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The Avalon Hill Game Company's GENERAL is dedicated
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A Player's Look at BULGE '91 By Brien Martin
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by mail. Address changes must be submitted at least six
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not accepted, but news of Importance to the gaming commu- Considerations for the Gennan Player of BULGE '91 By Brien Martin
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upon publication.
Third Edition BULGE '81 By Bruno Sinigaglio
EXECUTIVE EDITOR: Donald J. Greenwood
GRAPHICS: Jean Baer, Charles Kibler and David Dobyskl
GENERAL Subscriptions: Kathleen Grazer Reference Notes for ASL By Andrew Hershey
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Systems of the Combined Arms Battle By Carl Schwamberger
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Frihammen, S·100 56 Stockholm; WEST GERMANY: DAS
Spail, Rentzelstrasse 4/Ecl<e Grindelalle, 2000 Hamburg 13. PBEM REPUBLIC OF ROME, Part 2 By G. Englestein, B. Andrews,
Questions: R&D; Note: All questions should be diagrammed.
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listed on separate pages and accompanied by a separate The Case for PBEM By Russ Gifford
SASE for sach game. Please, no phone calls regarding either
rules questions or AREA ratings; such Information will no! be
given without a written request.
IF YOU CHANGE YOUR ADDRESS: Inform us immediatelyl
The Post Office destroys undeliverable magazines even ff you The Latest in Competitive Gaming By Russ Gifford
leave a forwarding address. The Avalon Hill Game Company
assumes no responsibility for Issuesloet due 10 lin invalid
address. Please state both your new and old address. ONE DAY AT A TIME 53
Copyright 1991 ISSM 0888-1081 Strategic and Tactical Hints for D-DAY By Robert Allred
work a bit harder to find and develop a local
gaming group, but you can do it.
Over the years I have heard a variety of
methods used to find and develop local
wargaming opponents. One, of course, is
to check with your local educational sys-
tems; perhaps there is a game club at the
nearby high school or college. Many area
businesses (from the laundromat to the

grocery store) offer bulletin boards on
which to post personal notices free of
charge. Hometown newspaper classified
ads are usually fairly inexpensive, particu-
larly so when you select suburban or small
community papers. Look into the activity
schedule of your local community center
Part 143 and library system; they may not have
exactly what you are seeking, but the
chess club that you find can be a great start
in developing some new opponents.
The following editorial comes from the The chance to really sample a game you .Which leads naturally to a method that I
pen of Kevin Fitzpatrick, owner/manager of may have been thinking about purchasing have found particularly successful in my
the St. Louis shop Games, Crafts, Hobbies but just hadn't decided upon is yet another area - but one that does involve a bit of
& Stuff (which some readers may remem- advantage of attending a wargame con- dedication and effort: teaching gaming! A
ber was held up as what I perceive a good vention. "game class" offered by an individual or
game store should be, back in "The Avalon Avalon Hill has recognized the positive group can be an excellent method of find·
Hill Philosophy #135"). Recently, Kevin benefits that small, local conventions offer ing and/or nurturing new garners. The class
took over the reins of GAMA 's "Retail Divi- for years, and supports many in many dif- can be formal in nature, or very informal in
sion". ferent parts of the country. So important is presentation, and can be offered in a vari·
the game convention to the well-being of ety of locations from libraries, to church
Each issue of The GENERAL contains the hobby that Avalon Hill has taken to halls, civic centers, area schools, or even
an "Opponents Wanted" column: garners organizing its very own; in 1991, Avalon- at that local retail hobby store. Classes do
looking for fellow garners with which they Con was a great success in gathering the involve a commitment to a regular sched·
can share this wonderful hobby. They may people that enjoy the hobby of gaming. The ule, a certain amount of preparation in pro·
be interested in GETTYSBURG, ASL, Avalon Hill booth is always a prominent moting and executing the class. But the
WOODEN SHIPS, THIRD REICH or any of feature at the major conventions.. such as work isn't all that hard, and it is gaming,
a host of other games from the wide variety ORIGINS and GenCon each year. And the after all. And it is a wonderful chance to
produced by Avalon Hill. But one tenet AH product line is stocked by numerous meet new opponents and develop new
holds true for all these folk; they are looking retailers that attend many of the smaller players.
for someone to play games with them. game cons across the country. Committing yourself to a regular sched·
The Opponents Wanted column is a The hobby retailer is another place that ule will help make your game class a stan-
wonderful service to the gaming public by offers you a potential source of new dard in the life of the participants (your stu-
Avalon Hill. No doubt countless players garners. If your area is served by a retail dents). And this soon leads to a regular
have been able to make contact with other store that sells wargames, there are proba- evening or weekend of game playing for
hobbyists by using this venue. It is some- bly other people besides you that buy them them. Initial promotion can be as simple as
thing which we should all thank Avalon Hill there. The retailer might even have a game posters at the location of the class, notices
for providing to the people that purchase room in-store where you and others can posted on bulletin boards, a call to your
their games. It would be much easier on gather to enjoy your pastime. If the local schools inviting their chess club mem-
the part of AH to just "take the money and retailer's floor space doesn't allow for a bers to sit in, or through short press
run", not caring if you or anyone else ever game room, perhaps they have a bulletin releases mailed to your local media several
found anyone with which to share our board where you can post a notice that you weeks in advance of the start of your class.
hobby. That is not the case however; are looking for opponents. The retailer or The execution of the teaching is also a
Avalon Hill is in this for the long haul, not some of the store staff may themselves be fairly simple adventure once you have
just the short term, and has obviously garners, and could be willing opponents - started. A basic outline of what each ses-
made up its corporate mind that helping its or perhaps they know of a game club in the sion will involve will probably suffice; and
customers is the very best way to stay in area that might be of assistance to you. If many of the products by Avalon Hill
business. (Something - I might add - that the retailer does not stock wargames heav- through the years are set up in the "pro-
Avalon Hill has managed to do for a long ily (or at all), often they will be willing to take grammed instruction" mode, perfect for
time.) your name and phone number to pass it getting hobby newcomers playing. This
Opponents Wanted is just one step in the along to others that they know play your method adds new rules as one progresses
quest of finding someone with which to play brand of games; or they might be able to through the scenarios, so these games are
a wargame. Another method that might be direct you to another in-town store that already designed to ease others into the
employed is attending conventions. The sells the game products in which you are play. There are also now on the market
GENERAL also carries a listing of conven- interested. some fine "introductory" wargames, with
tions in each issue that the game player But, just what can you do if the Oppo- but one page of rules; again, Avalon Hill is
can use to locate gaming activity, hopefully nents Wanted column has no nearby play- a leader in this effort. (I've found poster·
near to his home. Conventions usually offer ers, no conventions are held in your area, sized reproductions of the game charts can
the player a wide selection of gaming from no clubs are around, and the nearest be very helpful, but are not really neces·
which to choose. The regional game con- retailer is hundreds of miles away? This sary.) Should you wonderfully wind up with
vention also offers an excellent opportunity type of situation (which is rare) makes more participants than you have made your
to meet with other interested aficionados, enjoying our hobby difficult to be sure; but
that may in many instances live nearby. impossible, certainly not. You may have to Continued on Page 55, Column 3

A Picture
is Worth
1,000 Words!
...and our new
has 1,000 uses!
We say new" because the tray

now comes with a hinged

self-locking lid, and can be
hung on a peg-board hook for
easy display.
If ifs small, it holds all. And won't fall. At all!
Ever since we unveiled the new Counter Tray with attached lid, sales
among wargamers skyrocketed. Ideal for storing game pieces in an orderly
fashion, wargamers' wives and mothers suddenly found they were also useful
for storing buttons and bows, strings and rings, pins and needles, and all
sorts of doodads. A great item for the craft industry!
There's no end to the items people have been storing in the Counter Trays.
Cardboard troop counters, metal and plastic soldiers, tanks, planes, boats...you
name it, wargamers find that the Counter Tray is great for keeping game pieces
organized so that set-up time for each game is minimal.
The new Avalon Hill precision-made one-piece Counter Tray with snug-fitting
lid that locks shut is just what the doctor ordered (some doctors do find the time to
play Avalon Hill/Victory games).
And through the hole at the top, it can be hung on any rack or peg-board hook.

Number Item Suggested Retail

1100011 COUNTER TRAY $2

The Aval~~IO!!iJLQ~~NcCompany
4517 Harford Road * Baltimore, MD 21214 * 301-254-9200



A Player's Look at BULGE '91
By Brien Martin
When Avalon Hill released the new BATTLE The Box: From the moment you first see the covers the basics of movement and combat. The
OF THE BULGE at ORIGINS 1991, my initial box, it reaches out and grabs your attention with format is similar to the one used in GETTYS·
reaction after opening the box was, "I've got to its bright red color and bold white lettering. BURG '88 (another of Craig Taylor's designs),
write an article about this game'" After mulling Once you check out the superb cover art by I'll touch on the rules themselves later.
over my options, I settled on composing an old- George Parrish (who I feel is one of the best in The Battle Manual: The source book for the
fashioned gamer's review (since I could not the business), purchasing the game can't be far game's three scenarios, as well as home for all
possibly play enough to formulate one of those behind. And the price, in these days of $50 the Optional Rules and historical background
fme strategy articles which I myself read every games, is an added incentive. But for those not on the battle. A new gamer will fmd this book·
chance I get). My next step was to ask, "What swayed by the outer beauty of a game, let's let a treasure trove of information; and the old
makes a good review?" After all, one man's move inside for a closer look. hands will love the exceptional options offered
treasure is another's excuse to write a nasty let- The Mapboard: The map is a fairly faithful (which I'll cover later as well). 1
ter to Rex Martin. What could I do in my article recreation of the old BULGE '81 art, except that Also included with the game are two Order
to let readers "inside" ahe game without simply this one is much more compact and the hex of Appearance cards and two ten-sided dice (in
recounting the rules verbatim? What compari- scale consequently much larger. Once again, my case, one red and on blue). With these,
son to BULGE '81 could I, or should I, draw? Charlie Kibler has produced a map that is both you've everything you need to enjoy a game of
How much beer would I have to consume functional and a pleasure to lo,ok at. (Is it just BULGE '91. You'll fmd that box is much larger
before I could write coherently on what is fast me, or does Charlie actually get better with than it needs to be to hold the components. But
becoming a favorite of mine? After tossing age?) if you make use of one or two of the Avalon
such questions around, I opted for a straightfor- The Counters: Most of the counters are of the Hill counter trays to hold the pieces, you'll find
ward approach. Let me take you from the out- five-eighth inch variety, with the half-inch that it makes a perfect fit. This is a "hidden
side of the box inward, pausing along the way counters reserved for use in various optional bonus", one I'm sure the designer hadn't
to touch upon the best (and the worst) of rules. I must admit that while the counters are intended.
BULGE '91. This should give you some the usual high Avalon Hill quality, the colors
insights into the newest member of the family, are a bit drab (especially considering that the Now that you've read this far, you are no
and prepare you for the other articles that fol- game is aimed to get the younger folks into doubt wondering just what Craig Taylor did to
low. I hope, in the process, that you will learn wargarning). Kids love bright colors, and the recreate the situation of which wargame fans
enough to want to go out and add it to your own rich blues and greens found in BULGE '81 have grown so fond? Well, he's made some
collection. would have satisfied that craving (which is changes for the sake of simplicity, and all are
To begin, I must tell you what BULGE '91 is some of the appeal of video games, I suspect). for the better. Without a doubt, Mr. Taylor has
not: It is not hard to learn; it is not complicated The counters are few in number (194) since become the foremost professional designer of
(even when using all the Optional Rules); it is they generally depict division-sized units, introductory wargames - and he doesn't disap-
not easy to master. It is not BULGE '81 redone. which will please even the grognards who point here.
If you can't get past that basic fact (despite the remember fondly the days when one counter Since the hex scale is larger, the individu~
comparisons I may draw to that now-retired sheet was all any game ever needed. bridges which were a centerpiece of much of
classic), then stop reading now. You'll need an The Rules Sheet: A single, two-sided sheet of the strategy in BULGE '81 are no longer. There
open mind to approach this newcomer. rules is all you'll need to get into the game. It are now assumed to be inherent in each river
hexside, which can allow any unit to cross a your own movement factor allows. I have found #13: Air Operations: This is the best variant
river (although one of the optional rules does this system makes for an excellent game of cat- of the bunch. Why? Because it presents the
allow for river crossings to be "contested" by an and-mouse as the Allied player strives to use Allied player with even more options and deci-
opponent). Movement in general is much sim- every trick at his disposal to slow the German sions, though neither side can be sure it will
plified. Units are classified as either "leg" (fac- steamroller, which can (with the dice on their receive air support on any given day. In fact,
tors printed in black) or "mechanized" (factors side) sweep across the board in the early turns. there may be some days when the Germans will
printed in white). Leg units move in one of In addition, mechanized units may use rule the skies, causing the enemy great discom-
three ways: 1) up to their printed movement "exploitation" attacks to simulate the old tactics fort. The actual rule is quite simple, another
factor if engaging in combat; 2) one less than of blitz warfare. In essence, a mechanized unit great feature. When rolling for the weather (#13
that printed on the counter if either entering or which wins a combat may enter the hex just must be used in conjunction with #12), you will
leaving a zone-of-control (ZOC) but not enter- vacated by the loser, and then attack that same find an Allied and a German "air modifier"
ing combat (more on this later); or 3) double its unit again. After this second battle, the mecha- listed next to the result. Add or subtract these as
movement factor if it neither enters nor leaves a nized unit (if it wins) may advance yet again - indicated from a die roll by each player. The
zoe and does not engage in combat. Mecha- but may not attack. In my limited experience, end result indicates the number of missions
nized units enjoy the same three options, but such breakthroughs are a vital element of Ger- each has available. There are four mission
double the factors when entering/leaving ZOCs man strategy. types:
without combat and triple if neither doing battle Victory is based on a calculation of towns 1) Air Superiority: the side with the most
nor entering/leaving ZOC. Road movement controlled (each carries a number of VP) and air missions may assign any or all of these
bonuses are not given for hexes in an enemy enemy units destroyed or reduced. There are no to this option; for every two such missions,
ZOC (entering a ZOC costs an extra movement complicated provisions (ala BULGE '81) for the enemy player loses one of his own
factor). specific towns to be occupied for the German missions.
Stacking has been eliminated (except when player to win. Basically, the German player will 2) Air Drop: allows the Allied player
using the optional "Task ForcelKampfgruppe" look to grab what he can and cause as many (only) to remove one "Unsupplied"
rules). No two units may ever end their Move- casualties as possible, then seek to avoid losses marker currently on the board for every
ment Phase stacked together, a radical depar- while defending what he has taken in the latter two missions assigned.
ture from most traditional wargames. But keep stages of the campaign. For the Allied, the order 3) Interdiction: allows the Allied player
in mind that BULGE '91 has been designed as is reversed. (again, only) to choose an enemy unit he
an introductory game; as such, this simple rule will attempt to interdict with each such
will keep units visible at all times to avoid con- And that's all there is to BULGE '91: a fast- mission; by winning a die roll, an inter-
fusing the novice player. paced game that will prove fun and challenging dicted unit now becomes "out of supply"
Combat follows the proven GE1TYSBURG for all levels of players. But if this isn't enough (which means it cannot move until the
'88 system, in which the attacker and defender for the "hard-core", there's more. The Optional next tum - unless it is by then placed out of
add their combat factors to any modifiers (any Rules add a bit more detail, and many more supply by ground units as well). Although
values between "0" and "10" resulting), which decision points. Let's look at each of these. there has been some debate over this, I
total is then added to the roll of their ten-sided #10: The Initiative Marker. Basically (no personally like the effect, since it removes
die. The comparison of the two results quickly pun intended), this rule allows the player hold- a unit from play rather than just slows it
shows the players what happens (the higher ing the marker to ask for a re-roll (whereupon down. There will be many a German
total being the "winner"). Unlike GE1TYS- the marker is surrendered to the opponent for whose plans are derailed when key units
BURG, any large-sized counter can take four his use in some future situation). I prefer not to are pinned down for a tum.
"losses" (after the first two, the counter is use this rule, since part of the enjoyment of 4) Close Support: carmot be used to sup-
flipped over to its reduced-strength side) before wargaming is to curse one's luck. But for those port a mechanized exploitation attack, but
elimination. This retains the flavor of the who are looking for an even closer match, it otherwise adds a die roll modifier to an
"bloodless" CRT, while allowing the novice to will help to even out the bad luck (as shown in attack of choice.
avoid the "factor counting" which slows down the Series Replay of GEITYSBURG '88 back in #14: Supply: This is almost identical in the-
more complex designs which use percentage Vol. 25, No.5). ory to that of BULGE '81, except that one can
odds to determine combat results. A player may #11: Special German Units: Remember the trace supply through a ZOC if that hex is occu-
even commit more factors than the maximum commandos and paratroopers in BULGE '81? pied by friendly troops. Supply is not traced
of ten to a battle so that, should he lose, he can Well, they're back - along with the 150th along roads, but along any length of connected
take losses from the extra unit instead. In sum- Panzer Brigade - to wreak havoc behind the hexes that lead back to the appropriate colored
mation, the combat system works very well. Allied lines. The commando units have been hexes boarding the map (black for Allies, gray
Terrain Effects Modifiers are equally simple reduced to just two counters, but Allied units for German). Supply for both sides is deter-
to apply, except that players are reminded that can make a "commando check" only while in mined at the end of each half-tum.
for each unit which attacks across a river in a the same hex as a commando unit. The para- #15: German Fuel Supplies: This has the
single combat a penalty is attached (rather than troopers have a fair chance of landing in this earmarks of a classic. The extra burden of plan-
just one for the whole attack). Ditto for mecha- version (60%), although they may come down ning how to use the fuel available may just
nized units attacking in a woods hex. Each unit in such a scattered pattern that the counter just make BULGE '91 a hit with gamers. The Ger-
which does either suffers a -1 modifier. In addi- sits on the board until it is eliminated. The man player starts the game with 25 fuel factors,
tion, anew terrain feature (not found in BULGE 150th Panzer enters on 18 December and, when and receives five additional each tum. But it
'81 that is) depicting the Siegfried Line gives used with Optional Rule #17 (Opposed River costs one fuel factor to "activate" a number of
the German a -3 modifier when attacked in his Crossings), acts like a commando unit. leg units or mechanized units each tum. Units
fortifications. #12: Variable Weather: Unlike previously, which are not activated may not move. The
Another interesting point is that zones-of- the weather is not pre-determined by date. number of combat units each fuel factor acti-
control do not behave as in most other games. Instead, this option allows you to get stuck in vates decreases as German units move farther
Entering a ZOC does not require that unit to anyone of five types of weather: sunny, away from the friendly edge of the board. It is
halt and enter combat. Indeed, the option is gloomy, snow, wet and storm. Each affects not uncommon for the Germans to spend eight
open to the players, who may have enough ground and air operations to a certain extent. fuel factors per tum, but this "5 forward, 8
movement remaining for that piece to continue For example, under "sunny" conditions, the back" approach will lead to a dwindling fuel
onward. This makes for some interesting tacti- movement costs to enter a rough or forest hex is supply by the middle of the game.
cal play, such as deploying a Task Force into altered from "2" to "I"; while under "storm", Which is why it's vital for the German player
the ZOC of a mechanized unit to deny it the road movement bonuses are negated and both to capture as many of the six Allied fuel depots
opportunity to claim tripled movement. Or to players denied the use of close air support and located around the mapboard as possible. Each
slip past a thin line, if the enemy and terrain and air drops. depot varies in fuel factors it grants from one to
eight (the 8-factor and 4-factor dumps are
placed where the Stavelot and EE9 dumps were
in BULGE '81). Of course, the Allied player
may destroy the dumps, but only when the Ger-
mans are within two hexes of it (and not on it).
In addition, the Allies may attempt to blow only
one dump per turn, which gives the German a
fair chance to capture at least one.
#16: Task Forces & Kampjgruppes: The
most "complex" of the Optional Rules, this
allows either side to create "mini-units" from
larger units, allowing a wider range of activity.
The process is simple enough, but requires each
player to record just which unit has broken
down into which mini-units. Stacking is
allowed by these mini-units, either with their
parent or with others from the same parent unit.
Frankly, I found this option too involved for the
novice, and too tedious for the accomplished
player (the combat factor of all mini-units is
"I", reducing their role to that of garrison
units). Of course, these mini-units can later be
recombined with their parent if needed.
#17: Movement Options: This fmal rule pre-
sents a number of individual options that may
be incorporated as players see fit:
17a deals with River Crossings. Since the
individual bridges which have sprinkled other
Bulge designs are absent, this rule goes so far as
to force any unit which attempts to cross a river
hexside and enter an enemy ZOC to pass an
immediate die roll, which represents the
enemy's attempts to blow or block the inherent
bridges. If the moving unit has, however, begun
the turn in the hex bordering the river, it is
assumed to have prevented such demolition.
17b covers Prepared Positions/Entrench-
ments. Simply put, any unit which does not
move may build a Prepared Position in the hex.
If a previous Prepared Position is built upon
again, it becomes an Entrenchment. The modi-
fiers for each are located conveniently upon the
17c limits British unit attack capability to the
area west and north of the Meuse, although they
may move and defend anywhere, unless sur-
rounded by German ground units.
Finally, 17d allows each player the option of
setting up his starting units in different hexes
than those specified by the Order of Appear-
ance cards. The catch is that you must still place
a unit in each hex listed, although that unit may
be different than the one specified. The Allied
player, as expected, sets up flISt.

What Craig Taylor has done in melding the

elementary and elegant system of GETTYS-
BURG '88 with the best of the popular BULGE
'81 should earn him some kind of award.
Despite its low complexity, BULGE '91 pro-
vides experienced players with enough options
to keep it engaging even for them. It is a game I
believe is destined to become a "classic" in its
own right. If, like me, you'll accept the new
introductory games from The Hill as a frontier
to be tamed, and used to bring others into (or at
least explain to them the joys of) our hobby,
new challenges will open for you. As for me, I
leave for Bastogne again in the morning, via
BATTLE OF THE BULGE '91. Hope to meet
you there.


Considerations for the German Player of BULGE '91
By Brien Martin

When the German forces broke from the say, I lost that game.) As the German comman- fall back. Most of the ground you gain on the
Siegfried Line on the morning of 16 December der, you must avoid falling into the trap of over- way out will likely be lost on the way back. But,
1944, they crossed a line drawn by desperation caution and forgetting that you are on the if you have gained enough Allied casualty
- a line which would mark the beginning of the attack. points in the process of both, you win.
end of Hitler's Third Reich. Once you have Next, you must pay close attention to your While this bit of advice may seem vague,
elected to take the German role in Craig Tay- fuel reserves, which you have been forced to keep in mind that I could ramble on for pages
lor's BATTLE OF THE BULGE '91, you too use freely on the first three turns as you break on this point. Unlike the rather prosaic prob-
face an incredible task: to win what many histo- through the Allied line and look to gain large lems of fuel conservation and expenditure, the
rians consider to be a "no-win" situation. With chunks of territory. This concern can lead the capture of sufficient territory to accomplish this
dwindling fuel supplies, little or no air support, unwary into another trap, especially if your fall-back defense varies greatly from game to
and units thrown together without regard for opponent seems to be willing to freely give game, and from opponent to opponent. I have,
quality or equipment, you must be both tacti- ground up to your advance. Remember that one for instance, been known to thrust two or three
cian and juggler, trying to keep the delicate bal- fuel factor will allow the movement of either units out towards the Meuse, grabbing what
ance between aggressive advance and conser- five leg units or two mechanized ones - so long they could so long as I could keep a supply line
vation of precious supplies. And in trying to as you haven't reached row N. If you want to open. I have also, against another opponent
walk this tightrope, you will face an enemy who make gains beyond row N, make certain that with a differing temperament and style, pulled
daily grows more powerful as Allied reserves you do so with no less than the minimum num- up at Bastogne for a protracted battle of attri-
are rushed to the sector. ber of units one fuel factor can activate (even if tion.
But it can be done in BULGE '91, with a you don't use the full potential of a factor, you Having determined, very briefly, that the
combination of speed and power in the opening must still expend it). Unless you have managed German player must be aware of the arrival of
turns. Have an appreciation of when to use to overrun a few fuel depots along the way, you Allied reinforcements, the amount of fuel he
fmesse and when to use force, and you can roll haven't the fuel to waste. has available, and the amount of territory he
into Namur and Dinant victorious. Note that the In the games I've played recently, the Ger- wants to grab, we can move on to some tactical
following comments refer to Scenario Three, mans can be at row N by December 21. During considerations.
''The Ardennes Offensive", unless otherwise the advance, they will have had no less than
indicated. four chances to capture a fuel dump. To be The new zone-of-control (ZOC) rules allow
Your Allied opponent will suffer from a effective, you need to threaten two depots at the Allied player to slip into your ZOCs without
dreadfully low number of units on the battle once, since the Allied player can only attempt forcing combat. A shrewd opponent will do this
front at fIrst, and even starts the game with two to destroy one depot per turn, and only if Ger- as much as possible, for it accomplishes two
units already at reduced strength. If you fail to man units are one or two hexes away. Once you important things: it automatically denies you
exploit this initial weakness, you will fmd the have moved forces onto the depot, it is yours if the highest number of movement factors, and it
going tough. The experienced Allied player you can remain in place until the start of your forces you to decide whether to fight on your
will use his wealth of arriving reinforcements next turn. Obviously, threatening two is the coming turn or try to bypass the unit(s) in your
and air power to plug the holes, hold back your minimum to give you a good chance at captur- way. In either case, the Germans lose valuable
advance, and eventually win back lost territory. ing one. time trying to get where they need to go. If you
As the German player, how does one keep If you can't get at least one 3-factor dump (or make use of the "Task Force/Kampfgruppe"
this from happening? By following some basic better), you'd best start considering how to rein rules (16.), the situation is more common; be
guidelines. I will avoid the more prosaic listings in most of your forces to conserve fuel. Your prepared for the Allies to break down some
of "best" opening moves, simply because the calculations on how to gain a victory have larger units into pesky "mini-units" which can
game's "Battle Manual" already offers a sound become much more complicated, and with greatly impede your progress. Keep in mind
example (see 9b therein). While there are cer- . every turn - as the bulk of your forces lurk that he wants to slow you down until massive
tain refinements I might make, generally Mr. along hexrow N - you are forced to make some reinforcements arrive, then strike back at you
Taylor's offering of a German opening is suit- hard decisions. This simple rule on fuel usage with great force. To face that coming storm, the
able. Though the combat results may vary (destined for entry into the "Rules Hall of Germans need to press forward as much as pos-
widely (part of the charm of this system), using Fame") makes this new game a wirmer in terms sible as fast as possible in order to have ground
this opening should crack the initial Allied line, of tactical and logistical planning. Once you to trade for casualties. And, you can't even
and pin your opponent on the edge of despera- have mastered the methods of conserving fuel, counter this Allied tactic by creating your own
tion you want him to feel throughout this game. you are well on your way to becoming an expert "mini-units" because they tend to dissipate your
But what next? What should you do to miti- in BULGE '91. attacking strength, and you can ill afford that.
gate that onslaught of Allied reinforcements While I am exploring the topic of gaining Allied supremacy in the air will also cause
and keep the momentum gained in this first ground, another consideration arises. How you troubles to no end. Most Allied players I
tum? What should you be concerned with? much is too much? The answer will depend on have faced attempt to interdict my biggest units
The first, and most obvious, item on your a variety of variables, including your own tem- whenever possible, since a successful one will
checklist is to become familiar with the Allied perament. Too, you must take account of the place that unit out of supply until the end of the
"Order of Appearance" card. It will tell you fuel reserves remaining, German casualties, turn. If you face this, and if you have the fuel to
both when and where his reinforcements can be and so forth. My general rule of thumb is to be spare, one counter-measure is to activate one or
expected. Armed with this foreknowledge, you aware of the victory conditions for the scenario two extra units which you have no intention of
can plan your attack in such a way that you can being played, and then grab as many cities as moving (ones close to key Allied positions
cover potential entry points with enough force possible while trying not to be caught off-bal- work well). The Allied opponent will be forced
to either delay the entry of those enemy forces ance by a surprise counter-attack. When the to make a choice, and hopefully interdict the
or hinder their movement to critical areas of the Allied attack comes (and it most surely will), "wrong" unit ... or gamble that you were bluff-
map. But be careful! In the old BULGE '81, I you can afford then to give up some of these ing. If he does ignore your decoy, move it. And
once became so pre-occupied with stopping cities - making the enemy pay for them, of try to plan your critical attacks so that two or
Patton's entry onto the board that I neglected to course, so that you make up for the territorial three units are close enough that they can be
press my own attack in other areas. (Needless to losses by accumulating Allied casualties as you substituted in the case of an emergency. There
will be times (rare though they may be) when saving his own units and plugging holes in his to the nearest whole value). As the reader can
you will have the upper hand in the skies. If you line than with trying to isolate your units at this see, unless one always makes attacks at +9, one
can, use your Air Superiority to limit Allied stage. But, if isolating a strong German unit is can never be certain of avoiding a loss (at least
options; otherwise, devote all German air what he desires, let him; you can readily break one with no casualties). Indeed, unless you
power to Close Support missions (every "+ I" it on the next turn if you must. This may slow have at least a +1 differential, you can't count
modifier you can get is worth its weight in down your advance a bit, but you will make a on better than 50-50 results.
gold). bigger gain the following turn I'm sure. Even- However, you can increase your chances of
Contesting each river crossing will be yet tually, with some experience, you will be able inflicting casualties from 21 % when fighting an
another Allied tactic of which you will soon to devise "isolation-proof' plans that minimize even battle to 72% when fighting with a +6
tire. Even though the individual bridges which even this slight risk. modifier to your favor. At +7, the battlefield
were printed on the old BULGE '81 are no Be aggressive! Don't hesitate to use a lot of becomes a killing ground for your Germans as
longer visible, they still exist as an inherent fea- fuel in the first turns of the game, for you must you now possess a 55% chance of inflicting two
ture of the river hexside. To combat the Allied move quickly and establish a strong position step losses, which can cause a unit to be elimi-
tactic limiting you to a 20% chance of crossing, before the Allied reserves come in to stem the nated altogether. Of course, you want as many
move into the hex bordered by the river but do tide. Too, rapid advances will bring you nearer outright kills as possible in the early stages.
not cross it. By starting the next turn in this hex, to those vital fuel depots you'll need to reach But, flipping units (reducing them by one step)
the unit will not be subject to passing a die roll the Meuse. Capturing that 8-factor dump near still gains you victory points, so use every
(which equates to the old rule in which players Stavelot is the same as getting a no-cost turn, opportunity to be aggressive. In desperate
couldn't blow up a bridge occupied by the and can mean the difference between defeat and straits, you may even take comfort in the low
enemy). As a bonus, you will create an "all victory perhaps. But even the smallest of the percentages of causing a one-step loss for the
clear" crossing for subsequent units to use. Allied dumps can provide you with some mar- negative differentials.
Needless-to-say, the Allies will use prepared gin of surplus. To that end, every advantage Unlike its predecessors, this new version of
positions and entrenchments to thwart attempts you have (such as the optional German Com- "The Bulge" does not allow for "Contact" or
to capture key cities and road junctions. These mando units) must be put to use. "Engagement" results. This means that you
offer "+I" and "+2" (respectively) modifiers. On the other hand, don't show your hand too (nor, more significantly, the Allied player)
The only way you can overcome this is by soon. If you only plan to push as far as Bas- Cail't wage a battle in the hopes of tying down
amassing enough combat factors to offset the togne and then defend the bulge with all your one or more enemy units. Although, some
benefit the defender will enjoy. This won't force, don't just stop once you get there. Push a might argue that this is what a draw implies.
always be easy, but it's not impossible either. bit further, for it will force the Allied player to Obviously, in the early stages, the German
Besides, you have no choice if you really want continually re-adjust his own plans. As with player wants to avoid such, so the higher the
that spot of ground. Likewise, the Allied player any game, the novice player must learn how to differential the more chance of progressing for-
will spend a lot of time at the beginning of the balance the delicate scale between aggressive ward. At first, you should have little difficulty
play hiding his units behind rivers and/or in the play and caution; BULGE '91 is the perfect tool in attaining at least a +1 differential.
forests to gain the combat modifiers (the for teaching this admirable ability. Those who
penalty for mechanized attacks into forest can master that balancing properly can usually When all is said and done, the best German
hexes is particularly galling, for you've plenty lay claim to expert status within the wargaming strategy is one of speed and power. Once that
of them). Again, if you want the hex the only community some day. stage comes to an end, the game becomes one
choice you have is to mount a massive attack. Don't forget that you can make use of pre- of attrition, with the Allies holding a growing
pared positions as well. Taking a city and then manpower edge after December 21st. As the
As in the battle itself, the German player has forgetting to do so is sheer foolishness. Make German commander, you must constantly be
immense power at his command, and an initial the Allies pay when they move to take back aware of the arriving Allied reinforcements,
advantage in mobility (mechanized units). But each city. If they should attack early in the how much fuel you have with which to maneu-
he will be handcuffed by fuel reserves and game and you can hold them off, even for one ver your units, and what the odds may be in
enemy air superiority. Taking the German role, turn, counterattack with whatever forces you each combat you initiate (and likely results).
you may indeed lose a few games at first, not can get to the battle site to cause as much dam- Playing the German side well demands that one
because of a flaw in strategy, but due to miscal- age as possible. Even if you must evacuate the be aware of strategy, logistics and tactics -
culations in your tactics and in balancing your city later, you will have gained maximum ben- albeit on a simplified level. It may take practice
fuel reserve with the demands placed on it. So, efit from the position. to gain this ability, but it can be done. And at
let's briefly look at what you can do with the that point you are ready for more complicated
forces at your disposal. The chart found below shows the percentage wargames, either on this subject or another.
Use mechanized units whenever you see the chance of losing a battle (to varying degrees), Speed and overwhelming power applied to a
opportunity to carry out Exploitation attacks. winning a battle while inflicting no casualties, focal point opened the Second World War. And
This will shove the Allies back quickly in the winning and inflicting one step, and winning it was the continued insistence by the German
early game, and allow you to grab territory as a while inflicting two steps. The differential in High Command that such would always win the
buffer against his future counterattack. Don't combat totals is computed as the difference day that doomed the Third Reich to its infa-

worry overly about being out-of-supply. The between the attacker's total modifiers and those mous place in the history of warfare. I feel that
German attack should be so fierce and constant of the defender. Obviously, the vertical BULGE '91 has its own special place in the his-
that your opponent will be more concerned with columns total 100% (entries have been rounded tory of wargarning.

Combat Results:

Differential in Modified Combat Strength for Attacker:

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9
l:Ose (2 Steps LOst) 36% 28% 21% 15% 10% 6% 3% 1% -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Lose (1 Step Lost) 28% 27% 24% 21% 18% 15% 12% 9% 6% 3% 1% -- -- -- --
LOse (0 St~s LOst) 21% 24% 27% 28% 27% 24% 21% 18% 15% 12% 9% 6% 3% 1% --
Draw (0 Steps Lost) 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1%
Win (0 Steps LOst) 9% 12% 15% 18% 21% 24% 27% 28% 27% 24% 21% 18% 15% 12% 9%
Win (1 Step Lost) 1% 3% 6% 9% 12% 15% 18% 21% 24% 27% 28% 27% 24% 21% 18%
Win (2 Steps LOst) -- -- -- 1% 3% 6% 10% 15% 21% 28% 36% 45% 55% 64% 72%


Suggestions for the Allied Player of BULGE '91
By Brien Martin

Just previously in this issue we discussed atop it, you must first force that unit to retreat. nity to make use of their maximum potential
some considerations which a German player Finally, you must roll 1-4 on a single die, and movement on any given tum. Since entering the
will be faced with in any campaign game of that roll can be modified by "+1" if a German ZOC does not automatically force combat to
BULGE '91, Avalon Hill's neWest chapter in commando unit occupies the hex. occur in this game system, you force the enemy
wargaming's love affair with this battle. In For the daring Allied commander, it is possi- to either accept this slow-down or waste a tum
keeping with the American laws regarding ble to tum this to your advantage and try to attacking the hapless little unit. Further, as with
equal time, let me turn now to a brief consider- entice the Germans into a little trap. The plan is any unit, it can be used to contest a river cross-
ation of some Allied concerns. In some cases, easy to implement, and may even lead an inex- ing, perhaps buying yet more precious time.
my comments will merely elaborate on points perienced German into thinking you are playing Indeed, except for their size, these gnats have
raised in the article on German strategy. In into his hands. In the opening turns, simply give all the capabilities of a full-strength unit. Play-
other instances, however, the situation is pecu- ground, secure in knowing that you have plenty ers wishing to prosper as the Allies will become
liar to the Allies (much the more difficult role to of troops just waiting to enter the board and adept at their use.
play well in this game, I feel). stem the tide. An overly aggressive German Central to the Allied strategy of the now
To review, the Allied player begins the cam- player may send his troops forward en masse, defunct BULGE '81 was the rule that allowed
paign in a very tenuous position, one not helped past hexrow N, where the activation costs begin air units to interdict German ground units;
by the fact that two of his units are already at to rise. Each tum of movement may now cost when successful, this could cause problems for
reduced strength. The thin American line will the German 10-11 fuel factors instead of 6-7. the enemy by effectively reducing German
be hard hit on the first tum, as well; those 29 As he reaches that line, your opponent has a dif- movement potential for anyone tum. The new
combat factors you begin with may soon be ficult choice facing him: does he pursue a seem- BULGE '91 has a similar rule, one which I feel
much less. In addition, the German opponent ingly disorganized foe, or does he halt the bulk far better reflects the situation. In the new
begins with the bulk of his force on the board of his forces? If he goes forward with just a few game, the Allied player may use any of his air
(71 combat factors, with another 56 arriving as units to conserve fuel, he may put you in posi- missions to interdict German ground forces too,
reinforcements). So he seemingly possesses the tion to annihilate the lonely German units near- but if successful the unit is represented as being
power necessary to go waltzing across Belgium ing the Meuse. But if he pulls back, he may not temporarily out-of-supply (which means that it
with little trouble. Or does he? have enough city Victory Points at the end. cannot move at all, rather than just being slower
Let's consider some of the many options you, Which raises the point of VC for the Allied than usual). Availability of such air missions is
as the Allied commander, have at your disposal player. Just as the German must be concerned not pre-determined by date or weather as
to slow - if not stop - the German advance. As with them, you simply must be aware at the before, but rather is unpredictable (although the
with so many other games, what the designer beginning of each of your turns what the Ger- Allies have the edge). Some days, the Allies
(or history) gives to one side in terms of power man total is, what he still needs to win, and may even find more of the Luftwaffe in the
and/or speed, he balances with special circum- what losses you can suffer and still have a skies than the USAAF or RAP; when outnum-
stances (in the form of special rules), terrain chance for victory. This must be the most bered, you can expect the German to use that
and numbers. One may master the play of one important item on your checklist of things to do temporary superiority to keep your flyboys out
side, yet fail with the other, in a wargame each turn (even the early ones). It is far too easy of the action.
because taking advantage of each demands a to forget in the drama unfolding on the board. I But, when you have the upper hand, then you
certain temperament. Those who can find a way have seen Allied players sacrifice good units to need to use your air force as efficiently as pos-
to win under both sets of conditions can usually hold a city worth no points; they are simply sible. Obviously, you want to use your own air
be found on the AREA Top 50 listing. handing the opponent Victory Points. Remem- superiority to knock out any German close sup-
ber, VP are awarded for four things in BULGE port missions. Next, use whatever you have left
To begin, tum to the Order of Appearance '91: control of given cities (as printed on the to accomplish one of two objectives: air drop
cards. Just as the German player must be aware mapboard), enemy units eliminated (equal to supplies to your out-of-supply units and/or
of when and where your reinforcements arrive, the full-strength combat factors), units which interdict any threatening enemy units. If no air
so you must be aware of the location and fre- have been reduced (the difference between full- drops are feasible, go for as much interdiction
quency of the German reserves coming on- and half-strength factors), and units under a as possible, looking to cancel as many potential
board. Why? because the Germans have certain "Loss" marker. It is especially important for threats as you can.
units which enter the game only if special con- you, as the Allies, not to waste units for any- To best judge the potential results, look to the
ditions are met, usually in terms of the capture thing not absolutely vital. If you can fall back, accompanying chart. Each air unit committed
of cities or fuel dumps. Knowing that the Ger- do so without fail - don't be stubborn. to a single interdiction mission adds a "+2" to
man player will not receive some back-up One of the most unique optional rules allows the die roll for effect. When compared to the
troops if he does not attain an objective gives you to create small units, termed "Task German roll, the Allied player must have dou-
you an advantage, and can be a boost to your Forces". As I noted earlier, they can be a thorn bled it for the interdiction to be successful. The
sagging morale as he romps across the board in for the German player (who does not even have chart displays the chances for Allied success
the early turns. Always consider what you can the satisfaction of effectively employing them when using one, two, three or four units to
do to deny your opponent those additional himself). These Task Forces are created from interdict the German. As you can see (and have
units. full-sized combat units by flipping that unit probably guessed on your own), the more com-
Too, you must protect or destroy as many of over during a friendly game tum; counters mitted to the mission, the better the chances of
the fuel dumps as you can. Any weakness of the equal to the difference between the full and success. If you interdict as often as possible,
enemy is to be exploited, and I feel the fuel sit- reduced combat strength of the unit are then you will cause the German opponent great dis-
uation is the greatest one he faces until your placed in the same hex as the "parent". There comfort as his planned attacks do not come off.
growing strength begins to be felt. The proce- will be some bookkeeping necessary, but it is However, he does have some tricks to coun-
dure to destroy a dump in BULGE '91 is quite all worthwhile when you consider what this teract your efforts at interdiction. I have men-
simple on the face of it. You may attempt to do special rule can mean to the Allied commander. tioned before the German use of decoys, acti-
so only once per turn, and only those within one Once these Task Forces have been generated, vating units which he has no intention of mov-
or two hexes of an enemy unit are eligible for you can insert these tiny units into the ZOC of ing so as to "soak up" your activities (provided
demolition. If the enemy unit is actually sitting German units, thus denying them the opportu- he has the fuel to waste on such deception). If

