [ See Memory, Page 1 of 9 ]


Page 1 of 9
Basic Concepts
General Psychology

Memory Memory refers to the process of remembering things (retained in our


consciousness) that can be used in the present. Psychologists have
o Basic Concepts developed different techniques to evaluate/measure the occurrence of
v the process of remembering things that can memory to the individual. These methods are normally objective in
be used in the present
character (the likes of objective examination format such as fill in the
v recall - the subject is tasked to produce a
remembered set of items which have been
blanks, multiple choice, true or false test and etc.). The aforementioned
previously given or reviewed
exam formats are examples of recall and recognition memory. However,
• paired-associates
• serial
what is the difference between recall and recognition?
• free

v recognition - the individual is tasked to


recognize a particular item/concept from
In recall memory, the subject is tasked to produce a remembered set of
the other items
items which have been previously given or reviewed (i.e. fill-in-the-
v cued recall – combination of recall and
recognition
blank). Moreover, recall memory comes in three variants, namely,
paired-associates recall, serial recall and free recall. In paired-
Memory * Property of STI
Page 1 of 9
associates recall, the subject is presented with a list of paired words
(e.g. book-pencil, car-boat, needle-house, bread-mayo).

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


Page 13 of 18
General Psychology

After storing these words in memory, the subject will be asked to recall
an item based on a given word. For instance, he is given a stimulus
(word) needle; the subject is expected to state house instead of mayo,
pencil or boat. In serial recall, the subject is presented with a list of items
(can be numbers, words or names). He is also expected to recall these
words based on its original arrangement. In free recall, the subject is
also presented with a list of items and expected to enumerate these
items in any order.

In recognition memory, the individual is tasked to recognize a particular


item/concept from the other items (i.e. multiple choice). The combination
of recall and recognition memory is called cued recall. “Fill in the missing
letters” is one of the examples of this kind of recall for it commands the
subject to produce an item based on the given clues (letters). For
Memory instance, the subject will be asked to give the first name of the thirteenth
Page 2 of 9 president of the Philippines. This should be followed with a clue, let’s say
J_s_ph (Joseph for “Joseph Estrada”).
General Psychology

[ See Memory, Page 2 - 3 of 9 ]


Memory

o Basic Concepts
Memory can also be viewed as procedural and declarative. Procedural
memory also works as implicit memory because it involves recognition
v procedural memory - works as implicit
memory because it involves recognition and awareness of techniques and procedures as to how to ride a
and awareness of techniques and
procedures bicycle, how to set-up an internet connection and etc. Declarative
v declarative memory - involves recognition memory, on the other hand, involves recognition and understanding of
and understanding of the content of an
article, speech or any form of factual the content of an article, speech or any form of factual information.
information

v implicit memory - the subject is not aware


that he performs such memory task Note that recall and recognition memory are kinds of explicit memory.
v explicit memory - the subject is aware that However, what is implicit memory and how does it differ from explicit
he performs a particular memory task
memory? Explicit memory is a kind of memory in which the subject is
aware that he performs a particular memory task (recall or recognition).
Memory * Property of STI
Page 2 of 9
Implicit memory, on the other hand, refers to a kind of memory wherein
the subject is not aware that he performs such memory task. This
includes activities that require skills such as reading, riding a bike and
writing an essay.

Memory The Multiple-Store Model of Memory


Page 3 of 9
This model was discovered by the joint psychological efforts of Richard
General Psychology

Shiffrin and Richard Atkinson, two of the best psychologists during the
Memory sixties. They dubbed this psychological discovery as “multiple-store
model” which consists of three memory stores: sensory store, short-term
o Multiple-Store Model of Memory memory and long-term memory.
v sensory store – shortest memory storage

• where the sensory information is stored and


¦ Sensory Store (“shortest memory storage”)
can either be entered into the short-term or
long-term storage
• composed of iconic store (visual memories)
echoic store (auditory memories) It is where the sensory information is stored and can either be
v short-term memory entered into the short-term or long-term storage. It is composed of
• an average individual can hold a set of iconic store and echoic store. The former is responsible for storing
information for the duration of a couple of
minutes
• memory processing procedures
visual memories while the latter is for auditory memories.
§ encoding
§ storage
§ retrieval
¦ Short-Term Memory
Memory * Property of STI
Page 3 of 9
Refers to the second memory storage slot where an average
individual can hold a set of information for the duration of a couple
of minutes. The normal storage capacity of STM only reaches for a
maximum of seven items (and minimum of five to six items). This is
the reason why we easily remember a 7-digit phone number (or a
mobile phone number) because we immediately store it in the short-
term memory.

