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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background
All we know that A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other
sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized
missions, such as defense, research and fishing, Where its movement is generated by prime
mover. A diesel engine is one of many kinds of prime mover.
Diesel Engine is a type of power generating machine with a machine that uses combustion
system by compression (internal combustion engine). The diesel engine is an internal
combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel that has been injected into the combustion
chamber is caused by the high temperature which a gas achieves (i.e. the air) when greatly
compressed (adiabatic compression). The main engine is chosen by matching it’s power with
several calculation including ship’s resistance and etc.
In this practical work, the diesel engine used worked using solar. We did several trials
using variety of spins (rpm) and loads with generator, to know the fuel consumption from every
engine performance. From the data obtained, we could calculate the efficiency and the amount
of fuel consumed of the diesel engine.

1.2. Purposes
1. To know the relation between Specific Fuel Consumption and Power
2. To know the relation between Thermal Efficiency and Power.
3. To determine the relation between Power in Specific Loads and Rpm.
4. To determine the relation between Torque in Specific Loads and Rpm.
5. To know the relation between BMEP in specific load and Rpm.
6. To determine the Engine Envelope of the engine.

1.3. Benefits
1. Students can know the relation between Specific Fuel Consumption and Power
2. Students can know the relation of Power variation in Thermal Efficiency.
3. Students can determine the relation between Power in Specific Loads and Rpm.
4. Students can determine the relation between Torque in Specific Loads and Rpm.
5. Students can know the relation between BMEP in Specific Loads and Rpm.
6. Students can illustrate the diesel engine’s Engine Envelope graph.

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CHAPTER 2
BASIC THEORY

2.1 Diesel Engine


The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine) is an internal
combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel that has been injected into the combustion
chamber is caused by the high temperature which a gas achieves (i.e. the air) when greatly
compressed (adiabatic compression).
Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside
the cylinder to such a high degree that it ignites atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the
combustion chamber. The ignition occurred when the ratio of compression is around 14 to 22,
while the gasoline engines only work in ratio of 7 to 12.
The diesel engine contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline
engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to petrol), which use a spark plug to
ignite an air-fuel mixture. In diesel engines, glow plugs (combustion chamber pre-warmers)
may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio,
or both. The original diesel engine operates on the "constant pressure" cycle of gradual
combustion and produces no audible knock.

Figure 1. Ship Diesel Engine


(Source : http://www.motorship.com)

2.2 Principle Work of Diesel Engine


Diesel engine is classified into 2 kinds depending on its principle work. Those are 2 stroke
diesel engine and 4 stroke diesel engine. 4 stroke diesel engine is more common used in marine
industry tha the 2 stroke one. The principle work begins from the Intake Stroke.

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The intake stroke begins at top dead center, and as the piston moves down, the intake valve
opens. The downward movement of the piston creates a vacuum in the cylinder, causing a fuel
and air mixture to be drawn through the intake port into the combustion chamber. As the piston
reaches bottom dead center, the intake valve closes.
The compression stroke begins with the piston at bottom dead center and rising up to
compress the fuel and air mixture. Since both the intake and exhaust valves are closed, there is
noescape for the fuel and air mixture, and it is compressedto a fraction of its original volume.
At this point, the fueland air mixture is ignited.
The power stroke begins when the fuel and air mixture is ignited, burns and expands and
forces the piston down. The valves remain power stroke ends as the piston reaches
bottom dead center.
The exhaust stroke begins when the piston nears the end of the power stroke and the
exhaust valve is opened. As the piston moves upward towards top dead center, it pushes
the burnt gases, resulting from the ignition of the fuel and airmixture, out of the combustion
chamber and through the exhaust port. As the piston reaches top dead center,ending the exhaust
stroke, the exhaust valve closes, and the intake valve opens to begin the intake stroke for the
next cycle.

