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RELIGION Advent : The season of waiting for the birth of the Messiah. It is widely believed that the crescent moon and star is an
internationally-recognized symbol of Islam.
CHRISTIANITY Lent : The season of preparation for Easter, a celebration of the
resurrection of Christ. These ancient celestial symbols were in use by the peoples of
Developed out of Judaism during the reign of the Roman Empire Central Asia and Siberia in their worship of the sun, moon and
in West Asia. Pentecost : A holiday to commemorate the coming of Holy Spirit sky gods. There are also reports that the crescent moon and star
o the Early Christians. were used to represent the Carthaginian goddess Tanit or the
The religion is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who is
Greek goddess Diana.
considered as the Son of God and the Messiah (Saviour). ISLAM

Followers: More than 2 billion; Followers of Christianity: > An Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only
Christians one God (Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. QURAN

Christianity is divided into many groups. But these three are the > The world's second-largest religion ; 1.8 billion followers or  A central religious text of Islam
most common group of Christianity: Roman Catholicism, 24.1%
 Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah)
Orthodox, Protestantism.
 The finest work in classical Arabic literature.
> The Arabic word Islam means “submission,” while Followers of
They only have one God. (Monotheism). Islam are called Muslims.

Sacred scriptures: The Holy Bible. (The Old Testament: 39 Allah

 The record of the words, actions, and the silent
Books; The New Testament: 27 Books)
approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The proper terminology used, in Islam, for God is “Allah.” The
 A source for religious law and moral guidance.
SYMBOL term “Allah” means, in Arabic, the one and only universal God or
Creator and Provider of the universe.
FISH – Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour. PRACTICES
Muhammad 1. Shahada: Faith
CROSS – Jesus Christ’s victory over sins
A declaration of faith and trust that professes that there
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's
BELIEFS / Doctrines
doctrine, he was a prophet and God's messenger, sent to messenger.
present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached 2. SHALA: PRAYER
The Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:1-17 & Deuteronomy 5:-
21) The Islamic prayer that consists of five daily prayers
To be considered a Muslim, one must believe and recite a
according to the Sunna; the names are according to the
statement of faith known as the Shahada: "There is no God but
Seven Sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Communion, prayer times: Fajr (dawn), Dhuhr (noon), ʿAṣr
God, and Muhammad is his Prophet."
Confession, Matrimony, Holy Orders and Anointing of the Sick. (afternoon), Maghrib (evening), and ʿIshāʾ (night).