Chance of a Successful fiers can make the difference between a defeat

and holding a critical spot for another turn (see
Interdiction: the table in the previous article).
Of course, no discussion of the Allies would
German Total Allied Air be complete without touching upon the subject
Die UnitslModifiers of terrain advantages. Starting with the histori-
Roll 1/+2 2/+4 3/+6 4/+8 cal "friend" of the Allies, the rivers, even a
1 1 ()()OZ, 1()()~ 1 flOOJ_ 1 flO.%. novice can readily see that if he keeps the bulk
2 90% 100% 100% 100% of his forces behind the rivers on the mapboard,
_3 "ii\Oi. OIlOf.-' 1 flfl% 1 flfl07_ he will be rewarded with higher casualties
4 50% 70% 90% 100% among the Germans (a "+1" modifIer for each
'\ ~OOk 'iOOk 700/0 90% enemy unit which is attacking across the river).
6 10% 30% 50% 70% In addition, keeping Allied units behind the
7 -- 10OJ~ ~Q% '\fl~ rivers will enable the player many opportunities
8 -- -- 10% 30% to contest the crossings, which will eventually
a -- -- -- 109< slow the German advance or make it uneven.
We also find that Allied units which "hide"
10 -- -- -- --
in the forests get a "+1" to their combat roll for
each mechanized unit attacking them. Since
he is an experienced and clever player, he will almost 80% of the German force is mechanized,
also arrange his forces to make certain that two you would be foolish not to take advantage of
or more units are capable of carrying out any this fact.
key attack, again spreading your effort. Inter- Finally, we move into the "rough" terrain.
diction of enemy forces can be a great help, but Here the defender receives a "+ 1" as well,
it is not a certain solution to the problems the which may be all you can muster in key areas of
Allied player faces. A good German player will the mapboard. Notice, however, that a great
do all he can to counter it, with some success, many of the roads pass through rough terrain. If
so don't bet the farm. you want to interdict a road, I can think of no
better way than by stationing a unit in the rough
As the Allied player, you have a vast array of terrain astride it. While on this topic, I feel it
"minor" tactical tricks which can be utilized to necessary to stress just how important the road-
slow and upset German plans. By "minor", I net can be in this "simple" game.
refer to the fact that these tend to be forgotten The German player will attempt to use the
too often by first-time or novice wargamers try- road network to his advantage to get from place
ing to master the game system. However, expe- to place as quickly as possible. As mentioned
rience will bring these to the fore, which is the often, he possesses a great many mechanized
point of the whole exercise, as BULGE '91 units and these can literally "fly" allover the
intrigues the newcomer to our hobby. board. That is, they can if you allow them. Use
The fIrst I wish to call attention to invokes protective terrain to hide in while placing road
Optional Rule 17 a, which deals with the Allied hexes in your ZOCs. This not only slows the
ability to "contest" river crossings. The enemy down, but will force him to attack you at
mechanics are easy enough to understand: if a lower odds than he would like to open his sup-
German unit moves into a hex, crosses its river ply lines. Control the roads and you control
hexside and attempts to enter an Allied ZOC in what the German can do - and when. Study the
the same turn, you may roll one die. On a result road net to be sure that you have cut all alterna-
of "9" or "10", the enemy has grabbed a bridge tive routes.
to cross safely, which allows him to mark the
hexside with the equivalent of an "all clear" As the Allied commander in BULGE '91, you
marker. Subsequent German units may pass will be faced with the task of holding off an
across it without needing to face this die roll. enemy that has superior numbers, speed and
But on any other roll, you have blown the power. Doing so will demand that you use
bridges and that unit must stop, thus killing every trick which the rules have graciously
more time to your benefit. given you - contesting river crossings, garrison-
Another tactic, which any Allied player ing cities with the British, creating pesky Task
might miss, deals with the use of British units. Forces, utilizing the air and terrain available to
(If not using Optional Rule 17c, disregard the its best advantage.
following for they are not restricted in their In reality, the Germans did cross the line
usage.) Under 17c, all British units are drawn by the Allies in the snow of the
restricted in their attack; although they can Ardennes. But they were thrown back. That
move and defend anywhere on the map, they must be your goal as well. Those who do not
can only attack to the west and north of the lose heart will find their tenacity pays off as the
Meuse unless the Germans have surrounded the Germans slow, their fuel reserves dry up, and
British unit. What this means is that the best use they begin to take serious casualties. BULGE
for your British units is to garrison individual '91 is not for the timid player, but for the
cities, thus freeing American units to counterat- aggressive - regardiess of which side you play.
tack elsewhere. Since the British can defend Finally, learn from your mistakes, and you will
themselves, and since they can counterattack if come to play the game in the same league as the
isolated, you won't be sacrifIcing anything. long-time wargamers you see at every conven-
Rule 17b goes hand-in-hand with the afore- tion. Perhaps some day you will regard it as a
mentioned tactic in that you may use prepared "classic", the game which got you started in our
positions and entrenchments to help the British
defend these cities. Never underestimate the
value of those field fortifIcations; those modi-
hobby - just as some do AK, DD and WAT
today. '*


The Reduction of the Ardennes Salient
By Arnold Blumberg

By 27 December 1945, the initiative in the December 27th saw the Americans retake the enemy in the bulge (after the preceding four
battle in the Ardennes was slipping from the town of Sibret with elements of the newly days saw the British and Americans conduct
hands of the German Wehrmacht. With the arrived Combat Command A of the 9th over 10000 sorties which claimed the destruc-
northem and southern shoulders of the "Bulge" Armored Division. This town, located south- tion of 2323 German trucks, 207 tanks, 45
holding and the western tip blocked by Ameri- west ofBastogne, was on the Neufchateau-Bas- trains and seven bridges). Yet such logistical
can armor, the scales were clearly tipping in togne road, and its loss by the 26th Volks- losses to the Wehrmacht could not be replaced
favor of the Allies. It appeared at this date that grenadier opened another supply lifeline to that and so resulted in significant supply and move-
the time for a full-blown counterattack was the vital American position. Reacting to the loss of ment inhibitions that further reduced the fIght-
next logical step for the Western Powers to Sibret, the Fuhrer Begleit Brigade was ordered ing power of their formations struggling in the
take. to attack the Arlon-Bastogne corridor on the salient.
US generals Patton, Bradley and Ridgway evening of the 28th. This attack, poorly coordi- Three days before the end of December,
urged this course on the Commander-in-Chief, nated, was easily beaten back. commanders on both sides reconsidered their
Eisenhower - an attack from the shoulders of Hitler was furious; his new orders were that, options in the Ardennes. With the German
the salient would pocket every German in the upon arrival of more forces, Bastogne was to be advance there apparently stopped, Eisenhower
Ardennes west of the Siegfried Line and most taken at all costs. But the Germans were not the urged his subordinates to prepare to cut the
likely end the war within a few months (at least only ones rushing men and material to the Bas- German penetration in half by way of a drive
by their way of thinking). But British Field togne front. The US 35th Infantry, 6th Armored from both sides of the salient aimed for a junc-
Marshal Montgomery and US First Army com- and 11 th Armored divisions were at the same ture at the town of Houffalize. Not only would
mander Hodges felt that this "get-up and time moving to Bastogne to counter the enemy this reduce the bulge in the Allied lines, but
charge" strategy was too risky. They were con- threat in that area. would also relieve the continuing pressure on
cemed about the poor weather conditions that The next two days saw great pressure applied the US troops at Bastogne. Montgomery
might limit tactical air support, the even worse to the German Seventh Army holding the protested. It was his contention that the Ger-
road conditions in the area of operations, and southern shoulder of the Bulge. Seventh Army mans had both plenty of fight and men left to
the possibility that the Germans may have more was merely to defend in place what they had make such an operation a gamble at best. It was
armored units available not yet committed to won after the German offensive started in mid- finally agreed that if the enemy had not
the battle. December. But the attacks of the US 26th launched any new attacks on the north side of
General Eisenhower - having been caught by Infantry Division, just east of Bastogne against the bulge by the turn of the new year, the US
surprise by the enemy onslaught of mid- the 5th Fallschirmjager and the 9th Volks- First Army would initiate an assault of its own
December - choose to playa cautious game and grenadier divisions (and the Fuhrer Grenadier by January 3rd.
attack not from the bulge's flanks but further to Brigade) were barely held. Meanwhile, south of On the other side of the hill, Hitler finally
the west. However, even this timid plan would the town of Wiltz, the US 80th Infantry Divi- admitted that the Ardennes offensive had
have to wait; the Germans opened heavy sion fought off the continuous assaults of rein- failed. By his reckoning the causes were poor
attacks of their own throughout the salient, with forced 79th Volksgrenadier Division. Further to roads (causing severe traffic congestion) and
particular emphasis on Bastogne, fIrst. the east, on Seventh Army's left flank, the 5th plain bad luck. The Fuhrer's generals had real-
Hitler's reaction to the relief of the American US Infantry Division was inflicting, and receiv- ized that the Ardennes attack, as envisioned by
garrison at Bastogne had been both violent and ing in tum, heavy losses on the opposition to their leader, was doomed to fail before it even
predictable. On the 26th, he ordered all the SS it's front, the 276th and 212th Volksgrenadier started. Understanding this from the beginning,
panzer divisions, the 3rd Panzer Grenadier divisions. they now hoped that the "Small Solution" (i.e.,
Division and the Fuhrer Begleit Brigade pulled On the north face of the salient, dawn of the the destruction of all the Allied units east of the
out of the line and sent to take the town as 28th saw a concerted effort by the 246th and Meuse) could be substituted for the original
quickly as possible. To the German leader, the 12th Volksgrenadier divisions to gain the grandiose plan. They also declared that if the
American defense at Bastogne was the main Elsenborn Ridge. Their attempt was blown Americas were allowed to take the initiative, an
reason why Wacht am Rhein failed to reach the apart by American artillery. Further west, the attack to cut the western part of the salient
Meuse River. As a result, the capture of the 62nd Volksgrenadier and 12th SS Panzer divi- would soon be forthcoming.
crossroads town would have to be accom- sions lunged to the north, only to be turned back
plished in order to save face and give Germany by the 82nd Airborne and parts of the 28th US December 29th saw a period of stalemate
some sort of victory in return for all the losses Infantry Division, respectively. descend upon the Ardennes salient, but without
thus far sustained in the Ardennes. Meanwhile, on the same day the Fuhrer any abatement of the heavy fighting that usu-
As the p~ers slipped and skidded on the icy Begleit Brigade, with elements of the 15th ally accompanies such a condition. On the
roads to Bastogne, other German formations Panzer Grenadier Division, launched an attack northern flank of the bulge, between Hotton and
kept up the pretense that the Nazi offensive was against the 4th Armor Division in order to sever Manhay, the 12th SS, 9th SS and 2nd SS Panzer
not over. The 62nd Volksgrenadier Division the Arlon-Bastogne road and once more isolate divisions once again attempted to breach the
attacked just east of Trois Ponts, but was Bastogne from the south. But yet again the Ger- American line held by the 3rd US Armored
repulsed by the US 82nd Airborne Division. mans were turned back in their efforts. Division and elements of the 7th Armored and
Between the Salm and Ourthe rivers, 12th SS Contributing to the failure of all these Ger- 82nd Airborne. Hard fighting by the tankers
Panzer Division made some headway, while to man moves (defensive, as well as offensive) and the paratroops, backed-up by some impres-
its right the 2nd SS Panzer Division battled the during the period 24-27 December was the fact sive artillery firepower, caused the Germans to
US 3rd Armored Division to a standstill. Fur- that, after two weeks of miserable weather, a quit the contest. This part of the line then went
ther to the east, the 9th SS Panzer Division was break in the pattern of ice and snow storms and over to the defensive while the 1st SS Panzer
pushed back by the 82nd Airborne. And at the continuous foggy conditions occurred. Allied Division was pulled out of the sector and
tip of the bulge, leading elements of the 2nd and air power operated over 2770 sorties during the headed for the Bastogne battle.
9th Panzer divisions, after initiating some prob- 26th and 27 alone, while the Luftwaffe was able The same day saw the Fifth Panzer Army
ing attacks, pulled back to Rochefort in the face to muster a mere 415 during the same period. stand on the defensive east of Marche with the
of determined resistance from the US 2nd But on the 28th a blinding snow storm shut 9th and 116th Panzer Divisions. An assault by
Armored Division. down the recent Allied air blitz against the the US 83rd Infantry Division into Rochefort
was barely thrown back by the 2nd Panzer Divi- reports of their parent formations ... but the town by 1st SS Panzer Division and the 167th
sion. So precarious was the Nazi position in that eyes and ears of everyone in the salient was Volksgrenadier Division. Both maneuvers had
part of the salient that by nightfall the town was turned to the fighting that developed that morn- to contend with snow squalls, treacherous roads
evacuated. ing at Bastogne. and increasing enemy fIre.
Meanwhile, further to the east, the British Starting with a sharp barrage using over 321 The German attack gained very little grOlmd;
continued to expand their efforts around the guns and 300 nebelwerfers, the Germans as a result of this disappointment, OKW
Meuse River crossings. The 53rd and 6th Air- opened their pincer assault on the cross roads decided to reinforce the attack with the 340th
borne divisions crossed that river between town. While the Fuhrer Begleit Brigade and 3rd Volksgrenadier, 9th SS Panzer and 12th 55
Givet and Dinant and helped the US 83rd and 15th Panzergrenadier divisions struck west Panzer divisions. As for American progress on
Infantry relieve the US 2nd Armor Division towards Sibret, the 1st SS Panzer Division, in that day, little was found to cheer about. The
(destined for employment to the east). At the company with 167th Volksgrenadier Division, 6th Armored Division won the long-contested
same time, the British 29th Armored Brigade headed in the same direction to cut the Bas- town of Magaret, only to lose it once more to a
patrolled the southern German flank between togne-Arlon road. The plan was to meet south German counterattack. The 35th Infantry Divi-
St. Hubert and Rochefort. And up near Huy and of the town. sion advanced a little that day, but by sundown
Liege, the 51st (HigWand) Division guarded the Half of 1st SS Panzer's tanks moved south was engaged with the 1st SS Panzer Division in
most threatened Meuse crossings. and overwhelmed two infantry companies of a terrible struggle that would last for a number
The 29th was spent by the German Fifth the US 35th Infantry Division. The remaining of days to come.
Army in an attempt to gather the forces needed tanks of the division thrust northwest. This col- The 4th Armored Division continued to hold
to carry out Hitler's order to eliminate the umn came within a few hundred yards of the open the Bastogne-Arlon line of communica-
American block at the village of Bastogne. Bastogne-Arlon highway, but was halted by tions against very heavy pressure exerted by the
Toward that end, all forces designated for the concentrated US armor, tank destroyers and enemy. To the east, the 26th Infantry still found
attack on Bastogne were put under the com- fighter-bombers. Another effort, just to the its way along the Wiltz-Bastogne road barred
mand of General Heinrich von Luttwitz and his north of 1st S S Panzer by the 167th Volks- by the ever-aggressive 9th Volksgrenadier
47th Panzer Corps. But even the energetic Lut- grenadier Division was able to reach the con- Division. West of Bastogne, the 11th US
twitz could not get the attack on Bastogne tested road, but was also driven back with Armored and the 87th US Infantry divisions
rolling on the 29th; poor roads and Allied air- heavy casualties by the US 4th Armored Divi- took heavy losses in return for minimal gains.
power was making it impossible to place the sion. And near Neufchateau, the newly arrived US
necessary units in position to launch the attack. Meanwhile, the untested 11th US Armored 17th Airborne Division was assembling to sup-
The 167th Volksgrenadier and 1st SS Panzer Division, with the 87th US Infantry Division on port the Bastogne battle.
Divisions were having a particularly bad time its left, entered its first full-blown battle south- The first day of 1945 also brought another
in getting to their jump-off positions. west of Bastogne. Heading in a northeast direc- surprise German offensive - this time in Alsace.
If the day saw frustration for the Germans, it tion, the inexperienced tankers stumbled into Operation Nordwind struck, with six divisions
was matched no less on the American side. Pat- the Fuhrer Begleit Brigade in the mist of the stepping off in the early morning hours, with
ton, having offensive plans of his own, sent the early morning. After losing seven Sherman the aim of taking Strasbourg. This new blow
green 11th US Armored Division forward tanks, the advance elements of the American was preceded by the last major German air
southwest of Bastogne. The result was that the armored division pulled back. Although the operation of the war (Operation Bodenplatte).
Amis were pushed back. To the east of Bas- 11th Armored performance was not encourag- With over 1000 Messerschmitt 109s and Focke-
togne, the US 35th Infantry fought toe-to-toe ing, it did cause the enemy advance on Sibret to Wulf 190s committed, dozens of Allied air-
with parts of the 5th Fallschirmjager Division. halt, its commanders fearful of a renewed attack fields were hit in Belgium, resulting in the
The Americans made little headway against the on the German assault column's flan.1c. destruction of hundreds of planes and the dis-
paratroopers' resolute stand. In the Echternach To the west, in the other prong of Patton's ruption of Allied air operations for a number of
sector little fighting was reported between the attack, the 87th Infantry Division supported by weeks thereafter. The cost to the attackers was
US 6th and 4th Infantry Divisions and the Ger- some 11th Armor Division tanks drove hard for about 300 aircraft and 200 irreplaceable Ger-
man 276th and 212th Volksgrenadier Divi- the area between Bastogne and St. Hubert. This man pilots.
sions. But that was not the case when the US thrust was met by the Panzer Lehr and a battle
26th Infantry continued its thrust for Wiltz. A group from the 15th Panzergrenadier Division. By January 2nd, the German build-up for the
counterattack by the defending Fuhrer The Americans took a few villages as a result of last attack on Bastogne was nearly complete.
Grenadier Brigade and' the 9th Volksgrenadier their initial rush, but were soon driven back to Sixth Panzer Army in the north suspended all
Division (sent to relieve those exhausted whence they came. offensive operations. Both sides in that part of
grenadiers) threw the attacking Americans back Further to the east and on the southern shoul- the salient were tired out. American strength
in confusion. der of the salient, the 26th US Division, pre- continued to shift eastward in order to be ready
As the German forces were repositioning ceded by friendly armor, struck out toward for the strike south for Houffalize. In support,
themselves south in preparation for a concerted Wiltz. Once again they were stopped by desper- the British 53rd Infantry Division took over the
attack against Bastogne, they were impeded in ate counterattacks conducted by the 9th Volks- Marche-Hotton line from the Americans.
their movement by deep snow and lack of fuel. grenadier Division. To the south, around Bastogne itself, the con-
The afternoon of the 29th saw the return of With misty and overcast weather on the 30th, flict never abated. During 1-8 January, both
clear weather, and with it a total of 2600 sorties Allied air support for their ground forces was sides gathered large amounts of artillery around
by the Allied air forces. The German Luftwaffe minimal. But the weather did not prevent the the Bastogne corridor in order to support their
could respond with only a pitiful 130 of their German pilots from intervening in the land bat- forces. The result was one of the great artillery
own. tle. A 73-plane raid hit Bastogne that night as duels of the war; the German aim to cut the
On 30 December a few minor attacks were an aid to the forthcoming attack on the town. Bastogne-to-Arlon road, while the Americans
made by the Americans along the northern The raid caused fires to rage out of control strove to prevent it.
shoulder of the salient. One of these was con- throughout the night. Advances by the 11 th US Armored, 87th
ducted by elements of the US 30th Infantry Infantry, and parts of the 9th and 10th US
Division near Malmedy, and was readily On New Year's Day, both the American and Armored divisions west of Bastogne caused the
repulsed by the 18th Volksgrenadier Division. German plans to defeat the other at Bastogne Germans to give up on that route of attack
The 83rd Division struck the 9th Panzer at the met in a hail of fire and death. The Allied against the troublesome town. Instead, new
tip of the bulge and forced it back slightly. As scheme was to launch the 6th Armored, with attacks to re-encircle Bastogne would be made
a result, the nearby Panzer Lehr Division also the 35th and 26th Infantry divisions in support, from the northeast where the ground appeared
retreated further to the east of Rochefort. The in a drive to the northeast out of the Bastogne to provide better tank country. The 9th and 12th
aforementioned combats were duly noted in the corridor. The German offensive operation con- SS Panzer Divisions, with the Fuhrer Begleit
logs of the units involved and the After Action sisted of an attack from east to west south of the Brigade, would be used as the strike-force.
With the renewed assault on Bastogne ready offensive assault by the Wehrmacht in the however for the 116th Panzer Division the day
to open, Manteuffel, the commander of the Ger- Ardennes. As a sign of such, the 12th SS Panzer before had retreated beyond La Roche. As a
man Fifth Panzer Army, argued against any was withdrawn from Bastogne on the 6th, while result, the British 51st Infantry Division, reliev-
attacks at all. He foresaw the American design the 9th SS Panzer was hurried to the north. ing the British 53rd Infantry Division, made
for the capture of Houffalize, and he wanted to some progress past Hotton.
pull back out of the impending trap as soon as By January 5th the American attack on the January 9th was a bitterly cold day with over
possible. He was told that no retreat was to be north shoulder of the Bulge had progressed two feet of snow on the ground; nevertheless,
made and to launch his fmal blow at Bastogne. very little. Although woefully under-strength Patton choose it to launch his latest drive to the
But another crisis on the bulge's southern flank the 2nd SS Panzer, along with the 12th and north with eight divisions. By advancing a mile
would delay the mandated attack. Tanks from 560th Volksgrenadier divisions, continued to against a surprised enemy, the 90th and 26th
the 12th SS Panzer had to be diverted to the doggedly hold up the US advance. While the US Infantry divisions flanked the hard-fighting
area of Wardin, east of Bastogne, when armor sky was clear in the Ardennes on the 5th, the 9th Volksgrenadier Division and caused it to
from the US 6th Armored penetrated too near roads were so bad that the 2nd and 3rd US yield some territory. Nearer to Bastogne, the
that town. Even with this thrust by the Amis Armored divisions, leading the attack, nearly 6th Armored and 35th Infantry divisions struck
stopped, the threat to the 5th Fallschirmjager ground to a halt. By that evening, the weather for Wardin and made slight progress. At the
Division (and to the entire German Seventh had closed-in once more and forced the US same time, their opponent, the 1st SS Panzer
Anny front) remained acute. Third Army onto the defensive. Violent fight- Division, was moving out of the area to re-
More trouble for the Germans, this time on ing, combined with miserable weather condi- assemble at St. Vith.
the northern front, erupted on 3 January with an tions, made for American advances of only A large German salient southeast of Bas-
attack by the US First Army. The Allied plan about a mile a day for the next three days. togne was now jutting into the Allied front,
for that side of the bulge was to strike the On January 5th also, the US 17th Airborne with the 5th Fallschirmjager Division at risk of
enemy on a 25-mile front while the British 53rd fought it out with elements of the German 3rd encirclement. A counterattack to relieve this
Infantry and 6th Airborne divisions took on the Panzergrenadier and 9th Panzer divisions for situation by the 9th and 276 Volksgrenadiers
Germans at the tip of the salient. The objective the important crossroads of the Marche-Bas- and Fuhrer Grenadier Brigade failed in its pur-
was a link-up with Patton's forces in the vicin- togne highway. The young American para- pose when it was repulsed by the US 26th
ity of Houffalize, thus cutting off the major por- troopers had to retire by the end of the day, but Infantry Division.
tion of the German Fifth Panzer Army. the Germans were very impressed by their per- The 101st Airborne and 4th Armored divi-
The American attackers, consisting of the formance. On the same day the 6th US sions were making some progress to the east
2nd and 3rd Armored divisions, and the 83rd Armored beat off attacks on the Wardin area by when Patton suddenly ordered them to halt. The
and 84th Infantry divisions, moved off into the the 167th Volksgrenadier Division backed by Allied commanders still felt that the Germans
bitter cold weather, waist-deep snow and icy the 506th Heavy Panzer Battalion. Further to might be able to pull off another surprise attack
roads, only to be held to a snail's pace by the the southeast, the 35th US Infantry Division somewhere along the Western Front. They had
determined efforts of the 12th and 560th Volks- was stopped short in its advance by the usual done it in the Ardennes in mid-December and
grenadier and 2nd SS Panzer divisions, all of fanatic resistance of 1st SS Panzer Division. then in Alsace in January; intelligence informa-
which were a mere shell of their former What had been foreseen by many of Hitler's tion had been coming in that they were about to
strength. Hilly terrain restricted the movement generals - that the battle was going to inevitably do it once more south of Trier. As a result of
of the American armor; no dramatic tank break- turn into another Falaise Pocket debacle - was these unwarranted concerns, Patton had been
throughs would occur. The battle degenerated finally seen by the Fuhrer himself. On January ordered to stop his forward move and send the
into one where the tanks could not move and 8th, he ordered the Fifth Panzer Army to fall 4th Armored Division out of the Ardennes to
the infantry fought small combats reminiscent back from the tip of the Bulge ... but not as far act as a reserve further to the south.
of World War 1. Meanwhile, the British attack back as Houffalize as his advisors recom- The 10th of the month saw both sides pulling
on the tip of the Bulge met the determined resis-
mended. The German line now bent to the tired and disorganized formations out of the
tance of the 9th and Il6th Panzer divisions; but northeast, but the Nazi leader still insisted on front lines and using them to form reserves. As
in reality it was the weather, snow storms and remaining near Bastogne and, at the very least, the Germans pulled back, the Americans found
freezing rain, that stalled their advance to such
continuing a defensive battle there. The order to the going becoming easier. On the 12th, the 6th
an extent that no ground was gained.
retire to the east was already behind reality Armored Division entered Wardin. The day
At last, on January 3rd, the 12th SS and 9th
SS Panzer divisions (numbering a total of 56 TURN RECORD TRACK
tanks and assault guns) attacked Bastogne from
the northwest. In very bitter fighting, the US
lOlst Airborne Division drove the attackers
back from the early gains the Germans made JAN JAN JAN JAN JAN JAN JAN JAN
against the town's perimeter. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
On the 4th, the US offensive in the north was
stopped in the face of blinding snow storms and
impossible road conditions. West of Bastogne, JAN JAN JAN JAN JAN JAN JAN JAN
the green 17th US Airborne Division was badly 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
bloodied by the Furhrer Begleit Brigade after it
attacked and then was counterattacked by that
German formation. And northeast of Bastogne
after a heavy concentration of artillery and
nebelwerfer fire aimed at the American posi-
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
tions, elements of the 12th SS Panzer and 15th
Panzergrenadier divisions advanced and took
the towns of Margaret and Wardin from the US Notes:
6th Armored Division during a blizzard. Hard On JAN 6, 90th US Division enters play.
fighting by the 101st US Airborne threw the On JAN 10, 4th US Armored Division (or substitute) withdraws from game.
panzergrenadiers back, while dense American On JAN 14, all British units (or substitutes) withdraw from game.
artillery fire halted the forward movement of On JAN 16, check for Automatic German Victory (as per 6f5).
the SS troopers. On JAN 17, 101st US Airborne Division (or substitute) withdraws from game.
January 4th marked the last German attempt On JAN 22, all 5S Panzer, FB and FG armored units withdraw from game.
at the capture of Bastogne,and the last big
before 1000 men from the 5th Fallschirmjager Germans did whatever was necessary to hold Front Back
Division were cut off by a move to the east of St. Vith and its vital road network and, even Setup
Bastogne by the US 90th Infantry Division. A more importantly, the Skyline Drive which ran On
counterattack by the 1st SS Panzer Division to west of the Our River. Without this command-
ing highway and the bridges over the C1erf and
~~ Board
rescue their comrades failed, but the violent 2-3 1-3
tank battles that the attempt initiated lasted for Our Rivers, the retreating army in the southern
days. part of the salient would be in jeopardy. US
On 12 January 1945 the Red Army went on On the 21st the American 80th, 5th and 4th
the offensive against the thin German line fac- Infantry divisions at the southern base of the
hil ELIM
ing east. Hitler, in an attempt to shift troops
from the Western to the Eastern Front, autho-
rized a further pull-back in the Ardennes to
Bulge, drove for the village of Hoscheid, a
hamlet situated on a commanding hill astride
Skyline Drive. Rushing what little reserves
shorten the lines there. He ordered Sixth Panzer were left, the German Seventh Army halted this
Army out of the Ardennes entirely; they were to very dangerous enemy advance. In the mean- Enter
be replenished preparatory to being sent east. time, as if to underscore the importance of the January
Panzer Lehr, 2nd Panzer and the 9th Panzer southern face of the salient, the 2nd Panzer, 6
divisions were moved east of the tip of the Panzer Lehr and 9th Volksgrenadier divisions
bulge to prevent their encirclement. Through- were placed under Seventh Army command
out the region, the Germans were slowly with- and shifted to the southern base of the Bulge.
drawing along the Salm River to Houffalize. On 22 January, the sky cleared and allowed
On the northern side of the bulge, the Amer- the Allied air forces to pummel the long lines of
New Scenarios for BULGE '91
icans planned to use the US 7th Armored Divi- German traffic attempting to get back to the The following scenarios attempt to recreate
sion (coming from the Amb1eve area) to take West Wall. (The German Sixth Panzer Army the Allied efforts to reduce, and then eliminate,
St. Vith. During the 13th and 14th, the U5 30th had already passed that point on its way to the the Ardennes salient created by the surprise
and 75th Infantry divisions attempted to clear Eastern Front.) On the 23rd, the 7th US German attack of December 1944. The map-
the way for 7th Armored, but did not make Armored Division entered St. Vith, while Pat- board, rules and most of the game counters of
much progress. ton's men were clearing the ground east of the the new BATTLE OF THE BULGE are used for
In the south, Patton's reduced forces contin- Our River. The German Army continued its these two scenarios. All of the Basic, and most
ued their push to the north. January 13th saw movement eastward, with the last of the SS of the Optional, rules are recommended. A few
the German defenders standing solid against units departing for the Russian Front the next new counters are necessary for play (see
Third Army after two days of withdrawal. Over day. above). Revised Victory Conditions, Turn
the next three days, after slight gains the US The 25th saw an acceleration of the Ameri- Record Track and schedule of reinforcements
87th Infantry and 11 th Armored divisions can drive to the Our. The US 6th Armored Divi- and withdrawals are provided as needed.
would be halted in their drive by the 2nd Panzer sion made good progress along the St. Vith-to-
and H6th Panzer divisions, respectively. Clerf highway, while the 26th Infantry Division
North of Bastogne, the 101st Airborne took the town of Clervaux (only a few miles
fought it out with the 340th Vo1ksgrenadier from the German starting point of December
Division and gained the village of Noville after 16). The next three days saw the Americans
bitter fighting on the 16th. Meanwhile, the 6th complete the liberation of Belgium and Luxem-
Armored and 35th Infantry divisions fought SS boug, some of this task being accomplished
rearguards on their advance to Longvilly. The only after some severe house-to-house fighting
British started moving their forces out of the in many of the villages near the Our River. By
Ardennes to form a reserve for 12th Army the 28th of January, from north to south, the
Group. American front ran along the line they had
On the 15th the US 2nd Armored Division occupied at the start of the great German offen- 6e) SCENARIO FOUR - "The Bulge
flanked the 116th Panzer Division, acting as the sive which had broken upon them so suddenly Reduced": This scenario covers the period of
rearguard in this sector, and closed in on Houf- the December before. 5-16 January 1945 when the Allies werefinally
falize. Meanwhile, the 75th US Infantry Divi- able to mount a significant counterattack and
sion crossed the Salm River but was halted by Front Back push the Germans back in the Ardennes. It is
the customary well-executed counterattack that Setup recommended that at least options 12, 13, 14
the Germans always seemed to deliver even in On and 17 a, 17b and 17c be used when playing this
the most desperate of situations. The Fifteenth Board scenario.
US Corps started its drive south for St. Vith on (S)
15 January as well, joining the steady advance 6eI) Starting Information:
of the US 7th Armored, 1st and 2nd US Infantry V2 Starting Turn: The scenario starts with the
divisions. January 5 Tum. The Allies move first in each
With the morning of the 16th, the First and game-tum.
Third US armies at last linked up when ele- ~~ Starting German Fuel Reserves: 10.
ments of the First's 84th Infantry and the 2-4
Third's 11th Armored met in Houffalize. The 6e2) Objective Hexes: Only those on the map
pincers had cut the bulge by almost a half. But F9 listed below count towards Victory Points; dis-
the achievement was a hollow victory; the bad regard all others.
German Held Objective Hexes: S12 (Cler-

weather, combined with the determined fight-
ing of the German units in the salient, had been vaux), 19 (Marche), PIO (Houffalize), U8 (St.
enough to allow the vast majority of the Vith), Ul (Rotgen), V2 (Monschau) = 9
1-4 objective victory points.
Wehrmacht formations to escape the Allied
trap. GIS Allied Held Objective Hexes: 014 (Bas-
togne) and Y17 (Echternach) = 4 objective

From the 17th to the 20th, the Wehrmacht victory points.
struggled to retrace its steps back to Germany. ELI
All the while the Americans relentlessly ....1-3 6e3) Units Needed: All units shown as "On
applied pressure on all sides of the dwindling Board" (see below), and the 90th US Infantry
bulge. During this juncture in the battle, the YI6 Division.
Allied Setup: German Setup: tory points than the Allied side or if the points
On Board Units: On Board Units: are equal. The Allied side wins if they have
more total victory points than the German side.

8th Infantry Division '12 Front 85th Infantry Division US Front 60 SCENARIO FIVE - "The End": This sce-
78th lnfantrvDivision '13 Front 272nd :V:olksgrenadiers ~2 Back(L)~ nario covers the January 1945 period when the
9th Infantry Division U4 Front 326th Volksgrenadiers W3 Front Allies elirninated the "Bulge" in violent battles
99th Infantry Division T4 Back 246th Volksgrenadiers W4 Front of attrition. It is recommended that at least
2nd Iiifantry Division S5 Front (L) 277thVollCSgrenadiers '14 Back(L) options 12, 13, 14 and 17a, 17b and 17c be used
1st Infan!!}' Division R5 Front 89th Infantrv Division TS Front when playing this scenario.
30th Infantry Division Q6 Front 3rd Fallschirmjagers S6 Front (L)
106th Infantry Division 06 Back (L) 18thVoiksgrenadiers R6 Front <bL 6fi) Starting Information:
82nd Airoome Division N6 BacK 62ndVoiksgrenadiers Q7 Front Starting Turn: The scenario starts with the
83rd Infantrv Division M7 Back 12thVolksgrenadiers 07 Front January 5 Tum. The Allies move first in each
3rd Armored Division L7 Front 560thVolksgrenadiers N7 Front game-tum.
84th Infantry Division J7 Front 2nd SS Panzer Division M8 Front (L) Starting German Fuel Reserves: 10.
BR 53rd Iiifantry Division R8 Front 116th Panzer Division K9 Front (L)
BR 33rd Armored Brigade F9 Front 9th Panzer Division 19 Front (~)_ 6f2) Objective Hexes: Only those on the map
BR 6th Airborne Division FlO Front 2nd Panzer Division RIO Back listed below count towards Victory Points; dis-
BR 29/11th Brigade F12 Back Panzer Lehr Division I13 Back regard all others.
FR 2nd Arroorne"Regt. GlY Front t'tl Panzer tlrigaoe L13 t'ront German Held Objective Hexes: S12 (Cler-
87th Infantrv_Division 114 Front 3rd PzGrenadier Division M14 Front vaux),I9 (Marche), PIO (Houffalize), U8 (St.
17th Airborne Division L14 Front (L) 15th pzGrenadier Division N13 Front 'lith), Ul (Rotgen), '12 (Monschau) = 9
11 th Armored Division MIS Front (L) 26thVoiksgrenadiers 012 Front (L) objective victory points.
10th Aimored Division N14 Back 9th SS Panzer Division 013 Front(L) Allied Held Objective Hexes: 014 (Bas-
BR Guards Division C5 Front 12th SS Panzer Division P13 Front (!:-)_ togne) and Y17 (Echternach) = 4 objective
6th Armored Division Nl5 Front (L) 340th Volksgrenadiers Q13 Front victory points.
4th Armored Division 016 Front (L) 167thVoiksgrenadiers Pl4 Front
35th Ii1fantry Division P16 Front 5th Fallschinnjagers 015 Front (L) 6(3) Units Needed: All units are set up as in
26th lnfanrnr_Division Q17 Front 1st SS Panzer Division PIS Front_(!J_ Scenario Four above. The Allies get the initia-
80th Infantry Division R16 Front 9thVoiksgrenadiers Ql5 Front tive marker.
5th Infantry Division T16 Front FG Panzer Brigade R14 Front
4th liifantry Division '116 Front(L) 79ili Iiifantry Division SIS Front 6f4) Scenario Special Rules:
2nd_Armored Cav--Regt. Y17 Front 352nd Vol.ksgrenadiers TIS Front(L) 1. Allied Reinforcements: The 90th US
5th Armored Division Ql Front 212th Volksgrenadiers U15 Front (L) Infantry Division enters the game at the begin-
7th Armored Division M3 Front 276thVoiksgrenadiers '115 Front (L) ning of the January 6 Turn on any of the fol-
BR 51st Iilfantry Division L2 Front 999th Infantry Regt. XIS Front lowing hexes: K17, L17, M17, N17 or 017.
75th lnfan!D' Division 14 Front 44th Infantrv-Regt. Yl6 Front The unit is at full strength and in supply ini-
2nd Armored Division K6 Front(L) 10th SS Panzer Division YI Front tially.
9th Armored Division B7 Back 11 th Panzer Division Y12 Front 2. Allied Withdrawals: The 4th US
28th Infantry Division E17 Back(L) Dug-Iii Marker* K9 -- Armored Division (or, if eliminated or sur-
I~g-In Marker* '116 -- ~g-Jn Marker* RIO -- rounded by enemy units, any US armored Unit
Dug-In Marker* Yl7 -- Dug-In Marker* I13 -- of equal strength) leaves the game at the begin-
Entrenclrrnent Marker* 014 -- Dug-In Marker* T15 -- ning of the January 16 Tum. The 10ist US Air-
"3" Supply Depot** B3 -- Entrencliffient Mark:er* 19 -- borne Division (or, if elirninated or surrounded,
"4" S!!l'E!v Deoot** R5 -- Entrenclrrnent Marker* XIS -- any US infantry unit of equal strength) leaves
I "5" Supply Depot** Q5 -- the game at the beginning of January 17. All
"8" Supply Depot** M2 -- All units are in supply at start. British units (or US units of the same type and
*: Only needed if option 17b is used. strength if eliminated or surrounded) leave the
All units are in supply at start. game at the beginning of the January 14 Turn.
*: Only needed if option 17b is used. 3. German Withdrawals: All German SS
**: Only needed if option 15 is used. Panzer units, as well as the FG and FB Panzer
Eliminated Units: 150th Panzer Brigade, brigades, must leave the game at the end of the
Peiper Panzer Brigade, Heydt Fallschinnjager January 22 Tum. If any are unable to do so due
Eliminated Units: None. Regiment. to being eliminated or surrounded, no unit need
The Allies get the initiative marker. be removed as a substitute.
4. 10th and 11th SS Panzer Divisions: The
German player must deduct one victory point
6e4) Scenario Special Rules: eliminated or surrounded) leave the game at the from his final total for each separate combat
1. Allied Reinforcements: The 90th US beginning of the January 14 Tum. one or the other of these units are involved in
Infantry Division enters the game at the begin- 3. 10th SS and 11th Panzer Divisions: during the course of the game.
ning of the January 6 Tum on any of the fol- These two divisions were placed in reserve and
lowing hexes: K17, L17, M17, Nl7 or 017. not intended for combat, serving to anchor the 6f5) How to Win: The scenario lasts twenty-
The unit is at full strength and in supply ini- flanks. The German player must deduct one four turns and ends after the January 28 Tum.
tially. victory point from his final total for each sepa- The German side automatically wins at the end
2. Allied Withdrawals: The 4th US rate combat one or the other of these units are of the January 16 Turn if any in-supply German
Armored Division (or, if eliminated or sur- involved in during the course of the game. units are on or west of hexrow P. Otherwise, the
rounded by enemy units, any US armored unit scenario continues until the end of the January
of equal strength) leaves the game at the begin- 6e5) How to Win: The scenario lasts twelve 28 Turn, when the side with the most total vic-
ning of the January 16 Tum. All British units turns and ends after the January 16 Turn. The tory points wins. If the points are equal, the
(or US units of the same type and strength if German side wins if they have more total vic- German side wins. 1;:{


