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𝑃 𝑀∙𝑦 (𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 )⁄2

𝜎𝑚é𝑑 = 𝜎=− 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝜃𝑐 = −


𝐴 𝐼 𝜏𝑥𝑦

𝐿
𝑃(𝑥) ∙ 𝑑𝑥 I
𝛿=∫ S 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2
0 𝐴(𝑥) ∙ 𝐸 c 𝜏𝑚á𝑥 = 𝑅 = √( 2
) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦
2

𝑉 𝑉∙𝑄 𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦
𝜏𝑚é𝑑 = 𝜏= 𝜎𝑚é𝑑 = (𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜)
𝐴 𝐼∙𝑡 2

𝑇∙𝜌 𝑑𝑉
𝜏= 𝑄 = ∫ 𝑦 ∙ 𝑑𝐴′ = 𝑦̅′ ∙ 𝑑𝐴′ = −𝑤(𝑥)
𝐽 𝑑𝑥

T c 2 3 𝑑3 𝑑𝑀
 max  𝑄= ∙𝑟 = (𝑠𝑒çã𝑜 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟) =𝑉
J 3 12 𝑑𝑥

 𝜋 4 𝜋 ∙ 𝑑4 1 𝑀
  max 𝐼 = ∙𝑟 = (𝑠𝑒çã𝑜 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟) =
c 4 32 𝜌 𝐸∙𝐼

  𝜋 4 𝜋 ∙ 𝑑4 𝑑4𝑦
 𝐼 = ∙𝑟 = (𝑠𝑒çã𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑚𝑖 − 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟) 𝐸 ∙ 𝐼 ∙ 4 = −𝑤(𝑥)
L 8 128 𝑑𝑥

c  𝑝∙𝑟 𝑝∙𝑟 𝑑3 𝑦
 max  𝜎1 =
𝑡
𝑒 𝜎2 =
2∙𝑡
(𝑣𝑎𝑠𝑜 𝑐𝑖𝑙í𝑛𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑜) 𝐸∙𝐼∙ = 𝑉(𝑥)
L 𝑑𝑥 3

 𝑝∙𝑟 𝑑2𝑦
   max 𝜎1 = 𝜎2 =
2∙𝑡
(𝑣𝑎𝑠𝑜 𝑒𝑠𝑓é𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑜) 𝐸∙𝐼∙ = 𝑀(𝑥)
c 𝑑𝑥 2

𝑇∙𝐿 𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 𝑑(𝑥 𝑐 )
𝜙= 𝜎𝑥′ = + ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 ∙ 𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝜃 = 𝑐 ∙ 𝑥 𝑐−1
𝐽∙𝐺 2 2 𝑑𝑥

  G  𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 𝑢𝑛+1
𝜏𝑥′𝑦′ = − ∙ 𝑠𝑒𝑛2𝜃 + 𝜏𝑥𝑦 ∙ 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 𝑛
∫ 𝑢 ∙ 𝑑𝑢 = +𝐶, 𝑛≠1
2 𝑛+1

𝜋 4 𝜏𝑥𝑦
𝐽= ∙𝑐 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝜃𝑝 =
2 (𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 )⁄2

𝜋
𝐽= ∙ (𝑐𝑒4 − 𝑐𝑖4 ) 𝜎𝑥 + 𝜎𝑦 𝜎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑦 2
2 𝜎1,2 = ± √( 2
) + 𝜏𝑥𝑦
2 2