A Mosque is a place where worship. The word mosque comes 3. ZAKAT: CHARITY
Eight Beatitudes also known as the “Sermon on the Mount”
from Arabic word. A mandatory charitable contribution, the right of the
(Matthew 5:1-12)
poor to find relief from the rich, and is considered to be
Apostles’ Creed
Story of Creation (Genesis 1) SIMUNUL, TAWI-TAWI.
Ritual fasting is an obligatory act during the Islamic holy Atman. Hindus believe that every living thing has an essential texts, sing, and tell stories in honor of this God, whose
month of Ramadan is the fourth of the Five Pillars of core to its life – a soul, which is called an atman. The individual dynamic dance creates, preserves, destroys, and
Islam. The practice of abstaining, usually from food and atman, however, is only a temporarily separated part of the recreates the world.
drink. cosmic or world soul, called Paramatman, which is a part of 2. Holi in March – a colored-water Spring Festival. In
5. HAJI: PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA Brahman. The souls are without beginning and without end, and some parts of India this festival is dedicated to Kama,
A pilgrimage that occurs during the Islamic month of immortal by their very nature. The ultimate goal of the soul is the God of Pleasure, and in others to Krishna.
Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca. Every able- freedom. 3. Ramanavani in April – celebrates the birthday of
bodied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Rama, the seventh incarnation of the God Vishnu.
Mecca at least once in their life. Hindu gods Hindus read the Ramayana during the previous eight
Shiva is usually depicted with six arms, each with a different
MAIN HOLIDAYS 4. Raksha Bandhana in August – Raksha Bandhana
function. The manifold aspects of Shiva’s power are expressed
1. AL-HIJRA literally means “to tie protection on.” In this festival
in often contradictory roles: threatening but benevolent, creator
 The Islamic New Year, also known as Arabic New girls and women, both married and unmarried, tie
but destroyer, exuberant dancer but austere yogi.
Year or Hijri New Year amulets on the wrists of their brothers for protection
 The day that marks the beginning of a new Islamic Vishnu, the preserver, is understandably portrayed as a much against evil. The amulet stays on the wrist until it
calendar year more amiable and kindly deity. He loves, forgives, and tries to wears off. The amulet, which can be a string, is not an
 Began in the evening of September 10 lead all towards salvation. He comes to earth in different approved item. Bracelets are not permitted because of
2. RAMADAN incarnations, avatara, to rid the world of sin. potential interference with handcuffs.
The most sacred month of the year in Islamic culture 5. Janmashtami, in August most years, but
To mark that Allah, or God, gave the first chapters of Brahman is literally everything. It is night and day, heat and occasionally in September – celebrates the birthday of
the Quran to the Prophet Muhammad in 610 cold, goodness and evil, matter and spirit, life and death, being Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu. Worship of
3. ID AL-FITR and non-being. Nothing exists of a material, physical, spiritual, or Krishna is expressed in dance and song. Religious
An important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims even conceptual nature that is beyond Brahman; all things come Holy Days. Two holy days are days of work
worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan from and ultimately return to Brahman. proscription. Their exact dates are found in the
Begin in the evening of Tuesday, 4 June and ends in Operations Memorandum on Religious Holy Day
the evening of Wednesday, 5 June. Observances. They change yearly because the
celebrations are based on a lunar/solar calendar.
Required daily observances- a hindu is expected to pray three
HINDUISM 6. Dashera/Ramlila in October – celebrates the victory
times daily. This is called Sandhyopasana-literally, “worship at
of good over evil: the victory of Lord Rama over the
History the junction of time” – a prayer offered at the junction of night
demon Ravan, and the victory of Goddess Durga over
and morning, of forenoon and afternoon, and of evening and
an asura (demon), described in the epic Ramayana.
World oldest religion night
7. Diwali in October or early November – perhaps the
Hinduism, the religion followed by 800 million people in India and Required Weekly Observances. Hindus are expected to come most popular of all Hindu festivals. Also known as the
100 million in the rest of the world, encompasses a wide variety together regularly to worship. Festival of Lights, it is dedicated to the Goddess Kali
of beliefs and rituals in Bengal and to Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth, in
Required Occasional Observances. The following seven are the rest of India. This holy day is also associated with
Theology among the more significant stories of the destruction of evil by Vishnu in one of his
Hinduism has no single founder, no single scripture, and no 1. Mahashivaratri in March – a night festival dedicated
single governing body to Shiva. The night before the feast, Hindus recite
Religious items  Sakya Tribe in Lumbini (Nepal) • Hanna Matsuri - A Japanese celebration of Buddha's
 “Four Signs” birthday .A Flower festival where people offerings of spring
■ A religious medallion and chain, often an image of the  Pipal Tree flowers to decorate shrines and statues of the Buddha
Hindu’s favorite deity.  At 35 years old – “The Awakened One” when he was a baby. People pour scented tea over the