Third Edition BULGE '81
By Bruno Sinigaglio

Hard as it is to believe (how quickly time occupy a fort or an improved position, the Special Movement Restriction. The unit may
passes), BULGE '81 has been in print for ten attacker may apply or ignore negative die roll not begin in nor enter an Allied ZOC during the
years. In that decade, BULGE players have modifiers. After the die is rolled to resolve movement phase.
experimented and perfected their winning combat, the attacker then decides if a particular 41.3 After completion of the 16AM and/or
strategies, and variants have been published to die roll modifier is to be applied. For example: 16PM German Combat Phases, the German
add new dimensions to the game that some the Germans have a 4-1 attack with negative die player rolls the die to see if Panzer Brigade 150
thought were lacking. I have greatly appreci- roll modifiers for Air Attack Support and can advance. On the 16AM turn, the unit may
ated the many insights and innovations pro- Artillery Support (20 factors); a "6" is rolled to Advance 4 on a die roll of "1". On the 16PM
vided by those who have taken an active inter- resolve combat. The German player may decide tum, traffic congestion is reduced and the unit
est in the game. Now a new design covering the to apply both modifiers (in which case the may Advance 4 on a die roll of "1" or "2".
last German offensive in the West is due from result is "Exchange") or one modifier (in which 41.4 If the unit can advance after the 16AM
Avalon Hill to supplant it. But for those GEN- case the result is "Contact") or neither modifier and/or 16PM German Combat Phase, it may do
ERAL readers who will continue to play (in which case the result is "Engaged"). so immediately by executing an "Attacker
BULGE '81, these "Third Edition" rules are Advance 4" combat result before the Allied
offered to give you a few more options to pon- 36.0 SS Panzer Commitment on turn. The first hex of the advance may be to any
der and enjoy. However, if you are not willing adjacent hex that the unit may enter legally. It is
to part with the style of play to which you have 16AMTurn also subject to the following four conditions:
become accustomed, simply continue to use the 36.2 For all scenarios, the German player 41.4.1 The unit must obey certain rules for
official 2nd Edition rules. Note well, this determines if the elite First and Twelfth SS "Advance After Combat". Specifically, rule
BULGE '81 3rd Edition will not be published Panzer Divisions will be committed on the sections 20.1 through 20.5, and 20.11. Refer-
other than in this issue (nor will Avalon Hill 16AM turn. (Delete rule 25.4.) It should be ences to losing, retreating or eliminated defend-
answer questions upon it). noted, however, that if any of the six SS regi- ers obviously do not apply for this special
The 3rd Edition Advanced Game is ments move into an Allied ZOC before the Advance.
expanded by the mandatory use of most of the 16PM tum, certain Allied units are released as 41.4.2 The unit may ignore Allied ZOC for
Optional Rules from the 2nd Edition. Essen- reinforcements earlier than indicated on the the 16AM or 16PM special Advance, and thus
tially, there are no Optional Rules in this 3rd Allied OOB Card: advance right past adjacent Allied units. Or, it
Edition. However, it should be noted that the The US 1/16 Infantry Regiment is released may remain adjacent and end its tum, or it may
2nd Edition Optional Rules have undergone a on the 16PM turn. attack Allied units even if they have already
number of changes as they have been translated The US 9/47 Infantry Regiment is released been attacked in the preceding German Combat
to the Advanced Game. One Optional Rule on the 16PM tum. Phase. If the attack is before the Allied 16AM
("German Corps Integrity") has been deleted, The US 1/18 Infantry Regiment is released turn, the First Turn Surprise -1 die roll modifi-
and a new rule ("Infiltration by Kampfgruppe on the 17AM turn. cation applies. Furthermore, if the unit attacks
Peiper) has been added. The 3rd Edition and obtains an "Advance After Combat" result,
Advanced Game therefore adds the rules listed 37.0 British Commitment it may again advance; however, any advance as
below: 37.2 The Allied player determines if the a result of combat is subject to all the rules for
British XXX Corps will be committed. The Advance After Combat (section 20.1 through
36.0 SS Panzer Commitment on 16AM Turn Allied player must announce on the 25AM 20.11).
37,0 British Commitment Allied turn if British forces will cross the 41.4.3 If the unit successfully uses the spe-
38,0 Armored Attack Restrictions Meuse. If British Commitment is not cial Advance on the 16AM or 16PM turn, it
39.0 Last Minute Demolition
announced on the 25AM turn, it may not be may not voluntarily move south of the road that
40.0 Airdrop - Operation Stoesser
invoked later. (Delete rule 35.8.) The British travels XXI2-UUI2-PPI0-Malmedy-Trois
41.0 Operation Greif - Panzer Brigade 150
11/29 Armored Brigade is always free to move Ponts-Werbomont-Huy-Andenne-Namur until
42.0 Operation Greif - Einheit Steilau
anywhere on the board. the 19AM German Movement Phase. If forced
to retreat south of this line before 19AM, the
43.0 Infiltration by Kampfgruppe Peiper
44,0 German Artillery Final Protective 41.0 Operation Greif- unit is free to then move anywhere.
41.4.4 Isolation status for all units is deter-
Fire Support Panzer Brigade 150 mined normally during the German supply
41.2 Rather than participating in normal phases. Infiltration does not exempt a unit from
All other 2nd Edition rules apply except as combat, Panzer Brigade 150 (yellow on green
changed below.. Players may wish to make note becoming isolated. Isolation does not prevent
counter) may hold back and attempt to slip the unit from infiltrating further on the 16PM
of these changes in their rulebooks. through Allied lines after the 16AM and/or turn.
16PM German Combat Phases. Movement 41.5 The German player is not required to
17.2 Die Roll Modifications rules during turns of attempted infiltration are attempt infiltration. If the unit enters an enemy
17.2.1 The die roll used to resolve a battle as follows: ZOC during the 16AM or 16PM German
can be modified. Die roll modifications are 41.2.1 On the 16AM turn, the unit starts in Movement Phase, it must participate in combat
cumulative. The positive and negative die roll the "B" starting area. The unit may move dur- that tum, and it forfeits its chance to infiltrate
modifiers are totale.l for each battle to deter- ing the 16AM German Movement Phase in after the Combat Phase.
mine if the die roll is to be adjusted. Die roll accordance with the Movement rules (6.0), the
modifications are mandatory and must be First Turn Surprise rules (25.0) and the Special
applied for each battle in which a defending Movement Restriction (explained in 41.4.3). 43.0 Infiltration by
unit has air defense support, and for each battle The unit may not enter an Allied ZOC during Kampfgruppe Peiper
in which a defending unit occupies a fort or an the movement phase. 43.1 Prior to the Ardennes Offensive, the
improved position. 41.2.2 On the 16PM tum, the unit may move commander of the 1st 5S Panzer Regiment,
17.2.2 Attack Initiative: When no defending during the German Movement Phase in accor- Obersturmbannfuerher Joachim Peiper, con-
units in a battle receive air defense support, or dance with the Movement rules (6.0) and the ducted training exercises with his regiment.
The emphasis of this training was to avoid com- the unit from infiltrating further on the 16PM tent with the traffIc congestion experienced by
bat at the front, bypass Allied strong points, tum. the Germans on 16 December. As a result,
cleat the Allied rear without delay, and race for 43.5 The German player is not required to instead of Panzer Brigade 150 using regular
the Meuse bridges. Peiper's efforts were attempt infiltration. If the unit enters an enemy movement, the unit now may attempt an
rewatded as KG Peiper managed to slip through ZOC during the 16AM or 16PM German "Advance 4" like any advance after combat.
the front line and cause havoc in the Allied rear. Movement Phase, it must participate in combat Besides, whenever the old rule was success-
43.2 Rather than participating in normal that tum, and it forfeits its chance to infiltrate fully utilized, the German player seemed con-
combat, KG Peiper may hold back and attempt after the Combat Phase. tent to simply grab Rocherath-Krinkelt. Now he
to slip through Allied lines after the 16AM 43.6 The German player may attempt infil- has more options. Additionally, infiltration may
and/or 16PM German Combat Phases. Move- tration with KG Peiper even if the 1st SS and also be attempted on the 16PM tum, which
ment rules during turns of attempted infiltration 12th SS Panzer Divisions ate not committed on interestingly is when Peiper made his famous
ate as follows: the 16AM turn. However, if the unit enters an breakthrough.
43.2.1 On the 16AM tum, the unit starts in Allied ZOC before the 16PM turn, it triggers Kampfgruppe Peiper: A logical progression
the "B" starting area. The unit may move dur- eatly release of the three US infantry regiments of the above infiltration rule. Of course, Peiper
ing the 16AM German Movement Phase in listed in rule 36.2. has a greater chance of success; but then again,
accordance with the Movement rules (6.0), the historically this is precisely what happened. If
First Turn Surprise rules (25.0) and the Special 45.0 The German Outbreak the German player commits the 1st and 12th SS
Movement Restriction (explained in 43.4.3). Scenario divisions, but holds back Skorzeny and Peiper
The unit may not enter an Allied ZOC during for infiltration, the Germans have a half-decent
45.2 This scenario is played using the 3rd
the movement phase. chance of taking Rocherath-Krinkelt and
Edition Advanced Game rules.
43.2.2 On the 16PM turn, the unit may move knocking the Allies for a loop on 16AM. Not
during the German Movement Phase in accor- only that, if the Allies are suffering from severe
dance with the Movement rules (6.0) and the 46.0 Wacht Am Rhein - unit shortage, the German can even attempt to
Special Movement Restriction. The unit may Campaign Scenario send the two units into the reat again on 16PM.
not begin in nor enter an Allied ZOC during the 46.3 This scenario is played using the 3rd Has anyone ever taken Malmedy on the 16PM
movement phase. Edition Advanced Game rules. turn before?
43.3 After completion of the 16AM and/or 46.4 German Strategic Victory Antwerp Try an 8-1 (-2) attack versus the 99/394 on
16PM German Combat Phases, the German 46.4.3 The German units that exit the boatd 16AM, and then slip Skorzeny and Peiper into
player rolls the die to see if KG Peiper can must be in supply for one German supply the rear. Use the SS Panzer Commitment; it's
advance. On the 16AM tum, the unit may phase. This condition CatUlot be fulfilled until worth the gamble. German chances ate 44%
Advance 4 on a die roll of "I" or "2". On the sections 46.4.1 and 46.4.2 have both been ful- that either Skorzeny or Peiper will advance;
16PM tum, traffic congestion is reduced and fIlled. however, further success depends on the com-
the unit may Advance 4 on a die roll of "1-4". 46.5 German Victory Meuse River bat results versus 99/393 and 99/394. On
43.4 If the unit can advance after the 16AM This type of victory is attained if there are 16PM, your chances of success with one or the
and/or 16PM German Combat Phase, it may do supplied German combat units in seven of the other infiltrating is 77%. If your commandos
so immediately by executing an "Attacker eight Meuse River cities for two consecutive have been able to sidetrack Allied reserves, you
Advance 4" combat result before the Allied German supply phases. (See 2nd Edition for just might waltz into Malrnedy unopposed. If
tum. The fIrst hex of the advance may be to any complete text.) you get the chance, attack with the German
adjacent hex that the unit may enter legally. It is 46.6 German Victory Liege infIltrators, especially on 16AM when you have
also subject to the following four conditions: This type of victory is attained if there ate the choice of using or ignoring the -1 die roll
43.4.1 The unit must obey certain rules for supplied German combat units in all three modifier.
"Advance After Combat". Specifically, rule Liege hexes for two consecutive German sup- Victory Conditions: Regarding 46.4.3, the
sections 20.1 through 20.5, and 20.11. Refer- ply phases. (See 2nd Edition for complete text.) Germans need only supply a thrust on Antwerp
ences to losing, retreating or eliminated defend- for one turn instead of four. I imagine any
ers obviously do not apply for this special 50.0 Designer's Comments impossible thrust in Antwerp would have cost
Advance. Advanced Game: After ten years, players someone his head. The Germans need only
43.4.2 The unit may ignore Allied ZOC for should have already used all the Optional rules, guarantee supply for a "Meuse River" or
the 16AM or 16PM special Advance, and thus and therefore should be quite familiar with "Liege" victory for two game turns rather than
advance right past adjacent Allied units. Or, it them. Adding these few twists will, hopefully, four as before. The Meuse victory condition
may remain adjacent and end its tum, or it may instigate some new approaches to strategy and would be a symbolic German accomplishment;
attack Allied units even if they have already tactics. but the Liege victory would be catastrophic for
been attacked in the preceding German Combat Attack Initiative: How many times has your the Allies.
Phase. If the attack is before the Allied 16AM critical attack been ruined because your sup-
tum, the First Tum Surprise -1 die roll modifi- posed beneficial die roll modification has
cation applies. Furthermore, if the unit attacks
and obtains an "Advance After Combat" result,
changed just the result you needed into some-
thing else. Attack initiative will put an end to
it may again advance; however, any advance as this unwanted idiosyncrasy. The attacker will We have been advised by C&P Telephone
a result of combat is subject to all the rules for no longer be penalized when he has the initia- that, as of November 1991, the Baltimore
Advance After Combat (section 20.1 through tive. In addition, the importance of forts and region has a new Area Code - 410. Until
20.11). improved positions will become even more sig- November 1992, however, long-distance
43.4.3 If the unit successfully uses the spe- nificant, as the attacker will not then be able to calls placed to the offices of Avalon Hill may
cial Advance on the 16AM or 16PM tum, it chose among a range of combat results just the make use of either the 301 or the 410 prefIx;
may not voluntatily move south of the road that one he desires. but as of the fIrst of that month, only the 410
travels XX12-UU12-PP1 O-Malmedy-Trois SS Panzer & British Commitment: Since the Area Code will be valid. All who may have
Ponts-Werbomont-Huy-Andenne-Namur until game is supposed to give us a chance to second- business with Avalon Hill to be conducted
the 19AM German Movement Phase. If forced guess Hitler and Montgomery, I fIgured it was by phone may wish to take note of this
to retreat south of this line before 19AM, the time to give the players more options in pursu- change. Please, however, no by-phone
unit is free to then move anywhere. ing the what-if situations. Sure, you can have queries regarding rules questions or AREA
43.4.4 Isolation status for all units is deter- the SS units on 16AM, but you'd better create ratings. Please make use of surface mail (and
mined normally during the German supply some havoc quickly. be sure to include a self-addressed, stamped
phases. InfIltration does not exempt a unit from Panzer Brigade 150: The mechanics for envelope) for such.
becoming isolated. Isolation does not prevent using the Operation Greif rule were not consis-


Reference Notes for ASL
By Andrew H. Hershey

In recent issues of The GENERAL, various division's artillery compliment instead of the ruck-sack on my back"). Snow-shoeing and
"light" combat formations of the United States, usual three battalions of 105mm and one of alpine survival skills (such as snow cave con-
Nazi Germany, Great Britain and the Soviet 155mmguns. struction) were also stressed.
Union during World War Two have been the In June 1943, the War Department finally Another important factor which made the
subject of a series of excellent articles by authorized mobilization, but for only one divi- 10th Mtn. unique was that the intelligence level
Steven Swann. My article seeks to continue in sion - and this solely for test purposes. The divi- of all its ranks was well above the Army's divi-
that vein by examining one more of the five so- sion created, rather ironically, was the "89th sional average. Nearly all the division's mem-
called "light" infantry units employed by the Light Division (Truck)". This was accom- bers had a high school diploma, with a goodly
United States during the war: the 10th Moun- plished by converting the existing 89th Infantry proportion either being college students/gradu-
tain Division (hereafter, "10th Mtn." for short). Division. However, upon further reflection two ates or successful applicants for Officers Candi-
It was the only designated mountain division in more divisions were given the "go-ahead", date School (OCS). Eight-six per cent of the
the American order-of-battle during the war, though still on an experimental basis only. The division passed the required OCS exams. As a
and an outfit unique in many other respects. new units formed were the "71st Light Division result of this some men turned down commis-
In the summer of 1942, with the United (Pack, Jungle)" and the "10th Light Division sions or refused OCS offers altogether in order
States engaged in a ground war in the Pacific (Pack, Alpine)", which eventually became the to remain with the 10th Mtn. In those cases
Theater, the War Department turned its atten- 10th Mtn. Division. The 10th was based, in where enlisted men were commissioned, most
tion to the creation of special mountain and jun- large part, from the already existing 87th were able to return to the 10th Mtn.; a few,
gle-trained formations, which were deemed Infantry Regiment which had undergone some however, were eventually transferred (some to
necessary in order to fight in such extremes of alpine training on Mt. Ranier in Washington the FSSF). Both the physical nature of the train-
climate and topography as found there. At that and had taken part in the invasion of Kiska. ing and the mental aptitude of the men engen-
time it was generally held throughout most Fresh recruits were directed to the new Moun- dered a great deal of unit cohesion and esprit de
quarters of the U.S. Army that a standard tain Training Center at Camp Hale (Colorado), corps. Officers and enlisted men in the 10th
infantry division's heavy weapons and its located just outside Leadville at an altitude of Mtn. were on very close terms with one
dependence upon motorized transport would 11000 feet. The new arrivals would eventually another. In recognition of the unique qualities
reduce its effectiveness as a fighting force in form the basis for the division's two other regi- of the 10th Mtn., when in the course of1944 the
areas devoid of roads, densely overgrown ments' the 85th and 86th. War Department was forced to "strip" non-
and/or mountainous. Like the 1st Special Service Force (see the active divisions of personnel in order to replace
Plans were put forward by the War Depart- ASL Annual '90), the 10th Mtn. was made up of losses in front-line units, it was one of only two
ment in August of 1942 for the formation of experienced outdoorsmen: guides, hunters, divisions exempted from this process.
two or three mountain and jungle divisions, trappers, cowboys, forest rangers, moun- Having undergone their training, the next
with each division comprised of about 10000 taineers and skiers - lots of very good skiers. A stage in the life of the experimental "light" divi-
officers and men. From October of that year third of the division troops were already what sions was a rigorous set of field tests and
through February 1943 very little headway was we might call "hard-core skiers"; still a further maneuvers. From February 1943 through April
made with the actual raising of such units, how- half were proficient before training began, 1944, the new divisions were put through their
ever. They remained "paper divisions". Debate while the remainder learned quickly at Camp paces. In California, the 89th and 71st Divi-
and difficulties had arisen over size and atten- Hale. Proficiency at skiing formed the trade- sions sparred with each other in the Hunter
dant transport problems (one stumbling block mark of the unit because of a rather unique Ligget Military Reservation. In the mountains
being the movement of a large number of mules recruiting system. The National Ski Patrol, around Leadville and Aspen, meanwhile, ele-
and horses, which formed a light division's pri- founded by Minot Dole in 1940, acted as a con- ments of the 10th Mtn. engaged in mock winter
mary source of transport, overseas to the pro- duit channelling recruits to Camp Hale. Eventu- combat at 12000 feet or more. The results ofthe
posed theaters of operation). Eventually, in ally over 10000 already qualified skiers were tests were poor. The 89th and 71st Divisions
March 1943, a TO&E figure of 9000 officers passed on by the patrol to the 10th Mtn. Divi- were found to have used a third (and sometimes
and men was settled on. Nearly all the compo- sion. Once at Camp Hale under the guidance of half) of their manpower to build roads and trails
nents of a full infantry division were present, professional pre-war climbers (the 10th Mtn. or to simply man-haul supplies. Review boards
but in reduced numbers. The divisions were had several renowned Swiss and Austrian recommended disbanding the two; higher
"lightened" by the elimination of all organic climbers in its ranks), the men underwent authorities agreed and the divisions were re-
reconnaissance elements (which were later extensive training in mountaineering, both in converted to standard infantry divisions. In the
replaced), and by cutting most forms of motor- summer and winter conditions. Special artifi- case of the 10th Mtn., the trials were equally as
ized transport. In addition, the field artillery cial glaciers were built to better simulate Euro- unsatisfactory, poor results in part caused by ill-
elements of the new divisions were diminished pean Alpine conditions. Needless-to-say, in suited equipment and clothing and the choice of
in firepower. Henceforward, three battalions of winter, skiing was a daily routine (now turned exercise area. However, unlike the other two
75mm pack howitzers (U.S. Ordnance Note into drudgery by the Army as the 10th Mtn.'s divisions, the 10th Mtn. was given a reprieve.
#12 and British Note #9) would make up each divisional song immortalizes "90 pounds of Despite the War Department's dislike for spe-
cialized troops at the time, the unique nature of enabled the reinforced companies of 200 men of Rocca Roffeno (the divisional object for the
the skills possessed by the men of the 10th Mm. to climb with even the heaviest of support day). Capture of the massif and its nearby road
ensured their survival as a unit (skiing in the weapons. Most elements of the battalion were junction would not only allow direct road
1940s was not a popular recreational pastime). atop by 0230. The German sentries were caught access into the Po valley, but would also tum
Sanctioned with the official designation off guard; they did not believe the Americans the left flank of the German 94th Infantry Divi-
"mountain division", the 10th boarded ship for capable of such an alpine-style assault. By sion.
Italy in December of 1944 with an expanded 0545, all four peaks were secured after a series As the 85th Regiment entered the Pra del
compliment of 14101 officers and men of brief and bloody engagements with the Bianco, however, it ran straight into a series of
(roughly the size of a regular division), 6000 enemy. Only in one instance were desperate entrenched and fortified positions which were
beloved mules and horses, plus several tons of measures called forth. Having ordered his men screened by an extensive network of both anti-
specially-produced alpine equipment (packs, to construct snow caves, a young Lieutenant personnel and anti-tank minefields. Fortunately
goose-down sleeping bags, boots, parkas, rifle- Loose called down artillery on his own position these enemy positions were completely manned
slings and climbing gear). Also bound for Italy in order to stave off a German counter-attack only at night. The mines, however, slowed the
with the division was a consignment of M-29 which threatened to push his unit off the ridge. 85th Regiment and forced accompanying tanks
"Weasels". The Weasel was a specially The survival skills put to a unique test worked and tank destroyers to retire. Alerted to the
designed tracked vehicle for use in the snow, well; protected by the snow and ice blocks, the attack, German reinforcements began to arrive
the precursor oftoday's "snow-cats" (there is as lieutenant and his men weathered the barrage and take up their firing positions in the fortifi-
yet no ASL piece which depicts the M-29, as and held their position until relieved the next cations. The 85th's attack began to stall. While
there was in G./., ANVIL OF VICTORy). moming. artillery was being called down, a few enemy
In February 1945 the 10th Mm., under the With the ridge secure, the way was now clear positions were silenced at close quarters by the
command of Major-General George P. Hays, for the two battalions of 85th Regiment and infantrymen of the regiment in bitter fighting.
entered the Fifth Army's IV Corps sector and those from the 87th Regiment to launch their On his own initiative, PFC John D. Magrath of
was assigned a position just west of Highway own attacks on the other peaks astride the high- G Company armed only with his rifle cleared
64 in the Reno River valley. The mountains in way. Thankfully, this time no climb was one machinegun post. Taking the captured
the area, while rugged, were well below the required. On the night of the 19 February, hav- weapon, Magrath went on to knock out three
11000-12000 foot heights on which the division ing foregone artillery preparations in the hopes more redoubts, one of which contained two
had trained. As the only fresh unit available, of achieving tactical surprise a second time, the heavy machineguns. But while checking on the
and more importantly because of its special two regiments attacked the German hilltop out- wounded men left behind during his heroics,
skills, the 10th Mm. was immediately selected posts. Once again success was swift, and by Magrath was himself killed. His actions eamed
by IV Corps HQ to spearhead the planned daybreak the two peaks were secured. Both him the Medal of Honor. The efforts of Com-
spring offensive. This attack was designed to units then pressed north-eastwards in the direc- pany G in clearing the basin enabled a battalion
break out of the Apennines, in which the Ger- tion of Mount Torraccia. Here however, Ger- of the 86th Regiment to thrust through and take
mans had held the Allies for some time, sweep man resistance stiffened considerably. For the Rocca Roffeno by late afternoon. Despite
through the Po valley west of Bologna, where next several days, heavy fighting ensued. Even- higher-than-expected casualties, the offensive
the preponderance of U.S. armor could be used tually, allied fighter-bombers had to be directed was still on schedule.
to best advantage, and then race to capture the on to the enemy positions. Over 400 sorties Over the next several days the men of the
passes which lead through the Italian Alps to were flown in support of the 10th. Finally on 10th "island hopped" along the remaining
Austria. If successful, the plan would trap sev- the 23rd, the 3rd battalion of the 86th Regi- peaks which overlooked the Po valley, captur-
eral German armies. Once the offensive was ment, committed from reserve, broke the Ger- ing in the process over 3000 disheartened Ger-
underway, the 10th Mm. was to form the van- man's hold on the heights. Mount Torraccia man prisoners. Having at last broken out of the
guard of IV Corps' drive to the Alps (which is fell, and the path to the Po was open. Apennines, the race to the Alps was underway
how it came by its motto Semper Avanti- - In order to re-supply the attacking units atop in earnest on the 20th of April. On the 23rd,
"Always In Front"). the Apennine peaks, which in some areas jut using assault boats and 50 attached DUKWs,
However, as a preliminary to the final offen- out from the valley floor like volcanic islands the 10th Mm. was the first IV Corps formation
sive, it was vital that the peaks surrounding from the seabed, the engineers of the lOth Mtn. to cross the Po River. In order to maintain its
Highway 64 be captured, especially a long Division (126th Mountain Engineer Regiment) position ahead of IV Corps, now that the moun-
ridge line (the Sarasiccia-Campania) strongly erected an ingenious system of aerial tramways. tains were behind them, General Hays formed
held by the enemy. Lying to the west of the These 8'x4' pallets attached to overhead cables an ad-hoc mobile task force under the com-
highway, the promontory comprised four cen- enabled those on the summit to be re-supplied mand of Colonel William O. Darby of Ranger
tral peaks and was dubbed "Riva Ridge" by the in a matter of minutes instead of the several fame (see The GENERAL, Vol. 25, #5). Darby
men of the 10th Mm. (A familiar name, per- hours required to hike up by man and mule. had recently been named assistant divisional
haps, to those of you who may have skied the Likewise, the wounded could be quickly evacu- commander to the 10th Mm. when its original
"Black Diamond" run at Vail, named in honor ated on the tram's return journey. By early divisional officer was wounded by a mine lead-
of the division's exploits on the ridge.) To take March, in bold attacks in the face of stiff oppo- ing his own task force forward to the Po River.
the heights would require a vertical climb of sition, the 10th Mtn. had captured the remain- Task Force Darby (TFD), as it was known,
1500 feet, a move which could only be done at ing peaks along Highway 64. In so doing, Hays consisted of the division's 86th Regiment, the
night due to the cross-fire from nearby hills. On had successfully maneuvered IV Corps into 13th Tank Battalion (taken from the 1st
the night of 18 February, the reinforced 1st bat- position for its spring offensive. This was not Armored Division), a company of light tanks
talion of the 86th Regiment, which had been done without a heavy cost; the division suffered and tank destroyers and three battalions of self-
hidden in houses and barns at the base of the 1349 casualties (309 KIA). propelled artillery. While TFD raced forward
ridge throughout the day, began the climb. On April 14th, after a pause to refit and a fur- across the Po plain, the remaining two regi-
Meanwhile, to the east the 1st and 3rd battal- ther delay caused by bad weather, the primary ments, the 85th and 87th, mopped up bypassed
ions of the 85th Regiment and 1st and 2nd bat- offensive commenced. The 10th Mm. was once strong points. On the 25th, just two days after
talions of the 87th Regiment prepared to launch again chosen "to carry the ball." So began what crossing the Po River, TFD advanced 20 miles
an attack on a separate set of dominating peaks became known in IV Corps' history as the "19 in one day to Villafranca. There, after a brief
- Mount Belvedere and Mount Gorgolesco - Days" as, with the 10th Mm. leading the way, frrefight, it captured the town's airfield and an
once the ridge was in hand. the corps went from the Apennines to the Alps intact FockeWulf 190 (its pilot had landed
At 1930 hours the men started up the side of - an advance for the 10th Mtn. of over 140 thinking the airfield was still in German hands).
"Riva". In the darkness the assent was greatly miles. On the morning of the 14th, after a heavy From Villafranca, TFD drove pell-mell some
aided by the fact that special path-finding tearns air and artillery preparation lasting nearly 90 40 miles northwards to Lake Garda with the
of volunteers had reconnoitered routes and pre- minutes, the 10th Mm. moved forward into the objective of seizing a series of tunnels and
fixed nylon ropes to the cliff. This measure Pra del Bianco, a bowl-shaped basin just ahead passes which led north through the Italian Alps
towards Austria. The Gennans, aware of their Fitting the 10th Mtn. into ASL elite squads must have been purchased earlier.)
importance to the Allied offensive, had fortified One facet of the division which the preceding This system also yields improved chances of
some and prepared others for demolition. As has endeavored to convey is that the ranks of "trading up" (H1.81) and effectively simulates
TFD made its way forward, the Gennans set off the 10th Mtn. were filled with what the Anny the better "officer pool" which the division
charges at the first series of tunnels, thereby would call "officer material". Because of this, enjoyed.
blocking the entrances and bringing down onto In addition, because an overwhelming pro-
each platoon leader is entitled to a "-I" modi-
the road much of the surrounding cliff-face. portion of the division's men qualified for OCS
fier, with its respective morale level being
Using DUKWs, which had remained with the (some even turned down commissions in order
determined by a die roll (1-2 = 9-1 SMC; 3-6 =
division, Company G of the 86th Regiment to remain with the unit when transfer seemed
8-1). While the division contained no more offi-
skirted around the blocked tunnels and made an likely), thefirst and second Rally attempts of a
cers than its Table of Organization allowed it to
amphibious assault under fire on the remaining player's own Rally Phase may be perfonned as
(673), its enlisted ranks were almost to a man
tunnel strongpoints. This succeeded in captur- a Self-Rally regardless of nonnal Self-Rally
ing several before the Gennans were able to rig potential officers themselves, (recall the 86%
capability (AI8.11). However, each attempt at
them for demolition. Darby then went on to figure mentioned above). Thus, in contrast with Self-Rally must take place in a separate Loca-
take Torbole, a small town at the head of Lake the FSSF and Rangers, whose officers have tion. All other rules regarding Self-Rally are
Garda. It was here on the afternoon of April been the subject of special consideration in unchanged, except as modified herein: if one or
30th, while discussing plans with a fellow offi- tenns of ASL, it is upon the average infantry- both of the MMC rolls an original "2" Dice Roll
cer, that the much-decorated Colonel Darby men (or in this case the above-average infantry- (DR), each is entitled to an additional "-1" die
was killed by a lone round from a concealed men) of the 10th Mtn. which we should concen- roll modifier (dnn) on the ensuing Leader Cre-
Gennan 88mm. trate. ation Table (AI8.2). This special dnn is cumu-
Just two days later, all was quiet on the Ital- In order to reflect the unique qualities of lative with all others listed for Nationality,
ian front. Hostilities had ceased - at least in these men, I believe that companies and pla- Morale Level, Status, etc. Likewise, anytime a
Italy - with a negotiated truce. In 114 days of toons of the division should have a higher com- 10th Mtn. MMC attacking in Close Combat
fighting the 10th Mountain Division had suf- pliment of Non-Commissioned Officers (8-0 rolls an original "2" DR, it may also apply the
fered 953 dead and 3134 wounded, one-third of and 7-0 leader types) than might nonnally be special dnn (-1) to any Leader Creation attempt
all American casualties in Italy and the heaviest allotted to them otherwise (see Table 2). In a (AI8.12).
toll taken by any division of its size for that DYO scenario depicting the 10th Mtn., this can The 10th Mtn. was, for the most part, a stan-
length of time in combat anywhere. This fact be implemented quite easily. Any fractional dard American infantry division in terms of the
serves as a reminder that the 10th Mountain surplus left over from the division of friendly composition of a line company (three rifle pla-
was one of the elite fighting combat units of Equivalent squads (H1.74) by the Leader Gen- toons and one heavy-weapons platoon). The
World War Two, despite its short existence. eration (LG) factor enables the player to add composition of a rifle platoon's squad was 12
After returning to the States in August, the divi- one additional 8-0 and one 7-0 leader. If this men - ten armed with Ml semi-automatic rifles,
sion was fonnally decommissioned in Novem- calculation yields no fractional remainder, add one with a Browning Automatic Rifle and the
ber 1945. one 8-0 leader automatically. (Remember that twelfth man with a 1903 Springfield bolt-action

TABLE 1: Table of Organization- TABLE 2: Standard 10th Mountain Company OB

10th U.S. Mountain Division This would be the ASL composition of a single 10th Mountain line com-
Unit Manpower Animals ASL Equivalent pany. For actions depicting two companies, add one battalion-level 8-1
3 Regiments (each) 128/2739 953** SMC and a 6-6-7 MMC, plus a 3-4-7 HS and BAZ (1945) from the bat-
3 Battalions (each) 35/825 c.317 talion's Heavy Weapons Company. If three companies are involved, add
HQCompany 7112 0-3MC the 10-3 SMC, plus one Radio (81mm MTR OBA available), a 6-6-7
8-1 SMC MMC, and a 3-4-7 HS with HMG.
2x6-6-7 MMC 9-2SMC
3 Line Cos. (each) 6/187 9-1 SMC
CompanyHQ 2720:---~-rj9-2 SMC 4x8-1 SMC
8-1 SMC 2x7-0 SMC (see article)
2x6-6-7MMC 11x6-6-7 MMC
M G 7x3-4-7 HS
3 Rifle Platoons (each) 1/36 9/8-1 SMC*** BAZ (1945)
3x6-6-7 MMC 3xMMG
'Heavy Weapons Platoon 1/36 '&-1 SMC 3xM1960mmMTR
7x3-4-7 HS
BAZ (1945)
• - Officer/Enlisted
•• - 9xBell Horse, 5lxRiding Horse. 765XPack Mule, I 28xRiding Mille
••• - see article for explanation =:'b~==:'77-=~---ll-"I::Ox2'l""_T:fC""r~ew~--­
4x75mm Pack Howitzer
:-:-:-:-_-:--:-:~_=- .J.!.4xMule
10th Mountain AT Battalion
6 TPlatoons (eacli 3xZ-2-7 Cc::re:'::wo;-------.
TABLE 4: 10th Mountain Capabilities 3xJeep
Feb-March 1945 10th Recon Troop Mechanized
I rMilT.:o=ra=ili::"e::"":------N'onnaI 3 Recon Platoons (each)-·-.......-S-l SM·rw------......
ELR: 5 7-0SMC
SAN: 4 6x3-4-7 HS
Stealth: No 3xM8AC
Ski: -~--- Yes"'--~--- 4xJeep (with MG)
2xJeep (with dm 60mm MTR)
rifle. This last weapon could be fitted with a tion and other equipment man- or animal-
telescopic sight for use as a sniper rifle. (In packed. Depending upon the terrain, a mule
The GENERAL will list any gaming convention in this
practice, it was often replaced by another M1 was capable of carrying 200-300 pounds and it column free of charge on a space available basis, provided
for added fIrepower.) A squad of the 10th Mtn. would therefore take between fIve to six mules that we are notified at least six months in advance of the
would best be represented by a 6-6-7. The very to carry one gun. The photographic evidence event date. Each listing must include the name, date, site
and contact address for the convention. Additional infor-
nature of the recruits and their training, which seems to indicate that a single mule carried mation of interest to our readership. such as tournaments
instilled a great deal of confidence, self- between 12-lS rounds of 7Smm anununition. utilizing Avalon Hill games. is solicited and will be
reliance and unit cohesion, warrants the use of All rules for animal-pack guns should be printed if made available. The Avalon Hill Game Com-
the 6-6-7 and its higher morale level. Both the observed; and in any DYO scenarios, players pany does not necessarily attend nor endorse these gather-
ings, nor do we guarantee that events using our titles will
War Department and the commander of the should allocate enough animal counters for be held. Readers are urged to contact the listed source for
German forces opposing the 10th Mtn., Field transport. further information before making plans to attend.
Marshall Kesselring, considered the division an On the basis that the mountains were not the
"elite unit". As elite squads, the MMC can best environment for tanks, the divisional
make use of all U.S. support weapons without TO&E allowed for a limited anti-tank capabil- MARCH 20-22
penalty. The morale would not be considered to ity. The division's AT battalion consisted of 18 SPRING OFFENSIVE III, East Peoria,
be underlined, however. S7mm (M1) guns towed by jeeps. The guns Illinois
In depicting the first actions of the 10th Mtn. were formed into six platoons of three guns and Contact: Roy Spencer, Tri-County Gaming
during February and March 1945, their Experi- three jeeps each. Association, 116 WaInut Street, Washington,
ence Level Rating (ELR) should be "S". There- Originally, the "light" divisions were to be IL 61S71. (309) 444-4640.
after, due to the heavy casualties, the ELR devoid of organic reconnaissance elements. Note: Among other boardgames, a tourna-
would drop to "4" for those actions taking place These units, as it was then thought, could be ment devoted to ASL.
in April and May of 1945. Since the mountains raised on an ad-hoc basis from elsewhere when
offered excellent terrain for snipers and the needed. But by 1944 when the 10th Mtn. APRIL 3-5
mountain warfare field manual called for their shipped out for Italy, separate recon elements PO-CON, Bartonsville, Pennsylvania
extensive use, the Sniper Activation Number had been re-inserted after the field trials. The Contact: Edward Dowgiallo, Pocono Gam-
(SAN) should be "4" for those scenarios taking division's reconnaissance troop of five officers ing Group, P.O. Box 390, Effort, PA 18330.
place in February and March 1945. Thereafter, and IS7 men were initially mounted on horse- (717) 629-7218.
the SAN value should be set at "2" to better back; in actual fact, the troop was mechanized
(with the horses retained for special situations). APRIL 4-5
reflect the rapid advances in the Po valley,
WINDS OF WAR '92, Greensboro, North
which left little time to set up planned and cam- The troop was eventually composed of three
ouflaged sniper positions. platoons of three M8 armored cars and six
Contact: Raymond Woloszyn, 7162 Maple-
The "specialty" of the 10th Mtn. was skiing jeeps, all carrying either machineguns or 60mm
wood Lane, Kernersville, NC 27284. (919)
and mountaineering. Therefore, all SMC and mortars.
MMC of the 10th Mtn. are always assumed to It is hoped that through this article and the
Note: Fourth annual ASL "theme" tourna-
be ski-equipped in scenarios where accompanying scenario that readers will come
ground/deep snow is present. Because of their away with an appreciation of one of the more
expertise in cross-country skiing, all such SMC unique combat outfits of the Second World
APRIL 24-26
and MMC receive a movement bonus of one War, America's alpine division. As the only
TEXASL 1992, Arlington, Texas
MF while on skiis. This IMF bonus is only U.S. division of its kind, it oftentimes found
Contact: Gary Fortenberry, P.O. Box
applicable if the unit does not change elevation itself placed "between a rock and a hard place".
191108, Arlington, TX 76019. (817) 447-
at anytime during the course of its Movement But it was "Always in Front".
Phase (MPh). The additional movement factor Note: An AREA-rated, Swiss-style ASL
awarded by this bonus may also be used to tournament.
extend the special MF allotment of broken WANTED:
(AIO.S)/wounded (AI7.2)jberserk (AlS.431) Marketing/Sales Director MAY 15-17
units as well. [EXC: This 1MF bonus derived HEXACON VI, Braubach, Germany
for not changing elevation cannot be claimed if Can you replace a man whose career Contact: Ulrich Blennemann, Rosenthal 76,
the unit must/elects to change elevation during spans the entire life of the commercial D-4320 Hattingen, Germany. 02324/2-40-
the MPh/RtPh.] All other rules regarding units wargaming hobby? With the announced 49.
on skiis apply unaltered (E4.3). SMC and retirement of Tom Shaw, The Avalon Hill Note: Among other events, competition in
MMC of the 10thMtn. are always considered to Game Company is seeking a new direc- UP FRONT (using the "SOl" system).
be wearing Winter Camouflage (E3.71) in sce- tor for its Marketing and Sales Division.
narios where any type of snow is present. As a Duties include, but are not limited to: MAY 15-17
result of their mountaineer training, SMC and Preparation and scheduling of Trade CONWEST IV, Albuquerque, New Mexico
MMC are assumed to be Commandos for pur- and consumer advertising. Contact: H. Mortimer, Weregamer's Guild,
poses of climbing and scaling only. (Note: Thus Liaison with manufacturers' represen- SAC Box 48 Sub, University of New Mex-
they are not stealthy and their ELR/Morale is tatives and domesticlforeign accounts. ico, Albuquerque, NM 87131. (SOS) 277-
still subject to Table 4 on the previous page.) Administration of COOP advertising 3083.
In contrast with some of the other "light" policy. Note: Competition in ASL, UF, DIP and
units already examined, the 10th Mtn. was a Development of sales aids and other NAVAL WAR.
division in its own right and so consequently programs for the Trade.
had organic support elements. In terms of Representation of the company at MAY 15-17
ADVANCED SQUAD LEADER, three of the numerous Trade shows and game SPRING FEVER II, Dartmouth, Mas-
divisional assets can be simulated easily: conventions. sachusetts
artillery, anti-tank and reconnaissance. The While not necessary for the applicant Contact: Carl Noguiera, 45 Jenkins Street,
division's three field artillery battalions each to be familar with all of our games, pref- New Bedford, MA 02740.
had three batteries of four 7Smm pack how- erence will be given to the individual who Note: As before, a balanced mix1Ure of board
itzers (MIA 1), which instead of being drawn by is if all other qualifications are the same. and miniatures games covering a variety of
jeeps were packed by mules (G10.1). Each of Interested readers should respond with a periods.
these battalions had 347 mules assigned to it to detailed resume to Jack Dott, 4517 Har-
pack the guns, which could be broken down ford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214.
into six pieces each for loading, with anununi-

July 30- August 2, 1992

Complete this form or a facsimile and return

it with the required deposit to: Penn Harris
Hotel, P.O. Box 839, Camp Hill, PA 17001.
Or call 1-800-345-PENN. We suggest you
make your room reservations promptly, as we
cannot guarantee availability or equivalent By John Huff
alternate lodging after July 16, 1992. Once
the Penn Harris is sold out, lodging requests With the imminent release of the new Com- occasional message through the rumor mill.
will be referred to the nearest available hotel puter DIPLOMACY, I thought I would take this This retains much of the flavor of the original
honoring the AVALONCON room rate. Be opportunity to bring you up to date. Many read- boardgame. (It is, however, a great deal simpler
sure to fill out the form carefully, as the Penn ers may remember the original DIPLOMACY to get a game of the computer version together
for the ffiM and many are still avid players of than of the boardgame.) But be forewarned, the
Harris will honor only those reservations
this game. Originally published in 1984, at that computer players lie and cheat just like the flesh
received with complete information and
time it represented the state of the art in PC and blood players you may know.
deposit or guarantee. computer games. With excellent graphics and While there is no sure-win strategy for the
Name: _ smooth interface for the time, it still holds up game, having more than one human-controlled
well against the seven years of progress since it country is to your advantage". It gives some
was first introduced. It does have a few short- leverage if you wind up on the receiving end of
Address: _ comings; the most noticeable is the ease with a dastardly plot on the part of the computer
which the computer opponents are eventually players. Obviously, the nice thing about the
City: _ defeated (once you figure out their weak spots). computer game is that you can try to survive the
This inherent weakness was based on the lack situation in various ways and save the games in
State: Zip: _ of co-operation on the part of the "electronic progress as you fine-tune your own plots.
Phone: _ Now we move into the 1990s. A new genera- Bits and Pieces
tion of Computer DIPLOMACY is about to be Some inside information about other new
Arrival Date: _ released to the market. This is superior to the products from Micro Computer Games ...
original in both graphics and speed of execu- Computer THIRD REICH for the Atari ST
Departure Date: _ tion, but more importantly in the quality of the and Commodore Amiga is at last available and
computer opponents. Developed in co-opera- ready for shipment! The ffiM version should be
tion with Virgin Software, we are understand- completed by mid-summer. The ffiM version
Cleek-in time is 3:00 PM. • Cleek-out time is l:OO PM.
ably proud of the new releases. should offer to the fans of 3R who happen to be
Reservations which are not guaranteed by cheek (made out
to Penn Harris Hotel) or credit card will only be held until
The new versions are available for the Atari owners of that model all the visual and strategy
5:00PM. ST, Commodore Amiga, and the ever faithful appeal of the first two (see my last column, in
Commodore 64/128. Each one is state of the art Vol. 27, No.3 of The GENERAL). It is hoped
Credit Card & Number: _ from end to end. Displays are neat and simple that release upon this more common platform
to grasp, entry of orders is simply a matter of will introduce many more gamers to this classic
Expiration Date: _ selecting the army or fleet, its next action from design on the grand strategy of World War II.
the menu or its destination from the map. Book- And the fact that the computer files will be
RATE: The Room rate is $60.00 per day plus keeping is smooth and unobtrusive. The game compatible among all makes will encourage
$3.60 tax for one-to-four guests per room. No program thus lends itself well to managing interactive play to an extent not enjoyed by any
more than four people per room. A $63.60 PBM or PBEM games, making it useful even to other computer game.
deposit is required to guarantee each room gamers who don't have any desire to play with Innovictor has been sent back to the lab for a
reservation. computer opponents, but need a record-keeping few revisions. By the time this column sees
system (one relatively impervious to the print, they should be complete. These revisions
I will share this room with: vagaries of pets, fussy spouses or small chil- include a new interactive trade system, a
dren). One can save the current game at the end macro-command function and further enhanced
Name: _ of any season. The programs are certainly user- graphics. All of this adds new elements to make
friendly, as can be seen from a brief scan of the the game even more fun and easier to play.
Name: _ rulebook. The WILDERLANDS module for LEGENDS
Strategies will vary (depending upon the OF THE LOST REALM is complete and in the
Name: _ variant selected) and the game will provide a final stages of packaging and preparation. It
challenge to all players, from novice to veteran. offers about twice the challenge of the original
The thing to keep in mind is that the computer scenario, but has less combat and more puzzle-
Deposit Enclosed: _ players are negotiating with each other as well, solving aspects. The graphics are more detailed
Registration and Open Gaming will begin Thursay, July unlike in the original computer conversion, but and sophisticated than the original as well. The
30th at noon. Official tournaments will not start before 6
the only evidence you may have of their deal- wait will have been worth it for the many fans
PM that evening.
ings is to review the previous orders - or via the of this game. ~

A GM's View of Game 1988HW, Concluded
By Gary Behnen, with Rex A. Martin

In Vol. 27, No. 4, I began the account - through the medium. ofthe play- moves, etc. I'm having some reversals here, but I'm having a blast!
ers"Press and the GM's reports - of a postal DIPLOMACY game in Whether I remain or die, be advised I plan on going out with a bang!
which I was savaged by some of the best in the hobby. We left the game Kaiser to Legless Elk: Thanks, Mark Trail - but spare us the compansons.
.hanging with two countries eliminated and the ladies in a dominate posi- Instead, consider your nation one of woodchucks ... open season with
tion. no limit! And Turkey will bag the most.
As before, the turns are presented in the game report format ofwhich Italy to Turkey: Now thatI've killed off the possums, I figure it's time for
Gary made use: date and GM "headlines", player list, orders, and edited a turkey hunt.
Press. Each unit's order is listed separately, and most should be self-evi- Faz to Quinn: Thanks for the letters, but you're not about to change your
dent (A = Army; F = Fleet; c = convoy; s = support). Failed moves are spots at this juncture. If you are so concerned about Italy, then pull
indicated by italics. Illustrations showing the controlled territory are Russia's puppet strings and get him involved first. I think I've "nor-
offered at the end ofeach second year (colors correspond to those ofthe mal" (?) relations with Kathy.
countries in the game, except in the case ofRussia, which is tan herein). Flash to Kathy: It appears that Bill and you are not the pen pals I earlier
Any proposed draw was put to a vote by the GM; the remaining active made you out to be. If you decide to smite him before he smites you,
players had to be unanimous in their agreement for the game to end in well ... "Have Toady, Will Travel". And I don't have fleas like the
this manner (a common occurrence in postal DIPLOMACY). Wonder Dog next door.
Without further ado, the Leviathan again "have at it." Bloodysucker to Wonder Dog: Now, you know I enjoy turkey as much as
Melinda enjoys dog meat.
KC to Faz: Who you calling a "she-devil"? Certainly not me. Otherwise,
A New Old Coalition I'd get the hots for Munich.
Germany to England: Years of faithful service, only to be rewarded by
Winter 1904/Spring 1905 the shaft ... and it didn't even feel good. Well, now my money's on an
Portuguese rebels accepts new Queen . eventual E-I draw, daffy as that may sound.
Is the pen really mightier than the sword . London to Board: If things didn't go as planned, sorry. I lost track. Chalk
Faz becoming very popular; everybody wants him ... it up to an unreal real life and a 50+ hour work week. I'll do better.
The elk gets one more hound on his tail ...