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


Page 14 of 18
General Psychology

How can we remember information (items) from our short-term


memory storage? Does it involve mechanisms for remembering a
particular memory task? Before we discuss the techniques on how
can we possibly perform a memory task in our STM, let us first
trace the three principal procedures on how we can process
information. Note that the three memory stores (STM, sensory
process and LTM) share the same kind of memory processing
procedures, namely, encoding, storage and retrieval.

v Encoding - when we encode a particular item, we tend to


convert it from a sensory output (information that is captured by
our senses) to a certain representation that can be stored in our
memory.
v Storage - right after the encoding stage follows the storage and
maintenance of the converted memory item.
v Retrieval - we tend to dig up a particular item in our conscious
state when we are into the same situation wherein we first
encoded the sensory input (or asked to recall and recognize
such item).
Memory [ See Memory, Page 4 - 5 of 9 ]
Page 4 of 9

General Psychology
The following are the procedures on how we can store a sensory
output in our short-term memory storage:
Memory
v Encoding sensory information - as previously recounted, we
o Multiple-Store Model of Memory often use our short-term memory storage in encoding and
v short-term memory remembering several items for a short period of time. During the
• encoding sensory information - we normally retrieval stage, we normally experience confusion in which we
experience confusion in which we tend to
associate the similarities of particular items tend to associate the similarities (i.e. common sounds,
§ acoustic confusability (R. Conrad)
characteristics, appearance) of particular items. In short, we
• rehearsal - we repeat a set of memory
information over and over again as a way of mistakenly substitute the wrong items from the correct ones.
keeping these data in the STM storage

§ maintenance rehearsal - the individual


repeats a word without focusing on its
thought • An experiment was conducted by R. Conrad to determine
§ elaborative rehearsal - focuses on the item’s
meaning while, at the same time, repeating
it over and over again
the code that we normally use when we are trying to
encode a set of sensory inputs in our STM. However,
Memory * Property of STI
instead of finding out this code, R. Conrad discovered the
Page 4 of 9
common error involved in encoding sensory information in
STM. This error is called acoustic confusability. For
Memory instance, if we are asked to look at the following letters B,
Page 5 of 9 C, F, M, N, P, S, T, V and X for only .75 seconds and
instructed to repeat these letters in the same order, we
General Psychology
would normally substitute S for F, C for T and B for V.
Memory
v Rehearsal - a commonly-used strategy in storing memory
o Multiple-Store Model of Memory information wherein we repeat a set of memory information over
v short-term memory
and over again as a way of keeping these data in the short-term
• interference theory - claims that the stored
memory (and even in the long-term memory) storage. Rehearsal
memory information is blocked with another
one
may come in two types, namely, maintenance rehearsal and
• decay theory - “refers to forgetting that
occurs a result of the passage of time” elaborative rehearsal. The former refers to a kind of rehearsal by
(Sternberg)
which the individual repeats a word without focusing on its
v long-term memory - stores information for
an indefinite period of time thought. The latter, on the other hand, focuses on its meaning
• involves the processes of rehearsal and while, at the same time, repeating it over and over again.
attempts to understand information in order
to transfer memory information stored in
the STM storage to the LTM storage
v Interference Theory and Decay Theory - these are the possible
reasons on why do we fail to recover/retrieve a stored
information from our memory. Interference theory claims that the
Memory * Property of STI
Page 5 of 9 stored memory information is blocked with another one. Thus,
we tend to forget the original information. Decay theory, on the
other hand, “refers to forgetting that occurs a result of the
passage of time” (Sternberg 2004: 253).