Figure 2. Stroke Diesel Engine Cycle


(Source : https:// 4mechtech.blogspot.co.id)

2.3 Engine Performance


Engine performance is success rate of an engine in its work or in this case, its combustion
process. Specifically in converting chemical energy contained in fuel into mechanical energy.
According to Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals by John B. Heywood, it’s explained
that the main parameter of engine performance is power, torque, and specific fuel consumption

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(SFC). For engine performance evaluation, some specific parameters are chosen, which have
more effect in many condition of engine operation. Those parameters are:

2.3.1. Engine Power


Engine Power is one of parameters used in calculating engine performance. Engine
power is the power used by engine in performing a work in Nm/s, Watt, or HP unit.
Whereas load factor is load’s average or power output of the engine, expressed as
precentage of engine’s maximum load capacity.
𝑉 𝑥 𝐼 𝑥 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝜑
𝑃 =
ɳ𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑥 ɳ𝑏𝑒𝑙𝑡
Where :
V = Voltage (Volt)
I = Current (Ampere)
𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝜑 = 0,9
𝜂generator = 0,85
𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑝𝑚 (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙)
𝜂𝑏𝑒𝑙𝑡 = 𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑝𝑚 (𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦)

2.3.2. Brake Power (BP)


Brake power is the useful power at the output shaft. Brake power is always less than
indicative, due to losses by mechanical friction and parasitic loads.
𝐵𝑃 = 2𝜋 × 𝑁 × 𝑇
Where :
N = Rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rps)
T = Torque (Nm)

2.3.3. Indicated Power (IP)


Indicated power is the theoretical maximum output power of the engine. The
indicated power is the total power available from the expanding of the gases in the
cylinders negating any friction, heat loss or entropy within the system.
𝑃 = 𝑖 × 𝐵𝑀𝐸𝑃 × 𝐿 × 𝐴 × 𝑧 × 𝑁
Where :
i = 0,5 for 4 stroke engine ; 1 for 2 stroke engine
L = Stroke lenght (m)

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A = Piston Area (m2)
z = Amount of cylinder
N = Rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rps)

2.3.4. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP)


Brake mean effective pressure is an indication of engine efficiency regardless of
capacity or engine speed. Brake mean effective pressure is a widely used measure of the
load imposed on an engine. The brake was the device once used for measuring engine
torque. The pressure is the pressure in the engine cylinder.
𝑃
𝐵𝑀𝐸𝑃 =
𝑖×𝐿×𝐴×𝑧×𝑁
Where :
i = 0,5 for 4 stroke engine ; 1 for 2 stroke engine
L = Stroke lenght (m)
A = Piston Area (m2)
z = Amount of cylinder
N = Rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rps)

2.3.5. Torque
Torque is part of the basic specification of an engine. The power output of an engine
is expressed as its torque multiplied by its rotational speed of the axis. Internal-combustion
engines produce useful torque only over a limited range of rotational speeds. The varying
torque output over that range can be measured with a dynamometer.
Torque and Mean Effective Pressure are related to engine size. Where the bigger the
engine, the bigger the torque produced with the same MEP compared to smaller engine.
Mean effective pressure gives indication from utilization of engine displacement volume
in convertion of fuel into power. The higher the MEP, the higher the engine power for
every displacement volume given.
2𝜋 × 𝑁 × 𝑇 = 𝑃
𝑃
𝑇=
2𝜋 𝑥 𝑁
Where :
T = Torque (Nm)
P = Power (kW)

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N = Rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rps)

2.3.6. Brake Thermal Efficiency


Brake Thermal Efficiency is defined as break power of a heat engine as a function
of the thermal input from the fuel. It is used to evaluate how well an engine converts the
heat from a fuel to mechanical energy.
𝐵𝑃
ɳ𝑒 =
𝑄𝑓
𝐵𝑃
ɳ𝑒 =
𝑚𝑓 × 𝐶𝑣
Where :
mf = Mass of fuel (kg/sec)
Cv = Caloric value of fuel (kJ/kg)

2.3.7. Fuel Consumption


a. Fuel Oil Consumption
Fuel Oil Consumption (FC) is the amount of fuel needed by an engine in its
operational time. Defined in Kg/h unit.