 Preached in the regions of India statues. This remembers the Buddha birth ,when stories
■ Prayer beads (plastic), consisting of 108 beads. The beads  Died at the age of 80 years old say two streams of perfume from the sky bathed him and
are used in the recitation of the mantras as well as breathing his mother.
exercises, which are part of the specific yoga followed by an TEACHINGS OF BUDDHISM
individual.  It focuses in ethics and self-understanding. • Poson Day- ( Poson Poya ) This is happen when The
first full moon in the month of the June . This festival Is
 His famous quotation is “Nothing is Permanent”
Sacred writings celebrated the arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka in the 3rd
 Four Noble Truths
century B.C ,A festival of great historical and religious
 Noble Eightfold Path
The sruti, “what was heard [from the gods].” significance celebrated Island -wide By Buddhism .It held to
The Vedas: Rig-Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, Atharva commemorate the occasion over 2,000.
 Meditation is a means of transforming the
The Brahmanas. • Dharma Day - A Buddhist Celebration ,Marks the day
mind. It will develop concentration, clarity,
The Upanishads when Buddha began teaching. Celebrated by Buddhist
emotional positivity, and a clear seeing of the
The smriti, “what was remembered.” worldwide it's considered a time to reflect on qualities of
true nature of things.
The Epics: Ramayana, Mahabharata. Buddha and express gratitude for his teachings which
Puranas. offered humanity.
The Main Buddhist Festival are the following
Laws of Manu. • Bodhi Day -Is a holiday which falls on December 8th
• Buddha Day
and celebrate the day in which Siddhartha Gautama
• Wesak
BUDDHISM Buddha sat underneath the Bodhi tree and attained
• Vaisakha
englightenment . This one defining moment would become
These three festival is the celebration of the Prince
History of Buddhism the central foundation upon which Buddhism has been
Siddhartha Gautama Buddha's Birth ,enlightenment and
builds upon for the last 2,500 years.
death . This is the most colorful celebration in and out in the
 Spans from the 5th Century B.C.E
Southeast Asia and Middle East . Homes are decorated and
1. What is Sage? a wise thinker
 Arose in Eastern part of India lanterns were lighten made by paper or wood. Buddhists 2. Where did buddhism start? Eastern part of India,
 Ascetic and sage also visit their local temples for services and teachings and 3. What is the name of buddha? Siddhatha Gautama
Scriptures: 4. Where did buddha born? Nepal
give offering to monks . Buddha' s birthday - (May 12) Is a
5. In what age does buddha entitled “ The awakened
holiday traditionally celebrated in most of East Asia to one “ ? 35 years old
 Sutra commemorate the birth of Prince Siddhartha Gautama 6. In what particular tree did buddha did his meditation?
 Sanskrit (refined or sanctified) Buddha later on become the founder of the Buddhism .
Pipal Tree
7. What is the most famous quotation of buddha?
Buddhist New Year : January ,February , March and April “Nothing is Permanent”
Buddhists think about how to kinder and be generous to 8. The two teachings of buddhism Four Noble Truths
people. 9. The two teacings of buddhism Noble Eightfold Path
SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA 10. It is the means of transforming mind Meditation
“Buddha” – The awakened one
 Born between 563 B.C.E to 480 B.C.E
CONFUCIANISM 5. Hsiao - love within the family, love of A public worship (called a Liturgy) is performed on the
parents for their children, and love of children for their seventh, ninth, and forty-ninth days after the burial, along with
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as parents the first and third year anniversary of the death.
tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or 6. Jen - benevolence, humanness towards
rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a one another (the most important Confucianism virtue) DAOISM
way of life.
PRACTICES AND RITUALS a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which
•Number of Confucianism followers in the world: Birth emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (the Way).
0.09% (6,111,056 people). The Tai-Shen (spirit of the fetus) protects the expectant mother,
and deals harshly with anyone/thing that harasses or harms the The Tao is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical
FOUNDER woman. She receives a special diet and is given one month to schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the
rest after the delivery of the baby. Her parents are responsible source, pattern and substance of everything that exists.
Confucianism was developed in China by Master for everything that is needed to support the child, on the first,
Kong in 551-479 BC, who was given the name fourth and twelfth month anniversary of the child's birth. Taoism differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid
Confucius by Jesuit missionaries who were visiting rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the
there. However, the fundamental principles of Marriage particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei
Confucianism began before his birth, during the Zhou There are six separate things that happen during the marriage (action without intention), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity,
Dynasty. rituals, these include: and the Three Treasures: 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不
敢為天下先 "humility".
 Engagement •Number of Daoism followers in the world: Almost 20 million
1. The symbol for Confucius represents the man who  Dowry people.
began the philosophy, as he is one of, if not the most  Procession
important person to come from this philosophy. He  Marriage •Daoism (sometimes called Taoism) has its origins 2500 years
was very interested in the moral conduct of people in  Morning After ago when the Chinese philosopher Lao Zi wrote his classic Dao
society. De Jing, though it draws on folk religion and traditions from long
2. The second symbol, the Chinese character for water, Death before that time.
is made for water is one of the five elements of
Chinese philosophy. Water is viewed as a life source, After the death of a loved one, the family cries aloud to •Daoism is the main religious tradition of China and can be
which most likely comes from its importance in the inform the neighbors of the tragic news. found wherever there are Chinese communities across the Far
natural world in sustaining life. East. The cultural influence of Daoism can also be detected in
3. the Chinese character for scholar, is made for the The family begins to mourn by making clothes made the art and literature of Japan, Korea and Vietnam.
importance of knowledge and self-awareness. of course material, and wearing them.
Confucius believed one could never have too much FOUNDER
knowledge, and the idea of an education has become The corpse is placed in a coffin, and many family and
very important in Chinese culture today. friends bring money to help with the cost of the funeral. Lao Tzu (Laozi)
4. Yin Yang, is common in some forms of Chinese
religion, and has different meanings. The general Food and objects important to the deceased are He is traditionally described as the founder of Taoism.
meaning is that the circle represents a whole, while placed into the coffin with him/her.
the halves and dots depict opposites, interactions, or The author of the ook Tao-Te-Ching.
balance. A priest or minister of any religion performs the burial
ritual. The term Lao Tzu may not be the name of a person, but a
reference to 'the old master', meaning the accumulated wisdom
The Main Beliefs of Confucianism The guests follow the coffin carrying a large willow of the elders, the wise old men and women of the culture in
tree branch. This is meant to symbolize the soul of the person which Taoism originated.
There are six main groups of beliefs in Confucianism, who has died.
these include: Chuang Tzu
1. Yi – Righteousness Later on, the branch is carried back to the family altar
where is used to "install" the spirit of the deceased. The other main figure of Taoism
2. Xin - Honesty and Trustworthiness
3. Chung - Loyalty to the state, etc.
The author of Chuang-tzu
4. Li - includes ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc.
KEY BOOKS 3.Five Element Chart “Mayriad things”