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


Page 15 of 18
General Psychology

¦ Long-Term Memory

Refers to memory storage where we can store information for an


indefinite period of time. LTM involves the processes of rehearsal
and attempts understand information in order to transfer memory
information stored in the STM storage to the LTM storage.

v Encoding information - there are various ways on encoding


information in the LTM storage. Most of us tend to store sensory
outputs by semantically encoding the outputs, that is, thoroughly
encoding the meaning of outputs. Just like the sensory store,
long-term memory stores visual and auditory memories. LTM
also stores verbal memories with their corresponding visual
representations. There are verbal memories (i.e. radio,
television and water) which we can easily retrieve from the LTM
storage for these contain high imagery values. We tend to
automatically perceive visual representations of the selected
words even if they are only presented verbally.

Memory [ See Memory, Page 6 - 7 of 9 ]


Page 6 of 9
Alternative Models of Memory
General Psychology

Memory Alternative models involve levels-of-processing model, Baddeley’s


model and parallel-processing model.
o Alternative Models of Memory

v levels-of-processing model ¦ Levels-of-Processing Model


• claims that instead of looking at different
storage levels, information can be easily
retrieved by the way it is encoded This model claims that instead of looking at different storage levels,
• “thorough” encoding involves:
information can be easily retrieved by the way it is encoded. If an
§ challenging yourself to answer specific
questions to clarify a specific sensory output
(memory information); and
individual thoroughly encoded a particular sensory output, he can
§ devising ways on how to easily learn the
aforementioned concept retrieve this memory information without experiencing any difficulty.
v Baddeley’s model According to this model, the repetition of such memory information
• working memory - phonological loop,
visuouspatial sketchpad and central
is useless if the individual only performs this task without encoding
executive
its meaning. “Thorough” encoding involves challenging yourself to
answer specific questions to clarify a specific sensory output
Memory * Property of STI
Page 6 of 9
(memory information) and devising ways on how to easily learn the
aforementioned concept.
Memory
Page 7 of 9 ¦ Baddeley’s Model

General Psychology
Baddeley, a contemporary psychologist, views short-term and long-
term memory in a different perspective. He devised another version
Memory
of memory storage as working memory which is composed of three
o Alternative Models of Memory
elements, namely, phonological loop, visuouspatial sketchpad and
central executive. Phonological loop is responsible for taking care of
v parallel-processing model
acoustic rehearsal and verbal comprehension. Visuouspatial
• working memory as the developed part of
the long-term memory storage
sketchpad is responsible for visual images while central executive
§ the working memory is composed of
paralleled, but widely dispersed portions of
long-term memory
transmits attentional activities and controls responses.
o Memory Disorders & Outstanding
Memories
¦ Parallel-Processing Model
v amnesia

• only pertains to the reduction (or totally


loss) of explicit memory task Contemporary psychologists view working memory as the
• amnesia victims also experience
contradictory performance in tasks that
involve declarative memory and procedural
developed part of the long-term memory storage. This model claims
memory
that the working memory is composed of paralleled, but widely
Memory * Property of STI
Page 7 of 9
dispersed portions of long-term memory.

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


Page 16 of 18
General Psychology

Memory [ See Memory, Page 8 - 9 of 9 ]


