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STRUCTURES - CONTROL SURFACE BALANCING - MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

AILERON

BALANCING THE AILERON


When the aileron control surface is being repainted, suspend it by the trailing edge so that excess paint will drain
toward the leading edge.
Assim que o aileron recebe tinta suspenda-o pelo bordo de fuga de modo que o excesso de tinta escorra pelo bordo
de ataque.
After any modifications, repairs or repainting, the finished surface must be check balanced to ensure that its static
moment about the hinge line is within the prescribed limits (Ref. Figure 201).
Após qualquer modificação, repáro ou repintura a superfície já acabada deverá ter seu balanceamento conferido para
verificar suas condições de estabilidade/momento/peso em relação ao eixo da dobradiça e dentro dos limites
prescritos.
The left-hand painted aileron assembly must be nose-heavy by 0.2 to 1.5 in-lbs.
O aileron esquerdo pintado deve ser pesado de nariz cerca de 0,2 até 1,5lbs/pol
The right-hand painted aileron assembly must be nose-heavy by 0.2 to 1.5 in-lbs.
O aileron direito pintado deve ser pesado de nariz cerca de 0,2 até 1,5lbs/pol.
The static moment of the aileron is determined by multiplying the unbalanced weight of the aileron assembly times the
perpendicular distance from the hinge centerline to the center of gravity when the chord line (CL) is horizontally level.

O momento estático do aileron é determinado pela multiplicando-se o peso desbalanceado do conjunto do aileron pelo
Distancia perpendicular entre a linha de centro da dobradiça e o centro de gravidade quando a corda (CL) estiver
nivelada horizontalmente
The weight is measured in pounds and the distance in inches. The static moment of a 100 percent balanced control
surface is 0.0 in-lbs. A tail-heavy surface exhibits static underbalance. A nose-heavy surface exhibits static
overbalance.
O peso e determinado em libras e a distancia em polegadas. O momento estático de uma superfície 100 por cento
balanceada é 0,0 ln-lb. Uma superfície com cauda pesada exibe condições de desbalanceamento estático. Uma
superfície com nariz pesado indica condições de sobrepeso estático.

CHECKING AILERON BALANCE

The checking the aileron balance must be preformed in a draft-free area with the aileron completely assembled in flying
condition. All painting, including stripes and touch-up, must be completed. The tab, tab pushrod, static wicks and hinge
bolts must be attached. The chord line must be horizontally level and the hinge line must be properly supported when
the static moment is measured. Although many different methods of check balancing exist, they can be categorized
under the following two methods (the counter-balancing method is the simplest method of check balancing):

A verificação do balanceamento do aileron deverá ser feita em um local sem corrente de ar e com o aileron
completamente montado e em condições de vôo. Toda a pintura, inclusive as fitas de fechamento retoques finais
deverão estar feitos . O Compensador, haste do compensador e eliminadores de estática bem como os parafusos
das dobradiças deverão estar instalados. A linha da corda deverá ser horizontalmente nivelada e o alinhamento da
dobradiça devidamente fixadados quando o momento estático estiver sendo medido. Apesar de existir vários métodos
diferentes de verificar o balanceamento eles podem ser categorizados sob um dos dois seguintes métodos:

• Counter-balancing Method - The application of a known force or weight at a measured distance from the hinge
line to counter the unbalance moment of the aileron assembly.

. Metodo do contra-balanceamento - A aplicação de uma força ou peso de valor conhecido a uma distancia
medida a partir do alinhamento da dobradiça para contar momento desbalanceado do conjunto do aileron

• Actual Force Measurement Method - A measurement of the force applied by the aileron surface on a single
support at a known distance from the centerline of the hinge.

Metodo da medida da força atual - Uma medição de uma força aplicada na superfície do aileron que esta
instalado em um suporte simples a uma distancia conhecida da lina de centro da dobradiça.

AILERON COUNTERBALANCING METHOD OF CHECK BALANCING

The equipment required to perform the check balance using the counter-balancing method is as follows:

O equipamento requerido pára conferir balanceamentos por este método é o seguinte:

• Stand with knife-edge supports (Ref. Figure 201). The knife edges must be in the same horizontal plane.

• Cavalete com área de suporte em forma de faca. Os fios das facas deverão estar no mesmo plano horizontal

• Paper cup or similar lightweight container.