b. Specific Oil Consumption (SFC)


Spesific fuel consumption (SFC) is the amount of fuel consumed by motor for
every unit of power and time in specific load and Rpm.
𝑚𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙
𝑆𝐹𝐶 =
𝐵𝑃
Where :
mfuel = Mass of fuel (g)
BP = Brake power (kWh)

2.3.8. Thermal Efficiency


Thermal efficiency is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses
thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine,
a boiler, a furnace, or a refrigerator for example, for power cycle, thermal efficiency
indicates the extent to which the energy added by heat (primary energy) is converted to
net work output (secondary energy). In the case of a refrigeration or heat pump cycle,

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thermal efficiency indicates the extent to which the energy added by work is converted to
net heat output.
𝑃𝑥𝑡
𝜂𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 =
𝑄𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙
Where :
P = Power (kW)
t = Time (s)
𝑄𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 = Heat (kJ)

2.4 Review Paper

Monitoring of fuel oil process of marine diesel engine


(David Boullosa-Falces, Juan Luis Larrabe Barrena, Alberto Lopez-Arraiza, Jaime
Menendez, Miguel Angel Gomez Solaetxe)

In this paper is discuss about monitoring of fuel oil process in marine diesel engine.This
paper discuss some device to monitoring fuel process like combustion,consumption,etc.To
monitor the fuel process writer use the Small and Sudden Deviations method in the process
(SSDM).This method is used by writer because correlation between them are very low and fuel

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process have a low variabel so SSDM is corresponding to monitor procces fuel at marine
diesel. The proposed method (SSDM), based on the combination of (Hotelling’s T^2+ Cusum),
can be implemented in any type of process in marine propulsion in a satisfactory and
economical way, helping in the identification of the origin of any type of deviation (small and
sudden) in the process early enough to implement the right predictive actions.The monitoring
diesel engine is have a function for identificate and control a fuel procces so more economical
and efficient.

The device used to control and identificate is based by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) .ANN
is computational thecnique used to monitoring many differential industrial process.With this
device the fuel consumption can be improved so will more efficient.

Conclusion

The proposed methodology for reduction of variables, through the analysis of


correlations between variables, was capable to reduce the number of variables, poorly
correlated between them, of fuel process of a running marine diesel engine; conventional
methods for variable reduction such as PCA was shown that were not efficient when the
correlation between variables was poor.

Through proposed methodology of monitoring of variables SSDM based on the


combination of (Hotelling T^2 +Csum) charts.High and sudden and also small and progressive
deviation in the process were detected.

The value of the differential pressure in the intercooler was not enough to overcome the
threshold set by the manufacturer; a small deviation in the SFOC variable was generated.
Without this identification, they would have had to wait for the value of the differential pressure
was above the threshold set by the manufacturer,resulting in a higher fouling of the intercooler
and an increase of the SFOC variable.

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Many processes involved in the operation of a marine dieselengine have decay small
and progressively in addition to suddenly,for this reason, this method has the advantage that is
can be customized for any type of engines because it is capable of detecting any type of
deviation (small and sudden) in the process; this can be performed in a simple and economical
way, at the request of the shipowner, depending on the operational conditions of the ship.

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CHAPTER 3
PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION
3.1. Practical Implementation
Practicum of marine diesel is conducted by the students with the aim to provide students
to understanding of the engine fuel consumption in various variations of loading and engine
speed. Praktikum conducted approximately for 2 hours by using diesel-fueled engines with the
following specifications:
Merk : YANMAR
Model : TF 85 MH
Type : In-line, single cylinder, 4 stroke, water cooled, direct
injection
Bore x Stroke : 85 x 87
Piston Displacement : 493 cc
Rated Power / Rated Speed : 5,5 / 2200