The Players:
England - Melinda Holley (Huntington, WV 25727)
It was a dark and foggy day ...
Germany - Mark Fassio (Woodbridge, VA 22192) Fall 1905
Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401) It's getting a bit clearer, though ...
Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Arm, MD 21057) Germany and Russia together again ...
Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301) "You ain't seen nothing like the mighty Quinn ..."
GameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062)
The Players:
The Orders for Winter: England - Melinda Holley (Huntington, WV 25727)
Austria (even): OUT Germany - Mark Fassio (Woodbridge, VA 22192)
England (+2): build A Edhlburgh, A London; plays one short Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401)
France (-1): NMR! GM disbands A Gascony; OUT Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Arm, MD 21057)
Germany (-1): disband A Paris Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301)
Italy (+3): build A Venice, A Rome, F Naples GameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062)
Russia (even): no adjustments
Turkey (even): no adjustments The Orders:
England: A Paris s Ita A Gascony-Burgandy; F North Sea c A Edinburgh-
The Orders for Spring: Norway; F St. Petersburg (nc) s A Edinburgh-Norway; F English
England: A Picardy to Paris; F North Sea c A Edinburgh-Norway; F St. Channel c A London-Belgium; F Portugal to Mid-Atlantic; F Denmark
Petersburg (nc) sA Edinburgh-Norway; F Brest to English Channel; F hold; A Kiel s Ita A Tyrolia-Munich; A Edinburgh to Norway; A Lon-
Portugal hold; F Denmark s A Holland-Kiel; A Holland to Kiel; A don to Belgium
Edinburgh to Norway; A London hold Germany: F Bothnia to Sweden; A Burgandy to Paris; A Livonia s Rus A
Germany: F Bothnia s A Warsaw-Livonia; A Burgandy s A Munich hold; Prussia-Warsaw; A Ruhr to Belgium; A Munich to Berlin
A Warsaw to Livonia; A Kiel to Berlin; A Munich sA Kiel-Berlin Italy: F Marseilles hold; A Serbia s A Budapest hold; A Budapest s A Tri-
Italy: F Spain (sc) to Marseilles; A Serbia s A Vienna-Budapest; A este-Vienna; A Gascony to Burgandy; A Tyrolia to Munich; F Tyrrhe-
Vienna to Budapest; A Marseilles to Gascony; A Tyrolia to Munich; F nian to Ionian Sea; F Tunis hold; A Trieste to Vienna; A Venice to
Lyon to Tyrrhenian Sea; F West Med to Tunis; A Venice to Trieste; A Tyrolia; F Ionian to Greece
Rome to Venice; F Naples to Ionian Sea Russia: F Sweden to Skagerrak; A Moscow to Sevastopol; A Prussia to
Russia: F Sweden to Norway; A Moscow to St. Petersburg; A Livonias A Warsaw
Moscow-St. Petersburg Turkey: A Warsaw to Moscow; F Bulgaria (sc) to Greece; A Silesia to
Turkey: A Ukraine to Warsaw; F Aegean to Bulgaria (sc); A Silesia to Warsaw; A Sevastopol s A Warsaw-Moscow; A Galicia to Vienna; A
Berlin; A Sevastopol hold; A Galicia sA Ukraine-Warsaw; A Rumania Rumania to Bulgaria
to Budapest Units in Retreat: German A Burgandy (either Picardy or OTB); Russian
Units in Retreat: German A Kiel (either Ruhr or OTB); Russian A Livo- A Moscow (either Ukraine or OTB)
nia (either Prussia or OTB)
The Press:
The Press: Constantinople to Rome: One trick the Russian hound refuses to learn is
Germany to Board: When I joined this game, I resolved to play it quite "roll over and play dead". But the German shepherd seems to do it both
differently compared to "normal": more stabs, wild and unsupportable willingly and well for his mistress England, despite how she kicks him.
Russia to Faz-cist: Didn't realize that you'd planned on rolling over. And Swedish Serenade
here I thought I was the Wonder Dog. But it seems the ladies found you
easier to house-break.
Winter 1905
Separationists carry the day ...
Faz to Bill: Mad Turk, what can I say? "Too much; too little; too late"
Czar is caught napping; will Rex van Winkle awaken ...
comes to mind. If you are interested in joint talks, the mailbox is
Queen unilaterally calls end to the arms race ...
always open. Just make sure these are mutually beneficial offers,
instead of this "zero-sum" crap you've been giving me the whole
The Players:
England - Melinda Holley (Huntington, WV 25727)
Steeler Fan to Legless Elk in Wheelchair beset by Ravenous Beasts in Germany - Mark Fassio (Woodbridge, VA 22192)
Frozen North: If we pull this little ditty off, I'll be pleasantly surprised!
Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401)
In a weird, roundabout way, we deserve a smattering of joint success Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Arm, MD 21057)
toward the twilight of our reign, wouldn't you say? I salute you as a Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301)
gentleman, and a competent player, and hope success to our continued GameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062)
actions in this game and any others we happen to end up in together.
Russia to Germany: Please defme, "out with a bang". What are the dear The Orders:
ladies offering you? England (+3): build A Liverpool, A Edinburgh; plays two short
GM to Russia: ... naaaahhh!! Germany (-3): retreat A Burgandy OTB; disband A Berlin, A Ruhr
Bloodysucker to Rex the Dead Dog: I'll say one thing for you - you are Italy (+2) : build A Venice, A Rome
consistently dumb. How can anyone trust Quinn a second time? Russia (-2): NMR! GM retreats A Moscow OTB; disbands F Skagerrak
Italy to Germany: Of course we are having "normal" relations. I'm not Turkey (+1): build F Smyrna
perverted like the mountain lady.
GM to Kathy: Oh? Pray tell, how then are you perverted? The Press:
Faz to KC: OK Italian Diva, you've got the controls in your hands. Do KC to Faz: You don't really think that the Pirates will beat anyone but the
what you will with the fate of the nations on this board and rest assured Phils. As for them beating the Cards, sure ... about the same time Rex
I believe what you say. If you need help against the infidel Turk, I'm hits 18 in this game.
your man. I only hope we can arrange mutually beneficial orders. GM to Board: If Rex doesn't return, Russia will go into Civil Disorder.
GM to All: They now say the baseball season might be a wash. I really Italy to Turkey: Anything is better than a stalemated board. Melinda and
hope they are right! No, I'm not losing my mind, just my patience with I always were good at shakin' things up!
these millionaires who feel they can disregard the general public, keep GM to World: We're twice blessed with a new daughter, born April 02
raising ticket prices, pull clubs out of town, etc. I'm sure I can find 1990. Thanks for your well wishes. All went well and mom, babe and
plenty to do this sununer without them. sis are doing fine; but me, I'm tired.
A Woman who Knows her own Mind! The Balance of Power Shifts
Spring 1906 Fall 1906
Confusion in the Italian Anny (I know, I know - redlUldant) ... The ladies get Lucky 13 ...
Kaiser sues for peace ... Rex hangs tough in Warsaw as German Anny comes to rescue ...
A symbolic return, but Czar may take his [mal bow ... Kriegsmarine frees Kiel, for now ...
The lion roars ... Sick Man of Europe looking a bit sick ...
Are we ready for peace in our time?
The Players:
The Players: England - Melinda Holley (HlUltington, WV 25727)
England - Melinda Holley (HlUltington, WV 25727) Germany - Mark Fassio (Marina, CA 93933)
Germany - Mark Fassio (Marina, CA 93933) Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401)
Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401) Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Arm, MD 21057)
Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Ann, MD 21057) Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301)
Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301) GameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062)
GameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062)
The Orders:
The Orders: England: A Paris hold; F North Sea c A York-Denmark; F St. Petersburg
England: A Paris hold; F North Sea c A Edinburgh-Norway; F St. Peters- (nc) s A Norway hold; F English Channel sF Mid-Atlantic hold; F
burg (nc) s A Edinburgh-Norway; F English Channel c A London- Mid-Atlantic s F English Channel hold; F Denmark to Baltic Sea; A
Picardy; F Mid-Atlantic hold; F Denmark s A Norway-Sweden; A Kiel Berlin s Ita A Munich-Silesia; A Sweden s A York-Denmark; A
to Berlin; A Norway to Sweden; A London to Picardy; A Liverpool to Picardy to Belgium; A York to Denmark; A Norway s F St. Petersburg
York; A Edinburgh to Norway (nc) hold
Germany: F Sweden hold; A Livonia hold Germany: F Baltic to Kiel; A Livonia to Moscow
Italy: F Marseilles hold; A Serbia to Rumania; A Budapest to Galicia; A Italy: F Marseilles hold; A Serbia s A Budapest-Rumania; A Budapest to
Burgandy to Munich; A MlUlich to Bohemia; F Tyrrhenian c A Rome- Rumania; A Munich to Silesia; A Bohemia to Galicia; F Tyrrhenian s
Albania; F Tunis hold; A Vienna s A Munich-Bohemia & A Vienna sA F Tunis-Ionian Sea; F Tunis to Ionian Sea; A Vienna s A Bohemia-
Budapest-Galicia (double-orders, will hold); A Tyrolia hold; F Ionian Galicia; A Tyrolia to Bohemia; F Ionian to Greece; A Trieste to
c A Rome-Albania; A Venice to Trieste; A Rome to Albania Budapest; A Albania s F Ionian-Greece
Russia: A Warsaw to Moscow Russia: A Warsaw s Ger A Livonia-Moscow
Turkey: A Moscow sA Sevastopol-Ukraine; F Bulgaria (sc) to Aegean Turkey: A Moscow sA Silesia-Warsaw; F Aegean to Greece; A Silesiato
Sea; A Silesia to Galicia; A Sevastopol to Ukraine; A Galicia to Warsaw; A Ukraine to Rumania; A Galicia s A Ukraine-Rumania; A
Rumania; A Rumania to Bulgaria; F Smyrna to East Med Bulgaria sF Aegean-Greece; FEast Med to Aegean Sea
Units in Retreat: German F Sweden (to Finland, Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Units in Retreat: Turkish A Galicia annihilated; Turkish A Silesia (Prus-
Sea, Skagerrak, or OTB) siaor OTB)

The Press: The Press:

From the Doghouse: Sorry all. Seems that, while I wrote the letter carry- Warsaw to World: With the collapse of the Evil Empire, the proud Polish
ing my orders, I forgot to dispatch it to God. But he done good anyway, people declare their independence. Although our nation's life may be
removing the pieces I would have. Guess I'm not out of this yet. Again, short as darkness descends upon the continent, we take solace that in a
my apologies. The press of too many deadlines has brought on pre- few short decades, Poland will be at the forefront of the fight once
mature senility. again.
Russia to Turkey: Looks like we remain alone, 01' boy. Any suggestions? Constantinople to Rome: I don't believe you and the Iron Lady can make
For my part, I'm looking to go a-viking. it to a 17-17 draw.
GM to Russia: On a flaming ship? Constantinople to London: Kathy says she can win this one. Are you
Rome to Constantinople: It was as obvious as the nose on your face; don't going to let her defeat you and me both?
blame me if you are blind! Warsaw to Livonia: Glad to have you aboard! Maybe together, we can
KC to Faz: It's your choice: live or die, kill or be killed. spoil someone's day (about the only role left us).
Bloodsucker to the Wonder Dog: The ladies are offering you a grave; go KC to Faz: At least you know who rules the board!
find your favorite bone and enlarge the hole, as you are about to jump Faz to World: OK, OK, so I lied and didn't "Hold/OTB" my units. This
into it. is DIPLOMACY, is it not?
Warsaw to World: Tell you what. I'll take Moscow, and then quietly Faz to Bill: Stand by for RAM! Or, as they say in the US Army,
withdraw off the board to Siberia. Looks to me that the Queen and the "BOHICA." (Bend over; here it comes again!)
Popess have this one wrapped up anyway. What's say we give them a Marina to Board: Language school stinks! Homework nightly; no family
rousing cheer, a quick pat on the back, a drawn game, and move on to (although they're flying out for two weeks soon). Only plus:
other concerns. . Wargame-o-mania every weekend at the many cons. Into everyone's
GM to Warsaw: You can't be serious ... what other concerns could we life a little sunshine must also fall. See you in August.
have? GM to Board: A proposed Turkey-Italy-England (T-I-E!) draw. NVRs
Kaiserbunker to Europe: Well, gang, the fortunes of war have frowned and NMRs will be counted as a "Yes". Vote by next deadline.
upon the German nation. Can't say I didn't cause some of the misfor-
tlUle, you realize; but nonetheless, it's a real bummer! I salute the vic-
tors, offer assistance to the vanquished in future games.
Faz to All: Have been tapped to leave for language school earlier than
Message to Moscow: Glasnost has its limits!
planned. Given the need to establish my school logistics (as well as a Winter 1906/Spring 1907
now-distraught wife stuck alone with two toddlers for ten weeks), I'm Looks like the Fat Lady is getting ready to sing ...
slacking off on this game. Hence, the "Hold" orders. Gary, if forced to
retreat, I'll OTB. The E-I tide is unstoppable; I'm convinced of that, The Players:
and to prolong the agony is silly at this stage. Again, the game was England - Melinda Holley (HlUltington, WV 25727)
great. Germany - Mark Fassio (Marina, CA 93933)
GM to Faz: But it's not over yet. There's a lot of blood that can be shed Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401)
still - and with knives in the hands of ladies, I'm sure it will. Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Ann, MD 21057)
Ginger to All: Thanks for all your good wishes. I can well relate to Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301)
Mark's poor wife if Gary were to go out of town for 10 weeks. GameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062)
The Orders for Winter: Russia: A Moscow s Ita A Rumania-Sevastopol
England (+2): build A Edinburgh, A London Turkey: A Sevastopol sA Bulgaria-Rumania; F Aegean to Bulgaria (sc);
Germany (-1): disband F Kiel A Ukraine sA Bulgaria-Rumania; A Bulgaria to Rumania; FEast Med
Italy (+1): refuse build, plays one short to Aegean Sea; F Constantinople sF East Med-Bulgaria (impossible)
Russia (even): no adjustments Units in Retreat: Turkish A Sevastopol (Armenia or OTB); Turkish A
Turkey (even): retreat A Silesia OTB and build F Constantinople Bulgaria annihilated; German A Livonia annihilated

The Orders for Spring: The Press:

England: A Paris to Picardy; F North Sea c A Edinburgh-Denmark; F St. Livonia to World: Anybody here seen a Valhalla? I seem to have mis-
Petersburg (nc) to Barents Sea; F English Channel c A London-Bel- placed mine.
gium; F Mid-Atlantic s F English Channel hold; F Baltic c A Den- Kathy to Doc: Give it up, for crying out loud.
mark-Prussia; A Berlin s A Denmark-Prussia; A Sweden to Finland; A Constantinople to Rome: Vote for E-I or die! Vote or die; vote or die.
Belgium to Holland; A Denmark to Prussia; A Norway to St. Peters- OK, I choose to die.
burg; A Edinburgh to Denmark; A London to Belgium Constantinople to London: You can win, or Kathy can win. No E-I draw.
Germany: A Livonia s Rus A Warsaw-Moscow Rex to World: dateline, Moscow, the center of the resurgent Polish
Italy: F Marseilles hold; A Serbia s A Rumania-Bulgaria; A Rumania to Empire - "Next stop, China!"
Bulgaria; A Silesia s Eng A Berlin-Prussia; A Galicia to Ukraine; F GM to Board: Both proposed draws fail. The E-I again put up for a vote
Tyrrhenian to Ionian Sea; F Tunis sF Tyrrhenian-Ionian Sea; A next time.
Vienna s A Bohemia-Galicia; A Bohemia to Galicia; F Ionian to
Greece; A Budapest to Rumania; A Albania s F Ionian-Greece
Russia: A Warsaw to Moscow New Year, New Strategy
Turkey: A Moscow to Sevastopol; F Aegean s FEast Med-Ionian Sea; A
Ukraine sA Moscow-Sevastopol; A Bulgaria hold; FEast Med to Winter 1907
Ionian Sea; F Constantinople s A Bulgaria hold And then there were four ...
Winning is still better than losing gracefully ...
The Press:
Rex to All: Having now discovered a new toy, you can reach me (if the The Players:
inclination moves you) through the GEnie on-line system. I am still England - Melinda Holley (Huntington, WV 25727)
discovering all that is under the "Strategy & War Games" category, but Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401)
am slowly getting my feet wet in a couple of the topics. I am quite Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Arm, MD 21057)
amazed at the number of on-line, E-mail DIPLOMACY games on the Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301)
net. Are any of you involved? GameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062)
Warsaw (or Moscow) (or Hades) to World: And forward move the gal-
lant Poles! The Orders:
Rex to GM & Queen of the North: Congratulations on your respective England (+1): build A London
DIP awards (even if you did get the one named after you, Melinda). Germany (-1): OUT
You both deserve them, and I only hope my vote tipped the tally to Italy (+4) : build F Venice, A Rome; plays two short
your favor. Russia (even): no adjustment
Kathy to Doc: Vote for the E-I or die! The choice is yours, and it is all the Turkey (-2): disband F Aegean, FEast Med
same to me.
GM to Board: The T-I-E proposal fails. A T-I-E and E-I draw are pro- The Press:
posed for the next turn. Vote with orders. Czar of One of the Russias to Valhalla: Bye, Mark. It was great knowing
you. Save a spot at the table for me, huh?
GM to Board: The E-I draw again fails, but is promptly re-proposed.
Racing the Win ...
Fall 1907 The Final Flip-Flop ...
Fat Lady still warming up ...
Draws ail faii, but Mad Popess forges ahead ... Spring 1908
Confusion with geography in the Porte ... The Charge of the Yellow Brigade ...
Kaiser abdicates and retires to Virginia; Czar invited? Italian war heroes are missing as Ottomans take revenge ...
The Queen looks to expand her Empire ...
The Players:
England - Melinda Holley (Huntington, WV 25727) . The Players:
Germany - Mark Fassio (Woodbridge, VA 22191) England - Melinda Holley (Huntington, WV 25727)
Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401) Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401)
Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Arm, MD 21057) Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Arm, MD 21057)
Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301) Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301)
GameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062) GameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062)

The Orders: The Orders:

England: A Picardy to Belgium; F North Sea s A Belgium-Holland; F England: A Belgium to Burgandy; F North Sea hold; F Barents to St.
Barents s A Finland-St. Petersburg; F English Channel s A Picardy- Petersburg (nc); F English Channel s A London-Gascony; F Mid-
Belgium; F Mid-Atlantic hold; F Baltic s A St. Petersburg-Livonia; A Atlantic c A London-Gascony; F Baltic c A Denmark-Berlin; A Silesia
Berlin to Silesia; A Finland to St. Petersburg; A Holland to Kiel; A s A Prussia-Warsaw; A St. Petersburg to Moscow; A Kiel to Munich;
Prussia s Ita A Silesia-Warsaw; A St. Petersburg to Livonia; A Den- A Prussia to Warsaw; A Livonia s A Prussia-Warsaw; A Denmark to
mark s A Holland-Kiel; A Belgium to Holland Berlin; A Holland to Ruhr; A London to Gascony
Germany: A Livonia to Warsaw Italy: F Marseilles to Gulf of Lyon; A Bulgaria to Constantinople; A Sev-
Italy: F Marseilles hold; A Serbia to Bulgaria; A Rumania to Sevastopol; astopol s A Warsaw-Ukraine; A Warsaw to Ukraine; A Galicia sA
A Silesia to Warsaw; A Galicia to Ukraine; F Tyrrhenian to Ionian Warsaw-Ukraine; F Ionian to East Med; F Tunis to Ionian Sea; A
Sea; F Tunis s F Tyrrhenian-Ionian Sea; A Vienna to Galicia; A Vienna to Budapest; A Bohemia hold; F Greece to Aegean Sea; A
Bohemia s A Vienna-Galicia; F Greece s A Serbia-Bulgaria; A Budapest to Rumania; A Albania to Serbia; F Venice to Adriatic Sea;
Budapest to Rumania; A Albania s F Greece hold A Rome to Naples
Russia: A Warsaw s Ita A Sevastopolhold The Orders:
Turkey: A Armenia s A Ukraine-Sevastopol; A Ukraine to Sevastopol; F England: A Burgandy s A Gascony-Marseilles; F North Sea to English
Constantinople to Black Sea Channel; F Barents to Norway; F English Channel to Mid-Atlantic; F
Units in Retreat: Italian A Sevastopol annihilated Mid-Atlantic to Spain (sc); FBaltic s A Berlin hold; A Silesia sA War-
saw; A St. Petersburg to Moscow; A Munich to Tyrolia; A Warsaw sA
The Press: St. Petersburg-Moscow; A Livonia s A S1. Petersburg-Mosow; A
Constantinople to London: Checkmate in two moves? Berlin s A Ruhr-Munich; A Ruhr to Munich; A Gascony to Marseilles
KC to Doc: You really do have a death wish, don't you? Italy: F Lyon to Marseilles; A Constantinople s A Serbia-Bulgaria; A
KC to Millie: I'm almost afraid to look. Ukraine s Rus A Moscow-Warsaw; A Galicia s Rus A Moscow-War-
OM to Popess: Why, Kathy, you'd be proud of her. saw; FEast Med c A Naples-Smyrna; F Ionian c A Naples-Smyrna; A
Italy to Russia: Unlike Quinn, I love having you around. Budapest s A Rumania hold; A Bohemia to Silesia; F Aegean s A
Rex to Kathy: With your unselfish help, I'll get the third spot after all. Naples-Smyrna; A Rumania s A Ukraine hold; A Serbia to Bulgaria; F
Especially if the Grand Poobah persists in voting against your equi- Adriatic to Albania; A Naples to Smyrna
table division of Europe. Russia: A Moscow to Warsaw
OM to Board: The E-I draw fails; and is yet again proposed. Please vote Turkey: A Armenia to Ankara; A Sevastopol s Eng A St. Petersburg-
with your next orders. Moscow; F Black Sea s A Sevastopol hold
OM to All: I appreciate everyone playing this one out and not falling into Units in Retreat: English A Warsaw (to Prussia or OTB)
apathy. I believe it's been an interesting game and I'm excited to see
how it will end. Thanks to all for a wonderful game to GM. The Press:
Moscow ... well, maybe Warsaw ... well wherever, to the Queen:
Rumors of the Czar's death seem to be unfounded. Leading a mongol
Evil Incarnate? Judge for Yourselfl horde of sub-humans, the valiant old fart stormed the walls of Warsaw,
Fall 1908 seeking once again to throw Pax Britannica into disarray. Voiced
Congratulations to the Queen; her Empire reigns supreme in Europe! intentions were to gather the Western hosts for a crusade against the
infidel - if the Popess leaves anything of the Sick Man of Europe.
The Players: KC to Millie: I always knew "integrity" was not a word in your vocabu-
England - Melinda Holley (Huntington, WV 25727) lary.
Italy - Kathy Caruso (Norristown, PA 19401) Italy to Rex, the Wonder Unit: I can at least hope you hung on!
Russia - Rex Martin (Glen Arm, MD 21057) Wonder Dog to Infidel Turk: You know, you're not half as bad as every-
Turkey - Bill Quinn (Conroe, TX 77301) one says you are. In fact, I'll bet you don't even beat your dog any-
OameMaster - Gary Behnen (Olathe, KS 66062) more, do you?



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GM to Board: E-I draw failed again. Melinda's victory makes all other non-existent despite my letters) and form a coalition with Germany and
proposals now on table meaningless. Please send your endgame state- Italy to destroy Austria. At the same time, I hoped to see the north quiet.
ments by the deadline. 'Twas not to be.
GM to all Leviathan: And that's a wrap! I will miss the game, but not the Everything went swimmingly for the fIrst couple of years. It appeared
"work" of doing it. My hat's off to those who game-master and publish that Russia had a solid relationship with England, Germany and Italy.
any multi-player games in any format. I know now it is a labor of love; Was at odds with Turkey, but given the initial openings and lack of dia-
no one can be that masochistic or that bored to GM otherwise! logue, that was expected. Besides, I hoped to tie Bill up long enough to
see Austria fall and Kathy come into the fray, to my advantage. But in
1903, things started to come unhinged.
This wasn't Hunting; This was Slaughter . .. The tale is an old one and oft told. I was done in by an untimely stab by
my erstwhile allies in the north. I was not surprised by England's assault
Winter 1908 (given Melinda's reputation) and had even felt that it could be contained
Final Positions and Wrap-Up .•.
- with German help. But the German move in conjunction was too much
to suffer silently. If there was such a thing as a turning point for Russia,
Final Positions:
this was it. And, in effect, Fassio and I eliminated each other from con-
England (18): London. Liverpool, Edinburgh, Belgium, Brest, St. Peters-
tention (as Quinn and I did). With everyone seeking to tear a piece out of
burg, Holland, Portugal, Denmark, Paris, Berlin, Sweden, Kiel,
Russia's hide, it appeared to this boy that England and Italy were fairly
Munich, Marseilles, Spain. Norway, Moscow
free to do as they wished. So long as they weren't in conflict, I fIgured
Italy (13): Venice, Rome, Naples, Tunis, Greece, Serbia, Trieste, Vienna,
that this would become a two-way draw. And there was damn-all I could
Budapest, Rumania, Bulgaria, Constantinople, Smyrna
do about it.
Turkey (2): Ankara, Sevastopol
Russia (l ): Warsaw Anyway, after the Great Stab, I tried to recruit and rebuild. Overtures
to Turkey were rebuffed. Britain was silent ... and noncommittal. Ger-
Selected Player's Comments: many was openly antagonistic (until the demands of the real world fmally
brought Mark to the conclusion that he wasn't going to fmish the game
ITALY (Caruso): anyway; then he seems to have had a belated attack of remorse). Only
Never trust a woman! However, the alternative was just as bad, as that Kathy down in Italy voiced a willingness to help. It is undoubtedly due to
meant trusting Quinn! I was willing to work with Bill until I could split her support that I managed to stay in the game to the bitter end. For that,
up the English-German alliance. Not an easy task, as Faz just couldn't be many thanks. It's just a shame, Kathy, that we could never manage to get
sold on the idea of moving against England. But show Melinda where she one of my units into Turkey for the end. It would have been so appropri-
can grab a couple of centers quickly and bright lights flash! Her knife are. But my record of surviving - albeit, mostly battered - to the end of
comes out, and any alliance is history. each postal game remains intact.
Trusting Melinda is much like playing Russian Roulette. She'll be an So, in conclusion, can't say that my diplomacy was of the calibre of the
alliance player until a better deal comes along. The gun was constantly others. I never managed to establish any sort of relationship with two of
pointed at my head, but I really thought Melinda would see the irony of the players; and my alliance with two others fell apart in a bloody welter.
her and I taking out one of the best players around and sharing a draw. And it then took one of the ladies to ride to my belated rescue. Not a par-
Not so. She wanted it all - and she got it! ticularly good game for me, but I had a heck of a lot of fun (as always).
This was one of the best games ever, as communication was never a Even to the last mailing,. the press was amusing and the correspondence
problem - right down to their last unit, most everyone was still writing. entertaining.
Rex, who was shafted by everyone, never gave up. I admired his persis-
tence, and I am glad I helped him survive to the end. Bill and Faz are ENGLAND (Holley):
always tough opponents and make any game interesting. The biggest dis- This was an important game for me. I really wanted this win! Ever
appointment was Frueh and Mazzer. since I came into this hobby, I've known Kathy Caruso and been awed by
Thanks to everyone for a fine game, and my congratulations to her standard of play. I felt that if I could beat Kathy - strategically, one-
Melinda. As for you Gary, you're a fine GM. You should continue on-one - I could at last feel I was a "good" DIP player. I did it. Kathy, in
GMing, as outstanding ones·are hard to fmd. many ways, is my mentor ... and I learned well. This game is my "com-
ing of age" game, and in honor of the Bloodsucker herself. Thanks, Gary,
GERMANY (Fassio): for the great job of GMing (and watch over your shoulder in our next
This will constitute my last thoughts on the game, as most of what I meeting).
said in the past still applies. Melinda and Kathy played it well, and they
are always to be feared once they unite. Bill plays some of the best PBM GAMEMASTER (Behnen):
DIPWMACY I've ever seen and is a tenacious foe, but in this game he This was quite an interesting game. In the fIrst few seasons, I had
was too greedy and stand-offish to my Germany when he should have excellent reports on each player's strategy; this made the game very
been otherwise. I never quite felt comfortable trying to negotiate with his enjoyable to follow as GM. The fact that these "insights" don't appear
"zero-sum" point of view. Rex was treated shabbily by me, and in hind- here is because, for the most part, they dried up. Suffice to say that
sight he was probably my one true ally - at least for a longer time than any Melinda's plan worked well, and once France was fmished she never had
of the others. Mark was attacked because of his reputation as a good to face an opponent looking her way. That was masterful!
player (and thus a major threat), although who knows what might have Undoubtedly the biggest stab/shift in the game was the gutting of Rus-
happened had I not been determined to bring him down from the start. sia in 1903. This gave England-Italy a fairly simple mid-game attack into
In summation, I brought down (directly, and indirectly) two countries, Germany in '04 (which spelled Faz' doom). That Rex fought until the
and in that whirlwind of destruction I reaped my own fate. A good game, very end and fmished up in Warsaw represents the best of player tenac-
and one well-managed by our GM under sometimes trying circum- ity, as did Faz' ill-fated attempt to stem the Ell tide.
stances. If I couldn't win, then I guess this was the best way to go out. I Clearly, the most frustrated (as is so often the case) advance was
enjoyed it, gang. Turkey's. With Austria's Civil Disorder and Italy's resulting bonanza,
Bill's concern seemed to fluctuate from Russia, to Austria, to Italy - even-
RUSSIA (Martin): tually leading to a minor stab by Kathy. Although contained in the
Congratulations to Melinda on yet another victory - even if she had to Balkans, Bill's play would ultimately give Melinda the opening to slide
climb to it over a shattered Russia. And to Kathy, who likewise played a the knife in between Kathy's ribs, as Kathy concentrated on Turkey and
fme game. For my part, I'm just happy to have survived to the end amid tried diplomatically to hold onto her western centers.
these sharks. Hope I didn't lower the quality of play by my presence, for Aside from the two Civil Disorders, I was very pleased with this game.
I am far from the DIP strategician that you folks are. I hope you all had a good time, and I look forward (as much as possible)
As is my habit, I started the game with a limited objective in mind. I ro my next game with each of you. Congratulations Melinda on a most
wanted to bottle up the Turk (with whom early communications were excellent victory; and believe me, I'll be watching you for a long time.

And, as Gary said, "that's a wrap" . Since this game, given the desig-
nation of 1988HW by the Boardman Number Custodian (the BNC), The North American DIPLOMACY
ended in the autumn of 1990, our players have continued to be quite
active in the DIP hobby. Melinda and Kathy remain two of the leading Championship
amateur publishers. Mark has returned from Europe, and has penned
articlesfor a variety ofhobby 'zines. Gary Behnen took the top spot at the DipCon 1991, the 24th in the line, was held this summer past in
1991 North American Diplomacy Championship (DipCon, held this past Toronto - the first time the Canadian hobby has played host to this
year in Toronto), was awarded the John Koenig Awardfor "Best Player" event. By all accounts in the hobby press, a good time was had by all.
for the year, and sits on the board ofthe '92 DipCon(to be held in Kansas Despite the usual, unexpected snafus with the tournament, Doug Ache-
City; see sidebar). As ifthis wasn't enough, he also is now serving a term son, Cal White and the other Ontario DIPsters deserve a round of well-
as the BNC himself, recording gamestarts and finishes. And all ofus con- earned congratulations.
tinue to have our ups and downs in postal play. As usual, the competition for the North American crown was of the
Although the Press presented here may have been a bit biting at times, highest level. Here are gathered the very best players, most with multi-
it is important to note that we all elected of our own free will to partake ple victories in both FfF and PBM format. Yet a couple of newcomers
in the humor. One thing I have learned in my experiences with postal managed to shake up the field (a perennial happening at DipCons, it
DIPLOMACY is that no player can afford to take himself too seriously. seems). In order of fmish, the top 10 were: Gary Behnen (Kansas), Nick
From such mild joshing can come some strong friendships, if one enters Beliaeff (California), Bob Odear (North Carolina), Pete Gaughan (Cal-
into the spirit of the game. Besides, if you remain active in "Dipdom" ifornia), Larry Peery (California), Bob Acheson (Alberta), Jim Yerkey
long enough, you'll likely meet these same folk in afuture match, allow- (Maryland), Jerry Falkiner (Ontario), Ron Spitzer (California) and
ing you the opportunity to pick up the thread and extract some measure Bruce McIntyre (Bristish Columbia). "Best Country" awards, given for
of literary revenge. the best finish with each nation went to Jeff McKee (Maine) as Austria,
Too, through the medium ofthe Press you can learn much about your Gary Behnen as England, Nick Beliaff as France, Marc Peters (Wis-
fellow hobbyists, and perhaps find that you have more in common than consin) as Germany, Jim Yerkey as Italy, Vince Lutterbie (Missouri) as
simply the love ofa good game. In effect, ifno restrictions are imposed by Russia and Larry Perry as Turkey.
the GM, it can serve as an openforumfor any topic that catches the col- For those who might want to pit their diplomatic skills against their
lective interest ofthe players (and onlookers) - be it music, movies, poli- peers for the 1992 crown, DipCon XXV will take place in Kansas City,
tics, other games, literature, the woes of modern life, or even (as in our Missouri, from the 3rd through the 6th of July. The DipCon committe
case) sports. The lack ofthis personal touch is one ofthe reasons I turned consists of Vince Lutterbie (chairman), Gary Behnen and Marc Peters.
away from two-player PBM gaming two decades ago, wherein the only Besides the North American DIPLOMACY Championship, a team
bond seemed to be the attempt to improve one's rating at the expense of toumament will be offered (limited to the fust seven captains who reg-
another's. ister their teams). More information on DipCon XXV, its structure,
One popular type ofPress that we in 1988HW never instituted was the price and/or accomodations, can be had from Mr. Lutterbie (1021
fabrication of a "pseudo-history" for our Europe. Many's the postal Stonehaven, Marshall, MO 65340; phone 816-886-7354). Hope to see
game wherein the GM or one ofthe players opens the dance with a ficti- you there!
cious "behind-the-scenes" account of the politics of his country or life-
style of its ruler. Soon, others take up the tale, adding to the growing fic-
tion and spreading it to the other nations. Ofcourse, these orgies ofsilli-
ness can be quite engaging, as for instance the recent long-running The AvalonCon DIPLOMACY
account of the Sultan's "Cud-missiles" and his bovine harem in one
game on Genie. So detailed and involved do some of these "pseudo-his- Tournament
tories" become that I know of at least two attempts to turn one into a
novelfor the mass market. If you've always hankered to write "alternate The DIPLOMACY competition at AvalonCon this August past drew
history" , here's your chance to hang it on a framework. some 56 competitors. Having to take over as a last-minute substitute
There is even a pragmatic side (as such) to Press. Over the past three GM, I [Rex Martin] was forced to quickly devise a system whereby all
decades, a fair amount of ink has been spilled by hobby writers on the could enjoy as many matches of their favorite game as they might wish
ways to use it to gain an advantage (psychological, to be sure) in your over the weekend, yet be free to pursue other interests as well. Thus, I
play. At its simplest level, your public pronouncements can distract or settled on a four-round Swiss style competition, with points awarded in
irritate an opponent. I've found ficticious but stylish threats (occasion- each game by order of finish. If a sole winner was not arrived at within
ally under another's name) quite successful. Press has some obvious five hours, nor an agreed-upon draw (by vote of all players still in the
uses, especially if of the "Black" variety, to sow confusion and distrust game), nor an agreed-upon concession, I adjudicated each match by
among the other players; chatter about supposed alliances or coming strict center-count. Ranking at the end of the fourth round would be
attacks might just give you the diplomatic opening you need to pursue accomplished by cumulative totals. While not a perfect system, it
your private negotiations with a player to an agreeable end. Spurious served to give all a chance to enjoy the competition, even after a poor
comments on the ineptitude ofyourself or others can lead the unwary to showing in an early round.
lower their guard, or discount your maneuvering on-board and off Most So much as possible, great effort was taken to match players only
important, it all lays the foundation for a mutual sense of comraderie against others they had not faced in previous rounds. And to insure that
conducive to getting some one-time stranger to work with you. every game had seven players. To that end, I played in two games to fill
Press is, in sum, one of the reasons I view DIPWMACY as so much out the tables (having dropped out of the tournament when tagged to
more than "just a game" . In what other design does one get to exercise take it over as GM). When the dust had settled, we had completed 22
their imagination, vocabulary, inter-personal skills, logic, and all those matches of DIPLOMACY. I gave certificate awards to the eight best
normally useless tidbits of learning garnered from your high school and diplomats, with Bruce Reiff carrying off the plaque for top dog. I would
college survey courses? Each postal game takes on its own unique char- hope that all involved enjoyed themselves, and that the experience -
acter through its Press. The public pronouncements of the players make despite fmal relative finish - was rewarding. Throughout, I noted the
each match memorable. In effect, it allows the players to stamp the game level of competition was very high, with many of the games a great joy
with their own personality. I hope the above account has hinted at just to watch unfold in my role as a "fly on the wall."
how muchfun it can be as well. For the DIP tournament at AvalonCon 1992, James Yerkey has vol-
There are many amateur 'zines that offer postal games of DIPLO- unteered to serve as GM, bringing his years of experience in FfF com-
MACY, complete with Press; a listing ofnew game openings can befound petition to bear (7th at this year's DipCon; 20th at the '91 AvalonCon).
in each issue of Diplomacy World (2905 20th Street NE, Hickory, NC
He plans for a three-round Swiss tournament. No doubt, with his orga-
28601). Ifyou enjoy the game, I'd urge that you take the plunge. Perhaps

I'll then have the chance to enjoy your Press for a change. All I would ask
is that you be neither boorish nor vulgar . .. nor mundane.
nizational skills, he will quickly make it one of the premier DIPLO-
MACY competitions in the country. Hopefully, I'll meet you there.