• Copo plastico ou qualquer outro recipiente de peso leve similar

• Approximately 1 pound of lead shot.

• Aproximadamente 1 libra de chumbada

• Certified beam balance weighing device calibrated in units of 0.01 pound or less.
• Balança de braço aferida e com leituras de 0,01 libras ou menos

• Straightedge, ruler, and spirit level.

• Regua reta e nivel de bolha

Balancing Procedure for Aileron Counterbalancing Method

Note: Refer to Figure 201 when performing this procedure.

a. Locate the chord line (CL) by placing a straightedge at the inboard end of the aileron assembly so that one end is
on the trailing edge and the other end is centered on the leading edge.

a. Localizar a linha da corda colocando uma regua no lado interno do contorno do perfil do aileron de modo que uma
ponta fique centrada no bordo de fuga e a outra centrada na parte mais extrema da curvatura do bordo de ataque

b. Mark the chord line with a suitable marker, such as a grease pencil, then remove the straightedge.

b.Marcar a linha de corda com um lápis de cera e depois remova a régua.

c. Secure the trim tab (LH only) in its neutral position with a small piece of masking tape
(20-40-00, Table 1, 73).

c. Travar o tab no aileron esquerdo em sua posição neutra com um pequeno pedaço de fita adesiva

d. Fit the correct size bolts in the hinge brackets and mount the aileron on the knife-edge supports. Make sure that
the aileron is free to rotate about the hinge line.

d. Instale os parafusos certos nos furos dos suportes das dobradiças e monte o aileron nos suportes faca.
Certifique-se de que o aileron esteja livre para girar ao redor do seu próprio eixo na linha da dobradiça.

e. To determine if weight should be added or removed, attach a short length of small diameter string to a paper cup
and using the string, suspend the paper cup from a point near the center of the aileron trailing edge. Secure the
other end of the string to the aileron surface (near the aileron hinge line) with a small piece of masking tape. The
paper cup must be free to hang vertically.

e. Para determinar se haverá necessidade de adicionar ou remover peso, fixar um pedaço curto de barbante fino em
um copo de papel e pelo barbante, pendurar o copo em um ponto próximo ao centro do bordo de fuga do aileron.
Fixar a outra ponta do barbante na superfície do aileron (próximo a linha da dobradiça) com um pequeno pedaço
de fita adesiva. O copo de papel deverá estar livre para ficar suspenso verticalmente.

(Ref. Detail B, Figure 201).

f. Add small quantities of lead shot to the paper cup until the aileron balances with the chord line level. Check this by
holding the spirit level aligned with the marked chord line.

f. Adicionar pequenas quantidades de chumbada no copo de papel até que a corda do aileron fique nivelada.
Checar isso mantendo o nível de bolha alinhado com a linha marcada na nervura do perfil do aileron.

g. Measure distance D (Ref. View A-A, Figure 201). The distance D is measured from the hinge line to the
suspension point of the cup.

g. Medir a distancia “D” . A distancia “D” é medida a partir da linha de centro da dobradiça até o ponto de suspensão
do copo.

Note: The distance D must be perpendicular to the hinge line.

Nota: A distancia D deverá ser perpendicular a linha da dobradiça.

h. Remove the cup, contents, and string, then weigh them. This weight is W.

h. Remover o copo com a chumbada e o barbante. Pesar a chumbada.

Note: Since any weighing error is magnified by the distance D, weighing is most important and must be done
carefully on scales that are certified for accuracy.

Nota: Considerando que o erro na pesagem é aumentado pela distancia D é muito importante que a pesagem seja
feita cuidadosamente com balanças que estejam aferidas.

i. Calculate the static balance as follows:

j. Calcular o balanceamento estático como a seguir:

1. Insert the just obtained values for W and D in the formula in Step 3.

1. Inserir os valores exatos obtidos para peso e distancia (W e D) na formula descrita no passo 3.
2. The overbalance (nose heavy) or underbalance (tail heavy) Moment is designated as M.

2. O sobrepeso ( nariz pesado ) ou subpeso (cauda pesada) é designado como momento (M)

3. Solve for M using the following formula: M = W X D

3. Encontrar M utilizando a formula M=WxD

4. The painted aileron assembly must be nose-heavy by 0.2 to 1.5 in-lbs. If the static balance does not comply, pig
lead weight may be added or removed as shown in Figure 201 to obtain static overbalance. Refer to BALANCING
THE AILERON for additional information on static balancing the ailerons.