After prepared all the equipment needed for the practicum and diesel fuel to operate the
diesel engine then the lab can be conducted with the steps - steps as follows.
1. Ensure fuel is fully charged on the provided measuring cups.
2. Turn on the diesel engine by pulling the rope used for starting diesel engines.
3. Set the engine speed according to the specified value of 1700 rpm, 1800 rpm, 1900 rpm,
2000 rpm, and 2100 rpm. To know the engine rotation used tachometer tool is by
turning on the laser directed toward the pulley (cross-section).
4. Adjust the loading by turning on the lamp as the load value. Variations loading is done
without load, load 1000 watts, 1500 watts, 2000 watts, 2500 watts, and 2100 watts. The
loading is done from no load up to 2100 watts and repeats every round value tested.
5. Measure the engine time required for fuel consumption of 20 ml measured by stopwatch
by observing the volume indicator on the measuring cup.
6. Write down the time obtained on the table sheet that has been provided.
7. Measure the value of voltage and current generated on the load. The value is known by
tang meter and volt meter that has been installed in the series of load.
8. Write down the value of voltage and electric current readings that have been done on
tables that have been provided.
3.2. Tools and Materials

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No Name Picture Explanation

1 Diesel Engine Diesel engine as a generator drive


and Generator and generator will converting
electrical energy into mechanical.

2 Load Indicator As the load of the circuit.

3 Reservoir Solar To fuel diesel engines in order to


operate.

4 Tachometer To measure the rotation in RPM.

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5 Voltmeter To measure the voltage across the
load.

6 Amperemeter To measure the current in the circuit.

7 Stopwatch To measure the time required.

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CHAPTER 4
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Observation Result
Based on the practice of Marine Diesel, the following observational data are obtained.
Alternator Jml.
Putaran Putaran
Load Bahan Waktu
No Engine Generator Beban Tegangan Arus
Factor Bakar (menit)
(RPM) (RPM) (Volt) (Ampere) (ml)
1 1700 1236 0 0 0,85 3,04
2 1227 1000 54 3,5 0,85 2,17
3 1224 1500 53 5,7 0,85 1,39
20
4 1218 2000 52 7,8 0,85 1,3
5 1221 2500 51 9,8 0,85 1,2
6 1226 3000 50 9,7 0,85 1,14
1 1800 1306 0 0 0,85 2,56
2 1308 1000 51 3,6 0,85 2,18
3 1297 1500 50 5,7 0,85 1,51
20
4 1304 2000 49 7,9 0,85 1,28
5 1296 2500 48 10,1 0,85 1,17
6 1296 3000 47 12,2 0,85 1,06
1 1900 1374 0 0 0,85 2,54
2 1377 1000 47 3,8 0,85 1,51
3 1368 1500 46 6 0,85 1,32
20
4 1372 2000 45 8,3 0,85 1,22
5 1372 2500 44,5 10,5 0,85 1,12
6 1371 3000 44 12,6 0,85 1,01
1 2000 1449 0 0 0,85 2,53
2 1446 1000 43 3,9 0,85 1,50
3 1438 1500 42 6,2 0,85 1,30
20
4 1443 2000 41 8,6 0,85 1,20
5 1446 2500 40 10,9 0,85 1,07
6 1437 3000 40,5 13 0,85 0,58
1 2100 1521 0 0 0,85 2,47
2 1517 1000 39 4 0,85 1,40
3 1516 1500 38 6,4 0,85 1,26
20
4 1517 2000 37 8,9 0,85 1,10
5 1509 2500 37 11,2 0,85 1
6 1511 3000 37 13,5 0,85 0,55

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4.2. Calculations
Based on observational data obtained from the practice of Marine Diesel, the calculations
of data are required to be able to create graphs. Here is an example calculation on RPM 1700
load 2.
1. Calculation of 𝜂𝐵𝑒𝑙𝑡
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑅𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟
𝜂𝐵𝑒𝑙𝑡 = 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 𝑅𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟
1227
𝜂𝐵𝑒𝑙𝑡 = 850