Systems of the Combined Arms Battle
By Carl Schwamberger

A wide variety of tactical simulations of for the AA weapons as well. For example, rule information to be turned into artillery and air
hypothetical NATO/Warsaw Pact conflict have 9.1.2 specifies that woods adjacent to air support (10.3.1 and, which nicely
been published in recent years, of which TAC defense units and at the same level block the and correctly reflects the role of HQs in modem
AIR is by far the most interesting. It goes far LOS in that direction. Rule 4.4 indicates heli- combat. For reconnaissance-in-force opera-
beyond the usual depiction of the maneuver copter units are like ground units; they are at the tions, a brigade/regiment of maneuver units and
units - the tanks and infantry - that most other same level as the terrain of the hex they occupy. their HQ are more useful than regular ground
games cover. The problems of command and Other air units are one level higher than the hex recon units or helicopters because of the better
control, of supply, of artillery support, anti-air occupied; otherwise terrain can still block LOS "B" factors.
defense and air support are not abstracted as is from and to them. This has some interesting Whatever constitutes your recon force, make
the usual case. Instead, in TAC AIR they are implications for rules 9.5 and 11.4.1. While not sure it is properly supported. Wild Weasels for
presented in similar detail as the combat of the an expert, I'd suspect the radars represented in the air; CAS, artillery, EW and engineers for
frontline maneuver battalions. The result is that these combats would be blocked by hill masses the ground. Conversely, ensure that the recon
TAC AIR displays the modem battle as a syn- and the forests on them, so that the LOS rule of effort supports your battle plan. You will
ergy of command, control, logistics, maneuver 4.4 and 9.1.2 would apply in these situations. quickly learn the recon units are not plentiful.
and fire support. As combined arms warfare, The effects of terrain are cumulative for both So, always plan carefully and avoid wasting
rather than only the simple movement and com- movement and combat modification. Hills, them on frivolous missions.
bat of armor or infantry. The result for the forests and rivers can become entangling traps
wargamer is a much more interesting simula- for your offensive. The roads are critical for SUPPLY
tion than is usually encountered. The design is rapid movement, and controlling key road sec- TAC AIR logistics are not so complex that a
an elegant one, presenting a complex battlefield tions will become apriority. player requires an assistant as a supply officer
without resort to numerous, detailed or highly Air reconnaissance (21.0) has the potential to (as his real world counterpart does), but it can-
specialized rules. Because of this relative sim- cover the widest area of the battlefield in a sin- not be given the simplistic consideration usual
plicity, TAC AIR players will fmd it relatively gle tum. The limit upon it is the enemy anti-air to most wargames either. The "Supply Span"
easy to use the Advanced and Optional rules. defenses. Using your Wild Weasels to counter- (9.3.2) of six hexes common to all supply units
There are two other aspects of the design attack the enemy AA units as described in will limit the operations of the regiment or
which enhance TAC AIR. First, its structure (Normal ARM Combats) will help. brigade more than the longer command span of
lends itself to multi-player games. The second Route planning is critical. Note how the infor- the HQ. Widely scattering maneuver battalions
point is that TAC AIR works very well when mation gathered by air recon perishes after one will leave some unable to recover from disrup-
played using "blind", or hidden movement, tum - so use it or lose it. When planning air tion. Since the supply units use the wheeled
techniques. I suspect it was originally designed recon missions, remember the effects of rule movement rates, a road is necessary for them to
with integrated limited intelligence rules, rather 14.0 (Time and Weather). Beware of AA keep up with any rapid maneuvers. This route
than offering them as an option. As a long-time defenses when using helicopters in a recon role. need not follow precisely the formation's axis
proponent of limited intell (or blind gaming), I Even the weakest AA weapon may get a Dl, of advance; it only needs to support it.
am especially fascinated by this aspect. If an and a stalled chopper unit is easy prey for any-
extra mapboard and an umpire are not avail- thing with a ground attack capability. COMMAND & CONrROL
able, then using blank counters to mask the Your ground recon units are the most capable One has some choice here: to lead from the
game pieces is a good alternative. By giving up element of your recon effort. Because they can front or to coordinate from the rear. By placing
the traditional God's Eye view of the battle- direct CAS, operate more flexibly under the the HQs adjacent to the maneuver units battling
field, the role of reconnaissance assumes its division HQ, are less influenced by weather the enemy, your disrupted markers will be
true importance. Also, the risks one takes will than air units are, and have Integral Supply removed wholesale. Up-front placement will
go beyond the usual vagaries of the dice. (, they are ideal for covering flanks and also insure more effective DAS (10.3.1). For-
This first of the two portions of this article obstacles, screening ahead of other ground ward placement risks, of course, loss of the HQ
will be a brief review of the major components units, or probing an ambiguous enemy position. to an aggressive opponent; but keeping it out of
of combined arms operations as they exist in This is not quite as glamorous as plunging deep harm's way simulates very well the problems
TAC AIR. The second contains some thoughts into enemy territory, creating havoc in a cav- remote control command creates. As with sup-
on playing the five Introductory scenarios. All alry-like raid. But, such raids are likely to emu- ply units, the command span of a HQ is cut by
of this article is meant to offer some basics of late Custer rather than Stuart. The more prosaic the presence of the enemy. This means a single
combined arms warfare as presented in the uses for these units are more productive. well-placed maneuver battalion can momentar-
game. Because of the ease in using the Allow sufficient air and artillery support. ily isolate opposing units.
Advanced and Optional rules (particularly the When they fmd the bad guys, they'll need it for The rules do allow replacing destroyed HQ
multi-player and blind options) and the value they quickly lose all value as they take hits - (13.1), the new HQ entering the friendly edge
the game gains from these, the subsequent dis- and you seldom have it surplus of these units. of the board. But this is a requirement not in
cussion assumes their use. Should you insist on being J.E.B. Stuart and step with reality. New regiment/brigade HQs
launch a cavalry raid, think it through carefully. are formed by drawing men and equipment
OPERATIONAL THEORY Such adventures must be well plarmed to suc- from subordinate and senior HQs to be com-
RECONNAISSANCE ceed. When making these deep raids, again bined with the survivors of the original to form
Good recon is the start of any viable military remember to allocate sufficient fire support to a scratch command. It would be better in TAC
operation. First, the commanders must under- it; otherwise the raiders vanish into oblivion. AIR to place the new HQ adjacent to a maneu-
stand the terrain they will be fighting on - The bulk of your information will come from ver unit of the formation rendered leaderless
meaning, look at the map. This may sound trite, the tank and mechanized units in contact with (or, perhaps, its overall HQ).
but the terrain in this game is not simple and has the enemy. Consider carefully the information The Ground Electronic Combat (15.) units
a variety of effects on movement and combat. from this source. The bits assembled over two are exclusively used for neutralizing HQ. Like
Elevation, in particular, is critical as it can or three turns from the entire battle area can artillery, you never want these to be standing
block Line of Sight (LOS). Not only is LOS give a very useful picture of what's occurring. idle. They should always be in use, or moving
blocked for ground units, but it can be blocked The presence of their HQ is necessary for this to where they will be used.
AlRBAITLE who holds the initiative can try to clear the dis- for high ground which overlooks blocking ter-
The primary role of air illlits in this game is rupted enemy from the path of his ground units rain. The result should be air defense units pro-
Direct Air Support (DAS). Air recon, interdic- for the following turn. Alternately, you can try tecting critical areas with overlapping cover-
tion and combat air patrols are, of course, to disrupt enemy units just ahead of your attack. age, negating enemy use of terrain through
important; but they are all auxiliary missions. This is quite useful for creating an opening placement. Soviet doctrine requires the
You'll quickly fmd the bulk of your orders are when faced with sturdy enemy formations. weapons of the divisional SAM regiments be
for DAS missions. It's preferable to mass DAS Stacking two flights together (4.3.2) will, of placed well forward, so their coverage extends
missions at the critical point of the battle rather course, put a hefty combined "B" factor on the deep into the enemy area of operations. There is
than scattering them out in piecemeal attacks. target (7.5.5). It also allows the "B" factors of merit to this - if the rear areas can also be ade-
Aside from ensuring the desired effect on the the air units to be combined (7.2.4) when air quately protected against air units on interdic-
targets, massing your air can swamp the local defense units attack. In the case of weak "B" tion missions.
air defense and make more effective the support factors, this is sometimes still insufficient The fourth important consideration for air
of the Wild Weasel missions and other suppres- advantage and it may be better to have the air defense is the Air Control mission (7.4 and 11.).
sive measures. As with air recon, preparing the units approach the target separately to ensure Your interceptors constitute a mobile reserve
way for DAS means using the Weasels, EW to that more get through. which is quite powerful. Most interceptor "A"
disrupt the HQ controlling the enemy AA units, factors will be "4" or "5", and better than the
and attacks by ground forces where possible to AlRDEFENSE usual "B" factor of the defending air unit. The
neutralize the enemy AA directly. Route plan- Because of the assumption that all aircraft use of the interceptor is, of course, restricted by
ning for the aircraft flights is very important, as are flying at tree-top (or lower) level, the fields possible attack from enemy AA weapons. Here
the rules assume all aircraft are heing flown at of rue for the AA units are very restricted. Plan- again, route planning for the aircraft is critical.
low altitudes to take advantage of terrain for ning their locations includes three important
protection from AA weapons. considerations: first, identify the most impor- AKrILLERY
The first way to use your DAS is as a follow- tant areas to defend; second, evaluate the possi- Because it is restricted to two missions (sup-
up for a successful groillld attack. The player ble routes of approach to your units; third, look porting combat between ground units and
counter-battery - and, one
Figure 1: Closing the Gaps. With a SA6 banery placed at VII, the Soviet player attempts to cover aircraft routes along the Bam- can't reproduce the full array of artillery tactics
berg-Coburg axis. But the ridges paralleling the Bamberg-Coburg road and the Main River interl'ere with the LOS to most of the on the modern battlefield. Still, this is an impor-
area. Two platoons of ZSU23s <at T17 and Y15) and one of SA8 launchers <at R14) arc placed to cover the gaps. and protect a
Soviet unit in U18. tant weapon. As with DAS, massing artillery
units makes them much more effective. A sin-
gle carmon battalion has only a small chance of
disrupting the typical tank battalion. Two will
put the odds up aroillld 50/50; three can do even
better against the sturdiest "B" factor.
The non-phasing player has a choice of plac-
ing indirect fire on the attacking maneuver
units, or on the phasing artillery units as
"coilllter-battery". In the long run, cOilllter-bat-
tery is more productive. The low "B" factors of
artillery make them vulnerable to disruptions of
two or three steps in a single attack. Counter-
battery attacks become particularly important
for the U.S. and German player in the Tourna-
ment and Master scenarios where the Soviet
side has a clear superiority in artillery. For the
phasing player the need for indirect fire attacks
must be balanced against the counter-battery
threat, and the need for making cOilllter-battery
attacks in the following phase. When you
expect to use artillery at extreme ranges
remember Ensure the artillery you
intend to use are positioned within the com-
mand span of correct HQ.

The tank and infantry units are of course the
foundation of the combined arms battle. Unlike
other units, they are able to absorb fairly hefty
enemy attacks before disruptions are assured,
so they will often be placed alongside the
enemy to slug it out.
Whether in attack or defense, I prefer ini-
tially to obtain as many disruption results as
possible where the fight is developing. A prolif-
eration of D1 markers on a regiment or brigade
will do much to stall an attacker or weaken the
defender. Once this object is achieved specific
enemy units are selected for elimination and
attacked in the subsequent air and ground
phases. For this to work, you have to avoid the
enemy attacks as far as possible. Screening
your key maneuver battalions with less impor-
tant ones, staying a hex out of reach, or occupy-
ing very strong defensive positions will help sively engaged. Any units lost in this phase are The Soviet player, with his numerical superi-
keep your units free for your own attacks. For a catastrophe, so try never to allow an attack ority, can spread out some and strike the U.S.
either side the most powerful assault units are where the 6th Guards will have a good chance defenses along two mutually supporting axis.
the tanks. They must be used exclusively for of disrupting a cavalry unit two steps. In the Do not spread out so far that one group cannot
this, with the screening/covering battalions mid-game, strike back at exposed Soviet battal- aid the other in the following turn. There is the
drawn from the mechanized infantry and recon ions. An overly aggressive Soviet player will temptation to cross the Main river at Lichten-
units. push one or two into an unsupported position. fels. While this will probably be a successful
Because of the multiple times "D" results can Again, avoid decisive engagements into which crossing, it violates the credo of mutual support
be inflicted on a unit in a tum, combat will usu- the Guards may try to sucker you; so make sure and it is relatively easy for the American cav-
ally be bloody. The combat results system of that exposed Soviet unit isn't just bait. During alry to slip away. Better to aim for your cross-
TAC AIR is the type intended to represent the the fIrst two phases, use your engineer battal- ing south of Staffelstein (near Wl9 would be
organizational collapse of a unit, rather than an ions to create blocks around the [mal defensive ideal). Approaching Bamberg along the high
incremental loss of material and manpower area. End game - hit the enemy with everything. ground between Dreisechsedorf and Zeil, or
(reflecting the command and control aspect of If you have been careful, the cavalry still have along the River Regnitz, will be time consum-
the game). So, a tank battalion which is sub- all their battalions, occupy good defensive posi- ing; and it is relatively easy for the enemy to
jected to artillery, tank and air attacks in the tions, with adequate air support. The Fl6s are block your approach. Naturally, any cavalry
same three-hour game turn is likely to become a useful for ground attack, but the need for this unit that dawdles in your path should be
confused group of platoons and sections, must be balanced against the threat of the Mig pounced on and destroyed as quickly as possi-
unable to effectively maneuver or fIre. This is 29s to the AIO bombers. Placement of the ble. The helicopter unit works well as a mobile
very nicely reflected by the D2/3 results. Bat- Hawk battery is important. I like to start it in Soviet reserve, to counter any attempted cav-
talions in this condition are victory points just Z19. From there it can move to BB23 on Turn I alry raid on your HQ units, or to reinforce the
waiting to be picked off by the opposition, so and have a height advantage which exposes the main attack. Making a wide flanking maneuver
these levels must be avoided.
entire battle area. with it is possible, but this is tricky to pull off.
Any unit with a DI should be evaluated with
respect to the necessity of its remaining in reach Figure 2: Hedging the Recon Bet. Aware of a Soviet crossing at Schlechtburg but unable to gain direct access to that area by
of the enemy. At this point, its only asset is its enemy forces around and south ofKulmbach, the Gennan player has assigned DAS to his PAll·2 (IT19). During the Movement
ability to move - so the preservation of that abil- Phase, the helicopter moves to 1119, via 0022 to avoid unnecessary exposure to AA attacks. From its final location, the PAll·
2 can observe the tank battalions and supply column in NNl7-NNI5, and serve as Foward Air Controller for air attacks on those
ity is very important. Units with a DI should be hexes.
protected with defensive artillery support, DAS
and a HQ should be placed adjacent. Once a
unit is immobilized the decision must be made
to abandon or give further support to it. Even
with a HQ in constant attendance, a D3 requires
three turns to become combat-ready. This
immobilizes your HQ, and necessitates screen-
ing and fire support which might be better used
Once the enemy units to be eliminated are
identified, don't waste your time with half-
measures. Certainly overkill should be avoided,
but underkill is a greater sin. To make the kill
with maneuver units, think "tanks" and count
on using two battalions. Less will be only
marginally effective; piling more into the
assault isn't always practical and just creates an
attractive nuclear target.

The fIve introductory scenarios are designed
to introduce the novice to TAC AIR. Used with
the complete set of rules, these five are also
excellent short games for those players pressed
for time and are challenging illustrations of spe-
cific tactical problems. At fIrst glance, several
will seem hopelessly lopsided. This is not
entirely true. Few battles happen with any kind
of parity between sides, yet the seemingly infe-
rior force often wins. As mastery of the princi-
ples of combined arms warfare is gained, the
scenarios should come to seem more balanced.

The U.S. cavalry will be destroyed if it
stands in the mid- or northern board area.
Soviet forces outnumber it, and American air
units have a tough time assisting the U.S. cav-
alry there. It is all but impossible for the Fl6s to
intercept Soviet aircraft above the center of the
board, since they can hit their targets and with-
draw before the Fl6s cover the distance. The
cavalry commander should make a withdrawal
as slowly as possible without becoming deci-
This action seems to work best late in the game ahead to fight a battle of attrition. In this case, air support get through. Unfortunately, there are
as the battle closes in on Bamberg. the German 10th Brigade takes a cue from the also the SA6s to contend with. If the Soviet
Yanks and conducts a fighting withdrawal to player keeps these well to the rear, it is possible
#2: MEErING ENGAGEMENT the south half of the board, both to put the air to sneak along in defIlade to reach some targets.
The tables are reversed here, and the Bun- battle on favorable terms and to deny the enemy If given the choice, it is better to consider
deswehr has things its way. Although there are the opportunity to attack. attacking enemy units in the open first, for even
the same number of tank and other maneuver An option for the 18th Guards is to send a the powerful AlOs have trouble getting results
elements, the low "B" factors of the Soviet flanking group across the Main around Kulm- on units in forest or urban areas.
recon and helicopter units make them less valu- bach, to recross the river later, probably near Closer to the ground there are helicopter
able than the German recon and grenadiers. SS19. This could cause the 10th to fall back units. The Soviet player has a clear advantage
Neither are the Su25s as valuable as the Torna- even more precipitously - although an alert and here. With two, he can hunt down the U.S.
does, nor the assorted air defense weapons as aggressive German player should find it easy choppers and quickly destroy them, should his
powerful as the Gepard. The Soviet artillery is enough to block the river crossing and fight on opponent be so careless as to leave them iso-
also outranged. On the plus side of the ledger around Kulmbach. Sustained combat is not in lated. The U.S. commander should keep his
for the Russians, the 52nd Guards are well pro- the German player's interest however; no helo squadron within a mile or two of a friendly
vided with air defense units (however weak). points are awarded for destroying Soviet units maneuver battalion. It should also be confined
And the Division HQ unit allows the formation nor for taking any territory; only for losing your to quick reconnaissance sweeps that return it to
of a second maneuver group using the divi- own units and ground. So the skillful Bun- a safe area.
sional assets and SA8 battery. This, of course, deswehr leader will avoid combat on any but With a complete division on the ground, the
requires dividing the forces with the attendant the most favorable terms. As in Scenario #1, Soviet player will start the scenario by feeling a
risk of being defeated piecemeal. But, if the getting the Hawk battery to the high ground is little omnipotent. Similarly, the U.S. player fac-
Soviet player is very lucky, he may nail the highly recommended. Hex DD19 is the most ing this scenario for the first time will become
36th Brigade HQ with a flanking maneuver. In convenient. The designer is a little less miserly enchanted with the number of units he has
any case, the ground attack around Kulmbach is with the air units in this battle, and it is possible available. Both players should avoid the reflex
very difficult to defend, so the Russians may as to run CAP or escort simultaneously with DAS to send battalions off to every comer of the
well attack and go down in glory. The Soviet or interdiction. As is to be expected, the Ger- board. To attack one of the U.S. brigades will
player should note the potential cover the hills man has a tough time fighting off the enemy air require at least two Soviet tank regiments plus a
in the northeast quadrant provide for his Su25s in the northern half of the board. sizable amount of artillery and other support.
in their approach. Conversely, an entire American brigade with
#5: DELIBERATE ATTACK fire support is required to effectively deal with
#3: ADVANCE TO CONTACT Air power becomes much more important in a single regiment of the 51st. To prevent piece-
Here the U.S. 2nd Armored Brigade tries to this scenario. Now one has the potential to meal destruction, each player must keep his
do better than the cavalry as it faces a similar pound entire brigades, paralyzing them in a sin- units close together for support.
problem. The same principles apply to both sce- gle game turn.This is, of course, only potential; The Soviet player has a clear superiority in
narios for the Americans. The armored brigade getting the aircraft safely to the target is neces- artillery. Use your 130mm CGF battalions to
can't fight too far forward or it will be eaten. sary first. The U.S. 3rd Divisionis supported by counter-battery the 3rd Division's artillery.
alive. Instead, they should strive to delay until two Hawk batteries, and two batteries each of With a total of six" A" factors, the CGF
Bamberg itself is reached. In this battle you can the Vulcan and Chapparel. These, plus the artillery has a very good chance of disrupting
use the homes of the German populace to your organic air defenses of the ground units prove the target, even if it is woods or a city. The 15-
benefit; even without an engineer unit, the 3rd fairly effective against the low "B" factors of hex range of the CGF also allows it to reach
Brigade can make the town a tough nut to the Red air units. These American air defense almost any conceivable location that the enemy
crack. The enemy 51st will have to be careful of weapons are then supplemented with the F15s. artillery might support a battle from, yet stay far
its rear as your 1st Division's cavalry squadron There are several weaknesses that can be enough back to be relatively safe itself. The
can spring a nasty surprise. The night turns will exploited by the Soviet Falcons. The relatively remaining Soviet artillery should be massed on
also aid the 3rd Brigade's defense. Coming just high"A" factor of the Hawks and small number targets which can be destroyed by subsequent
about the time you would expect the Soviet of them gives the Russians the possibility of attacks of the tank and mech units.
assault on Bamberg too. swamping the 3rd's air defenses. (Particularly As usual, the victory conditions require the
The Soviets again start out by pushing if SEAD missions are possible against the Soviets to take the offensive - towards Bam-
towards Bamberg as quickly as possible, keep- Hawks). The two Hawk batteries cannot effec- berg. For the 3rd's commander, the most obvi-
ing their tank regiments close enough for tively cover the width of the board. If they are ous option will b'ol to make a fighting with-
mutual support. The helicopters should range widely spaced to attempt this, then resupply drawal towards that town. He must remember
ahead to sniff out defenders, and the recon unit becomes a problem. With only four Vulcan that this scenario lasts two days. Too quick a
can cover whichever flank you feel most ner- and/or Chapparel batteries, the American can't retreat will leave him without room to maneu-
vous about. On reaching the town, you can try provide adequate local defenses, especially if ver and fight on the second day. Assuming, the
to isolate one of the suburban appendages (such he spreads out to cover the width of the map- Soviets have chosen an optimal strategy for
as T24) and gain a couple of points by eliminat- board. dealing with a simple fighting withdrawal, the
ing its defender and occupying it. The Soviet The U.S. player's ace is the F15s. These can American player must become aggressive or
player should also look for any possibility of maneuver to cover gaps in the ground air find himself with his back to the wall far too
infIltrating a tank battalion into Bamberg before defenses, and they can gain elimination results soon. The conditions for several highly suc-
the American can consolidate his position against the weak Soviet aircraft. Using the cessful counterattacks on Soviet forces must be
there. Forcing him to eliminate a tank battalion Radar Homing Missile rules (11.4.1), it is even created.
from the town just as your regiments arrive at possible to catch Soviet aircraft that have Initially, the Soviet recon units are the likely
the outskirts will be very helpful in the victory. attacked targets several hexes north of the cen- targets. Since the 51st will attack along two or
ter of the board. Note, however, the F15s must more axis, watch for any momentary inability
#4: HASTY ATTACK be very careful of ground AA due to their own of one group or the other to receive timely sup-
Back to the Germans and the defense of "B" factor of "I". The AlOs and Fl6s have bet- port. These opportunities are likely to exist for
Bayreuth. With two more regiments, much ter "B" factors than the enemy however. Con- barely a turn, so the U.S. player must be thor-
more is possible for the Soviet player. True, versely, the Soviet AA units have better "A" ough with his reconnaissance and prepared to
these are equipped with BMPs - no match for factors than the Vulcans and Chapparels (and execute a counterattack immediately. For the
the Leopards of the Germans. But they are plen- there are a lot more of them). Trying to get a Soviet player, the question is whether to attack
tiful and have excellent mobility. With the extra U.S. ground unit adjacent to a ZSU or SAM to
vehicular power, the Soviet player can now go cause them to flip over will certainly help your Coruinued on Page 49, Column 1
Dear Avalon Hill: myself) by job, family, etc. It is for this rea-
The translation of this issue (Vol. 7:1, No. son that just about 100% of my garrting time
I) took about four hour.;. For some reason I Letters to the Editor is now PBM. For players such as myself, the
couldn't put it down. I rated your Philoso- "Opponents Wanted" section of The GEN-
phy section #1 because the point made is so ERAL is one of the most invaluable pages in
important. Being a retail manager and lis- each issue. Without it, my playing time
tening to the customers wants, needs and
t would be reduced to solitaire play, and num-
complaints on a daily basis, I have come to Sculley for producing the means for such new game would be a simulation of the Bat- ber of opponents reduced to one; a plethora
appreciate this little known truth. The improvements. The only complaint I've tle of the Bulge. I realize that AH has pro- of solitaire players does not a hobby make.
squeaky wheel does get the grease, but ever had in ten years of Avalon Hill has duced three games simulating this battle. I The advent of home computers and their
remember to check the other ones too. So been late issues of The GENERAL. Now you own two of them (BB'65 and BB' 81) and attendant game programs have also taken a
often we in retail get burned by listening to a tell me that it will not only be on time, but have enjoyed playing both. However, after toll on us cardboard pushers. Recently, a
customer insisting we should stock such and will be caught up to the intended schedule. having played TID extensively, I consider long-time gamer friend informed me about
such, which we then stock, only to discover I'm in hog heaven! Profound thanks to you myself "ruined". TIlE LONGESTDAY, after the wonders of computer garrting, and that
one - maybe two - people really want it. and all the staff at Monarch-Avalon. ADVANCED SQUAD LEADER, is my idea he found it hard to go back to something like
Thank God for the sound business poli- of the perfect wargame/simulation. Other ASL with all its bookkeeping and rules. It is
cies of Avalon Hill; if it isn't selling, drop it. Steven M. Seys games seem so artificial in comparison. much simpler to "just have the machine do it
I don't think people realize how fragile this Tennessee Colony, Texas Which brings me to the point of my letter all.'' I worry about this attitude.
industry is (or retail in general). All - whether or not a wargame using the system In short, it is good to see, through venues
wargamers should appreciate and thank and scale of TIlE WNGEST DAY could be
their good fortune that Avalon Hill has pros-
pered and guided the hobby to stability. I am
***** produced to simulate the Battle of the Bulge.
like AvalonCon, that board wargarrting is
still relatively healthy; however, I'm still
worried about the future. I am interested to
actually a second-generation wargamer, my Dear Mr. Martin, JoeCl= know what type of records Avalon Hill
father taught me and is still my primary Welcome to the Computer Age! I have Fort Payne, Alabama keeps on the demographics of the people
opponent. I look forward to passing the just received the latest issue of The GEN- who buy your games, and if the introductory
hobby on to my two daughters, so keep up ERAL, and it is excellent in every regard. I 1'm sure it could be. Whether it will be in games are bringing in any significant "new
the good work. am sure you are all thrilled with the new the nearfuture by this company is, however, blood". A few gamer friends with young
equipment you have available to produce highly unlikely. Such a project would children have difficulty interesting their kids
Neidhardt Buell the magazine. It may take time to learn the require much more time and resources than in playing games that don't have the lights,
Neuchatel, Switzerland new system, but I can assure you that you we can afford to devote to a subject covered whistles and bells of a Nintendo, or some
will become highly proficient within a few so many times by so many manufacturers other computer game.
already. SlICh projects as 1W are also pro- I'm looking forward to seeing Avalon-
***** issues.
I do wish to pass on some things I
learned while working in front of a cathode-
hibitively expensive in these days of reces-
sion; your fellow gamers voted with their
Con as a yearly event - just as I did Origins
events in years past - along with the renewal
ray tube (I worked with a CRT for three wallets on THE LONGEST DAY, to the and invigoration of our hobby in years to
Dear Rex,
years at the phone company). A CRT moni- effect that, in general, they did not appreci- come.
First, congratulations are in order. Vol.
'lI, No.2 of The GENERAL is a real coIker! tor puts out a steady stream of low-level X- ate $65 games.
rays. Interrrtittent exposure will not cause John Trosky
The graphics, layout, design and "readabil-
Jersey City, New Jersey
ity" are excellent. The color photographs are
superb! All-in-all, a "10" out of "I 0" for
style, design, subject matter, editing, author-
any appreciable harm. However, steady
exposure at close range for long periods of
time will be detrimental. The most vulnera-
***** I am afraid that we here at the design
ble body part is the eyes. In several years Dear Mr. Martin:
offices don't see any sort of demographic
ship and just general good looks. Be advised
(perhaps sooner), a CRT operator's eyes First, congratulations on the fine job you
spreadsheet (if sllCh is even maintained) of
that at least one reader says the money
will burn, much like a sunburn, on the eyes.
AH-game buyers; instead, we rely on per-
invested to "change the look" was well have been doing and continue to do editing
I know because I suffer from the condition. The GENERAL. I very much enjoy the mag-
sonal correspondence and conversations
spent. Keep it up!
My eyes have been harmed to the point
with wargamers from around the globe.
Second, a tip-of-the-hat to Tara Green- azine, even though most of the articles are
Granted, such direct contact may carry a
wood for cleaning everybody's clock in where I can no longer watch television. about games I don't play. I was a little sad to
certain bias, bul the amateur press gives us
WRASSLlN' at AvalonCon. As a former There is a good chance that I will become see the want ads for an editor in Vol. 27,
a peek at some uninhibited opinions to
playtester of the game, I'm tickled to see blind at some point in the future. Nos. 2 and 3; you will leave a very large pair
leaven any euphoria. From sllCh sources, it
Tara clobber "the boys", but did dear 01' There is a solution. It has been found that of boots to fill.
appears to me that board wargaming may
Dad really have to lead the lynch mob in the wearing glasses with a full mirror-coating Second, I noticed an error in Sam
reflects radiation a way from the eyes and
indeed be starting on an upward climb.
Battle Royal? I'd be interested to see which Mustafa's article, 'The Solid South'~ in Vol.
From the response, in terms ofsales and
wrestlers Tara used with such consummate stops the burrting sensation I felt. I also wore 26, No.6. Mr. Mustafa suggests that the
in terms of compliments, the new line of
skill. Perhaps a detailed article/report on the white clothing whenever I was in front of Confederate player send four SP with a
introductory wargames (GETITSB URG
action some day? the CRT; this also reflects radiation. I have decent leader (such as Jackson) to Pensacola
'88, BULGE '91, D-DAY '92) has brought
also found that the so-called anti-radiation in order to take Fortress Pickens. But the
some new folk into the hobby. It is too early
E.C. Ostermeyer screens offer some protection, but are not seventh paragraph of Rule 4.5 of The Civil
as yet to say how much of a percentage of
Johnson City, Tennessee 100% effective (some X-rays will still get War states, "A force can never cross a navi-
these newcomers will stay the course and
through). One other tip - it's a good idea to gable river hexside and enter a hex occupied become the next generation of active
prohibit pregnant women to worle in front of by an enemy fort or fortress that is in supply
***** a CRT (it's against the law in Canada).
I know this must sound a liule unusual,
or occupied by an SP ... Fort Pickens
(2730) and Fort Pulaski (4425) are the only
gamers. But the signs are encouraging.
Events such as our AvalonCon and the
countless regional conventions promote
Dear Mr. Martin: but I want to pass on what I have learned fortresses completely separated from the
play of these low-complexity games and can
I finally received my ftrst issue of The without paying the price. I hope this infor- mainland by navigable river hexsides." serve to bring these new wargamers to the
GENERAL (Vol. 27, No.2) and it's just as mation I've provided is helpful. I know this Since Pickens is always in supply when the
next step of competitive play by introducing
good as I had hoped. Because I'm incarcer- may be an unusual letter, but I can assure Urtion holds it, being on the ocean, the Con- them to more complex simulations. The
ated, I'm not allowed access to actual you the information is absolutely accurate. federate player can never take Pickens, even influx ofplayers into the ranks ofAREA due
wargames. Therefore, I'm forced to enjoy if the Urtion player evacuates the SP that to AvalonCon will certainly engender a
my hobby vicariously through replays sent Richard Miller starts the game there. Other than this over- higher quality ofpostal activity. And not to
by friends and the pages of The GENERAL. Petersburg, Virginia sight, 'The Solid South" is an excellent look be forgotten is that marvel of the electronic
I'm quite sorry my subscription lapsed for a at the Confederate player's practical options age - the modem-based computer networks.
in The Civil War.
few years.
Thanks too for a contest I can participate
in! Cryptography was my forte as long ago
***** Robert P. Buchanan
Several of these (notably, GEnie) have
served to spread the "gospel" ofwargaming
by linking once isolatedfans and allowing
as my Marine Corps days. This puzzle was a Dear Sirs: Beaverton, Oregon them the chance to feed the enthusiasm.
real brain teaser. First, I found all the prime I hope you are in the mood for some SlICh offerings will inevitably keep newcom-
factors for each number. Then it was mostly
trial and error. The third number
r'Wargame") fell first, as it was so obvious.
"nut" mail (although I really hope you won't
consider this letter as such). A couple of
years ago, I wrote a letter to Avalon Hill
***** ers well supplied with responsible oppo-
nents and with continuous news of the
hobby, thus avoiding two of the reasons that
But the second didn't fall until I had spent which was mainly concerned with the merits Dear Mr. Martin, I feel wargaming declined (the erosion of
four hours testing various combinations. I of THE LONGEST DAY. In it, I made some As an old greybeard of the hobby, who the "old guard" and the slow silence that
had to use a recent price list to prompt my suggestions concerning additions to the started out with AH games back in 1960 fell over our hobby).
tired brain for the other two. The ftrst r'Cae- game that I believed would have enhanced it with a copy of U-BOAT, it was most gratify- For a host of reasons, I think our hobby
sar") of those fell to serendipity, and I then a great deal. Since I have not heard anything ing to read about the success of AvalonCon has survived its nadir and has begun its
actively pursued that method to find the about it since in The GENERAL, I assurned (Vol. 7:1, No.3). I was one of the would-be upward cycle again. And I am encouraged
fourth word ('Tobruk"). In all, I had three you thought that these suggestions were not attendees who never quite got there. that so many who write to us these days
good days of entertainment out of only six- worth any further attention. Having lived through the high-water voice their support for our efforts and, more
and-a-half column inches. The rest of the Meanwhile, my brain conjured up more mark of the hobby during the '70s, I have importantly, mention their persoTlllI efforts
magazine will give me enjoyment for a few ideas, and a wish that I believe only Avalon since seen a steady erosion of clubs and at introducing others to their pastime pas-
more weeks. Hill can fulfill. Every time I look at THE playing partners. Much of this can simply be sion. So, take heart, Mr. Trosky. I think the
I'm glad you've entered the computer LONGEST DAY sitting on my shelf, I wish attributed to the aging of the players and the '90s will be an exciting time for wargamers;
age. Kudos to Messers. Jobs, Wozrtiak and that it had a sister game. Specifically, this demands placed upon them (including hopefully, you'll m.aIce it to our Con in '92.

Crossed Words
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
8 8
9 9
10 10
11 11
12 12
13 13
14 14
15 15
16 16
17 17
18 18
19 19
20 20
21 21
22 22
23 23
24 24
25 25
26 26
ACROSS: K9 Typhoid Mary
CONTEST #158 Al Our Esteemed Editor V90rdnance
Kl Long-Range Search Plane KI0 Air Medal
For your pleasure this issue, something a lit- Tl Pipe-Smoking General Bll Destroyer Nickname
tle different in the way of a contest. Yes, Vir- G2 Italian Tree Part Hll Days of_
ginia, it's a crossword puzzle! But this one has a N2 Naval Clash at the Bank Pll Fangorn, for Example
twist. Most of the entries, despite the given S3 Veteran Organization C12 ASL Module
clues, have something to do with our hobby W3 Commander Air Group 113 Dick Tracy Foe
and/or military history and/or Avalon HilI. D4 That by Which We Play R13 FIyboy "OK"
Obviously, to enter our latest mind-twister, just Q4Time to Go X13 Civil War Loser
send in a completed copy of the grid above (a X5 Regulates Movement C14 B 1 Down Module
photocopy of this page will serve). For those F6 Divinely Inspired N14 Standard Package
readers who may not be wise in the ways of P6 Final Defeat R15 The Roman Sees the Donut; the Gaul Sees
crosswords, the clue references are to the alpha- C7 _, Myself and I the Hole.
numeric location of the fIrst letter of the appro- N7 Single Item C16 Sixth Army Graveyard
priate answer. And, since this is a test of your P8 Squad Leader Concern N17 Erwin's Gang
wit, as well as your wisdom, we see no need to T8 PieAreSquared A18 Artillery Barrel
provide you with even a hint to get started. F9 Gone but Not Forgotten L19 Tank Lightning
X19 Soldier's Weapon
C20 The Conqueror
M21 Louie, Louie, Louie
V21 Bamum & Bailey's Never Had These
B22 Our Man, Manfred
F23 Silent, Deep
K23 Horatio, et. al.
Y23 Starship Troopers, Abbreviation
A24 Patton's Best Star
J24 Estimated Time of Arrival
024 It
U24 Number One in Our Heart
025 Four-Star Rank
C26 Elephant Combat Performance
H26 That Bridge Too Far MARCH MADNESS for 1991
U26 Middle Age Problem By Jim Burnett
BIBushwack West (cont.)
One of the best things about MARCH MAD-
Dl Roman Scull #3 Seton Han 3 wins
NESS is the ease of updating the game to the
Kl Night Game Tum #14 Pepperdine 0 wins
current season. The format, in fact, allows play- #7 Vl!ginia 0 wins
01 Sword Wound ers to follow the NCAA basketball tournament #10 Brigham young, ~ _ _..;;l~wm:.:'·"-. .
Ql Douglas as Spartacus as it winds its way down to the "Final Four" and #2 Arizona 2 wins
Tl See Q4 Across the championship. It also allows players to run #15 SL Francis of PA 0 wins
VI Squad Leader Card Game multiple versions of the same tournament to Midwest:
ZI The Biggie compare the possibilities for victory by each #1 Ohio State 2 wins
G2 Has Nothing to Do with Movement team. The brackets for the 1991 tournaments, a #16 Towson State ~O""wml"·,;;s._

S2 Army of the North brief history, and an additional variant rule, fol- #8 Georgia Tech 1 win
Y3 Al Across Predecessor lows - with each team listed by its seed and the #9 DePaul 0 wins
#5 Texas 1 win
F4 No Fun to Play With number of wins it achieved in the actual play. #12 SL Peter's 0 wins
H4 Theater Tactics Not to be chauvinistic, I also present (as in Vol. #4 St. John's 3 wins
L4 Site of American Defeat 26, No.4) the Women's NCAA listings as well. #13 Northern Illinois 0 wins
N4 Add to Collection #6 LOuisiana State 0 wins
#11 Connecticut 2 wins
J5 Usual Crash Terminus 1991 Men's NCAA Tournament: #3 Nebraska 0 wins
V5 Balkoski on the Peninsula (initial matches shown by lines) #14 Xavier of Ohio 1 win
East: #7 Iowa I win
P6 Concertina #1 NOrtli Caroliiia 4 wins #IOEastTennes~s~ee~S~ta~t~e ~O:.lwm:.i:·~s~
C7 Point of No Return #16 Northeastern 0 wins
1.'#~8!~Prin~·~ce~t~o~n~""--------'-~lcwin #2 Duke Champion
W8 Day Game Turn #15 Northeast Louisiana 0 wins
#9 Villanova 0 wins
K9 Leader at R15 Across #5 MiSsissippi State 0 wins
Dll Pact Opponent #12 Eastem Michigan -;2~WUlS:l.·~ Of course, the remarkable thing about the
Rll AIW Combatant #4 UCLA 0 wins 1991 tournament was what did not happen.
#13 Penn State ~_ _;l..;;win .
Xll Reason for Desert Storm #6 NOrtli C:';;ar-o~lina~S~ta~te 1 win Despite being an overwhelming favorite,
F12 Fading Power Palace #11 Southern Mississipl'~i ""'*O.!:w~ins~ UNLV was defeated by the eventual champion,
N12 All Who Were There #3-Oklahoma State 2 wins Duke, in the semi-finals. Their victory over
#14 New Mexico 0 wins Kansas in the final also brought to an end the
Z12 Flight Leader Hardware #7 PUrdue 0 wins
Il3 Squad Leader Weapon #IOTem~l'pl.~e ~3:.:WUlS~·~ label of "perennial bridesmaid". As for the tour-
013 Fossil Products #2 Syracuse 0 wir.s nament itself, it continues to grow in popular-
#15 Richmond 1 win ity, with tickets which have become some of the
Tl3 Trireme Flamethrower
C16 UNTRCBOT most sought after in sport. The advent of TV
r,,:;;;.;::;:::c:=:,-----------~ WUlS coverage has brought the drama into the homes
K16 Five Down
A17 European Theater of Ops o wins of America. With the 1992 event approaching,
1 wh1 no doubt the media build-up has already begun.
Y18 Atomic Arm o wins
"19 Abe's Crusade 1 win
M19 Oleson's Game o wins Tennessee held its streak of winning the
2 wins NCAA Women's Championship in odd-num-
019 The "Killing Fields" o wins bered years. The fmals match with Virginia was
V19 lap Fighter 1 win
o wins a classic. This year's tournament was also note-
P21 End of the Paratroops 5 wins worthy for the number of upsets. The probable
Z21 Fighting _ o wins reason is the growing parity within the sport of
F22 Tobruk Tank Hit Location 1 win
owins college basketball. Still, the usual coaches are
G22 WWI German 2 wins fielding winners.
K22 The Reviewers' Forte owins Players of MARCH MADNESS will note that
L23 Grand Prix Action this tournament has only 48 teams and, there-
023 Russian Plane #1 UNLV 4 wins fore, the first four seeds in each region are
U23 Searchlight Part #16 Montana 0 wins granted first-round "byes". The women's tour-
A24 Patriot, for Example #8 Georgetown 1 win nament also assigns teams in the first two
#9 Vanderbilt 0 wins
D24 Last-Ditch Naval Tactic #5 Michigan State 1 win rounds a "home floor". Use the variant "Horne
J24 EIA Playing Time #12 Wisconsin·Green Bay .;;O~wins Floor" rule below to reflect the impact of this.
R24 NVA Offensive #4 Utah 2 wins Teams whose seed number is followed by an *
#13 Southern Alabama 0 wins
W24 Sicken #6 New Mexico State 0 wins
were granted the home-floor advantage this
#11 Creighton I win year.