4. O conjunto do aileron pintado deverá ter um nariz pesado entre 0,2 e 1,5 in-lbs. Se o balancemento estático não
cumprir com este índice pequenas porções de chumbo poderão ser adicionadas ou removidas conforme a figura
para obter um sobrebalanceamente estático.

EXAMPLE:
For this example assume the aileron is overbalanced (nose heavy) and the paper cup was suspended from the trailing
edge. Also assume that the aileron balances with the chord line level at W = 0.150 pound
and D = 10.0 inches.
M=WxD
M = 0.150 lbs X 10.0 in
M = 1.50 in-lbs
M is within the required static balance range and is therefore acceptable (between 0.2 and 1.5 in-lbs).

ELEVATOR
BALANCING THE ELEVATOR

When the elevator control surface is being repainted, suspend it by the trailing edge so that excess paint will drain
toward the leading edge. After any modifications, repairs, or repainting, the finished surface must be check balanced to
ensure that its static moment about the hinge line is within the manufacturers prescribed limits (Ref. Figure 202).
A tail heavy surface exhibits static underbalance.
Uma cauda pesada exibe uma condição de sub-balanceamento estatico
A nose heavy surface exhibits static overbalance.
Um nariz pesado exibe uma condição de sobre-balanceamento estático.

The complete elevator assembly, painted or unpainted, including the control arm and the tab control rod must not be
tail-heavy over the maximum static moment noted as follows:

• On TC-1 thru TC-546, equipped with original skin or authorized spare replacement beaded skin: 22.6 in-lbs.

• On TC-1 thru TC-546, equipped with authorized spare replacement smooth skin elevator(s): 18.0 in-lbs.

• On TC-502 thru TC-546, equipped with original beaded skins and utility baggage door or authorized spare
replacement beaded skin for airplanes with utility baggage door: 17.5 in-lbs.

• On TC-547 and After, equipped with smooth skin original equipment or authorized spare
replacement: 18.0 in-lbs.

• On TE-1 thru TE-875 and TH-1 thru TH-257, equipped with original or authorized spare
replacement: 12.4 in-lbs.

• On TE-876 and After and TH-258 and After, equipped with original or authorized spare
replacement: 14.0 in-lbs.

CHECKING ELEVATOR BALANCE

The elevator balance must be checked in a draft-free area with the elevator completely assembled in flying condition.
All painting, including stripes and touch-up, must be completed. The tab, tab pushrod, static wicks, and hinge bolts
must be attached. The chord line must be horizontally level and the hinge line must be properly supported when the
static moment is measured. Although many different methods of check balancing exist, they can be categorized under
the following two methods:

• Counterbalancing Method - The application of a known force or weight at a measured distance from the hinge
line to counter the unbalance moment of the elevator assembly.

• Force Measurement Method - A measurement of the force applied by the elevator surface on a single support
at a known distance from the centerline of the hinge.

ELEVATOR COUNTERBALANCING METHOD

The following equipment is required to perform the check balance


the elevator using the counterbalancing method:

• A stand with knife-edge supports (Ref. Figure 202). The knife edges must be in the same horizontal plane.

• A paper cup or similar lightweight container.


• Approximately 2 pounds of lead shot.

• A certified beam balance weighing device calibrated in units of 0.01 pound or less.

• A straightedge, ruler, and spirit level.

Balancing Procedure for Elevator Counterbalance Method


Note: Refer to Figure 202 when performing this procedure.

a. Locate the chord line by placing a straight-edge at the inboard end of the elevator assembly so that one end is on
the hinge centerline and the other end is centered on the trailing edge. Mark the chord line with a suitable marker,
such as a grease pencil, then remove the straight-edge.

b. Secure the trim tab in its neutral position with a small piece of masking tape (Ref. 20-40-00, Table 1, 73).

c. Fit the correct size bolts in the hinge clevises and mount the elevator on the knife-edge supports. Make sure that
the elevator is free to rotate about the hinge line.