𝜂𝐵𝑒𝑙𝑡 = 1,444
2. Calculation of Power
𝑉 × 𝐼 × 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
𝑃 =
𝜂𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 × 𝜂𝐵𝑒𝑙𝑡
134,5 × 3,0 × 0.9
𝑃 =
0.85 × 1,444
𝑃 = 296 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡
𝑃 = 0.296 𝑘𝑊

3. Calculation of SFC
a. Calculation of fuel mass flow rate (mf)
𝜌 × 𝑉𝑏𝑏
𝑚𝑓 =
𝑡
830 × ( 20 × 10−6 )
𝑚𝑓 =
147
𝑚𝑓 = 0,407 𝑘𝑔/𝑠
b. Calculation of SFC
𝑚𝑓
𝑆𝐹𝐶 =
𝐵𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑘 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
0,407
𝑆𝐹𝐶 =
0,296
𝑘𝑔
𝑆𝐹𝐶 = 1,374
𝑘𝑊ℎ

4. Calculation of Thermal Efficiency (𝜂𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙)


a. Calculation of Fuel Mass
𝜌 × 𝑉𝑏𝑏
𝑚𝑓 =
𝑡

14
830 × ( 20 × 10−6 )
𝑚𝑓 =
147
𝑚𝑓 = 0,407 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

b. Calculation of Combustion Energy (𝑄𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 )


𝑄𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 = 𝑚𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 × 𝐿𝐻𝑉
𝑄𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 = 0,407 × 41800
𝑄𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 = 16992,98 kJ

c. Calculation of Thermal Efficiency


𝑃𝑥𝑡
𝜂𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 =
𝑄𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙
0,296
𝜂𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 =
16992,98
𝜂𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 = 0.06

5. Calculation of Torque
𝑃
𝑇=
2 𝑥 3.14 𝑥 𝑟𝑝𝑠
0,296
𝑇=
2 𝑥 3.14 𝑥 28,33
𝑇 = 0,002

Based on the above calculation, all calculation results data are included in the following
table.
Volume Time Density LHV SFC Thermal
No 3 3
Power (kW)
(m ) (s) (kg/m ) (kJ/kg) (kg/kWh) Efficiency
1 20x10-6 184 830 41800 - 0%
0,000
2 20x10-6 147 830 41800 0,296 1,374 6%

3 20x10-6 122 830 41800 0,505 0,970 9%

4 20x10-6 90 830 41800 0,709 0,936 9%

5 20x10-6 80 830 41800 0,903 0,827 10%

6 20x10-6 74 830 41800 1,083 0,746 12%

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1 20x10-6 176 830 41800 - 0%
0,000
2 20x10-6 138 830 41800 0,354 1,224 7%

3 20x10-6 111 830 41800 0,565 0,953 9%

4 20x10-6 88 830 41800 0,791 0,859 10%

5 20x10-6 77 830 41800 1,022 0,759 11%

6 20x10-6 66 830 41800 1,250 0,724 12%

1 20x10-6 174 830 41800 - 0%


0,000
2 20x10-6 111 830 41800 0,403 1,335 6%

3 20x10-6 92 830 41800 0,652 0,997 9%

4 20x10-6 82 830 41800 0,907 0,804 11%

5 20x10-6 72 830 41800 1,148 0,723 12%

6 20x10-6 61 830 41800 1,386 0,707 12%

1 20x10-6 173 830 41800 - 0%


0,000
2 20x10-6 110 830 41800 0,462 1,175 7%

3 20x10-6 90 830 41800 0,726 0,914 9%

4 20x10-6 80 830 41800 1,015 0,736 12%

5 20x10-6 67 830 41800 1,278 0,698 12%

6 20x10-6 58 830 41800 1,554 0,663 13%

1 20x10-6 107 830 41800 - 0%


0,000
2 20x10-6 100 830 41800 0,522 1,145 8%

3 20x10-6 86 830 41800 0,802 0,867 10%

4 20x10-6 70 830 41800 1,116 0,765 11%

5 20x10-6 60 830 41800 1,413 0,705 12%

6 20x10-6 55 830 41800 1,708 0,636 14%

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In addition to the above calculation data as for the calculations that need to be done that is
at full load condition. Full load condition is a condition where the engine receives the maximum
load. Here's the calculation data for some full load values.
Power SFC Torque BMEP (kPa)
No RPM
(kW) (kg/kWh) (Nm) 1,5 KW 2 KW 2,5 KW

