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# OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

Chapter 3
Vector-Valued Functions
3.4 Motion in Space

Section Exercises

155. Given r(t )  (3t 2  2)i  (2t  sin(t )) j, find the velocity of a particle moving along this
curve.

## Answer: v(t )  (6t )i  (2  cos(t )) j

Given the following position functions, find the velocity, acceleration, and speed in terms of
the parameter t.

## r(t )  3cos t ,3sin t , t 2

157.
Answer: v(t )  3sin t,3cos t, 2t , a(t )  3cos t , 3sin t , 2 , speed = 9  4t 2

## 159. r (t )  2 cos tj  3sin tk. The graph is shown here:

Answer: v(t )  2sin tj  3cos tk , a(t )  2 cos tj  3sin tk , speed = 4sin 2 (t )  9cos2 (t )
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

Find the velocity, acceleration, and speed of a particle with the given position function.

r(t )  et , et
161.
Answer: v(t )  et i  et j, a(t )  et i  et j, v(t ) e2t  e2t

163. The position function of an object is given by r(t )  t 2 ,5t , t 2 16t . At what time is the
speed a minimum?

Consider the motion of a point on the circumference of a rolling circle. As the circle rolls, it
generates the cycloid r(t )   t  sin( t )  i  1  cos( t )  j, where ω is the angular velocity
of the circle and b is the radius of the circle:

165. Find the equations for the velocity, acceleration, and speed of the particle at any time.
   
Answer: v(t )     cos( t )  i   sin( t )  j, a(t )   2 sin( t ) i   2 cos( t ) j,

## speed =  2  2 2 cos( t )   2 cos2 ( t )   2 sin 2 ( t ) = 2 2 (1  cos( t ))

OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

A person on a hang glider is spiraling upward as a result of the rapidly rising air on a path
having position vector r(t )  (3cos t )i  (3sin t ) j  t 2k. The path is similar to that of a helix,
although it is not a helix. The graph is shown here:

## 167. The glider’s speed at any time

Answer: v(t )  9  4t 2

Given that r(t )  e5t sin t , e5t cos t , 4e5t is the position vector of a moving particle, find
the following quantities:

## 169. The velocity of the particle

Answer: v(t )  e5t (cos t  5sin t ), e5t (sin t  5cos t ), 20e5t

## 171. The acceleration of the particle

5t
Answer: a(t )  e   sin t  5 cos t   5e  cos t  5 sin t  ,  cos t  5 sin t   5e5t  sin t  5 cos t  , 100 e5t
5t 5t
e
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

A projectile is shot in the air from ground level with an initial velocity of 500 m/sec at an
angle of 60° with the horizontal. The graph is shown here:

## 177. What is the total flight time of the projectile?

A projectile is fired at a height of 1.5 m above the ground with an initial velocity of 100
m/sec and at an angle of 30° above the horizontal. Use this information to answer the
following questions:

## 179. Determine the range of the projectile.

Answer: The range is approximately 886.29 m.

181. A projectile is fired from ground level at an angle of 8° with the horizontal. The projectile
is to have a range of 50 m. Find the minimum velocity necessary to achieve this range.

183. The acceleration of an object is given by a(t )  tj  tk. The velocity at t  1 sec is
v (1)  5 j and the position of the object at t  1 sec is r (1)  0i  0 j  0k. Find the object’s
position at any time.
1 3 14   t 3 1 1 
Answer: r (t )  0i   t  4.5t   j    t   k
6 3   6 2 3

## 185. Find the tangential and normal components of acceleration for

r (t )  a cos(t )i  b sin(t ) j at t  0.

Answer: aT  0, aN  a 2
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

For each of the following problems, find the tangential and normal components of
acceleration.