Caution: Be sure the forward top screw on the tip of the elevator leading edge is secured after the elevator has been balanced.

d. To determine if weight should be added or removed, attach a short length of small-diameter string to a paper cup
and secure the other end of the string to the elevator surface with a small piece of masking tape.

Para determiner se haverá necessidade de adicionar ou remover peso, fixar um pequeno pedaço de barbante fino
em um copo de papel e a outra ponta do barbante no revestimento do profundor com um pequeno pedaço de fita
adesiva.

Slightly loosen the forward top screw on the tip of the elevator leading edge.

Lentamente soltar o parafuso de cima da ponta do bordo de ataque do profundor.

Suspend the paper cup on the inboard side of the elevator leading edge tip and wrap the string around the screw.

Pendurar o copo de papel no lado de dentro da ponta do bordo de ataque e enrole o barbante ao redor do parafuso.

Secure the string to the surface with a second small piece of masking tape aft of the top forward screw and near the
hinge center line. The cup must be free to hang vertically. Refer to Detail B of Figure 202 for this step.

Prenda o barbante no revestimento com um Segundo pedaço de fita adesiva atrás do parafuso dianteiro da ponta e
próximo a linha de centro da dobradiça. O copo deve estar suspenso verticalmente.

e. Add small quantities of lead shot to the cup until the elevator balances with the chord line level. Check this by
holding the spirit level aligned with the marked chord line.

f. Measure D (Ref. View A-A, Figure 202). The distance D is measured from the hinge line to the suspension point of
the cup.

Note: The distance D must be perpendicular to the hinge line.

g. Remove the cup, contents, and string, then weigh them. This weight is W.

Note: Since any weighing error is magnified by the distance D, weighing is most important and must be done carefully on
scales that are certified for accuracy.

h. Calculate the static balance as follows:

1. Insert the just obtained values for W and D in the formula in Step 3.

2. The overbalance (nose heavy) or underbalance (tail heavy) moment is designated as M.

3. Solve for M using the formula: M = W x D.

4. The complete elevator assembly, painted or unpainted including the control arm and the tab control rod, must not
be tail-heavy over a maximum moment (see BALANCING THE ELEVATOR for airplane serials and applicable
maximum moment). If the static balance does not comply, remove the elevator horn cover and add or remove
solder to bring the elevator balance within required limits.

Note: Coat the weight with a corrosion preventative material such as zinc chromate primer to insulate the dissimilar metals.
Replace the elevator horn cover and recheck the balance.
EXAMPLE:
Assume the elevator is underbalanced (tail-heavy) and the paper cup was suspended from the horn. Also assume that
the elevator balances with the chord line level at W = 0.95 pound and D = 12.6 inches.
Airplane Serial is TE-880
M=WxD
M = 0.95 X 12.6
M = 12.0 in-lbs
M is within the required static balance range and is therefore acceptable (less than 14.0 in-lbs for this
airplane serial)

ELEVATOR FORCE MEASUREMENT METHOD


The following equipment is required to perform the check balance
on the elevator using the force measurement method:

• A stand with knife-edge supports (Ref. Figure 202). The knife-edges should be in the same horizontal plane.

• A certified beam balance calibrated in units of 0.01 pound or less. The balance should have a flat weighing
platform and its capacity should equal tare plus a minimum of 2.0 pounds.

• A support spindle similar to the illustrations and leveling blocks, as required. (Blocks + Spindle = Tare.)

• A straightedge, rule and spirit level.


Balancing Procedure for the Elevator Force Measurement Method
Note: Refer to Figure 202 when preforming this procedure.

a. Locate the chord line (CL) by

placing a straightedge at the inboard end of the elevator so that one end is

aligned with the center of the torque tube and the other end is centered on the

trailing edge. Mark the chord line by grease pencil or other means on the rib.

Remove the straight-edge. b. Fit the correct sized

bolts in the outboard and center hinge brackets and mount the elevator on the

knife-edges. Ensure that it is free to rotate about the hinge line. c. Support the trailing edge behind the center hinge
point

spindle resting on a leveled beam balance platform as illustrated. The spindle

must be vertical throughout the balancing procedure. d. Hold a spirit level against the marked chord line and level

it by extending or contracting the spindle, or by using blocks and shims under

the spindle. e. Measure the perpendicular distance

from the hinge centerline to the point supported by the spindle. Record this

distance as D. f. Ensure that the spirit level and

rule are removed from the surface and read the reaction on the beam balance.