1 339,597 424,496
1700 1,289 0,00724429 254,698
1,208
2 1800 1,479 1,220 0,00785032 240,548 320,731 400,913

3 1900 1,641 1,075 0,00825176 227,888 303,850 379,813

4 2000 1,834 1,043 0,00876115 216,493 288,658 360,822

5 2100 2,022 0,922 0,00919927 206,184 274,912 343,640

The value of the condition is obtained from the existing graph analysis. Full load is taken
at the lowest curve point of the graph. For example, at 1700 RPM the full load power rating is
obtained from the SFC VS Power graph. Drawn a vertical line when the value of SFC is the
lowest at 1,208 kg / kWh, so it is known how much power in the SFC. The lowest SFC value
means that the engine works at a certain power with the most efficient or low fuel mass flow
rate. While the value of BMEP obtained from the vertical line withdrawal at the power remains.
Keep power is taken value 1). 1,5 kW, 2). 2 kW, 3). 2,5 kW.

4.3. Graphs Analysis


4.3.1 Graph of SFC VS Power

Based on the graph above we can observe the SFC value down to a certain power
then rise again. The full load value can be determined from the SFC Vs POWER graph.

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Respectively, At 1700 RPM of full load power of 1,803 kW and SFC of 0,746 kg / kWh.
At 1800 RPM the full load power is 1,250 kW and SFC 0,724 kg / kWh. At 1900 RPM the
full load power is 1,386 kW and SFC 0,707 kg / kWh. At 2000 RPM the full load is 1,554
kW and the SFC is 0,663 kg / kWh. At 2100 RPM the full load is 1,708 kW and the SFC
is 0,636 kg / kWh. Based on the value of full load SFC, it can be concluded that at 2100
RPM when working power 1,708 kW has the most economical SFC, which is 0,636 kg /
kWh.

4.3.2 Graph of Thermal Efficiency VS Power

Based on the above graph it can be seen that the thermal efficiency rises up to a
certain power point then drops back. Each large RPM engine has a maximum thermal
efficiency rating. It can be said to be the most efficient, respectively. At a round of 1700
RPM the 1,083 kW power has a thermal efficiency of 0,12. At 1800 RPM power speed of
1,250 kW has a thermal efficiency of 0,12. At a rotation of 1900 RPM the power of 1,386
kW has an efficiency of 0,12. At 2000 RPM power spin 1,554 kW has an efficiency of
0,13. On a 2100 RPM power cycle of 1,708 kW has a thermal efficiency of 0,14. So that
can be drawn conclusion of the greatest thermal efficiency at 1900 RPM when power 1,708
kW is 0,14.

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4.3.3 Graph of Power at Full Load VS RPM

Based on the above graph it can be seen that the power at full load moves up to the
specified RPM, which is 2100 RPM. The observed data can be mentioned respectively at
1700 RPM of full load power is 1,289 kW, at 1800 RPM the full load is 1,479 kW, at 1900
RPM the full load is 1,641 kW, at 2000 RPM the full load is 1,834 kW, And at 2100 RPM
of full-load power is 2,022 kW. So it can be concluded maximum full load power is at
2100 RPM is 2,022 kw.

4.3.4 Graph of Torque at Full Load VS RPM

Based on the above graph can be seen that the value of full load torque moves up
and down and up to 2100 RPM. The observation data can be mentioned respectively at
1700 RPM having torque of 0.00724429 kN, at 1800 RPM having torque of 0.00785032
kN, at 1900 RPM having torque of 0.00825176 kN, at 2000 RPM having torque of
0.00876115 kN, and at 2100 RPM having torque of 0.00919927 KN. So it can be
concluded that the largest full load torque is at 2100 RPM, which is 0.00919927 kN.