Tao-Te-Ching (Book of the Way) •The operation of the Five Elements can be seen within the
human body, within an ecosystem, or within any other living
Tao/Dao - Way system. When the elements of a system are in balance, the
cycles of generation and control function to both nourish and
Te/De- Virtue contain one another. When the elements are out of balance,
they "overact" on and/or "insult" one another.
Ching/Jing - Canon
•Yin Qi & Yang Qi give birth to the Five Elements, whose various
Literal Meaning ( The Classical of the Way and Its power ) combinations produce the Ten-Thousand-Things.

The Tao-Te-Ching is not a 'scripture' in any way.

It is a book of poetry presenting the simple way of following the

Tao and living life at peace with one's self, others, and the world
of changes.

The tao-te-ching is an attempt to remind people everyone

could live together peacefully if people would only be mindful of
how their thoughts and actions affect themselves, others, and
the earth.

"Yield and overcome/Empty and become full/Bend and

become straight"

Instead of fighting against life and others, one can

yield to circumstances and let the things which are not really
important go.

Chuang-tzu (Collection of Wisdom)

This includes early writings on some key Taoist ideas,

particularly ch'i, although some of the ideas differ from their later
Taoist form.


1. Yin-Yang Symbol

•It represents Taoism's way of understanding opposites, e.g.

masculine/feminine, light/dark.

2.Taijitu Shuo

•Diagram Of The Supreme Polarity

•Represents the whole of Taoist Cosmology, and is similar in

many ways to the Wu Ji Diagram.

•The single circle at the top of the Taijitu Shuo represents wuji -
undifferentiated timelessness.