Record this reading as R. g. Calculate the static

underbalance moment M using the formula M = D (R - T), where:

D=

Perpendicular distance from the hinge centerline to the spindle point (in

inches)

R = Reaction reading from the beam balance in pounds

T=

Tare (i.e. weight of spindle plus leveling blocks or shims on the platform scale

in pounds) h. The complete elevator assembly,

painted or unpainted including the control arm and the tab control rod, shall

not be tail-heavy over the applicable maximum static moment value listed by

airplane serial under BALANCING THE ELEVATOR. If the

static balance does not comply (is not within the applicable range), remove

solder to bring the elevator balance within the required limits.


EXAMPLE:
Airplane Serial is TC-547
D is 13.5 inches, R is 1.89 lbs, and T is 1.00 lb
M = D (R - T)
M = 13.5 (1.89 - 1.00)
M = 12.0 in-lbs
M is within the range which is satisfactory (less than 18.0 in-lbs. for this airplane serial)
RUDDER
BALANCING THE RUDDER
Warning: Due to rudder imbalance the airplane must not be flown with the rotating beacon light removed from the rudder.
When the rudder surface is being repainted, suspend it by the
trailing edge so that excess paint will drain toward the leading edge.
After any modifications, repairs or repainting, the finished
surface must be check balanced to ensure that its static moment about the hinge
line is within the manufacturer's prescribed limits (Ref. Figure 203).
On airplane serials TC-1 and After, the complete rudder
assembly, painted or unpainted including the control arm and with or without the
bellcrank attached, shall not be tail-heavy over a maximum of 15.0 in-lbs.

On serials TE-1 and After and TH-1 and After, the complete
painted rudder assembly, with or without the bellcrank attached, shall not be
tail-heavy over a maximum of 4.5 in-lbs.
The static moment of the rudder is determined by multiplying the
unbalanced weight of the rudder assembly times the perpendicular distance from
the hinge center line to the center of gravity when the chord line (CL) is
horizontally level. The weight is measured in pounds and the distance in inches.
The static moment of a 100 percent balanced rudder assembly is 0.0 in-lbs. Tail
heaviness indicates static underbalance while nose heaviness indicates static
overbalance.
CHECKING RUDDER BALANCE
The rudder balance must be checked in a draft free area with the
rudder completely assembled in flying condition. All painting, including stripes
and touch-up, must be completed. The tab, tab push rod, static wicks, and hinge
bolts must be attached. The chord line must be horizontally level and the hinge
line must be properly supported when the static moment is measured. Although
many different methods of check balancing exist, they can be categorized under
the following two headings:

• Counterbalancing - The application of a known force or weight at a measured distance from the hinge line to
counter the unbalance moment of the rudder assembly.

• Actual Force Measurement - A measurement of the force applied by the rudder surface on a single support at a
known distance from the center line of the hinge.
RUDDER COUNTERBALANCING METHOD
The equipment required to perform the check balance by
counterbalancing is as follows:

• A stand with knife-edge supports (Ref. Figure 203). The knife-edges must be in the same horizontal plane.

• A paper cup or similar light weight container.

• Approximately 2 pounds of lead shot.

• A certified beam balance weighing device calibrated in units of 0.01 pound or less.

• A straightedge, ruler, and spirit level.


Balancing Procedure for Rudder Counterbalance Method
Note: Refer to Figure 203 when performing this procedure.

a. Locate the chord line (CL) by

placing a straight-edge at the lower closure rib of the rudder so that one end

is aligned with the center of the torque tube while the other end is centered on

the trailing edge. Mark the chord line with a suitable marker, such as a grease

pencil, then remove the straightedge. b. Secure the

trim tab position in its neutral position with a small piece of masking tape

(20-40-00, Table 1, 73). c. Fit the correct sized bolts in

the hinge brackets and mount the rudder on the knife-edge supports. Ascertain

that the rudder is free to rotate about the hinge line. d. To determine if weight should be added or removed, suspend
a

paper cup from a point near the center of the rudder trailing edge if the

balance is nose down or near the center of the leading edge if the balance is

tail down. Use a short length of small-diameter string secured to the surface

with a small piece of masking tape


(Ref. Detail C, Figure 203). The cup must be
free to hang vertically. e. Add small quantities of

lead shot to the cup until the rudder balances with the chord line level. Check

this by holding a spirit level aligned with the marked chord line. f. Measure distance D (Ref. View B-B, Figure 203).
The distance is

measured from the hinge line to the suspension point of the cup.
Note: The distance D must be perpendicular to the hinge line.

g. Remove the cup, contents, and string, then

weigh them. This weight is W.