## Answer: aT  3et , aN  2et

t3
r (t )  2t , t 2 ,
3
189.
Answer: aT  2t , aN  4  2t 2

r(t )  6t ,3t 2 , 2t 3
191.
6t  12t 3 1  4t 2  t 4
Answer: aT , aN  6
1 t4  t2 1 t2  t4

## r(t )  3cos  2 t  i  3sin  2 t  j

193.
Answer: aT  0, aN  2 3

195. The force on a particle is given by f (t )   cos t  i   sin t  j. The particle is located at point
(c, 0) at t  0. The initial velocity of the particle is given by v(0)  v0 j. Find the path of the
particle of mass m. (Recall, F  m  a. )
 1 1    sin t  1 
Answer: r (t )   cos t  c   i     v0   t  j
m m  m  m 
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

2GM
197. Using Kepler’s laws, it can be shown that v0  is the minimum speed needed
r0
when θ  0 so that an object will escape from the pull of a central force resulting from mass M.
Use this result to find the minimum speed when θ  0 for a space capsule to escape from the
gravitational pull of Earth if the probe is at an altitude of 300 km above Earth’s surface.

Suppose that the position function for an object in three dimensions is given by the
equation r (t )  t cos(t )i  t sin(t ) j  3tk.

## 199. Show that the particle moves on a circular cone.

201. Find the tangential and normal components of acceleration when t  1.5.
Answer: aT  0.43 m/sec2 , aN  2.46 m/sec 2
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

## Chapter Review Exercises

True or False? Justify your answer with a proof or a counterexample.

d
u(t )  u(t )  2u(t )  u(t )
203. dt
d
Answer: False, u(t )  u(t )  0
dt

## 205. The speed of a particle with a position function r (t ) is  r(t )   r(t )  .

Answer: False, it is r(t )

## Find the domains of the vector-valued functions.

1
r (t )  et , ,sec(t )
207. 4t
n
Answer: t  4, t 
2

Sketch the curves for the following vector equations. Use a calculator if needed.

209. [T]

## 211. Intersection of the cone z  x 2  y 2 and plane z  y  4

t2 t2
Answer: r(t )  t , 2  , 2 
8 8
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

Find the derivatives of u(t ), u(t ), u(t )  u(t ), u(t )  u(t ), and u(t )  u(t ). Find the unit
tangent vector.

u(t )  t 2 , 2t  6, 4t 5  12
213.
Answer: u(t )  2t , 2, 20t , u(t )  2, 0,80t ,
4 3

d
u(t )  u(t )  480t 3  160t 4 , 24  75t 2 ,12  4t ,
dt
d d
u(t )  u(t )  480t 3  160t 4 , 24  75t 2 , 12  4t , u(t )  u(t )  720t 8  9600t 3  6t 2  4,
dt dt
2t 2 20t 4
unit tangent vector: T(t )  i j k
400t 8  4t 2  4 400t 8  4t 2  4 400t 8  4t 2  4

## Evaluate the following integrals.

 t 
4
ln(t ) 1
 u(t )dt , u(t ) 
t
, ,sin  
t  4
215. 1 with

ln(4)2
i  2j 
2 2 2
k
 
2 

## 217. r(t )  2i  t j  3t 2k for 0  t  1

37 1
2 12

Reparameterize the following functions with respect to their arc length measured from
t  0 in direction of increasing t .

## 219. r (t )  cos(2t )i  8tj  sin(2t )k

 2s  8s  2s 
Answer: r (t ( s))  cos  i  j  sin  k
 65  65  65 
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

## 221. r (t )  2et i  2e t j  2tk

e 2t
e  1
2t 2

223. Find the tangential and normal acceleration components with the position vector
r (t )  cos t ,sin t , et .

e 2t
, aN  2e  4e sin t cos t  1
2t 2t
1  e 2t 2t
1 e

## 225. The position of a particle is given by r (t )  t 2 , ln  t  ,sin  t  , where t is measured in

seconds and r is measured in meters. Find the velocity, acceleration, and speed functions. What
are the position, velocity, speed, and acceleration of the particle at 1 sec?
1 1
Answer: v(t )  2t , , cos  t  m/sec, a(t )  2,  2 ,  sin  t  m/sec 2 ,
t t
1
speed = 4t 2  2
 cos2  t  m/sec; at t  1, r(1)  1, 0, 0 m, v(1)  2, 1,1 m/sec,
t
a(1)  2, 1,0 m/sec2, and speed = 6 m/sec

The following problems consider launching a cannonball out of a cannon. The cannonball
is shot out of the cannon with an angle  and initial velocity v 0 . The only force acting on
the cannonball is gravity, so we begin with a constant acceleration a(t )   gj.