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4.3.5 Graph of BMEP VS RPM

Based on the above chart can be seen that the graph BMEP from 1700 RPM to 2100
RPM decrease. The observational data can be mentioned respectively that is P1 with
constant power of 1,5 kW BMEP value from RPM 1700 to 2100 respectively, is 254,698
kPa, 240,548 kPa, 227,888 kPa, 216,493 kPa, 206,184 kPa. At P2 there is a constant power
of 2 kW so that the BMEP value is 339,597 kPa, 320,731 kPa, 303,850 kPa, 288,658 kPa,
274,912 kPa, respectively. At P3 there is a constant power of 2,5 kW to obtain BMEP
424,496 kPa, 400,913 kPa, 379,813 kPa, 360,822 kPa, 343,640 kPa, respectively.
4.3.6 Graph of Engine Envelope

Based on the graph above can be seen the value of full load power tends to rise.
Graphs are used in calculations at 100% power and 60% full load to make engine envelope.
The calculated data can be mentioned that the full load is 100% consecutive 1,289 kW,
1,479 kW, 1,641 kW, 1,834 kW, 2,022 kW. So the full load power 60% is 0,7734 kW,
0,8874 kW, 0,9846 kW, 1,1004 kW, 1,2132 kW, respectively.

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CHAPTER 5
CLOSING
5.1. Conclusions
From the above discussion, it was concluded as follows:
1. From the experimental data of calculations on the laboratory depicted with the SFOC
vs power chart, it is known that the SFC value drops to a certain power and then rises
again. And it can be concluded the highest full load power of 2,022 kw with fuel
consumption of 0,922 kg / kwh at 2100 RPM engine speed. But the most efficient fuel
usage is at 1800 RPM when power works 1,479 kw with consumption of 1,22 kg / kwh.
2. From the experimental calculation data on a practicum described with a thermal
efficiency vs power graph, it is known that the thermal efficiency rises up to a certain
power point and then falls back. The highest thermal efficiency is obtained at engine
speed of 2100 RPM with 1,708 kw of engine power obtained by 14% efficiency.
3. In practice experiment obtained the highest full load value SFC at 1700 RPM engine
rotation of 1,208 kg / kwh. And the lowest full-load SFC or the most economical fuel
consumption is the engine speed of 2100 RPM is 0,922 kg / kwh.
4. In practice experiment can be seen that the power of full load up to the determined RPM
is 2100 RPM. From the experiment obtained maximum full load power is at 2100 RPM
round that is 2,022 kw. And the minimum full load is at 1700 RPM at 1,289 kw.
5. In practice experiment can be seen that the value of full load torque up and down to
2100 RPM round. Obtained Full Full High torque at 2100 RPM engine speed that is
0,00919927 N/m. Where full load torque is related to full load power owned by full
load power.
6. In the experimental experiment, the highest BMEP on the choice of 1,5 kw, 2 kw, and
2,5 kw is 424,496 kPa at the engine speed of 1700 RPM at 2,5 kw of choice power.
While the lowest BMEP is 206,184 kPa at 2100 RPM engine speed at 1,5 kw power
option.
7. In practice experiments can be seen that the value of full load power tends to rise as
well as graphs calculated full load power 100% and 60% to make engine envelope. For
full load power 100% has the largest value 2,022 kw and the lowest 1,289 kw. And for
full load power 60% has the greatest value 1,2132 kw and the lowest is 0,7734 kw.

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5.2. Suggestions
1. In reading the measuring glass of fuel, Voltmeter, and Amperemeter accuracy must be
increased in order to get the maximum results.
2. The safety of the practicum to be increased because sounds rather than machines can
impair health on hearing.
3. It is expected that the update of diesel engines because there was a slight accident that
the engine issued a lot of smoke so that endanger the students.

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