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 “A device for investigating the dimensional fitness

of a part for a specified function”: Definition given


by Sheffield Corporation.
 Definition given by ANSI: “A process of measuring
manufactured materials to assure the specified
uniformity of size and contour required by
industries.”
Gaging accomplishes two things:
1. It controls the dimensions of a product within the
prescribed limitations.
2. It segregates or rejects products that are outside these
limitations.

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Gages are designed to check one of the seven basic
elements of workpiece geometry:
1. Distance
2. Flatness
3. Parallelism
4. Perpendicularity(Squareness)
5. Angularity Gages are designed to check the
6. Concentricity acceptable variations(tolerances)
for the product to function properly.
7. Surface texture

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Types of gages:
Fixed gages are used to ensure that a product is
within the prescribed limits of size.
Indicating gages measure the extent of deviation
from a normal or basic size and provide a means of
evaluating the size of each part.
Combination gages are special devices designed to
measure or check more than one dimension of a
workpiece at a given set up.

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Advantages of fixed-limit gauges:
 They are free from errors such as drift, backlash, non-
linear response, power fluctuations
 Give a positive yes or no decision regarding acceptability
 No power supply required, can be used anywhere
 Quite rugged
 Less susceptible to inaccuracy caused by dirty conditions
 Relatively inexpensive
Disadvantages:
 Requires greater skill on the part of the inspector
 Do not give the amount of deviation from a nominal
dimension

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 Taylor’s principle:
It states that the ‘GO’ gauge should check all the
possible elements of dimensions at a time
(roundness, size, location, etc.) and the ‘NO GO’
gauge should check only one element of the
dimension at a time.
 ‘GO’ limit is for the maximum material limit
 ‘NO GO’ is for least material limit

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Fixed gages

RING GAGES

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Fixed gages

RECEIVING GAGES

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Fixed gages

PLUG GAGES

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TAPER PLUG
GAGE

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PIN GAGE

Snap Gage
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PLUG AND RING
THREAD GAGES

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Important Thread parameters
 Lead
 Angle
 Roundness
 Thread form
 Diameter
A single full-form plug or ring screw gage cannot
check all the thread elements.
At least three sets of plug or ring screw gages are
required to check a thread completely. One set will
check pitch diameter, the second the major diameter
and the third the minor diameter.

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Indicating gages/Comparators
The majority of indicating gages compare the actual
dimension of the workpiece with the dimension of
a master setting gage.

The amplification of indicating-gage movement


may be mechanical, pneumatic, optical, electric
and electronic comparators.
Also, a combination of these magnifying principles,
such as mechanical-optical comparators, electro-
mechanical comparators, electro-pneumatic
comparators, multi-check comparators etc..

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Desirable Characteristics of Comparators:
1. Record variations in microns.
2. Scale should be linear and have wide range of
acceptability.
3. No backlash and lag between the plunger movement
and recording mechanism.
4. Must be precise and accurate.
5. Indication must be clear, must return to zero and pointer
should be free from oscillations.
6. Design and construction must be robust.
7. Suitable and uniform measuring pressure.
8. Must possess maximum compensation for temperature
effects.

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Mechanical comparators
These instruments utilize the mechanical means of
magnifying the small movement of the measuring
stylus/contact plunger, which may consist of gear trains,
levers, cams, torsion strips, reeds and/or a combination
of these systems.
The magnification range is about 250 to 1000 times.
A mechanical comparator uses pointers as an indicator
pivoted around a suspended axis and moving against a
circular dial scale.
Ex.: Dial indicator, Johansson Mikrokator, Sigma Mechanical
comparator

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Depth gage
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REED MAGNIFIER

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Twisted-strip mechanical indicator
A: Spindle
B: Spring Knee
C: Twisted strip
D: Pointer
E: Graduated Scale

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Pneumatic Gage

The restrictive effect produced as the surface approaches the nozzle


has a well defined relation to the clearance between the two. This
effect can be amplified and transmitted to a scale for measuring
purposes.
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Differential Back Pressure Pneumatic Gage
Two master
gages are
required to set
the
amplification

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Solex Air Gauge
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Commercially available Pneumatic Comparator

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Advantages of pneumatic gages:
1. Simplicity
2. Deep bores or holes can be gaged.
3. Can be used without danger in an explosive
atmosphere.
4. Does not mar surface finish or distort fragile
workpieces.
5. Excellent for gaging rough surfaces.
6. Extremely fast and accurate.
7. Has a cleaning effect which reduces possibility
of false readings due to oil, dirt or contact on the
workpiece.

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Three wire thread measurement

Measurement of effective diameter of thread profile

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Optical Profile
projector

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Gage Design
 Material selection
High degree of wear resistance is required.
Chromium plating, Flame plated tungsten carbide,
Tungsten carbide, Ceramic etc. can be used.
 Gauge tolerance
This is required for gauge manufacturing, also known as
gaugemaker’s tolerance.
For normal limit gauges, it is 10% of work tolerance
For inspection gauges, it is 5% of work tolerance
For reference gauges, it is 10% of gauge tolerance

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Gage Design
 Wear Allowance
Wear allowance is given to prevent the gauge to pass
those parts which are not within its design tolerance
zone.
Wear allowance is applied to a ‘Go’ gauge only.
Wear allowance is usually taken as 10% of gauge
tolerance.
 Allocation of Gauge tolerance and wear allowance

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