1991 Women's NCAA Tournament:

#1 * Tennessee Champion
The ASL Open
#2* Purdue o wins
#3* Aubum 2 wins Being a Major League Baseball star can Oktoberfest and ASL competition at Avalon-
#4* Western Kentucky 1 win open a lot of doors and it got Curt Schilling Con). And he is putting his money where his
#8* SE Missouri State 1 win
#9 Tennessee Tech owins (relief pitcher for the Houston Astros) the red heart is, for the top three finishers from both
#5* Florida State 1 win carpet treatment when he visited the offices of the 1992 AvalonCon tournament and the 1992
#12 Appalachian State o wins Avalon Hill. He wished, it seems, to visit the Oktoberfest will be his guests for the ASL
#6 Maryland o wins "home of ASL." As a pro athlete, Curt com- Open.
#11 * Holy Cross 1 win
#7 South Carolina o wins mands instant credibility; yet he fits right in as As Curt has structured the event, no one
#10 VandeIbilt 2 wins "one of the guys." He'd rather talk ASL than will be eliminated, and players can expect to
baseball (but doesn't mind obliging auto- playa minimum of seven games. All play will
West: graph-seekers with tales of "The Show"). ASL be AREA-rated, and players will be seeded for
#1 * Georgia 2 wins the Swiss-style tournament by their AREA
#2* Stanford 3 wins
has become his constant companion on road
#3* Washington I win trips, and every National League city is now rating (as of 1 December 1992). To encourage
#4* Long Beach State 1 win his playground for baseball at night and ASL competitors of all levels of skill, there will be
#8* Nevada-Las Vegas I win in the day. (All of which has become a a special $50 prize to the highest-seeded upset,
#9 Texas Tech owins bonanza for ASL players of his acquaintance, and a similar award to the player who gains
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#12 Utah owins who are sometimes Curt' guests at stadiums the greatest number of places from his initial
#6 Iowa I win around the country.) seed. In addition, a four-man team tournament
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plans to fly to Houston Open!
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tr S,
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Schilling has gone suitable for framing; and a
50% reduction in the entry
Gamers are also reminded that they may craft beyond the mere play of fee for the 1994 ASL Open.

their own brackets for other college tourna- the game, and elected to
ments, such as the NCAA Division IT and ill, pitch in to encourage The entry fee will be $20
NAJA, and the NIT. Those making NIT brack- high-level competitive if registered prior to 1
ets should note that the surviving teams are play of ASL. He has organized what could December 1992, and $25 thereafter. Inquiries
matched as the tournament progresses. They become the ultimate competition in this most- on this year's ASL Open should be sent to
may mimic the road to New York by placing popular tactical wargame - The ASL Open Curt Schilling (2406 Parkwood Lane, Sugar-
teams by geographical areas and then assigning (15-17 January 1993 in Houston, Texas). Land, TX 77479).
"home teams" labels to those with larger arenas Sponsored and run by Curt, it will be taking While you are at it, you might also wish to
or greater local populations from which to less of a laid-back approach than the famous ask Curt abolit his Fire for Effect, the latest in
draw. These teams would naturally also use the ASL Oktoberfest (held each year in the growing list of amateur ASL publications.
variant "Home Floor" rule. The Final Four of Youngstown), with more emphasis on struc- This new bi-monthly periodical is "Commit-
the NIT is played in New York City. The "pre- ture and the naming of an overall winner. ted to the Progress of ASL and its Players",
season" NIT and other early tournaments may Curt's unbridled enthusiasm for ASL is and the first issue was a most impressive
also be simulated with MARCH MADNESS, but refreshing in this era of big-money endorse- debut. In conjunction with Robert Wolkey,
there will not usually be enough information ments by pro athletes. His involvement with Curt Schilling has corralled some of the ASL
generated that early in the year to accurately the ASL Open does not include any agents or hobby's best writers into contributing articles
rate the participating teams. contracts. Indeed, he approached us to endorse on tactics, scenario design and analysis, and
his tournament, a venture he plans to finance even abbreviated Series Replays. And, need-
Home Floor Rule: Teams noted as playing with its own revenues. less-to-say, there is much news of the ASL
on their home floor are given two additional Curt greatly regrets that his career precludes Open to be found therein. Currently, FFE sub-
points in each half, and one additional point in his appearance at AvalonCon. And it forces scription rates are $20 ($22.50 Canadian, $25
each overtime period. This simulates the him to offer his own convention in the dead of overseas). Or, send a 6-by-9 inch SASE (bear-
NCAA average (and Las Vegas "spread") home winter, with the hope that his ASL Open will ing 52 cents postage) and he'll send you a free
differential of three to five points. eventually become part of an annual three- sample, if copies are still available. For any
tiered championship series (including the ASL fan of ASL, it is an enjoyable read.

CRESCENT: Geoff Engelstein EAGLE: Bob O'Connor
GATE: Kirk SchlesingerlBrad Andrews
HAND: Ray Stakenas WREATH: Jim Vroom

In the last issue, we left this play-by-elec- STATE: 49T + lOOT (Income) + 2T (Cisalpine Shocked by this raid upon another's faction?
tronic-mail match (see the first installment for Gaul) - 4<IT (Wars) - 15T (Land Bills) - 30T Perhaps, but it didn't prevent CRESCENT from
details as to the format) at the end ofthe third (Maintenance) = 66T. recognizing an opportunity himself and issuing
turn, at a time the populace ofRome was grow- Junius again attempts, but again fails, to these secret orders for the sixth initiative prior
ing restless because Hannibal and the forces of improve Cisalpine Gaul. to the outcome of the Julius Persuasion attempt:
Carthage were devastating the peninsula unop- "I will stay above the fray regarding Julius. I
posed. Our Senators, meanwhile, had fallen to The revenue distributions tell quite a story. don't care to see either faction get my hard
quarrelling amongst themselves. What follows HAND is obviously plotting something of an earned money. However, Valerius will bid 3T
is the concluding chapter in the life ofthe early offensive nature from Plautius. GATE, on the for the 6th Initiative, and if we get it Sulpicius
Republic. other hand, is not even taking a good defensive will attempt to persuade HAND's Papirius."
posture. By spreading his money equally
among his senators he accomplishes little ofan Sixth Initiative:
ASSASSIN offensive nature since such expenditures must HAND spoils CRESCENT's opportunism,
SUPPOI'1 lor Assasslnahon plot come from a single senator. Sadly, his "Hedge- however, by bidding 6T for the sixth initiative.
is widespread. Add I to your
Assassin dr and any Bodyguard hog of Piepsk" defense accomplishes less than This also outpaces EAGLE's bid of"3" and
Oiscardafteruse. simply hoarding his growing warchest in his GATE's bid of 2T. HAND draws aTribune
Cumulalive effect with Bodyguard
and other Assassin cards.
Faction Treasury would have. card and announces another Persuasion attempt
as well. This time the persuader is the newly-
Forum Phase: recruited Julius and the target is Sulpicius #15
CRESCENT: Flamininus # 18A sponsors of CRESCENT.
Games (7T) again to lower the Unrest to "0" This is too much for GATE and WREATH,
TURN 4: while increasing his Popularity to "I". Draws who send their condolences to CRESCENT
THE RISE & FALL OF HAND Statesman Cato #22A. along with bribes for the defense of Sulpicius in
EAGLE: Macedonicus #19A follows suit and the amount of 2T and 4T respectively. Each
Mortality Phase:
sponsors Games (7T) also, and increases his accompanies his aid with the suggestion that a
Death passes the Senate of Rome by; no easy
popularity to "8". Draws a Tribune. grateful CRESCENT could send a consul nom-
escape for any of them in these troubled times.
GATE: Draws Assassin. ination their way in the upcoming Senate Phase.
HAND: Draws the "2nd Illyrian War". Fulvius However, they should have looked before they
Revenue Phase:
#7 gains a Knight with no expenditure. Plau- leapt. CRESCENT has done some quick calcu-
CRESCENT: 9 Votes, or
Flamininus #18A (5-4-7-4), FL, Kl, Tax tius announces a Persuasion Attempt versus lations and correctly deduced that HAND has
Farmer 5, 7T Julius #4 (of EAGLE) at 13:16 (prior to sufficient funds with Julius - should he employ
Valerius #3 (1-2-10-10), RC, Tax Farmer 6, placement of secret bribes). them all - to make defending him further just
3T WREATH: Draws a Tribune. Aelius spends 2T another contribution to the HAND warchest.
Sulpicius #15 (3-2-8-12), PC, P3, Tax for a Knight attempt, but fails to attract any He decides not to spend anything in defense of
Farmer2,3T to his banner. Sulpicius and trust to the gods of Rome for
Card: Blackmail deliverance.
EAGLE: 9 Votes, gr EAGLE empties his Faction Treasury in The gods fail him. HAND backs up Julius'
Macedonicus #19A (5-4-8-15), FL, PC, A2, defense of Julius (8T) to bring the total defense attempt full bore with 26T, which when added
P7, Egyptian Grain, IOT to "24". Plautius has a total of "13" Oratory & to his Oratory & Influence equals "43". Sulpi-
Julius #4 (4-3-9-14), PC, AI, P5 Influence, but his 24T warchest is added to the cius' loyalty of "15", plus the 3T already in his
Calpurnius #15 (1-2-9-2), P2 persuasion factor for a total of "37". This leaves Personal Treasury, plus the 6T offered by
Card: Secret Bodyguard a difference of 13, which exceeds the maximum WREATH and GATE, equals only "24". The
GATE: 9 Votes,llT Base Persuasion Number of"9". The dice roll is difference of "19" once again yields a maxi-
Manlius #6 (3-2-7-4), FL, 5T an "8" and Julius moves over to the HAND fac- mum Persuasion Number of "9". The dr is "6".
Africanus #IA (5-5-7-6), 5T tion with 32T in his Personal Treasury. HAND Sulpicius and his Tax Farmer go over to HAND
Flarninius #13 (4-2-6-8), FC, Shipbuilding, votes increase to ten while EAGLE's decrease with a Personal Treasury of 35T; HAND's
5T to six. This major change in Faction power votes increase to 12 while CRESCENT's
Junius #10 (1-2-8-3), G Cisalpine Gaul, 5T draws this scalding public reproach from decrease to seven.
Cards:Tribune, Seduction CRESCENT:
HAND: 6 Votes, 5T "It grieves me to see that we have lapsed to This was undoubtedly life in the fast lane for
Fulvius #7 (2-2-8-4), FL, Kl fighting amongst ourselves like common dogs. HAND. A lot has turned on two rolls ofthe dice.
Plautius #17 (2-1-6-12), C, PC, P4, Land Once again, senators are putting their personal Even after obtaining maximum odds, each roll
Commissioner,24T agendas before the needs of Rome. We should had a 16% chance of backfiring and turning
Papirius #11 (1-2-6-3), Harbor Fees, 2T not be engendering antagonism just as we begin that big warchest over to his victim. I don't
Card:Tribune to work harmoniously. As usual, it is the evil fault that risk, however, so much as its timing.
WREATH: 10 Votes, 6T Plautius who is behind the latest plot. He of the The game is only half over. Although he suc-
Aelius #14 (3-4-7-2), FL, PI, 6T Land Bills - proposing them as quickly as he ceeded wonderfully in his plan, he now faces
Aurelius #9 (2-3-7-3) could. Preying on the baser instincts of the pop- four hostile players united by their opposition
Cunctator #2A (5-2-7-16), PC, Kl ulace. There is no place for the senators of against him. It will be difficult to hold them off
Card: Tribune HAND in the government of Rome." long enough to win.
Population Phase: Despite a great outcry of congratulations and TURN 5:
The Unrest Level increases two to "2" for the debts owed to GATE for public service from all THE BLACKMAIL OF JULIUS
pair of Unprosecuted Wars. A triple dice roll of quarters, the new RC promptly forgets him
"13" - 2 for Unrest = "11", which results in no when it comes time to nominate a new Censor. Mortality Phase:
change. Instead, EAGLE returns CRESCENT's favor The start of Tum S finishes the job the con-
of nominating him RC by nominating CRES- spirators failed to do. The events of the past
Senate Phase: CENT's Valerius, who is promptly elected on year have proven too much for HAND's Papir-
CRESCENT's outgoing RC the first ballot. GATE's heroics have been ius #11, who dies of a stroke (causing HAND to
. Valerius nominates Aurelius of ignored yet again. His Flaminius is eligible for lose 2T and two votes, plus the Harbor Fees
. . WREATH and Calpurnius of Censor and would have less influence than concession which returns to the Forum for reas-
. EAGLE as the new consuls. Valerius - the very argument that CRESCENT signment).
• But WMl. •• whatrommoti=" advanced as the chief qualification of a Censor
• this? As the newly persuaded on Turn 1. HAND, for his part, makes a concil- Revenue Phase:
Sulpicius of HAND raises to caste his vote an iatory speech to the Senate in hopes that they EAGLE: 6 Votes, 3T
assassin's hand strikes from beneath a toga will consider him punished sufficiently and Macedonicus #19A (S-4-8-1S), FL, PC, A2,
with an Assassin card and a "4" die roll - com- move on to other topics, leaving him with a P8, Egyptian Grain, 9T
muted to a "S" by the card - strikes him down. one-senator gain for the tum. But the conspira- Calpurnius #16 (1-2-9-7), RC, P2
Stunned, the Senators watch while the hooded tors are not yet through and Valerius armounces Cards: Secret Bodyguard, Tribune
assassin melts into the crowd as the life blood a major prosecution of Plautius. This fails when GATE: 9 Votes, 22T
drains from poor Sulpicius. Any outrage felt by Plautius appeals to the people and rolls an "II". Manlius #6 (3-2-7-4), FL, Sicilian Grain, 5T
the Senate seems to have been muted by the jin- After adding his +4 popularity modifier, this Africanus #IA (S-S-7Z-6), 5T
gle of coins loosed by the fallen Sulpicius. To results in not only acquittal for Plautius, but a Junius #10 (1-2-8-3), G Cisalpine Gaul, 5T
some onlookers, the assassin bore a strong drawing of three chits to see if the angry mob Flaminius #13 (4-2-6-8), PC, Shipbuilding,
resemblance to Manlius of GATE. Yet, no one lynches the prosecutor and censor. 5T
stands to accuse GATE's faction leader.
Cards: Tribune, Seduction
The nominees are thus elected 31-10 and The instigators escape unharmed, but they
HAND: 8 Votes,15T
Sulpicius' Tax Farmer moves to the Forum for had no chance in any case and only exposed
Fulvius #7 (2-2-8-4), FL, K2
reassignment. It didn't take long for vengeance themselves needlessly. Even had Plautius rolled
Julius #4 (4-3-9-14), PC, PS, Al
to be meted out. The correspondence which a "2", his popularity would have saved him
Plautius #17 (2-1-6-12), PC, P4, Land Com-
preceded this action ranks as either the clever- from the mob and he could then have played a
est bit of diplomacy or the luckiest. It all started Tribune to veto the prosecution. The conspira-
Cards: two Tribunes
with this message from CRESCENT to all fac- tors would have been better advised to wage a
WREATH: 10 Votes, 8T
tions except HAND: Minor Prosecution ofPapirius and strip him of
Aelius #14 (3-4-7-2), FL, PI, 1 (J[
"According to my calculations, Sulpicius is the Harbor Fees concession. His rich conces-
Cunctator #2A (S-2-7-16), PC, Kl
now sitting on 3ST. Because of this, and sion base has always been the source of
Aurelius #9 (2-3-7-10), FC, P2, A3
HAND's obvious advantages, I volunteer to HAND's strength.
Cards: two Tribunes
assassinate my former faction mate before
CRESCENT: 13 Votes, 8T
HAND can redistribute his money. I am appeal- The remainder of the Senate Phase is spent
Flamininus #18A (S-4-0-4), FL, PI, Kl
ing to you all for a donation of any Assassin sending FC Aurelius off to fight the Illyrian
Valerius #3 (1-2-10-1S), PC, C, Tax Farmer
card you may have to help me in the deed. Once War with ten legions and two fleets. Another
we have trashed his money, we can then pro- 6,9T
proposal to award the Sicilian Grain concession
ceed with a major prosecution of Plautius." Cato #22A (1-6-0-1)
to Manlius of GATE and Tax Farmer 2 to
Card: Blackmail
Macedonicus of EAGLE passes by a vote of 22-
10, with only HAND opposed. STATE: 76T + lOOT (Income) + ST (Cisalpine
It was certainly generous of CRESCENT to Gaul) - 1ST (Land Bills) - 40T (Wars) - 30T
expose himself to the dangers of an assassina- (Maintenance) = 96T
Combat Phase:
tion attempt. Or was it? Geoff is a student ofthe FC Aurelius wins a total victory over the Junius tires of trying to improve Cisalpine Gaul
game and well-versed in its tricks and rules. Illyrians with a 14:4 attack; he thereby single- and takes 3T of graft instead.
Perhaps he knew that I would outlaw any use of handedly lowers the Unrest to "1", raises the
a traded card prior to the Revolution Phase as State Treasury lOT to 76, and improves his own Strange timing - opening himself up for a
the rules require. Whether he did or not, it cer- popularity and influence by two apiece. He also prosecution on the very turn of his recall to
tainly was a good way to convince the others of creates the 3rd Veteran Legion, which is loyal Rome. If Junius was going to extort the
his sincerity in being willing to do the deed to him. Meanwhile, Hannibal again destroys province, he should have done it all three turns
himself And sure enough, GATE not only vol- EAGLE's Tax Farmer 2 and CRESCENT's of his termfor maximum benefit. HAND obvi-
unteered his Assassin card - but when informed Tax Farmer S. ously anticipates more reprisals and has with-
that a traded card could not be used this turn - drawn all of his money into his Faction Trea-
willingly offered to do the deed himself. Revolution Phase: sury to defend against persuasion attempts;
Lucky? Perhaps . .. or maybe just one heck- In this phase, CRESCENT plays Statesman but, the events of the past turn have left the
uva clever ploy. In any case, the long-suffering Cato #22A, thereby almost doubling his Fac- players relatively money-poor. In such circum-
GATE has placed himself in jeopardy, and tion's votes to 13. WREATH's Aurelius returns stances, GATE's position is far from hopeless if
unfortunately for HAND his Assassin card his troops to Rome - unable to finance a revolu- only he would use the money advantage his
made the difference between a "No Effect" tion even if the troops would follow him. But inactivity has allowed him to gain. WREATH's
result and Sulpicius' death. The remarkable the threat of such a grab for power is growing, placement of money on his FL is poor judge-
part of all this is that the volunteer who took and sets off a hysteria of speculation. ment. The best offensive use ofmoney is always
CRESCENT off the hook was the person with from the Personal Treasury of your most per-
the least reason to placate CRESCENT. How suasive Senator - which in his case would be

rn ~~.'~' ~
4 [#4j 3
did CRESCENT repay GATE for volunteering P,ioe MILITARY
ORATORY Cunctator.
money to fight HAND's raid? By nominating
EAGLE and WREATH for consul! Granted, Consul ('; Forum Phase:
EAGLE's loss of Julius makes him an object of "-:.- EAGLE: Draws Random Event "Ally Deserts".

pity at this point, but GATE has received very Macedonicus attempts a Persuasion of Julius
few favors from CRESCENT (or anyone else of HAND at 19: 16 in an attempt to lure him
for that matter). back. However, the Gods rule this attempt to
be frivolous because no guarantee of money have nothing left up your sleeve. Now they no from a position of strength, but one of extreme
to be spent was made in the attempt and longer have to guess whether you have veto weakness. Why should he succeed? Yet he is
HAND is allowed an automatic 2T defense power. prepared to exhaust every possible combination
from his Faction Treasury to defeat it. of Senators to get one of his own in power. And
GATE: Draws "Phillip V" in the Forum. Sixth Initiative: with the power of the Presiding Magistrate to
HAND: Draws "Furius #8 (3-3-8-3)" for the The bidding for the sixth Initiative is vigor- vote last and thereby make conditional votes
Forum. An automatic persuasion attempt ous. WREATH takes it with a bid of "6" over with his Personal Treasury of 9 Talents, he may
versus Furius at 17:8 succeeds with a "4" EAGLE's 4T and CRESCENT's 3T. He draws well pull it off! He stands ready to veto with his
dice roll. The HAND votes increase to 11. "Claudius #5 (2-3-7-4)" into the Forum and own tribunes any proposal that does not contain
WREATH: Draws "1st I1lyrian War". Aelias announces a Persuasion Attempt versus CRES- Macedonicus.
attracts a Knight with no money spent. CENT's Cato (at 18:7). It is EAGLE's most outspoken critic,
CRESCENT: Draws Random Event "Man- Again, the errors compound. Cato's lack of HAND, who objects first:
power Shortage". Valerius #3 plays the loyalty comes as a surprise to CRESCENT "Isn't it a bit forward, nominating your own
Blackmail card against Julius #4 (of HAND) [and admittedly, the Flamininus card is mis- highest influence Senator? Granted, no one else
for an unopposed Persuasion Attempt and leading for it lacks the '710" symbol and "Cato would, but still ... HAND cannot vote for this
adds 9T to his Oratory and Influence rating Faction Loyalty: 0" notation], but not to group or any group which contains Mace-
of"17" for a total of26: 18 (9 loyalty, 7 align- WREATH who despite his lack of a big war- donicus. To raise his influence to 20 would be
ment, 2 Personal Treasury). The Persuasion chest has bid big for the extra initiative in an too large an unsettling influence and a disser-
Number is "8" and CRESCENT rolls a "6". effort to take Cato away. However, he made an vice to Rome."
The much-travelled Julius moves to CRES- error himself and is now bidding money for the
CENT with liT; CRESCENT votes increase takeover that is not in Cunctator's Personal More importantly, there is still another
to 16, while HAND votes decline to eight. Treasury but that of his Faction Leader's. As Macedonian War to defeat in the deck. When it
this is decidedly illegal, the GM cancels his appears, Macedonicus would be the safest FC
At this point the game breaks down into a announced Persuasion attempt against Cato and to lead Rome's armies. If he already has 20
comedy of errors wherein sloppy play in the allows him to take an automatic attempt versus Influence, it will be a harder argument to win.
form of inadequate or incorrect directions to the unaligned Claudius in the Forum - which
the GM caused planned actions to go awry. The succeeds at 18:7 without benefit of Aelius' EAGLE replies to the assembled Senate:
first error was made by EAGLE in not being funds. "Once again HAND has failed to see the for-
specific that he was willing to back up his Per- est for the trees. Rome has nothing to fear by
suasion attempt of Julius with additional funds Although WREATH's votes increase to 13, Macedonicus gaining five more influence. With
(which had been his intent). The GM, without he has missed a golden opportunity to cripple a total of 20, I would have scant chance of gain-
this knowledge, resolved his Persuasion CRESCENT. Cato is an extremely powerful ing more. However, if we look at total Faction
attempt as a frivolous one that could be auto- senator - especially to CRESCENT who lacks influence we see a much greater danger to
matically defeated by HAND and moved on. any other source ofTribunes. Rome: polarization around two strong factions.
Had EAGLE gone through with his plans for an One other interesting development comes There are goodies to pass out to each of you
all-out expenditure against Julius, it probably from all ofthis. Who should ride to the rescue of who vote for me. The important point now is to
would have been disastrous to both EAGLE and CRESCENT with an offer of a blank check to redress the balance of factions in Rome."
CRESCENT because HAND's pockets were far defend Cato from the Persuasion attempt? Apparently, the others agree because the pair
deeper. Having defeated the EAGLE attempt, Why, it's none other than HAND - fresh from is elected on the first ballot 33-8 with only
Julius' Personal Treasury would then have the funeral pyres ofSulpicius whose death was HAND dissenting. WREATH abstained when
been so bulging that the blackmail persuasion orchestrated by CRESCENT. And what price his offer of support in return for a pledge of the
by CRESCENT would have failed automati- did he exact for his largess? Nothing more than Harbor Fees concession went unanswered.
cally. a vague promise to "call off the dogs". The
CRESCENT's play ofthe Blackmail card can conspirators'obviously have gotten HAND's EAGLE is to be congratulated for maintain-
befaulted on three counts. Thefirst is timing. attention. To put it another way, we used to call ing his position in the game from such a point of
Why play it now and make yourselfthe new tar- girls like this "easy". Fortunately for HAND, I weakness. However, both CRESCENT and
get? The game is not yet in its final stages. The disallowed his support because offers ofcondi- WREATH are to be beratedfor allowing him to
"attack the leader" mentality is in full swing at tional pledges are not allowed in the blind do so at such little cost to himself and no gain
this point, so why paint that bulls-eye on your game; one must commit blindly to a specific themselves. For the first time in the game, two
own nose - especially if you can postpone your number or not at all. The reconstructed Persua- factions have the power in base votes to split
game-winning play till later? The Blackmail sion Attempt makes it a moot point. the game between them - or at least to make it
card is an extremely valuable card in the end very expensive for anyone to stop them. By con-
game. For games with an "artificial" (end of The Forum Phase closes with the death of trolling 29 of the game's current 52 votes
deck) ending, it should almost always be held Phillip V from old age, and the return of the between them, they can pretty much force their
for the jinalturn. The second error is the target. Family cards Papirius #11 and Sulpicius #15 to will upon the others and secure the winner's
Playing it on HAND in the middle ofa simulta- the Forum as their sons rise to the rank of Sen- crown for one of them. Their failure to act in
neously resolved Forum Phase is like trying to ator. Tax Farmer 2 is also revived and returned concert in this manner is hard to overlook. This
rob a bus in traffic; you're lucky if you're not to the Forum. is especially true because two Senators are
hit by a passing truck. As EAGLE's aborted available in the Forum and will obviously
persuasion attempt showed, this whole black- Population Phase: undergo a maximum Persuasion attempt by the
mail scheme would have gone horribly wrong Two unprosecuted wars. raise the Unrest new RC and the player to his left. Should
had HAND had to defend Julius seriously ear- Level to "3". RC Calpurnius' dice roll of "II" WREATH become the new RC at this point, the
lier instead ofhaving to move only two Talents (-3 for Unrest, +2 for his Popularity) equals lead of the "big two" will almost certainly
from his Faction Treasury. A safer time to "10". This results in an increase of one in the increase. CRESCENT explained his "Yay" vote
blackmail is during the sixth initiative when you Unrest Level to "4". as a way ofnot drawing attention to himself as
can see the results of the preceding five initia- the leader, but this election will not change his
tives and get afeelfor where the money may lie. Senate Phase: status as the leader. However, were he to win
At the very least, you won't run into a target EAGLE's outgoing RC nominates Africanus the election - he and WREATH would certainly
whose Personal Treasury has been reinforced #IA and his own Macedonicus #19A for con- share the driver's seat. The game is nearing the
defending against another Persuasion attempt. suls. This marks the first time that an outgoing end. Now is the time to seize chances that may
Third, it is seldom wise to play your last red RC has had the audaciiy to nominate one of his not come this way again. Allowing this oppor-
card unnecessarily. It tells everyone that you own for the consulship. And he does this not tunity to slip away is truly a faux pas.

theThe d,,~ion
new consulsMwillto whieh
be RC of
vital to EAGLE, who needs to
be RC to assure himself of the

first Persuasion attempt against

The final business is to assign Tax Farmer 2
to Junius #10 of GATE and Harbor Fees to
Claudius of WREATH; it passes 39-10 with
CRESCENT casting the sole dissenting votes in
CRESCENT: 10 Votes, 28T
Flarnininus #18A (5-4-0-4), FL, PI, K1
Valerius #3 (1-2-10-15), PC, Tax Farmer 6
Julius #4 (4-3-9-14), PC, AI, P5
Cato #22A (1-6-0-1), G Cisalpine Gaul
the unaligned Senators in the STATE: 106T + lOOT (Income) + 3T
Forum. If GATE wins the die roll in a dispute, EAGLE is truly a man of his word. He has (Cisalpine Gaul) - 40T (Wars) - 15T (Land
EAGLE will go last and undoubtedly miss the indeed given something to everyone. I question Bills) - 30T (Maintenance) = 124T.
opportunity to entice one of the unaligned sen- the wisdom of his generosity at this point how- Cato improves Cisalpine Gaul and gains three
ators. Fortunately for him, GATE is easily ever, unless he expects long memories from Influence.
bought and settles for the FC and the promise of grateful recipients to vote him into office yet
a concession. This GATE is as inexplicably lax again next turn. If WREATH is the avowed Rome prospers as Hannibal lays waste to the
as his predecessor was excessively bold. In leader, why gift him with the Harbor Fees? His peninsula. CRESCENT and HAND play defen-
fact, he's downright easy. finances are his weakness; why alleviate them? sively while GATE plays passively with his
EAGLE shows that he is above grudges by Especially at the expense ofpoor GATE who so resources evenly spread. It would seem that
his nomination of HAND's Plautius for Censor. generously demurred in the matter of splitting GATE is playing not to lose rather than trying
It was HAND who led the objection to the RC. If EAGLE feels he must reward to win. EAGLE and WREATH lack the finances
EAGLE's consulship. Obviously, EAGLE WREATH for supporting his programs, why not to act aggressively barring employment of real
feels that HAND is the weakest of the eligible do so with the less lucrative Tax Farmer (which guile, but that has not stopped themfrom using
faction recipients, although his overlooking of is threatened by Hannibal) instead? CRES- their resources offensively in the past.
GATE's Flaminius is strange considering their CENT,jor his part, no doubt wishes Cato was
recently concluded deal to split the consuls in still in Rome to veto this proposal. Now he Forum Phase:
EAGLE'S favor. Obviously, a more resolute alone among the players is without the power of EAGLE: Draws Tax Farmer 1. Macedonicus
GATE could have demanded this as the price veto. spends 3T to successfully attract a Knight,
for his acquiescence in the RC matter. Never- and then successfully persuades Sulpicius
theless, Plautius is the surprising winner of a Combat Phase: #15 (3-2-8-2) from the Forum at 24:8.
28-16 vote and becomes Censor far sooner than Africanus attacks the Illyrians at 18:5 and GATE: Draws Influence Peddling. Attempt to
he ever expected to hold office again. More- wins a complete victory. The state coffers are persuade Papirius from the Forum fails at
over, the only opposition to his election came increased to 106T and the province of lllyria is 19:6 on a dice roll of "10".
from CRESCENT, who not long ago was the created in the Forum. The Umest Level drops to HAND: Draws Armaments. Persuades Papirius
recipient of a blank check from HAND in "3". GATE returns the troops without incident #11 (1-2-6-3) back to his faction at 18:6.
return for vague promises to "call off the dogs". and no new red cards are played during the Plautius spends IT to attract a Knight and
A grateful HAND - much relieved to be back in ensuing Revolution Phase. succeeds in the attempt.
the good graces of his fellows - declines prose- WREATH: Draws Mining. Attracts a Knight to
cution and returns control of the Senate back to Aelius without expenditure. Announces a
EAGLE. Persuasion Attempt by Cunctator versus
Julius of CRESCENT at basic odds of 18:16.
Gratitude is fine, but it has its place. This CRESCENT: Draws "Syrian War". Flamininus
isn't it. Now is the perfect time to launch prose- then attracts a free Knight.
cutions against the leaders. The campaign
against Hannibal is in cruise control; now is The persuasion attempt by WREATH tums
the time to maneuver for personal position. TURN 6: out to be a feint. Cunctator spends a single Tal-
CRESCENT's Valerius is an obvious candidate THE YEAR OF THE KNIGHTS ent to bribe Julius while CRESCENT responds
for a case ofTax Farmer fraud. Valerius has no by spending his entire Faction treasury to
popularity and CRESCENT has no Tribunes Mortality Phase: defend Julian. The attempt fails automatically
save for Cato. As the perceived leader, he No untimely deaths among our Senators. at 19:44, but CRESCENT's treasury is now
would have a tough time summoning up much empty and WREATH (as well as the others)
support. Aurelius, the returning FC of Revenue Phase: must suspect that. CRESCENT must secure the
WREATH, is a less likely but still viable choice. EAGLE: 6 Votes, 3M sixth initiative to prevent a raid on Valerius.
This is an odd mixture of hostility and peace Macedonicus #19A (5-4-8-20), FL, RC, PC,
offerings we are witnessing here. P8, A2, Egyptian Grain, 12T Sixth Initiative:
Calpurnius #16 (1-2-9-7), PC, P2 CRESCENT realizes his vulnerability and
EAGLE now turns his attention to CRES- Cards: Secret Bodyguard, Tribune spends 13T from Julius for the sixth Initiative,
CENT and nominates Cato as the new governor GATE: 9 Votes, 3M which far outdistances WREATH's 5T,
of Cisalpine Gaul. EAGLE and the others no Manlius #6 (3-2-7-4), FL, Sicilian Grain, 6T ,HAND's 3T, and GATE's 2T. He draws the
doubt welcome this opportunity to rid Rome of Mricanus #lA (5-5-7-14), FC, M, P3, 6T "2nd Macedonian War" and attracts a free
Cato's Tribune power and six votes for three Junius #10 (1-2-8-3), Tax Farmer 2, 6T Knight to increase his votes to 12, but declines
years. CRESCENT, for his part, welcomes the Flaminius #13 (4-2-6-8), PC, Shipbuilding, any Persuasion attempt.
chance to get his "0" loyalty senator out of 6T
Rome and away from Persuasion attempts. He Cards: Tribune, Seduction The latter is probably a missed opportunity.
no doubt sees the reduction of his voting power HAND: 8 Votes,19T CRESCENT should himself deduce that
from 16 to 10 as an opportunity to shift the Fulvius #7 (2-2-8-4), FL, K2 WREATH has placed most, if not all, of his
damning title of "leader" from his shoulders to Furius #8 (3-3-8-3) money on Cunctator for his planned Persuasion
WREATH's. The measure passes unanimously. Plautius #17 (2-1-6-17), C, PC, 4P, Land attempt, and therefore should have little left in
The next proposal is to send FC Africanus Commissioner,4T his Faction Treasury to defend either Aurelius
against the Illyrians with all ten legions. CRES- Cards: two Tribunes (10 Influence) or Claudius (4 Influence plus
CENT votes against this on the grounds that the WREATH: 13 Votes, (J[ Harbor Fees). Julius could have attempted to
force is too large for the feeble lllyrians {and he Aelius #14 (3-4-7-2), FL, K1, PI, 5T get either with a maximum Persuasion number
is right}, arguing that a Disaster could result Cunctator #2A (5-2-7-16), PC, K1,12T of "9" or less. Even without risking any money
which could still bring Rome to her knees. Nev- Claudius #5 (2-3-7-4), Harbor Fees at all, he could have taken a 17:14 shot versus
ertheless, the measure passes over CRES- Aurelius #9 (2-3-7-10), PC, A3, P2 Claudius in hopes offinding a bare Faction
CENT's objections 20-10. Cards: two Tribunes treasury.
In defense ofCRESCENT's inaction, he may It is obvious now that the game is coming to an This sudden show ofsupport for WREATH is
not wish to risk all on a throw ofthe dice at this end and everyone is playing for a win by means surprising. With Aurelius' election, WREATH
time (even though those dice would be weighted oftotal Influence. No one will grant anyone else vaults into a tie for the Influence lead with
5:1 in his favor). However, he appears to be any without gaining something significant in CRESCENT; and should his prosecutions
unable to avoid the offensive tag of "leader" return. In short, it will be difficult for anyone to prove successful, CRESCENT (who is without
going into the final turn anyway, so in my opin- gain the necessary votes for election. Under Tribune capability) will lose five Influence. The
ion the gamble is worthwhile. Ifhe succeeds, he such circumstances you start with the least jockeying for position at this point is pro-
would be so far in the lead that the efforts ofthe desirable candidate and work backwards - nounced because the game is extremely close in
others may fail to bring him down in time. If he leaving yourselfas the last eligible candidate to terms of total influence. WREATH and CRES-
fails, he passes the damning title of"leader" to fill the position. Suppose, for example, that CENT have 37, EAGLE and GATE 34, and
WREATH to fend offas best he may in the final HAND nominated CRESCENT's Julius or HAND trails with 32 Influence. The election to
turn. Valerius. They would quickly be defeated by the a single office or the death or persuasion of a
others who would be loathe to vote for the single senator could vault any player into the
Population Phase: leader, thus leaving two less eligible candi- lead. However, they will all be done in by the
A triple dice roll of "13" - 5 [Urnest] + 8 dates. And if CRESCENT got greedy and tried four wars opposing Rome this turn should they
[Macedonicus' Popularity] = "16". The Unrest to buy the necessary votes for the Censorship it fail to defeat one. The possibility of rolling a