Page 8 of 9
Memory Disorders and Outstanding Memories
General Psychology

Memory ¦ Amnesia

o Memory Disorders & Outstanding The amnesia victim is incapable of remembering explicit memory
Memories
tasks. Contrary to the notion that amnesia refers to the complete
amnesia
v
loss of memory inputs, the condition only pertains to the reduction
• most of the victims experience poor
performance in declarative memory as (or totally loss) of explicit memory task. As recounted earlier, explicit
compared to the procedural memory due to
the prior learning activity memory involves recall and recognition memory tasks. Implicit
§ infantile amnesia - a condition wherein we
are unable to remember the things that
memory, on the other hand, is not affected (or less affected) in the
happened when we were still
infants/toddlers
§ retrograde amnesia - the victim is unable to
occurrence of this memory disorder.
explicitly remember the events that
occurred before the trauma that caused the
memory loss
§ anterograde amnesia - the victim is unable
to explicitly remember the events that
Amnesia victims also experience contradictory performance in tasks
occurred after the trauma that caused the
memory loss that involve declarative memory and procedural memory. Recall that
procedural memory pertains to the recognition and awareness of
Memory * Property of STI
Page 8 of 9
techniques and procedures as to how to ride a bicycle, how to set-
up an internet connection and etc. Declarative memory, on the other
hand, refers to the recognition and understanding of the content of
an article and etc. Most of the victims experience poor performance
in declarative memory (mostly associated with traditional activities)
as compared to the procedural memory due to the prior learning
activity. There are three forms of amnesia, namely, anterograde
amnesia, retrograde amnesia and infantile amnesia.

v Infantile Amnesia - all of us experience this kind of amnesia. It is


a condition wherein we are unable to remember the things that
happened when we were still infants/toddlers (five years old and
below). It is in this phase that our brain is in the process of
general development.

v Retrograde Amnesia - a kind of amnesia in which the victim is


unable to explicitly remember the events that occurred before
the trauma that caused the memory loss.

v Anterograde Amnesia - a kind of amnesia in which the victim is


unable to explicitly remember the events that occurred after the
trauma that caused the memory loss.
Memory
Page 9 of 9 ¦ Mnemonist
General Psychology
A person who uses memory techniques/methods to easily
remember a particular set of memory information is called a
Memory
mnemonist. Mnemonics also require a different level of cognitive
o Memory Disorders & Outstanding
skill (recall and recognition) in order to remember the constructed
Memories
mnemonic device. The following are the types of mnemonic
v mnemonist devices:
• a person who uses memory
techniques/methods to easily remember a
particular set of memory information
v Acronyms - a kind of mnemonic device that uses a set of letters
§
§
acronyms
categorical clustering
(first letters) in which the mnemonist develops a word or group
§
§
method of loci
interactive images of words to easily remember a given set of memory information.
§ pegword system
§ acrostics
§ keyword system
v Categorical Clustering - classification of various items according
to their similarities/categories.

Memory * Property of STI


Page 9 of 9 • modem, Linux, keyboard, video card, Macromedia Flash
Player, sound card, Adobe Photoshop, monitor, processor,
Microsoft Windows, Macintosh

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


Page 17 of 18
General Psychology

§ hardware: modem, keyboard, video card, sound card,


monitor, processor
§ software: Linux, Macromedia Flash Player, Adobe
Photoshop, Microsoft Windows, Macintosh

v Method of Loci - remembering a particular area/landmark which


serves as a stimulus to recall memory information.

v Interactive Images - mnemonists create visual representations to


remember the isolated words.

v Pegword System - familiar items are linked to unfamiliar items.

• “One is bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, four is a door.

v Acrostics - kind of mnemonic device in which the first letters of


the cluster of words are memorized to effectively recall each of
the items.

• “Psychology Is An Interesting Subject”

v Keyword system - it is used when one is asked to remember a


foreign word by relating another (familiar) word with similar
sound.

• To learn that the French word for water is eau, you might
note that eau sounds like you.

References:

Melucci, N.J., (2004), Psychology: The Easy Way, New York, Barron’s
Educational Series
th
Sternberg, R.J., (2004), Psychology (4 Edition), Canada, Thomson
Wadsworth

EVALUATION/GENERALIZATION:

Classroom Activity

Ask the students to form a big circle. It is suggested that the table and
chairs should be put on both side of the classroom to provide a spacious
area. Instruct them to sit on the floor. The instructor must also join the
students in this activity. Prepare a long sentence/message that is difficult
to remember and ask them to transmit it manually. The
sentence/message could in the form of movie tag lines or cultural
sayings. Each student must transmit the message/sentence silently.

Suggested sentences/messages:

1. “My momma always said life was like a box of chocolates…you


never know what you're gonna get.” – Tom Hanks (Forrest
Gump)
2. “Did no one come to save me just because they missed me?” –
Johnny Depp (Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End)

Learning and Memory *Property of STI


Page 18 of 18