227. Find the position vector r(t ) and the parametric representation for the position.
g 2 g
Answer: r (t )  v 0t  t j, r (t )  v 0 (cos  )t , v 0 (sin  )t ,  t 2
2 2
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

Student Project
Navigating a Banked Turn

1. Find the velocity function v (t ) of the car. Show that v is tangent to the circular curve.
This means that, without a force to keep the car on the curve, the car will shoot off of it.
Answer: The velocity is v  t    R sin t  , R cos t  , 0 To show that v is tangent to
the curve, we confirm that v  r  0 :
 R sin t  , R cos t  , 0  R cos t  , R sin t  , h
 R 2 sin t  cos t   R 2 cos t  sin t 
 0.

3. Find the acceleration a. Show that this vector points toward the center of the circle and
that a  R 2 .
Answer: a  v   R 2 cos(t ),  R 2 sin(t ), 0
A similar calculation as in 1. will show that a  b  0, and therefore a is perpendicular to
v. The negative signs cause the vector to point inward (toward the origin) rather than
outward.
a  R 2 4 cos2 t   R 2 4 sin 2 t   R 2 4  R 2
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

## 5. Show that N cos   mg  f sin  . Conclude that N   mg   cos   sin   .

Answer: The vertical component of the N force is Ncos . The vertical components of
gravity and f are  mg and f sin  , respectively. These are all of the vertical forces,
and they have to balance:
N cos   mg  f sin   0.
Adding mg and f sin  to both sides yields the desired equation. To prove the second
equation, note that
mg  f sin  mg   N sin 
N 
cos  cos 
mg  sin 
 N
cos  cos 
because f   N .
Therefore
 sin  mg
NN 
cos  cos 
which implies that
  sin   mg
N 1   .
 cos   cos 
Hence we have
mg cos  mg cos  mg
N   .
1    sin  cos    cos    sin   cos cos   sin 

7. ( )
Show that v 2max = ( sinq + m cosq ) ( cosq - m sinq ) gR. Conclude that the maximum
speed does not actually depend on the mass of the car.
mv 2 max
Answer: From the equation Fcent  and from 6. we have that
R
sin    cos  mv 2 max
mg 
cos    sin  R
Multiplying both sides by R and dividing both sides by m yields the desired equation.
Since m does not appear on the right-hand side of the equation, the maximum speed
does not depend on the car’s mass.

9. In dry conditions, how fast can the car travel through the top of the turn without skidding?
Answer: In this setup,   0.98, R  251 feet,  28 degrees, and g  32.174 ft/s2 . Therefore
sin  28   0.98cos  28 
v 2 max   32.174  251  25490.59
cos  28   0.98sin  28 
Hence the maximum speed is approximately 159.66 ft/s. Converting to mph yields a
maximum speed of 108.86 mph.
OpenStax Calculus Volume 3 Student Answer and Solution Guide

11. Suppose the measured speed of a car going along the outside edge of the turn is 105 mph.
Estimate the coefficient of friction for the car’s tires.
Answer: In this setup, R  251 feet,  28 degrees, and g  32.174 ft/s2 . Furthermore, we
assume that a professional driver is driving at a speed as close to the maximum speed as
possible, so we estimate vmax to be 105 mph. Converting to feet per second gives a
maximum speed of 154 ft/s. Therefore
sin  28    cos  28 
23716   32 174  251
cos  28    sin  28 
and we solve this equation for  . In this course of our calculations, we’ll keep four
digits after the decimal place in order in order to minimize rounding error.
sin  28   cos  28
2.9367 
cos  28   sin  28
0.4695  0.8829
2.9367 
0.8829  0.4695
2.5928  1.3788  0.4695  0.8829
2.1233  2.2617 
  0.9388.
Notice that this makes physical sense: since we have decreased the maximum speed by
a small amount ( 108 has dropped to 105 ), there is a corresponding small drop in the
coefficient of friction ( 0.98 down to 0.94 ).