Note: Since any weighing error is magnified by the distance D, weighing is most important and must be done carefully on
scales that are certified for accuracy.

h. Calculate the static

balance as follows:

1. Insert the just obtained values for W and D in the formula in Step 3.

2. The overbalance (nose heavy) or underbalance (tail heavy) Moment is designated by M.

3. M = W x D

4. The complete rudder assembly, painted or unpainted, including the control arm and with or without the bellcrank
attached, must not be tail-heavy over the maximum static moment value listed by airplane serial
under BALANCING THE RUDDER. If the static balance does not comply, remove the rudder-horn weight and add
or remove solder to bring the rudder balance within required limits.

Note: Coat the weight with a corrosion preventative material such as zinc chromate primer to insulate the dissimilar
metals. Replace the rudder horn weight and recheck the rudder balance.

EXAMPLE:
For this example, assume the rudder was slightly underbalance (tail heavy) and the paper cup was suspended from the
leading edge. Also assume that the rudder balances with the chord line level at W = 0.35 pound
and D = 10.0 inches then.
Airplane Serial is TE-23
M=WxD
M = 0.35 x 10.0
M = 3.5 in-lbs
M is within the required static balance range and is therefore acceptable (less than 4.5 in-lbs. for this
airplane serial).
RUDDER FORCE MEASUREMENT METHOD
The equipment required to perform the check balance by force
measurement is as follows:

• A stand with knife edge supports (Ref. Figure 203). The knife edges should be in the same horizontal plane.

• A certified beam balance calibrated in units of 0.01 lbs. or less. The balance should have a flat weighing
platform and its capacity should equal tare plus 2.0 lbs. minimum.

• A support spindle similar to the illustration and leveling blocks, as required. (Blocks + Spindle = Tare.)

• A straightedge, rule and spirit level.


Balancing Procedure for Rudder Force Measurement Method

a. Locate the chord line (CL) by

placing a straight-edge at the lower end of the rudder so that one end is

aligned with the center of the torque tube and the other end is centered on the

trailing edge. b. Mark the chord line by grease

pencil or other means on the rib. Remove the straightedge. c. Fit correct size bolts in the upper and center hinge
brackets

and mount the rudder on the knife edges. Ensure that it is free to rotate about

the hinge line. d. Support the trailing edge behind

the center hinge point with a spindle resting on a leveled beam balance platform
as illustrated. The spindle must be vertical throughout the balancing procedure.

e. Hold a spirit level against the marked chord

line and level it by extending or contracting the spindle, or by using blocks

and shims under the spindle. f. Measure the

perpendicular distance from the hinge centerline to the point supported by the

spindle. g. Ensure that the spirit level and rule

are removed from the surface and read the reaction on the beam balance.

h. Calculate the static underbalance

moment M using the formula M = D (R - T), where:

D = Perpendicular

distance from the hinge center line to the spindle point (in inches)

R=

Reaction reading from the beam balance in pounds

T = Tare (i.e. Weight

of spindle plus leveling blocks or shims on the platform scale platform in

pounds) i. The complete rudder assembly, painted or

unpainted, including the control arm and with or without the bellcrank attached,

must not be tail-heavy over the maximum static moment value listed by airplane

serial under BALANCING THE RUDDER. If the

static balance does not comply, remove the rudder-horn weight and add or remove

solder to bring the rudder balance within required limits.


Note: Coat the weight with a corrosion preventative material such as zinc chromate primer to insulate the dissimilar metals.
Replace the rudder horn weight and recheck the rudder balance.
EXAMPLE:
Airplane Serial is TC-12
D is 13.8 inches, R is 1.87 lb, and T is 1.00 lb.
M = D (R - T)
M = 13.8 (1.87 - 1.00)
M = 12.0 in-lbs
M is within the range which is satisfactory (less than 15.0 in-lbs for this airplane serial)

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