Level drops to "4". could still be vetoed by HAND who votes last Disaster or Standoff against even the weakest
and can place conditional orders, wiping out looms very real.
Senate Phase: CRESCENT's warchest in the bargain. HAND HAND and EAGLE have supported
then compounds his error by expending half of WREATH because he offered them their choice
EAGLE Ide- fo, , his
- peat" by nominating own his valuable Tribune power to save himself a of targets for prosecutions if elected. CRES-
_-, Sulpicius along with Furius .of one-point Influence penalty for having made CENT's support probably grew from the real-
- HAND for consuls. Even With such an unpopular proposal. Tribunes will be ization that he had no chance to control the
the advantage of voting last, extremely valuable in the turn ahead. The vot- Censor himself and is banking on the forlorn
this will be a hard sell; EAGLE ing for the next turn's Censor is likely to be hope that by voting for WREATH he would be
is prepared with nine Talents to buy any neces- even more hotly debated than this turn's has spared the wrath ofhis prosecutions. All ofthis
sary votes, but it may not be enough. been. Election is liable to come by the last-eli- jockeying for position seems premature. If the
At this point CRESCENT makes a mistake gible candidate route; and if so, that Tribune game is indeed to be won by total Influence due
by voting in public and stating his opposition to could well be worth five Influence (or more). to time limit, the real "king of the hill" contest
EAGLE's power play. This gives EAGLE the CRESCENT didn't exactly cover himself will occur on the final turn, and he who has pre-
chance to reply before the Senate and point out with glory either. Even if the vote had matched served the most weapons while not forsaking
that, of course, CRESCENT, the leader, would last turn's 31 -27 balance, thefive extra votes he the protection of the pack will be at an advan-
be against anyone else gaining influence ... but bought could have been easily over-ridden by tage.
how could anyone object to the consuls going two Talents from HAND placing the last vote
to the two weakest Factions? And while he can- conditionally. Trading 5T for two is hardly a The players are becoming vindictive. CRES-
not guarantee it (because he cannot guarantee good buy. CRESCENT will need that money in CENT rather obviously castes his 12 votes
being Rome Consul), he pledges that if the the turn ahead. He shouldn't be frittering it "No" on the Valerius Prosecution and appeals
nomination is his the Censor will come from away needlessly now. to the people successfully for four additional
those who support his nominees. "Nay" votes. With Cato out of Rome and no
This is enough to convince the wavering EAGLE's Calpurnius does little better in his other source of Tribunes, CRESCENT must
GATE, who changes his vote and thereby pursuit of the Censorship - losing 38-20 with rely on the sympathy of his fellow players.
sweeps the pair into office by a 31-27 vote with only EAGLE and HAND in favor. WREATH's GATE, who as a fellow prosecution target feels
only the leaders (CRESCENT and WREATH) Aurelius #9 becomes the third nominee, but some sympathy, also castes 11 "No" votes, but
opposed. EAGLE's purse remains full. unless a deal is struck is likely to fare no better that is the end of Valerius' good news. EAGLE,
than the others. HAND and WREATH vote next and caste nine,
What EAGLE didn't tell the Senate is that if 11 and IS votes for conviction to find Valerius
elected he will opt for the Field Consul, so it There are many potential nominees left, so Guilty by a 35-27 vote. Valerius loses five
would fall to HAND to honor his pledge. He there is no need to be concerned about the last Influence, his PC marker, arldhis Tax Farmer 6.
eyes the additional influence to be gained by eligible candidate yet. However, to break this His Popularity plummets to "-5". Successful
defeating the Syrians instead. Or perhaps he deadlock, a bit of diplomacy is required. Sup- Prosecutor Calpurnius of EAGLE gairls three
senses a collapse and is plotting to revolt. An pose that WREATH offered to CRESCENT in Influence.
additional three Influence hardly seems ample Open Trade one of his Tribunes and a pledge GATE's Junius fares little better. Buoyed by
return for surrendering the consul nominations not to prosecute CRESCENT in exchange for CRESCENT's vote of 12 "Nay", GATE puts
on the final turn. Look what he's done with that his votes on this nomination. With CRES- his trust in gold and buys five additional votes
power for the last three turns. By saving all of CENT's support, WREATH would have enough to augment his base total of 11. EAGLE, per-
his money to buy votes he may be able to pull off money to buy the Censorship and could then haps more concerned by the rise of HAND than
a "four-peat" . work on paring down the opposition by prose- the fall of GATE, castes nine irmocent votes for
cuting the others, thus returning WREATH and a total of 37 "Nay". HAND's 11 "Guilty" and
The new RC FOOus of HAND nominates his CRESCENT to pre-eminence. And if WREATH WREATH's 15 leave the prosecutors 12 short
own Plautius for Censor! This incestuous nom- passes CRESCENT in total Influence this turn, of conviction, which WREATH buys with his
ination is inunediately hooted down by every- so much the better for CRESCENT. The bulls- conditional voting power as the last to vote.
one. CRESCENT even goes so far as to buy eye for the final turn will then be resting on his Junius loses five Influence, his PC, and his Tax
five votes in case the voting follows the nose and not CRESCENT's. Farmer 2 as well as five Popularity. Prosecutor
"have/have-not" lines of the preceding consul Papirius of HAND gains three Influence and
vote. Faced with a unanimous rejection of his The stalemate comes to an abrupt halt as the lost PC marker of Junius.
proposal, HAND vetoes it himself to save the WREATH's Aurelius is elected Censor by a GATE now uses the prosecution as arl excuse
one Influence point penalty such a rejection landslide vote of 47-0. Only GATE abstains. to play his Influence Peddling card on HAND
would bring. He then nominates EAGLE's WREATH then announces Minor Prosecutions and draws the latter's Armaments card.
Calpumius arld goes off to lick his wounds. of Valerius of CRESCENT and Junius of HAND resumes control of the Senate meet-
GATE. EAGLE's Calpurnius and HAND's ing as Presiding Magistrate and nominates
HAND has shot himselfin both feet this time. Papirius are, respectively, selected to be the EAGLE's Calpurnius as the governor of
His first mistake is in nominating his own man. Prosecutors. Illyricum.
The big winner in this flurry would have to be The Tax Farmer proposal passes 41-15 with EAGLE leads the organized outcry against
HAND, who gained some influence while only WREATH dissenting. HAND's heavy-handed politics. Although it
remaining firmly in the middle of the pack. Next, HAND proposes to send FC Sulpicius would have been defeated on vote count alone,
Even the loss ofthe Armaments concession is of of EAGLE off to fight the Syrians with all ten WREATH - voting third - plays a Tribune to
no great concern as it is unlikely Rome will legions. WREATH abstains. GATE and veto HAND's proposal. EAGLE then plays his
build more Legions before the time limit is EAGLE vote "Yes", the latter spending his last Tribune to keep the Senate meeting open and
reached. HAND has WREATH to thank for his nine Talents to buy additional votes! CRES- proposes a more equitable division of forces
largess. Twelve Talents is a lot of money to CENT votes "No", claiming that it is safer to with one veteran and nine regular legions under
spend to knock the third-place player down to field two armies against two wars and thus his FC Sulpicius against the Syrians at 14:6
fifth - especially when it nearly empties his own guard against losing to the game on a Stand- odds, while Furius undertakes the Macedonian
warchest and leaves himselffirmly emplaced as offlDisaster dice roll. HAND sees the wisdom War with three veteran and seven regular
a co-leader the others will be seeking to topple in this and votes against his own proposal, but legions at 16:10 odds. This proposal passes
on the last turn. That 12T will be sorely missed that still allows it to pass by a 27-23 vote. With unanimously and as the Senate closes good
next turn. only three Talents remaining in his Personal news arrives in the return of Tax Farmer 4 to
GATE's restraint in not playing his Tribune Treasuries, HAND is powerless to buy enough the Forum. And Hannibal has not burned any
is probably wise; the more hidden weapons a votes to change the outcome, so he uses his last new Tax Farmers. The Gods must be smiling on
player has on the final turn, the better. It cost Tribune to veto his own proposal! Thus freed Rome as she sends off her do-or-die expedi-
WREATH more than it was worth to trash from his own legislation, HAND next reveals a tions.
GATE's senator, and in doing so GATE now stunning joint proposal to raise ten legions and
becomes the obvious "pity" choice for office on two fleets, send FC Sulpicius to fight the Syri- EAGLE's proposal is certainly a better one
the final turn. In a game this close, that is a dis- ans with the minimum force (one veteran and for both Rome and himself. In contrast to
tinct advantage. With 29 total Influence, GATE one regular legion plus two fleets) while he HAND, who tripped all over his greed, EAGLE
now trails co-leaders EAGLE and WREATH by takes the remaining 18 legions and five fleets has resisted the urge for revenge and sent
eight - an amount that can be more than made against the Macedonians. Moreover, he is burn- HAND's Furius offto war with a +6 advantage
up by the successful play of his unsuspected ing his bridges behind him by announcing to when it was well within his power to turn the
Seduction card. WREATH and EAGLE that if the proposal tables on HAND and send him out with an even
fails, he will close the Senate and allow the force while EAGLE reserved the overwhelming
EAGLE's Calpurnius is elected Governor of game system to win by default. 'advantage for himself In fact, there are rea-
Illyricum on the first ballot 35-23, with GATE sons why he should have done so. HAND has
and CRESCENT opposing. HAND next pro- HAND has shown himself to be both a klutz shown himself quick to jump on opportunities
poses consignment of the available Tax Farm- and diabolically clever in the same phase! for personal advancement. Now that he has
ers to Manlius of GATE and Flamininus of Using your last tribune to veto your own pro- failed at his attempt of virtual blackmail of all
CRESCENT. posal hardly brings to mind visions of great the other players, he may well feel backed into
statesmen. However, credit him with the a corner from which the only hope ofpersonal
The Governorship of Illyricum is hardly big courage to recognize his own gaffe and take victory would be down the path of a revolt.
news at this point. Even EAGLE couldn't advantage of an opportunity when he sees it - Entrusting such a desperate man with a large
decide whether he wanted it or not, casting his even if belatedly. force may not be wise.
votes in favor of the nomination somewhat I thought EAGLE's purchase of votes was a Although HAND is undoubtedly grateful to
reluctantly. As one of the poorest provinces, it bit extreme, but apparently he feared just this be sent out at the head of a sizeable army after
has almost no monetary value. Given the cur- type of counter-proposal should it fail. As it the failure of his power play, he is letting slip
rent situation, the only redeeming feature of turns out, his purchase ofvotes was just enough his best chance to hold onto the opportunity this
this post is the 33% chance of earning three to force HAND to use his last Tribune. Had war presents. Before closing the Senate, he
extra Influence by improving the province on HAND not had a Tribune, Sulpicius would now should try to pass more Land Bills with his own
the next turn. A side benefit is that the new Gov- be leading a much larger army against the Syr- Plautius as sponsor. Having frittered away all
ernor will be immune to persuasion and assas- ians. of his tribunes, HAND's only hope of avoiding
sination attempts while out ofRome. The down- HAND's second proposal makes a lot of prosecution ofPlautius next turn is to make him
side is that EAGLE will lose Calpurnius' votes sense - from both his personal viewpoint and very popular. With the game ending by time
in the Senate for the rest ofthe game. Consider- that of the other players. Although his motiva- limit next turn anyway, there is no need to be
ing that, why not nominate CRESCENT's tion is strictly personal (to gain influence for concerned about Rome's finances. The only
Flamininus or WREATH's Aelius for the post? himself by gaining a victory and gain ground way to stop this play would cost his opposition
Each commands seven votes thanks to the three against EAGLE should Sulpicius end up falling either Tribunes or popularity - both of which
Knights each controls. Posting either to on his sword), he improves the chances of the would be to his advantage.
Illyricum would cripple that faction's voting others as well by giving them two opportunities
power in the upcoming turn. to defeat a fourth war and so avoid the game- Combat Phase:
Even more puzzling is the consignment ofthe ending debacle ofa Disaster/Standoffdice roll. FC Sulpicius of EAGLE is the first to take
Tax Farmers to two rivals with nothing gained However, his threat to close the Senate and the field and attacks the Syrians at 14:6. A dice
in return. The expected revenue is not much at allow the game to win automatically if his pro- roll of"15" results in a Standoff with the loss of
this point (indeed Hannibal may yet make it a posal fails is hardly the stuffto make him many one fleet and two regular legions. Sulpicius
moot point), but why give something to a rival friends on the last turn. Such blackmail rarely himself survives the battle and names the XIV
without getting something in return? Granted, pays off; it often has just the opposite effect of Legion a Veteran loyal to himself.
the nomination is along least-Influence lines in what is intended as players would rather see As RC Furius takes the field against Mace-
the time-honored traditions of this game of the game win than the blackmailer. Moreover, don at 16: 10, the game hangs in the balance.
keeping the factions equal in strength . .. but the others can turn the tables on him by voting The potential for loss is much greater than in
the end is near. It is time to think of one's self. down his proposal and then playing a Tribune the unsuccessful Syrian Campaign. A dice roll
HAND should have cut himselfin for one ofthe to keep the Senate open and propose another of"3" through 7", "13" or "14" will result in the
Tax Farmers, or let them rot in the Forum. How disposition offorces with his Furius at the head fall of Rome and defeat for all players. The
does giving a rival two extra Talents on the last ofthe short-handed army. In short, the penulti- actual dice roll is a "12"; Rome escapes and the
turn benefit him? Most of these players have mate turn is too early to be making these kinds game continues by the thinnest of margins.
already demonstrated what short memories of threats. He has kissed goodbye any support Furius' victory is complete. He suffers no
they have when it comes to remembering past whatever on the upcoming last turn, and even if losses and names the V Legion a Veteran loyal
favors. Does he really expect them to change he succeeds he has only made himselfthe target to him. His Popularity rises to "5" and his fuflu-
their ways with the end in sight? offinal turn treachery. ence to "13". The State Treasury increases 45T
to 49T, and the Unrest Level is thus lowered to STATE: 49T + lOOT (Income) + 9T (Cisalpine fish to fry. Cunctator attempts to persuade
amanageable "3". Gaul & lllyricum) + 25T (Contribution from HAND's Papirius with a 9T-bribe and
Crescent) - I5T (Land Bills) - 60T (Wars) - "attacks" at 27:24, only to fail with a dice roll
Our players have avoided disaster by a 48T(Maintenance) = 60T. of "6". Papirius is 9T richer for the attempt.
whisker, and now, thanks to the artificial time In addition, CalPllIT'Jus improves Illyricum to Acilius is also noteworthy because it is the
limit of the opening scenario, can get down to gain three Influence for himself and EAGLE. last card in the deck. The game will now offi-
the business of seeing who among them shall cially end after this turn.
win without further interference from the game The Revenue distributions portend much
system. The players remain extremely close in aggressive action in the Forum Phase, as only I don't fault WREATH for the attempt on
total Influence. Even GATE is in a strong posi- GATE has maintained a significant defense Papirius, but I do condemn him for half mea~
tion thanks to his Seduction card and money fund in his Faction treasury. Three factions sures. This is the final turn - it is all or nothing.
hoard. He who does best in the next Senate have no Faction Treasury at all! CRESCENr's What good does it do to hold ten Talents back in
Phase should win the game. contribution is noteworthy because it puts the reserve in another senator's Treasury? Ten
state collectively out of danger from a Natural additional Talents would have bought Papirius,
Revolution Phase: Disaster or double Evil Omens-induced and with him 3lT for subsequent action. What
The Revolution Phase is again uneventful. bankruptcy. In the process, it buys three Influ- will he do with that lOT now? If halfmeasures
HAND returns his legions to Rome (after encefor him. CRESCENr is rightly banking on are his bag, he would be better off going after
checking to fmd only four will follow him) and the attentions ofthe others being focused on the Acilius in theforum. WREATH could also use a
Sulpicius remains in Syria as Proconsul. leaders and is thus braving the Forum Phase lesson in the wisdom ofchanging Faction lead-
WREATH plays the Mining Concession on virtually penniless. The strategy may be the best ers.
Aelius and EAGLE plays Tax Farmer 1 on he can do under the circumstances, but I doubt
Macedonicus. whether it will be enough. I'd have been CRESCENT benefits from WREATH's deci-
tempted to put it all in one big Persuasion sion to attack HAND by persuading Acilius
attempt myself. In any case, I don't see where from the forum with Julius at 17:7 with no
the 4T in the Faction treasury is likely to serve money risked. His Faction influence
any useful purpose. Better to have it available increases to "37" and his votes to 14.
for buying votes.
Nothing to harp about here; things have bro-
Forum Phase: ken CRESCENr's way admirably. Although, he
HAND draws "Terentius #20 (2-1-6-1)" - a par- too could benefit by a FL change, and I still
TURN 7: ticularly uninspiring character - and per- think his chances are better with a single major
THE RISE OF GATE suades him with Plautius at 18:6 without persuasion attempt ofa principle Senator.
risking anything. Fulvius attracts a Knight
Mortality Phase: with no money expenditure. HAND Influ- EAGLE draws an Evil Omens Random Event
No new deaths. ence increases to "41" and votes to 13. His to reduce the State to 40T. He stands pat oth-
money remains untouched in hedgehog fash- erwise.
Revenue Phase: ion in expectation of defending against Per-
HAND: 11 Votes, 40 Total Influence suasion attempts soon. To what purpose is the Macedonicus 22T
Fulvius #7 (2-2-8-4) FL, K2, PC hoard if not for use as a Persuasion attempt? Is
Furius #8 (3-3-8-13) RC, P5, AV, I IT HAND has made two critical errors which he being patient and waiting to strike during
Papirius #11 (1-2-6-6) PC,l1T will cost him dearly. Defending against Persua- the sixth initiative, or is he simply saving the
Plautius #17 (2-1-6-17) PC, Kl, Land Com- sion attempts with Personal treasuries is ineffi- money for votes? EAGLE has one major advan-
missioner,12T cient. The old adage that he who defends every- tage; with two of his three Senators currently
WREATH: 15 Votes, 37 Total Influence thing defends nothing is true here. If he was out of Rome and the third his Faction Leader,
Aelius #14 (3-4-7-2) FL, PI, K3, Mining going to adapt a defensive posture, he should he is immune from Persuasion Attempts.
Cunctator #2A (5-2-7-16) PC, 9T have put everything in his Faction treasury so
Claudius #5 (2-3-7-4) Harbor Fees, lOT that he could concentrate his defense on those GATE plays his Seduction card against
Aurelius #9 (2-3-7-15) PC, AII1, C, P2 senators which have been announced as tar- HAND's Plautius, but it does him no good
Card: Tribune gets. The loss of even one major senator will because HAND has already fully committed
CRESCENT: 12 Votes, 32 Total Influence, 4T cost him the lead, so he would be better advised his defense in the form of Personal Trea-
Flarnininus #18A (5-4-7-4) FL, PI, K3, Tax staking everything on one defense. Then if he suries and Plautius can now augment his
Farmer 2, 25T wins that defense, he can use that money for the Loyalty of "13" with his I2T Personal Trea-
Valerius #3 (1-2-10-10) P-5 sixth Initiative to attempt to take back any sury for a total of "25". Fortunately for
Julius #4 (4-3-9-14) PC, P5, AI losses to subsequent raids by other players. As GATE, the warchest he has been building
Cato the Elder #22A (1-6-10-4) G Cisalpine the leader, he can well expect several attempts with six turns of inactivity now comes into
Gaul against him, but apportioning his defenses play and a bribe of 25T augments Africanus'
EAGLE: 5 Votes, 37 Total Influence evenly only assures that no one is really safe. It persuasive abilities for an "attack" of 44:25.
Macedonicus #19A (5-4-8-20) FL, PC, Kl, may be that he is aware ofthe availability ofthe Only a bad dice roll can save HAND now,
P8, All,22T Seduction card and has thus pre-set his but the roll is a "6" and Plautius moves to
Sulpicius #15 (3-2-8-7) AXIV, FC/Procon- defenses so as to overcome the inability of his GATE with 37T. HAND's influence drops to
sui Faction treasury to interfere against that card. "24" and his votes to 11. GATE's influence
Calpurnius #16 (1-2-9-10) PC, P2, G Ifthat is the case, his defense is reasonable; but vaults him into the lead with "46" and his
I11yricum his only hope is that the holder ofthat card does votes increase to 13. It would appear that the
Card: Secret Bodyguard not have a big warchest to play with it. The "worst to first" scenario can occur in Rome
GATE: 11 Votes, 29 Total Influence, 20T other error (which is not as defensible) is his as well as in baseball. GATE completes his
Manlius #6 (3-2-7-4) Sicilian Grain, Tax failure to change his Faction Leader. Influence Initiative by changing his FL to Africanus.
Farmer 6, 6T is the only valuable commodity now and the
Africanus #IA (5-5-7-14) PC, P3, AIV, 29T only Persuasion-proof position he has is held GATE's ace-in-the-hole Seduction card
Junius #10 (1-2-8-3) P-5, 6T by his least influential Senator. proved to be worthless, but his warchest was so
Flaminius #13 (4-2-6-8) PC, Shipbuilding, large it didn't matter. The single most impor-
6T WREATH draws "Acilius #12 (2-2-7-3)" into tant thing to learn about the play ofthis game is
Cards: Armaments, Seduction, Tribune the Forum but ignores him. He has bigger that it is one of timing. What you do isn't as
important as when you do it. GATE's play has them back into consideration. It starts with been active with some backstage diplomacy by
seemed uninspired throughout, but by biding HAND's outgoing RC nominating his own Ful- "tipping" GATE ofthe coming double prosecu-
his time he has been able to strike when it mat- vius, and Aelius of WREATH, as consul. tion and suggesting that he spend big to defeat
tered. While the others were frittering away CRESCENT is promised the Censorship. These the current nomination. Obviously, EAGLE's
their resources as the game progressed, he kept three combine to pass the proposal 36-22. How- interest is more in deflating GATE's wallet pre-
his to the end. Furthermore, he benefitted from ever, one vote is lost when Terentius of HAND maturely than protecting GATE's senators, and
being considered "out of it" while the others is caught in an assassination attempt on GATE sees through this for what it is. Given his
concentrated their attacks on the current Claudius of GATE and immediately dispatched current resources, he would be foolish to con-
leader. He has not won yet; but he has by far to join his ancestors. HAND's Fulvius is impli- test the Censorship as he cannot defeat all of
the biggest advantage the game has yet seen, cated in the plot and automatically loses the the eligible candidates.
and he should be able to add to it with aggres- five Influence just gained by his recent consul-
sive play in the sixth initiative phase. ship. Meanwhile, Aelius is true to his word and CRESCENT appeals to the others for their
nominates Flamininus of CRESCENT for Cen- votes in the coming prosecution and urges them
Sixth Initiative: sor. to join him in spending all they have. What he
GATE's money advantage was never more does not tell them is that "all he has" is nothing!
in evidence. He bids an astounding 25T for the An assassination attempt against GATE is His fortune consists of 4T sitting idly in his
sixth Initiative and still has far more money left not a surprise, nor is the assassin. HAND had Faction treasury. The first Prosecution is aimed
over than anyone else. WREATH bid all he had the least to lose. However, the target is at Flaminius, and as GATE must vote first he
(lOT) for the extra Initiative, but the other three arguably less than the best. As afaction can be has no choice but to play his last Tribune to end
passed. GATE attempts to add to his lead by the subject of only one assassination attempt the prosecution. He is banking on Plautius' con-
announcing a Persuasion attempt with Plautius per turn, this failure leaves GATE unassailable siderable influence and popularity, combined
against WREATH's Claudius #5 (at 18:14). He save for minor prosecutions. HAND's motiva- with his bankroll, to save the day.
then uses 5T to buy a Knight outright. tion was to eliminate the 39T warchest of So when Plautius' tum in the dock arrives,
The Persuasion attempt versus Claudius is Claudius before it could be used to buy votes. GATE again leads off with 39 bought votes,
backed by all 29T in Plautius' Personal trea- But even if we assume that those 39T would plus 17 by GATE, plus 17 for Plautius' influ-
sury! Claudius must go it alone with only the have been successful in defeating a Minor ence, for a total of 73 votes for "Innocent".
lOT already in his Personal treasury, so that the Prosecution against GATE, that would only Fearing this may not be enough, he wisely
"attack" comes at maximum odds of 47:24. The account for a difference of nine Influence appeals to the People with Plautius' four Popu-
resulting "8" dice roll moves Claudius to whereas a successful assassination ofPlautius larity, but gains only four additional votes with
GATE with 39T and increases his Influence would net a 17-Influence reduction at one fell a disappointing dice roll. EAGLE votes next
lead to ten over EAGLE. swoop. Money is important; but without the and adds to his Faction's paltry five "Guilty"
power of the Presiding Magistrate or tribunes votes with 20 bought ones. WREATH has noth-
I question the wisdom of an all-or-nothing to actually make proposals, it can rarely defeat ing to spend and consequently can muster only
Persuasion attempt on Claudius, who brings united opposition alone. 12 "Guilty" votes. HAND is up next, and con-
only an added four Influence. GATE will WREATH may have missed his best opportu- trols the outcome of the game. Hopelessly out
inevitably be the target of an assassination nity by keeping his word to nominate CRES- of it himself, he alone has enough money to
attempt on Plautius and/or Minor Prosecu- CENT for Censor. Had he assassinated convict Plautius. He votes "Guilty" and aug-
tions, which if successful will drop GATE to HAND's FC and gotten away with it (a 33% ments his faction tally with 17 bought votes,
also-ran status. The target should have been chance), he could have named his own Dictator thereby allowing CRESCENT to convict Plau-
another major Influence guy that, if successful, and Master ofHorse for a gain often Influence. tius with his 14 faction votes. A final tally of
would have given GATE a lead so large that he That would have left him just two behind GATE. 78-77.
could afford to lose anyone senator to an He could then have attempted to wrangle an Plautius loses five Influence, dropping
assassination and still be in the lead. Risking Open Trade out ofCRESCENT for the Censor- GATE to a total of 45. Valerius gains three for
his warchest on an extra four Influence makes ship, one in which CRESCENT must prosecute the prosecution and raises CRESCENT to 46
little sense to me. The others are now firmly only GATE. It is difficult to see how he can win total influence and the lead.
polarized against him, so his chances ofgetting otherwise now.
anything favorable accomplished in the Senate Both the prosecution and the defense thereof
Phase are somewhere between slim and none HAND's Fulvius is found innocent of the were well handled. One could quibble with the
without Tribunes to actually make the propos- plot to assassinate Claudius by a 36-22 vote, lack ofcontribution by the money wasting away
als. He'll need his only Tribune to deflate one with only GATE and EAGLE voting "Guilty" in GATE's Faction treasury, but that would be
Prosecution attempt, and can maybe buy his and the people registering nary a care one way taking advantage of hindsight. It is interesting
way out of the other. The presence of the Evil or the other on an automatic unmodified Appeal to point out that CRESCENT s own trickery
Omens increased his chances of losing that dice roll of "7". Flamininus of CRESCENT is could have defeated him in the end. By telling
entire warchest (by 11% to 28%). The same elected Censor by a 41-17 tally with only the others to "join him" in buying votes to use
effort against a more influential senator could GATE opposed. CRESCENT announces two against GATE, he could have easily left HAND
have all but won the game. The other players Minor Prosecutions against GATE's Plautius with the mistaken impression that he had the
would then have had to kill offtwo of his sena- and Flaminius for Land Commissioner and wherewithal to buy the necessary votes to con-
tors, which would require the rather drastic Ship Building fraud. In an obvious and bold vict Plautius himself Had HAND been a little
step ofelecting one to Consul and sending him move for influence, his own Valerius will han- less generous in his support in the mistaken
with a minimum army in hopes of a military dle both prosecutions. beliefthat CRESCENT could buy his own lead,
defeat while assassinating the other. Now he CRESCENT would have come up short and lost
must sweat the inevitable assassination This could be a winning move by CRES- the gatne by his own duplicity.
attempt. CENT. The others are caught between a rock As it is, CRESCENT may be thankful that
One tactic that nobody used was to press and a hard place. They must vote Guilty or con- only one of the prosecutions was successful.
their Knights for money in the Forum Phase. cede the game to GATE - and CRESCENT Had both succeeded, EAGLE had left standing
With the voting so polarized on the final turn, I alone stands to benefit from the downfall of the orders to attempt an assassination against
see little reason to hold onto them at this stage. accused by usurping ha"if their lost influence. CRESCENT. GATE's having 45 influence actu-
The innocence ofHAND is a moot point. He is ally protected CRESCENT in this instance, but
Senate Phase: effectively out of the game in terms of his own I doubt whether we've seen the last ofthe knife
HAND, WREATH and CRESCENT (as the chances. At this point, all he can do is help wielding for this tUTn. Only the target has
three least in this soon-to-end game) have cob- determine who does win. Throwing him a bone changed, and now the most likely assassin is
bled together a quick alliance designed to vault at this stage costs nothing. EAGLE though has GATE.
WREATH continues the Senate meeting by
proposing to send all available forces under the
HAND Fe to conduct the Syrian War. This pro-
posal is defeated with EAGLE, GATE and Only the following back issues of The GENERAL remain in stock; price is $4.00 per issue
HAND opposed. Seeing nothing more to be (plus the usual shipping and handling charges). Due to the low quantities of some back issues, if
gained, WREATH adjourns the Senate and ordering, please specify alternative selections. Below is a listing of each in-stock back issue by
thereby ends the game for all practical pur- subject matter; game abbreviations are italicized and standard (a partial listing may be found on
poses. the "Opponent's Wanted" form on the insert of this issue). Type of article is indicated by the fol-
lowing abbreviations: A - Analytical, DN - Designer's Notes, H - Historical. Q - Questions, P -
GATE lost the opportunity for a win with the PBM (postal), S - Strategy, Sc - Scenarios, SR - Series Replay, V - Variant The featured game
Senate meeting closure. He should have assas- for each issue is always the first one listed. Those printed in red indicate one-color reprints of
sinated a CRESCENT senator as soon as he previously out-of-stock issues.
lost the lead. With the Senate adjourned, he has
now lost the opportunity.
The artificial time limit ending ofthe individ-
ual scenarios makes them a less satisfying
game experience than the extended game. It
would have been very interesting to see how
much longer this game would have continued
had we continued it into the next deck. But the
requirement for brevity in a Series Replay pre-
cluded that. I suspect we would have had a win-
ner, or the game would have defeated them all,
within three or four turns. Surely the strategy
would have been different at the end and the
decision to live with the Carthaginians howling
at the city gates would have been much tougher
to make. Veteran players of REPUBLIC OF
ROME will soon move beyond the scenarios
andfind this less ofa shortcoming.
However,for those who enjoy (or must play)
ashort game, this artifICial "end-ofthe-world"
conclusion to the early scenarios can be elimi-
nated by use ofthe following "house rule": 14-5: SL-H.A,DN, Q; WS&/M -A; TRC- S;MD - S;SST- S; 3R- S
When the game has reached its normal time- 17-4: FE - S, P, DN, V; MD - V, Q; COl - SR; vrrp - S; 1776 - SCi WQ - A; SST - V; NAP - S
17-5: CM - S, V,Q;RW - V; SL- V;STAL- V; PL- S; 3R - S,SR; CAE - V; KM· S;MR - S
limit ending, continue play with the next deck as 17-6: STAL- S; WS&IM - V, Sc; WAS- V;3R - SRi SL- S; CL- S; vrrp- S; TRC- S
ifplaying an extended Campaign Game. How- 18·1:FTIW- A, Q;BIS- S; SL- S;DUNE - V; DIP- S;AK -A;PB- SR;AL- S; W&P - S
ever, at the end ofeach game turn, roll a die to 18-2:AF-A,Sc,Q;AK - V;3R -DN; TB - V;SL- S;AIW- V; vrrp - S;DIP- S;DD - S
18-3: GOA - S, DN, V, Q; AOC - V, Sc; AK - S; vrrp - V; SL - S; WS&IM - SR, P; DIP - S
determine if the scenario ends - thus making a 18-4: GL-H, V, A,Q; SL-A;LW - V; W&P- SR;AOC- S,P;FE- V; WAS- S;AK - S
winner of the current Influence leader. The 18-5:3R- S,A, V,DN,Q; SL- S, A; TRC- V; TB - V;RW- V; CL-A;DUNE· V
game ends on a die roll greater than or equal to 18-6: FT - A, Sc; V, DN; vrrp - V, Q; MD - S, Q; SOTN - A; Q; SUB - Sc; BL - V
"6" . Add +1 to the die roll for each successive 19-1: SOA - A. V, DN, SR, Q; 1LD - A, Q; 3R - S, Q; DWIK - DN; TB - A
19-2: BB' 81 - H, Sc, S, DN; 1LD - A, Q; SL - V; 3R - S; SOA - SR
turn until the game ends. In this manner, play- 19-3: GSL - A. Sc, V, SR, Q; DIP - A; RW - Sc; GE - V; 1776 - Sc; LRT - V, Q; SL - A
ers will not know with certainty when the sce- 19-5: SON - A, S, H, Q; W &P - S, Q; DIP· A; WAT - V; WS&;/M - Sc; SL - A
nario will end, and must hedge their bets 19-6: vrrp - P, SR; 3R - V, Q; DIP - A; FT - V; BIS - V; NAV - A; SL - A, Sc; SUB· V, Sc

occ~dingry. ir 20-1: GI - S, A, DN, V, Q; vrrp - SR

20-2: IT- A,DN, S,Q;MR - V;LRH -A; SL- SCi W&P - V; GOA - S,Q;DIP-A;PL- V
20-3: FRED - S, V, Sc, Q; PB - A; /776 - SCi DWIK • S, V, Q; DIP - A; CONQ - V, S
20-5: BR - SR, S, H, Q; LRT - S; DIP - A; GSL - Sc; GE - A; WS&IM - Sc

4 20-6:B·/7 -A, V, SR,Q;AF- V;LW - S;DL- S;FE - S;DIP-A;MD -S;BR- SRi GOA - Sc; SL-A;PL- Q
?·174ec 21-1: UF - S, A, SR, DN, Q; SOA - S; GI - H, S; TRC - S; DD - S
21-2: NAB - S,DN; W&P - S,A,Q;NAP- S,Q;DIP-A;FR- S;FE- S;3R - S;BFI- S; 1776 - S;SL- A
Nulhlles any Macedonlan
War Dlsastef/Standofl 21-4: PGG - S; SR; PB - A; 3R - S; TRC - S, V, Q; DIP - A; STAL - V, S; SL - Sc
21-5: HW - S, V, A; MR - S, Q; OR - A; DIP - A; 3R - A; RB - S; CONQ - V; CN - S; SL - A
INFLUENCE 21-6: FP - H, V, SR; AIW - S, Sc; BL - V; TAC - V, Q; SL - A

,tAlTYD [;j 1;1 22-1:PAA - A,S, Q; TB - A, V; DWIK - DN; TR- V;GSL-p;DIP-A;AOC- S; WAS- S,Q;AK - V;CIV - S; 3R -S,Q
22-2: BANZ - A, SR, Q; FT - A, S; SUB - SCi vrrp - s, Q
22-3: PB - SR; PL - Sc, V, Q; SOA - S; 3R - V; DIP - A; CIV - A; UF - Sc, Q; AIW - S; GOA - A, Q; 1LD - A
22-4:RF-A, V, S; TRC- V; PK- S,Q; DIP -A;3R- V; SUB - V;PGG-S
22-5: DEY - S, A, Q; GSL - Sc; BR - S; DIP - P, A; SC - V; FrrG - A; ASL - Sc, Q
Tae OpS ••• Cont'd from Page 36 23-1: FL-A, V;DL- V,B-I7 - V,DN;HW- S, Q; VlfP- V;3R - S; IT- V;LW - V; SST- V;RW - V
23-2: ASL - A, S, Sc, Q; BV - SR; UF - S; DIP - A; PL· A
in strength along two routes with a large 23-3: SUB - V, Sc; ASL - S; BV - SR; HW - V; BL - V, Q; BB'81· A
reserve, or to move along three (or more) with a 23-4: EIA - S, DN; W&P - V, S; WS&IM - SCi SC - V; NAP - S; 1S - S; 3R - S, Q
23-5: KOTA - DN, Sc, Q; WAT - V, B·/7 - V, Q; 3R - S; RW - V; ASL - S; vrrp - S
small reserve. (I prefer the latter, always keep- 23·6: 1830 - DN, S, V, Q; FP - Sc; RB - S; DEY - P; CIV - S; MR - S
ing the different groups within supporting dis- 25-3: PAT- S,H, V, SCi TPS-DN;AK - V;3R - Sc,Q;ASL - S;PGG- P;PB - A; UF- V;SOA- V;PL- S;BB'81 - S
tance of each other.) To a large extent. his deci- 25-4: EIS - S, H, V, Sc; WS&IM - V, P, Sc; EIA - V, Q; vrrp - S; NB - DN; 1776 - V
25-5: GE'88 - SR, V, H, Q; 1776 - S; ASL - H; FP - Sc; RB - V; as - V; DEY - S; GOA - DN, Q; W&P - S, Q; BR - DN
sion in this will determine American play. 25-6: ASL - H, S, V. A, Sc, Q; PM - S; RSN - V; UF - S; FP - Sc
26-1: MOV - S, DN, V, SR, Q; DE - V; DUNE - V; DLW - S; KM· S; SC - S; ASL - A, Q; KR - V, Q; ROR - DN; CIV - V
I hope this discussion has been enlightening, 26-2: TPS- S,DN,SR,Q;PB - Sc;ASL-H,A; 3R - S,Q;HW - S, Q; UF- V;RF- S
for the experienced as well as the novice TAC 26-3: MBT - H. S, SR, Q; FL - V, Sc; FP - Sc; ACQ - S; TA - S
26-4: SO} - H, DN, S, Sc, Q; KM - V; IT - V; CIV - S; DIP - S; MR - A; ASL - A
AIR player. I would also hope it generates some 26-5: UF - S, V, SR; AF - V; FT - Sc; B-/7 - V; FP - V; ASL - H, Q
debate. Like PANZERBLITZ and SQUAD 26-6: NB - DN, S, H, Sc, Q; EIA - Sc, V; 1830 - S; WS&IM - Sc; DEY - S; W&P - Sc
LEADER, this is a game system with great 27-1: TRC - S,H, V; ASL- H, Q; KR - V, Q;RF- S; TPS- S
27-2: 3F - V, Sc, A; 6F - S; 2F - V; EIA - S, Q; ASL - S, D, Q; WS&;/M - V; FT - V; vrrp - S
potential. Where it goes, however, depends 27-3: 3R - S, DN; TUJ - S, V; ASL· S, DN, Q; FE - S
much on the material for and by TAC AIR play- 27-4: ROR - A, SR, DN, Q; CIV - DN; KR • V; EIA - S; DIP - P
ers that appears in these pages.

The Case for PBEM
By Russ Gifford

The following piece, reprinted from "At the I took the stairs two at a time to Area 21. We his battle for "Guryev's Headquarters" with
Point" #7, is the product of the vivid imagina- used to be down the hall in #4, but we'd out- Phil. It looks like Lance is in trouble with Les
tion ofRuss Gifford, godfather (in the original grown those rooms when Rex and Don started "On the Kokoda Trail", too. Interesting ...
sense ofthe word) of the ASL topics on GEnie. dropping in and telling their friends about it. especially since Les would become my next
With his permission, and that of Marc Hanna Now Room #21 is devoted to just Avalon Hill opponent in the tourney, if he should win!
(editor of ATP, the best of the amateur ASL games and the traffic is brisk, thanks to the PR Continuing on toward my board, I stopped by
'zines), we offer it here for those few readers bits in Don Burdick's "AREA News" column my pigeon hole (also known as my mailbox)
who may as yet be unaware of all that online in The GENERAL. and pulled Bob's message. I hadn't opened it
gaming has to offer the dedicated hobbyist. As I topped the stairs, I heard a dull roar. I yet, but I noticed my hands were almost shak-
couldn't decide if it was the thunder, or the con- ing in anticipation as I peeled the envelope off
tinuous Role-Playing party down in the dun- the letter. He could have fallen for my trap ...
It was late in the night, and it was raining geons. I never went near their lair, and they or he could have just shot the hell out of my
when the cab dropped me at the comer of the never bothered me; but we often said "hi" as we troops! Which would it be?
Telephone Exchange building. I walked the last passed on the doorstep. What more could you I stood there over my board, poised with ten-
few steps to the club with the sound of thunder ask of neighbors? sion, ready to translate from the paper to the
accompanying my footsteps on the deserted When I swung 'round the corner to "our" mapboard. Would it be death, or glory? I started
streets. quarters, I still marveled at the "AVALON to move the pieces in accordance with Bob's
After I keyed in my personal code, the door HILL" on the glass door. I'd been gaming here instructions ...
opened 'and the doorman greeted me, taking my six years and boom, this happens six months
damp coat. after Rex Martin first stops by! Incredible! Maybe this isn't what it's really like online at
"Good to see you again, Mr. Gifford. I think Inside, there is a bulletin board in the ante- GEnie. I mean, the doorman isn't really named
it was last Thursday, wasn't it?" room. Here are the general notices, important "Jeeves", but he's there to greet me everytime I
He knew, from the tagged response to my changes, and other fun stuff for AH players. enter - or "sign on", as we call it. And of course,
door code and password, it was definitely last "CHECK IT OUT," proclaimed the big mes- I can't "hear" things (like the wild D&D party
Thursday. But I knew he was only checking. If sage ... and I always do. Anything of interest to or the DIPLOMACY conversations), but as I
I hadn't been in on Thursday, then I'd also all the AH gamers could be found here. (When read through the different snippets and mes-
know someone else came in using my security we were downstairs, they even posted letters sages, it "feels" like I'm overhearing the words
code. Of course, it had never happened in six from Evan during his tour of duty in the Gulf!) of other gamers.
years - but that didn't stop the vigilant Jeeves The messages on this board are always Going online has always seemed to me like
from checking. aligned from oldest to newest, so it was easy to entering a huge building, filled with different
"Anyone else in, Jeeves?" see what had been posted since my last visit. rooms, on many different floors. Leaving the
He checked his notes. "No, not at the Hmrnm ... a new B-17 squadron was heading gaming area, which houses sections for role-
moment; though Mr. O'Connor was here ear- out tonight ... They're looking for more play- playing, wargaming, computer games, PBM
lier, and has left you a message, and Mr. Martin ers in the online STATIS-PRO BASEBALL games and many, many others, there are vari-
is expected later this evening." league ... and ... Oh hot A Round-Table Con- ous locations for almost any hobby. From short-
A note from O'Connor! That meant an ASL ference was scheduled tonight with Don Green- wave radio DXers to comic-book collectors,
, move! I nodded my thanks, and headed for the wood in Conference Room #l! So that was the sci-fi enthusiasts to military historians, there
hall. excitement! I could hear chairs shuffling as are "rooms" for all of them - and a multitude of
As I passed the Library, I could see eight to they prepared the room. I'll have to stop by - others. But, of course, this is just the hobby sec-
ten DIPWMACY games, all at different stages after I see Bob's move! tion. There are also areas online for business,
of completion, waiting for their players to I entered the largest interior room and, for research, and for communication. There are
return. I could also see reams of negotiations though I had seen it many times, the sight of all areas devoted to finance, and to fun. There are
scattered like leaves on the floor. (Hmrnm ... , these tables with ASL games in progress, all online shopping malls, college-level correspon-
Must be a Fall tum!) I could almost overhear awaiting the return of their players, still awed dence courses, and categories devoted to many
France and England deciding the fate of Ger- me. It was an incredible collection of people other interests. There's something for everyone
many, and debating whether the Russians were and players; and, knowing there were still other and, like Disneyland, too much for anyone per-
a threat. The Russians are always a threat, rooms devoted to other AH games, it always son to see or afford.
friend, especially if you're allied with them! I seemed a little overwhelming to me. Why, the But for me, there isASL. And that's what I'm
happened to know the Russian in question, bet- three EMPIRES IN ARMS campaign games here to talk to you readers about today.
ter known around here as "Diplomacy-I". Poor alone filled an entire antechamber, and had Most wargamers are familiar with the
fools, I thought. I'll be reading about their been progressing steadily for several years acronyms "FTF" (face-to-face) and "PBM"
demise soon enough! since the first was started. (play-by-mail). Less familiar is "PBEM",
Any other night I might have stopped in to Some of the ASL boards were flagged, denot- meaning play-by-electronic-mail - or "Email",
check out their situation. But this wasn't going ing their status as part of the "1991 ASL Online as it's commonly known. Electronic mail is the
to distract me tonight. Bob had left a message, Championships". I looked over a few of those, name given to text messages passed between
and I couldn't wait to see if he'd fallen for the noting the changes since my last visit. Hmrnm, computers, and PBEM is the acronym for using
trap I'd set! Ronald has finally given up the Death Trap in computer Email to play wargames.
The truth is, PBEM is really the same as to hold a tourney. This netted us a few more
PBM, only the method of exchange is different. players, and some more attention, and we were
Hooking up to any BBS (Bulletin Board System) is
But it does have one big advantage over regular off! easy. Using a modem, the computers could be hooked
postal play. In Email, your move is in your In any other system, it wouldn't have worked directly to each other or they can be connected to a "net-
opponent's mailbox as soon as you send it! as well. The messages we posted would have work", which is a computer system designed to allow other
computers to link up and gather or exchange infonnation.
This single difference allows multi-phase "scrolled off" before the interest could ever 1his network may be a huge system,like GEnie, or it may
games, like ASL, to become more accessible have started to grow. With nothing there to simply be a small "bulletin board" service designed to
since you can playa full player-turn in a very catch their attention as they come in, potential acconunodate one user at any given time.
short time, preserving the feel of FfF play. players would have passed right on by. Sure, What do you need to join? Very simply, a computer and
a modem, the device which allows your computer to
Also, since ASL by mail has to allow the those who manage GEnie clean out our section "send" messages via the phone lines. What kind of com-
attacker to send only part of his movement (to when we hit 300+ messages; but they always puter? That's up to you. It does not have to be the newest,
see what defensive fire he may draw), Email's leave a base of messages to catch the eye. (We or the largest, or the nicest for this purpose. I employ many
high powered PCs in the course of my day, but I've been
speedy delivery means you're not waiting a now average about a hundred new messages a using the same $100 Atari computer for Email since 1983.
week or more just to hear, "No Defensive Fire - month.) In fact, I recently bought a used "spare" one for $25! Any
go ahead!" A key step in our efforts was the declaration computer that works with a modem will work to put you
online! Your best option is to also have some sort of word-
We make use of an honor system for resolv- of our initial online tournament as an AREA processor program, so you can create and save your moves
ing die and dice rolls. Worried about someone event. This meant the players had to join the "offline". saving time (and in some cases. money).
cheating? Sure, it would be easy. They can do AREA since all tournament games were to be The modem is a more specific concern. Most bulletin
so in most of the other systems I've tried too, so reported for AREA rating. It caught Rex Martin boards accept 300, 1200 and 2400 baud transmissions.
(Don't get hung up on the numbers; just realize this is the
why work so hard to prevent the unpre- and Don Burdick's attention, and they were speed your computer uses for data exchange and that both
ventable? If you play with someone you think nice enough to write us up in "AREA News" computers have to be set at the same speed to share data.)
might be cheating, your option is simple: don't and the ASL Annual.. The word started to The key point here is that 1200 baud is four times faster
than 300, and 2400 is twice as fast as that. Most GEnie
play with them again. It's a small price to pay to spread, and our next tournament, again AREA- telephone access lines accept any of these speeds. Other
play ASL by mail. In all my PBEM ASL games, rated, drew 16 players. By then the second men- systems might not, however.
I've never felt I was being cheated, nor have I tion in "AREA News" was plugging the new Modems have specific settings. You'll want to check
your manual, but the standard setting is "S bits, no parity,
had any thoughts of cheating myself. Think event, and an explosion of talent followed! and half duplex" for GEnie. If you see "double letters"
about it: if I cheated and won, I could never tell Rex Martin began stopping by in July of '90, anytime you type something online, change your duplex
myself I'd really "won" anyway; so what's the and now Avalon Hill has "officially" joined setting (from "half' to "whole", or vice-versa).
use? And if I cheated and still lost, what would GEnie, and even have their own section. With Again, don't get hung up on all this technical jargon.
Do you care that your car ignition opens a switch from
that say about my ability to play this game? I'd this happening, we transferred our ASL topic your battery to tum on your starting motor, which attaches
be so embarrassed to know I couldn't even win into their new category, and we are now the to your flywheel to spin your pistons to create a vacuum
by cheating that I'd have to quit! flagship of the AH section! (But, if ASL isn't which will pull a fuel and oxygen mixture into a cylinder,
etc.? No - all you care is if the car gets you where you're
Now that we have the ground rules, let's look your cup of tea, there are Email ladders now for going. The same principle applies here. Once you've set
at where to play ASL via Email. There are many RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN and TURNING POINT: the modem, sit back and enjoy the system.
different BBS available, though CompuServe STALINGRAD; or you can start your own
Signing up to GEnie itself is simple. First, you need to
and GEnie are the best known. Both are fine AREA-based competition.) discover the closest GEnie access number (in many
services and offer many special features which At this point, we have even eight players regions and large cities, they have a local trunk line that
set them apart. This article, though, will feature willing to be alternates should any of the 1991 ties into the network). Do this by dialing information for
GEnie, since this is really "where the action is" tournament players drop out. I recently made a the nearest to you. [Genie now has an 800 number for
sign-up as well: 1-800-638-8369.J
at the moment! nose count of different people who have posted After you connect, type "H" three times (do 1101 hit
GEnie (which stands for General Electric's messages in the ASL section in a two-month enter/return). Then. when uU#=" appears, enter
Network for Information Exchange) is a little period. Of the 200+ messages, there were 40 to "XJMl1999,GENIE" and hit enter/return. After you are
connected, they will take the infonnation they need to
different than most Bulletin Board Systems 50 different people chiming in! And there are allow you to become an immediate GEnie member. You
(BBS). The heart of any BBS is the posting of still more coming on! need to specify that GE applies the bill to either VISA,
public messages to fellow users. On most sys- In essence, we have created a nationwide MasterCard, or your personal checking account.
Whichever you decide to use, have that account number
tems, these are placed on a "forum", or a board "club", someplace to "talk ASL", to fmd new ready.
with room for a limited number of such mes- opponents, and to gather the hottest news on the After you are actually online, you can find our section
sages (though that "limit" is usually VERY system from the guys on the Hill themselves! easily. Type "MS05;1" at the first prompt, and then join
high!) When one more message than the limit is Rules questions are posted and discussed, the Garners Round-Table. After that, type "SET 21",
which places you in the primary Avalon Hill category.
placed on the board, the oldest message is which is very handy. Sometimes they are even Then "REA 2 LAST" will give you the last message in the
"pushed off' the board (or "scrolls off', as we commented on or resolved by Mac (aka GOD) ASL section; "REA 2 #-#" will allow you to read a span of
say online). Most of these systems have general via Rex. It's like being "plugged in" to a nation- messages in that same section. But a "REA 2 ALL" will
take at least a half hour, so use it carefully; this command
topic sections, such as "board wargames" or wide network of dedicated ASL players ... brings you all the postings in the ASL topic. "REA 1 ALL"
"PBM Games". (DIPLOMACY is usually one because that's exactly what it is! should net you my online message for negotiating through
of the few boardgames to get a section all its Here's a sampling of what's happening the system, if you need help. A "TOP" command will
show you a listing of all the topics in the Avalon Hill sec-
own in most systems.) These sections are nor- online as of this writing. There's an experiment tion, and the number of messages in each. And if you have
mally part of ten to 15 such topics all sharing a in "double-blind" multi-player ASL just begin- any trouble, type "H" for help ... or leave me a note on
common theme, such as "Strategy Games". ning, with six players, using the "Last Bid" sce- topic #2 (type "REP 2" and follow the directions). Or you
But GEnie is different, and it's this differ- nario from RED BARRICADES. We are in the can leave Email directly at my address: "SHANGRI".
One last point before I go back to the electronic age.
ence that has allowed ASL and DIPWMACY - second round of our second annual AREA ASL Don't overlook small private BBS in your own home town
and now other AH games - to come into their tourney, utilizing a four-round Swiss system. for great gaming opportunities. For over a year, I used a
own. GEnie provides a category for Two members have undertaken a PBEM game local "free" BBS to teach and GM ten different DiPLO-
MACY games. It was great, and on the side a new friend
boardgamers, and then it allows the users to be used as an At the Point series replay, and I played TRC and ASL by Email. Without that inex-
(that's you, me, anybody) to start a "topic" of offered as a separate topic in the AH category. pensive introduction, I might never have discovered what
discussion. If you gather enough people posting Many more games are happening online than PBEM had to offer the wargamer.
PBEM has many different fonns, but it's all wonderful!
notes to your topic, it stays viable. The ASL just those in the tournament, and many of them For news of the hobby and the publishers, for games
topic languished for a month or so when it was are AREA-rated. Players take part in rule dis- against skilled and responsible opponents completed in a
originally started on GEnie, but it then began to cussions in the section #2 bulletins, and Rex reasonable span of time, for airing your own views, for
drops by rather often with news. Of late, some reviews of new products, for the comraderie that makes
attract the notice of a few other ASLers. As the this hobby so special, there is nothing to compare with it
messages began to pile up, so did the interest. other "name" players have started arriving, like (save pemaps, the major gaming conventions). Hope to see
We slowly took a few steps forward, played a Eric Baker, Raymond Woloszyn, Marc Hanna you online soon!
few games online and then, in 1990, we decided and others.
All this started from nothing. Now that AH is
"online", there are sections for other AH games
as well, and discussion of other topics associ-
ated with Avalon Hill (such as inside news of
AvalonCon), and a special "online" version of
"AREA News" co-written by Don Burdick.
Among other items, this column features
updates on the ASL AREA tournaments from The
CompuServe, GEnie and FfF ones around the Lat..t New. r« Today...
country. AREA ASL Specific memberships Canpellthe and Tonl<ITow
have risen dramatically since the introduction
of these AREA-rated tourneys. With the advent
of AvalonCon, these should really take off! BY RllSS GIFFORD
There are some costs involved in using an
online BBS, but they are worth it to me. On VICTORY IN THE PACIFIC has become mended First Year Weather changes. If
GEnie, the Email area (where you send and the most recent AH game to add an active you are already a GEnie member, drop by
receive your moves) is a flat $4.95 a month for Topic 9 in Section 21; this is the "Oppo-
AREA PBM Championship. The initial mail-
unlimited usage. The AH section is part of the nents Wanted" area of the Avalon Hill sec-
ing to produce this ladder was sent directly
cost-per-minute rate, which is rougWy 10 cents tion. If you are new to GEnie, Email me
to players with VITP Specific member-
per minute in non-prime time (6PM to 8AM). It (address: SHANGRI) and I'll send more
ships, and netted many willing participants.
can take two minutes or so to scan through the detailed instructions for arriving there.
Of course, there's always room for more.
"new" messages in the ASL section online if Glenn Petroski has agreed to act as mod- There's also a PBEM AREA ladder for
you check in every other day. You can spend up erator and judge. Those active in VITP TPS getting underway thereon. Ten play-
to another ten minutes if you read many sec- ers have signed on to date with GM Don
know Glenn, either as a tough opponent or
tions, or "download" (copy) different fIles from Greenwood. Don has listed all the pertinent
as the GM for the popular tournament at
the library sections to read at your leisure. Of AvalonCon. His experience will be a major rules for the ladder in a special topic for that
course, all this depends on the usage that day or factor in the continued growth of this event. ladder, so check online for further informa-
week, and how often you check in to read the tion on this competition.
Of course, a PBM ladder is only possible
messages. The ASL PBEM ladder mentioned in my
if there is a set of rules for PBM. James
But remember, what you spend is up to you. Lutz's article in The GENERAL (Vol. 19, article in this issue is still growing. Custo-
If you compose your messages online, spend a dian Phil Pomerantz has recently
No.6) has for seven years served as a
lot of time "wandering the halls" looking for expanded the pyramid to facilitate the
durable set of regulations for postal play of
"something" to happen, you're going to spend action among the 50+ AREA-rated players
VITP. Now, with some minor changes, it
much more than you need. Use your word pro- will be used as the official system for this currently jousting for bragging rights. Gary
cessor to write your answers "offline", when ladder. For those interested in joining that Fortenberry (Arlington TX) has recently
you aren't hooked into the system. Then sign successfully completed his first defense of
may not have a copy, this issue is available
in, collect your mail, read the new messages,
direct from Avalon Hill for $4.00. the top spot. He is now awaiting the out·
upload your messages, and sign off to read the come of my own match with Marc Hanna to
The VITP ladder will follow the basic
new messages and compose your new replies. see who his next opponent will be.
structure of the other AREA ladders. Initial
It's not difficult, and it's a lot cheaper and more Of course, PBM is not to every gamer's
pairings will be based upon the AREA rat-
efficient. taste. In that case, the following should be
ings (note, though, that Specific ratings will
PBEM mayor may not be "right" for you. I take precedence over General ratings). of interest to you.
will say that since I started PBEM, I have got- In FTF news, the first "ASL Masters", a
Winners of their match will advance to play
ten "used" to PBM. I have now played many Swiss-style AREA tournament, is being
the opponent on the next higher rung, while
ASL games via "normal" mail, and found it planned for the first weekend of December
losers will drop. Thus, in a ladder pairing of
equally rewarding. The difference is that regu- #1 vs. #2, #3 vs. #4 and #5 vs. #6, if all the in Houston. This tourney will feature AREA·
lar PBM is a very solitary endeavor. PBEM on rated pairings with hundreds of dollars in
odd numbered players won the second
GEnie is much more. There are messages prizes! This one is being offered by Astros'
round would match #1 against #3, #2
posted updating players on games in progress,
against #5 and #4 against #6. relief pitcher Curt Schilling, and will be the
conferences with top AH personnel, and con- third jewel in the envisioned ASL "Triple
One difference in the VITP ladder will be
versations with opponents and friends. It's like
that only one game will be played per Crown" (the others being the competitions
stopping by your wargarning club late at night,
round. If both players desire the same side, at AvalonCon and Bill Conner's famous
reading all the messages your friends have left,
bids of POC will decide who receives the ASL Oktoberfest).
and getting a message from your opponent with The premier event in the AREA gamer's
contested role. Beyond Glenn himself, oth-
your move. Bottom line: It's a hell of a lot of calendar is fast approaching: AvalonCon
ers that have expressed an interest include
Alan Applebaum, John Sharp, Dave Paron- 1992. The second of the series, it is set for
ski, Kevin Kinsel, Tom Prokosh and Lance Harrisburg PA again, with a cast of thou-
I finished the move, and sat back to look over sands. As a competitive gamer, you owe it
Ottman. If you are ready to test your skills
the situation. Well, it wasn't glory, but it wasn't to yourself to make plans to attend this
in this classic game, now is the time to join!
death either. Next time, Bob ... next time. I I have also been asked about the possi- event. As an attendee of Origins, GenCons
started composing my defensive fire, listening and many regional conventions past, I can
bilities of a ladder for WS&IM. Two players
to the thunder like the sound of distant guns, personally say that there is nothing that
- Ron Berger and Kevin Kinsel - have
and heard the rain splatter on the windows like compares to Avalon Hill's convention. If
already "signed on" for such a ladder,
debris from a near miss. Yeah, this should
should it come into being. Any other stout- you know someone who took part in the
work! This time, Bob, this time! 1991 event, you know that mine is not an
hearted iron men out there? Kevin has vol-
unteered to chair the ladder if there is isolated view. Organized, well-run tourna-
enough interest to put one together. ments and great competition - along with a
There are also new ladders forming for wonderful sense of comraderie sets Aval-
Email play on GEnie. A PBEM ladder of onCon apart from all others. Of course,
TRC has been started, and more players
are welcome. The players are using the
Sudden Death VC, and the AHIKS-recom-
there is also the draw of playing in the
AREA National Championships of your
favorite boardgame! *


Strategic and Tactical Hints for D-DAY
By Robert Allred

This analysis of the Avalon Hill "classic" D- the twin facts that not only must he build a For the Allied player, the situation is not so
DAY, now to be replaced with a sleeker version defensive front to hold off the Allied units that much one of meager resources as it is one of
I hear, will focus on the "big picture" (as they are ashore, but he must also continue to hold as getting them ashore in sufficient force and of
used to call it during World War II) and "zero- much of the remaining coast line as is practical. seizing enough supply ports to build up fast
in" (another mid-century term) on some tactical The latter is crucial, for he must deny the Allies enough to advance to the Rhine without delay.
hints. As such, this last article is not intended to the supply sources (the ports). As part of the The Allied player has at his disposal 89 divi-
be a definitive look at this great game, but strategic overview, take another look at the sions, with a combined strength of 376 attack
rather to serve as an introduction for some of mapboard, which the rules booklet likens to a factors, as well as his air power; this array of
the many novice players entering our hobby "funnel" with its broad mouth to the west and might is opposed by 197 (unmodified) German
who may meet up with it at conventions and south and the narrower neck to the east, along defense factors. Of the combat factors available
decide to try their hand in competitive or open- the Franco-German border. Although the "nar- to the Allies, 228 are infantry, which alone
gaming forums. I am quite sure, for instance, rower" neck isn't really all that much narrower, would have a reasonable chance of success
that some of the grognards found at Avalon- it is a much stronger defensive position owing against the Germans. But the Allied player also
Con were studiously thrashing each other in a to the cities, fortresses, river lines, mountain possesses 130 armored and 18 parachute com-
tense game of D-DAY 77. hexes and fortified zone (the vaunted "Siegfried bat factors. Air strength must be calculated as
Upon opening the mapboard, we see that the Line"). For the German player, perhaps the well, for it can account for six factors (or even
German player is placed in that most difficult of most important advantage of this area is its more if applied in an interdiction role, which
all positions, the cordon defense, which not close proximity to his replacement centers. can deny the enemy many more times the num-
only reflects the overall position of Germany at Let's take a closer look. ber of available combat factors at the front dur-
this stage of the war but also mirrors the prob- ing any given tum).
lems faced by the Poles at the outbreak (as well Any German effort to contain an Allied land- However, there are some considerations to
as reminding us of the problems faced by the ing in the Bay of Biscay, Brittany or Normandy remember while making these calculations. The
Confederacy during the Civil War, the Red - to me, the only logical sites for the initial inva- 12 Allied HQ units must be protected, and this
Army in 1917-1920, and Mexico's impossible sion - will hinge on bottling up the Allies on the will of necessity cost the Allied player 12-52
position when confronted with invasion by the respective peninsula (if the invasion comes at factors for garrisons to keep them safe from
United States in the last century). In D-DAY one of the latter two) or vigorously attacking to counterattack. The German player will usually
'77, Germany must try to cover as many of the split up the Allied forces if they come ashore in enjoy a greater replacement capacity; although,
51 invadeable coastal hexes as possible, while the Bay of Biscay. In all of these cases, how- after the 28th week, the Allies will receive up to
holding all the invasion areas with enough ever, the Allies will eventually break out and five additional French divisions if France has
strength to drive off, or at least slow down, the the German player will be faced with the deci- been cleared of German units.
Allied invasion wherever it occurs. To hold all sion of where to build a defensive line across For the Allied player, his job will be to gain a
of this territory along northwest Holland and France, and of how much strength to commit to victory through the judicious and efficient use
Belgium and the northwestern, western and it. This decision is crucial, and much depends of his superior force. The opposing player, with
southern coasts of France, the German player on how far forward the defensive line can be lesser quantity, will naturally tend to make opti-
has 66 combat units, organized into 62 divi- positioned. The further west you decide to mal use of his available forces. On the other
sions, three brigades and a regiment, along with establish it, the more of the Channel coast must hand, the player with the superior numbers
eight HQ counters. So we can see that, theoret- also be covered. often overlooks the most efficient use of his
ically, covering every invadeable hex is possi- Thus, a German defensive line that extends forces at hand, and either wastes too many units
ble. But how much strength should be devoted from Le Havre to Vichy encompasses not only in useless and unnecessary garrison duties or
to holding these disparate and far-flung territo- the 20 hexes between those cities (behind the may send too many troops to the front but with-
ries is certainly open to question. Seine/Loire river line) but also must include the out getting them engaged in offensive opera-
Almost one-half of the Wehrmacht's units 17 hexes along the coast between Le Havre and tions. The Allied player in D-DAY must guard
are the 33 "Static" divisions. Of the rest, 12 are the dyke hexes at Ell and E12, as well as the 11 against the attitude that he is "rich" in units, or
infantry divisions, two are parachute divisions coastal hexes in southern France - for a total of he will become too poor to attain the difficult
(with one parachute regiment), and four are 48 hexes in all. The potential German defensive goals set him by the game.
armored infantry (panzergrenadiers). The line of the Somme, Oise, Meuse and the moun- Allied armor units must always be placed in
remainder are the "sexy" units - nine panzer tains (to Belfort) is also 20 hexes long, but stacks with infantry units (or, at least, wage
divisions and three panzer brigades. Any cur- shortens the Channel coast defensive line by offensive combat with infantry participating) in
sory survey of the rnapboard shows that there five hexes. A line that takes in the Siegfried order to avoid casualties in any "Exchange". In
are 13 major coastal ports (able to supply seven Line, including the retention of Rotterdam, and that armored and infantry units have the same
or more divisions each). With 12 infantry divi- swings up as far as 116 (abandoning Boulogne) movement factors and identical rules for com-
sions, the German could cover them all, but - do is 24 hexes in length, but the Channel coastline bat and movement, this is much easier than in
we want to garrison every major port and has shrunk to a manageable four hexes and other games where such is not the case; they are
coastal fortress with one of the scarce frontline cedes the southern France coast (hopefully, the in reality interchangeable, and it only makes
infantry units? The answer must be "No". I pre- German garrison there can safely evacuate to sense to preserve the stronger units to maintain
fer to garrison only the most important with at the new positions). About the only savings in maximum combat power in the Allied force
least a 3-4-3, or a stack of two or more static distance over the Rotterdam/Siegfried Line is pool.
divisions. These include Marseilles (the port the final Ijssel/Siegfried Line position, which A resource that the Allied player cannot
with the largest capacity), the vital hexes of abandons the rest of the invadeable coast. afford to squander in useless or risky actions is
Boulogne and Brest, and the linchpins of Le So, we can see that the funnel analogy is his parachute divisions. Of these six airborne
Havre, Calais, Dunkirk, Cherbourg, Rotterdam indeed valid. The further east the Wehrmacht units, four are available on D-Day, and the
and Bordeaux. establishes a defensive position, the shorter it other two come into play in the 24th week. The
After the initial invasion, which is likely to will be - and the easier to manage with the Allied player will, of course, commit as many
result in an intact Allied force in France, the shrinking forces avai1:lble to the German as possible to his initial invasion. Any that sur-
German player's task becomes complicated by player. vive, plus any that can be resurrected in the
course of replacement, can and should be saved any more than the infantry or paratroop or HQ above attacks, from Holland and over the
for a second (or even third) massive airborne units. They can and will help to occupy key Rhine, should be accompanied by airdrops, so
assault - either in an effort to penetrate the Ger- points and fill out the new defensive line. The the Allied player would be wise to hold back his
man fortified line/mountain range position, or static divisions should even be replaced to some parachute divisions for this, the fmal and deci-
to breach a river defensive line (as the Allies extent (while you also restore the more valuable sive phase of the game.
attempted at Arnhem). mobile and infantry units) in order to keep your For the German player, time is strength; the
Allied players should make maximum use of German OB at its optimum efficiency. These expenditure of strength to buy time can be a
the combined-arms approach, as this is the way units can be used to soak off casualties in coun- wise investment - if the time bought is worth-
to multiply the strength of their forces at hand terattacks, to hold important objectives, main- while. Thus, a thin line of static divisions in a
through the commitment of every type of avail- tain a continuous front, and to secure the flanks "picket line" in front of the main line of defense
able unit acting in concert to inflict the most of stronger divisions. In brief, the smart Ger- can cost the Allied player a turn or two. As an
damage on the German forces. Airborne units man player of D-DAY will find this mass of example, the Dutch island-Antwerp-Liege-
drop behind a river line to cut retreats and elim- weak and slow divisions as invaluable an addi- Meuse line can be "protected" by advance out-
inate favorable modifiers, while infantry and tion to his small number of strong units as did posts of static divisions at Ostend, Lille, Tour-
armor units attack across the river, with air sup- his counterparts in history. nai, Brussels, Namur, Verdun, Chalons, St.
port, to best effect. It is occasionally possible to The German player must also make judicious Dizier, Chaumont, Dijon, Vesoul and Besan-
use this combined-arms approach with the use of his HQ units, both in the initial set-up con. Two or more static divisions and/or some
option of launching the offensive on the same and in later deployments. HQ units can be infantry divisions in the gap along hexrows 19
turn and in the same area as your second inva- placed in key backup positions behind the front and 20 can protect the approaches to Sedan for
sion, thus adding the insult of an amphibious to guard against any sudden Allied break- a turn or two. An Allied drive toward the Rhine
landing in the flank or rear to the injury. throughs that might occupy important objec- south of Saarbrucken can become a nightmare
tives that would otherwise be undefended. Such for him, unless the German is foolish enough to
The primary complication for the Allied key hexes include loops in river lines behind under-garrison the area.
player, in addition to simply getting ashore ini- the front, fortress, city or mountain hexes,
tially, is the rapid capture and control of enough island hexes in Holland, the crossing at the Of the seven invasion areas, the three closest
Channel ports to supply the drive to the Rhine. Zuider Zee dyke, and hexes along the Rhine. to Germany (North Sea, Pas de Calais, and Le
He must guard against any "Battle of the Another useful deployment for the German HQ Havre) are the most critical. Normandy is of
Bulge" type counteroffensive, where the Ger- - particularly in the initial set-up - is as a screen pivotal importance; if the German player holds
man player attempts to drive through a weak against Allied parachute drops by placing them it too lightly, it is the best bet for a successful
spot to seize Allied supply ports. Your HQ units in positions immediately behind the forward landing site, and is an area that still allows for a
at the Channel ports must have additional sup- combat units, preventing the enemy from drop- fairly rapid buildup and permits a breakout into
port in the form of garrisons of infantry or ping behind units being attacked from the the interior of France (either towards Paris, or
parachute units in or around the same hex in water. towards Le-Mans and Tours). The three
order to protect them in the event of a German An area that is particularly vulnerable to air- remaining invasion areas are less conducive to
breakthrough. The German player's ability to borne assault is the Netherlands, owing to its a rapid buildup, breakout and race to the Rhine.
launch such counterattacks, although limited, is flat terrain and the many river lines (which are When structuring the initial coastal defense,
not negligible. Six strong infantry units, the an asset to landed parachute units as added pro- the German player should garrison each of the
powerful 3rd Fallschirmjaeger, four panzer- tection against immediate counterattack. coastal fortresses with an infantry unit - and La
grenadier and ten panzer divisions are a force to Indeed, Holland includes what is the most Rochelle, Bordeaux and Marseilles as well.
be reckoned with, should your opponent elect to important real estate on the mapboard (outside Place paratroop divisions in Rotterdam and
commit them in an offensive mode. The pri- Germany itself): hexrows H and I. These Amsterdam, and a mechanized unit holding the
mary danger to the German player if he does hexrows must be stoutly defended if and when flanks of the Calais coastal fortresses at hexes
resort to a counteroffensive, is that the Allied the Allied armies approach overland. They L21 and 025.
player might use his superior forces effectively, should be guarded by an advance line that With regard to the last three mentioned inva-
thereby eliminating enough of the strongest includes the islands in hexrow K, Antwerp, sion areas (Brittany, Bay of Biscay, South
German units to make a drive across the Rhine Liege and Maastricht and the hexes in L France), if the German player has heavily gar-
relatively easy. between these cities. If the Allied player can risoned the Channel coast all the way to Brit-
However, limited German counterattacks are force the river defenses in H and I, then a cross- tany, then an Allied landing in one of these may
another matter. It is imperative for the German ing of the Rhine at the Ijssel cannot be far be the only alternative open to the Allied
to keep in being at least two stacks of the most behind. Conversely, the Allied player will find player. As for South France, although an inva-
powerful panzer and panzergrenadier divisions the going tougher the farther south he attempts sion here in the actual conflict made good
available to counterattack immediately any to cross the Rhine - with the exception being, strategic sense, insofar as the game is con-
Allied spearheads that might manage to pierce oddly enough, the three fortress hexes at Trier, cerned, it may prove a difficult road to follow.
the defensive line. Whenever possible, these Metz and Saarbrucken. Once Metz has fallen, Even though Marseilles has the largest port
counterattacks must include at least one Allied divisions attacking S14 can ignore the capacity in D-DAY, placing three HQs there
infantry or static division to soak off any com- German units in the fortresses, as their zones of will only extend the port's supply line as far as
bat losses due to an "Exchange". This will not control do not extend out. hexrow V. Although this is sufficient to drive
always be easy, as the infantry and static divi- The German positions south of Aachen will towards the southern Rhine, it is not enough to
sions have a lesser movement factor than the be strengthened by their depth, but any Allied threaten the weaker German positions on the
mechanized units. For this reason, as well as advance through or north of this city will face northern half of the mapboard.
providing a "stiffener" for the line of static units but a single fortified line (and the Rhine itself). The Bay of Biscay is a fine place for the
along the front, I like to deploy infantry units at So this is the path of least resistance if the Ger- Allied player, who can be fairly certain of get-
intervals of no more than five or six hexes apart man player has heavily garrisoned the Dutch ting and staying ashore, and it is an easy area to
along the line to provide a force pool of mobile river lines as he should. The Allied drive above keep from being bottled up in. It provides a fme
units to deploy in any necessary counterattack. and through Aachen can be complemented by staging point for a breakout. But, its small
Before proceeding, a word about the often an offensive north of the Moselle, with the ulti- allowance for a buildup of only four divisions a
maligned "static" divisions. The static divi- mate objective being a pincers move against the tum and its distance from the Rhine make it a
sions, despite their low combat value, are the Rhine River loop at hex NIL Once the Rhine marginal invasion site.
"filler" that rounds out the German army in has been crossed, whether here or to the north, Likewise, Brittany offers a coast that has so
France in your game of D-DAY. These static the advance should be toward the Ruhr River, many invadeable hexes that it is unlikely that
divisions should not be sacrificed by abandon- thus avoiding the mountains and replacement the German player can prevent a successful
ing them in the event of a general withdrawal, centers to the south and east. Again, all of the landing there. But it is possible for the German
to bottle up the invasion at the neck of the the exception) should begin to evacuate
peninsula, and its small buildup capacity make towards the new line to be established. SO THAT'S WHAT
it a less desirable place to land. Thus, a successful Allied landing in Nor-
The pivotal site of Normandy is a good mandy should see the garrisons in Britanny YOU'VE BEEN
choice for the Allies to come ashore, unless the (except Brest) and the Bay of Biscay moving
enemy has garrisoned all its six invadeable towards the new defense line, which will follow PLAYING
hexes and backed them up with additional units the upper Loire and Eure rivers. Units in South
Titles LIsted: 124 Total Responses: 47.
in Carentan and St. Lo and hexrow T.1f Nor- France can hold in place until their escape route
mandy is this stoutly defended, then the Allied between Vichy and the Swiss border is threat-
player should consider an invasion in one of the ened as the Allies approach the Loire. By evac-
RaDk on-
uating as many units as possible (or failing this, Lu& OIl Jl'nq.
areas to the west and south.
Rank: Tide 'Pub11me LIst Ratio
It goes without saying that the German using them to make sensible local counterat-
player will most tightly hold the North Sea, Pas tacks), the German player can make the most of 1. Advanc:ed SL All 1 31 4.2
de Calais and Le Havre invasion areas. These his meager resources until he begins receiving 2. Dil>lomacy All 2 32 2.2
should be considered invadeable only for the reinforcements. Gaps in the line that are opened 3. Third Reich All 5 11 20
4. Up Front AH 8 18 1.9
second Allied invasion - and then only if the as the mass of static and infantry divisions VITP 1 1.8
German garrisons there have been weakened to withdraw should be plugged temporarily by the ~: i .. ~ ~ 4 1.1
reinforce the lines in the interior of France. The more mobile panzer and panzergrenadier divi- 7. FlatTop AH 14 3 1.6
North Sea is of particular interest as a second sions. On the other hand, the Allied player will 8. Russian Campaign AH 3 5 1.6
front as its seizure by the Allied player will do well to attempt to isolate straggling German 1~: :~~;~l'fR_p ~ ; ~ 1.4.-
bring him a much easier road. It is for this rea- units from their supply sources. In all of the 11. Squad Leader AH -- I 1.4
son that the German player should pay careful above, the German player will be at a distinct 12. Russian Front AH 17 2 1.3
attention to his forces there. disadvantage, as tlle judicious use of Allied air 13.
-12Dpues in.\Uiis
GeIt):sburlr '88 ~
-7 ~ ~~
The German side has the capability, in the power can tip the scales by altering the odds of 15. Titan AH - 1 1.1
form of his panzer divisions, to inflict some any battle, as well as by isolating the enemy 16. Afrika Korps AH 18 2 1.0
grief on an incautious Allied landing. These through river interdiction and even hindering 11. AH 11 ;, 1.0
forces should be used judiciously, and always the movement of specific units by their individ- ~!. Bulae'91 All 9 2 1.0
in conjunction with infantry and panzer- ual interdiction.
19. Panzerl>litz AH - 1 1.0
20. WS&lM AH 12 2 1.0
grenadier divisions, wherever the Allied
player's beachheads become overextended or In sum, the player who makes maximum use With the exception of the top fOllf. IODI-rwming
disorganized. Some excellent avenues for of the resources at his disposal and employs entrants in this casual "popularily poll", the listings for
panzer thrusts are the open areas along and on them in an intelligent and pre-meditated man- our many other titles arc scpuatccl by but a few - .
Int=stingly. some of the older pmes are getting quito a
either side of hexrows K, P, S and T and any- ner will be the ultimate victor. The factor of bit ofplay lhcsedays; pcdIap' the advent of PBEM and of
where in the south. These most valuable Ger- chance tends to even out during the course of AvalonCan have given them a new lease on lifc.lnIercst-
man units must be protected by stacking them the game. Both players need to remain flexible ing too that both versions of BULGE arc represented
hereon. No doubt gamers will be debating for some
with weaker units to absorb any losses. if they expect to win. The German player will (Ilonths the values of ClIIclI. a process stulod by our caver-
For the Allied player, his paratroop divisions move from a static defense - where every hex is age in this issue. Meanwhile, the likClll of T"AN lIIIClt-
are the most valuable, and they must be pro- contested - to rapid withdrawal and mobile bat- pccted1y slips into the listing. despite its age. lack of
tected as much as possible from the counterat- tle. The Allied player will meanwhile adopt this :=ent coverage, and fantasy fannaL A pleasant sarpQsc, I
might acid; obvioualy some new play. have cIiIc:owtcd
tacks which an astute German player will be same flexibility, his status changing from a itsjoyl.
sure to mount. It is for this reason that the Ger- rapid breakout to several turns of buildup and
man should strike at Allied airborne divisions, concentration while preparing for the next short
especially when these are in exposed positions offensive. AH Philosophy ••. Cont'd from Page 4
and without friendly infantry or armor close at With flexibility in mind, the German will not
hand. Of course, the Allied player will try to abandon the mass of static and weak infantry preparations for, it might be wise to have a
reach and support his airborne units, and units, but will instead attempt to either with- few extra introductory games that you can
replace them as rapidly as possible. draw with some form of battle line, or he will use to entertain the overflow. Other meth-
engage in some aggressive counterattacks. The ods include dividing the commands up in
When the German player does engage in a Allied player will throw the maximum weight many games, so that all have a few pieces
massive "Bulge" style offensive, the soundness in ground and air into each offensive, and once to run. Or you could take a chess tourna-
a penetration is made will attempt to drive ment approach where two players actually
of the logic of this attempt to cut the Allied sup-
through into the enemy's next line of defense, play the game, and step back regularly to
ply line by recapturing Antwerp and other
isolating and destroying enemy units that allow the class an opportunity to view the
major Channel ports should be emulated. For
results and ask questions; the participants
this reason, in addition to hindering the Allied become exposed. (Then he must halt to reorga-
can then be rotated thro·ugh the various
replacement rate, strong garrisons should be nize for the next effort, perhaps capturing any
class sessions.
left in Boulogne, Calais and Dunkirk, even if additional ports he may need.) D-DAY is a
Finding and developing opponents for
isolated by the Allied advance. A subsequent game of flexibility and proper use of resources our hobby can sometimes be a frustrating
German counterattack could link up with these - with the German maintaining a strategically experience. Sometimes it just seems like
fortresses. defensive posture, but switching over to coun- there is no one out there who plays any of
Indeed, the German player should never give terattack when necessary, and the Allied player the games we enjoy. But, perhaps, with a
up on his slower moving static and infantry on the strategic offensive, but perforce occa- little extra push on the part of us all, we can
divisions, even if they are caught on the wrong sionally enduring a period of consolidation and "educate" a few more individuals. And
side of an Allied breakout. Just as the tortoise buildup. through these efforts reap the benefits of
managed to outrun the hare, these units might Any two novice players of D-DAY will find having a multitude of new opponents. I
manage to rejoin a re-established front (if they this simulation, if they alternate playing each would be very happy to offer concrete sug-
are not isolated from their source of supply) if side, balanced, accurate and highly enjoyable, gestions and advice to anyone interested in
they maintain a persistent movement. The Ger- without the complexities found in other designs starting a beginner's game class. Feel free
man should keep in mind that a successful on the campaign for France in 1944. It truly is to contact me at Games, Crafts, Hobbies &
Allied landing constitutes a penetration of his one of the classics of wargaming. And it serves Stuff (9220 Lackland Road, St. Louis, MO
front, even if the enemy does not immediately as an excellent introduction to our hobby - as I 63114).
break out into the interior, and all unit stationed am sure Mr. Taylor's new design will as we*
to the west and south (with South France being

For those who've wondered what

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It's all here in CANDIDATE, the new board game that lets anyone
chase the great American dream. No boring wait for turns! Everyone plays
simultaneously in this fast-paced game that puts everyone in the shoes of a
primary presidential hopeful. Object is to visit various states to win as many
primaries...by fair means or foul. ..as is needed to become a presidential
For 2 to 6 players, CANDIDATE is a game packed with more surprises
than a Dan Quayle resume.
6435 CANDIDATE 2 to 6 10 & Up $19 (a)

(a) Special Presidential Primary Promotion price; goes up to $25 May 1.

Re-creation of the ''good ole days" ...

extortion, mob activities, bootlegging,
racketeering, gang wars . .. it's all here! Rumor about a
change in position
on !aXes leads pany
moderateS lO

It's the "Roaring Twenties"... and the object is to put together a

syndicate and rule Chicago. Each player heads up a rival gang, directing the
activities of racketeers, thugs, and vamps. Quick to learn due to simple rules;
strategy plays a major role. A delicate balance must be attained between the
use of subtle maneuver and outright use of force; decisions which must be
made within the 2-minute turn limit.
For the light of heart, frivolity is not forgotten. Shootouts may occur
and participants may get a drenching from their real-life adversaries with
the Gangster Gun, a harmless water pistol included in the game.


6430 GANGSTERS 2 to 5 12 & Up $29.95
30·year old college student seeks opponents Serious adult novice seeks FTF experienced
for ASL, TLD and many other AH
wargames. Joe Cleere, 3600 Gault Avenue
North, Fort Payne, AL 35967. (205) 845-
I__O_P_P_O_N_E_N_T_S_W_A_N_T_E_D_ _I or novice player to help play through SL
scenarios. Also have PL. Ted Ferneza, 482
Laurel Hill Road, Cranston, RI 02920. (401)
Opponents wanted: two-player and multi- Looking for adult FTF opponents in
player games. Yours games or ours. Small Charleston area. Will play PL, PB, SL,
The ASL Schwerpunkt is advancing in Adult PBM (AREA: 1500 Prov.) for AZ,
group of college-age players. John Baker, SOA, UFo Non-smokers only. Mark H.
Tampa. ASL players of all abilities are TRC, BL. Non-AREA play in GOA, GE77,
4675 South Hamson Road #95, Tucson, AZ Walker, 105 Alwyn Blvd., Ladson, SC
invited for lots of killing and fun. Evean BB, RF. Quick, friendly, competent player
85730. (602) 290-9177. 29456. (803) 875-6114.
Sherry, 503 Manatee Drive, Ruskin, FL seeks same. Jeff Scholz, 1908 Menominee
Opponents wanted for ASL, SL and 3rd 33570. (8l3) 645-6264. SE, Grand Rapids, Ml49506. (616) 245- FTF opponents wanted in Knxoville and
REICH. Wes Vaughn, 3509 East Huntsville 8316. Morristown area. Rated and non-rated play
Road, Fayetteville, AR 72701. 442-2141 (or MAGIC REALM PBM! Have 5 players -
for ASL system. Adults 19+ only. Tim
want more! Never too late to join. Beginners Players wanted for umpired AF/DL PBM
422-9567 days). Deane, 2110 Carolyn Drive, Jefferson City,
welcome also. C. Young, 13748 Hooli Cir- Demo Derby. SEnd SASE for infor. FTF
PBM opponents for DD, FE, BB'8l, TRC. AF/DL opponents wanted also. Mike TN 37760. 475-9286.
ele, Pearl City, ill 96782.
Rated (1500 Prov) or unrated. Getting back Rowles, 3119 14th Avenue South, Min- Adult gamer seeks FrF opponents for ASL.
into hobby after long absence. Bob Robles, Advanced CIV PBM. Playrested system. neapolis, MN 55407. (612) 724-0610. Have most modules and boards. Leave mes-
1155 Everett Count, Concord, CA 94518. Objective: GMing. Low-moderate complex-
St. Lonis area FTF players wanted for 1830, . sage. David Goodrich, 14825 Omicron
(SlO) 827-9219. ity. Grudgeless, randomized calamities.
CIY, CONQ, DIP and RF. Edward Kazz- Drive #204, San Antonio, TX 78245. (512)
Send preference list/pick number between
Wargame Club newly formed in Moorpark, imir, 629 West Canterbury, Apt. B, Univer- 677-0052.
1·10. Jared Scarborough, RR #1, Box 160,
CA. Central location for Camarillo, Simi Payson, IL 62360. sity City, MO 63132. (3l4) 569-5967. Mountain State ASL fan needs FTF oppo-
and Conejo Valley garners. All games. Attention PB-lovers! I will GM PBM nents. (R.Bamette of Romney, are you lis-
Excellent facilities. For more info, contact: Have games; will travel! FTF/PBM ASL,
"blind" PB. No game fees. You pay postage. tening?) I consider myself a good gamer
Ion Wagner, 4054 Bending Oak Court, FP, BB'8l, GE'77, WS&IM, Vietnam, NB,
First two applicants accepted. Jeff Wise, who needs a challenge. Rick Haines, P.O.
MOOIpark, CA 93021. (80S) 529-1160. many more. Reasonable travel distances not
4711 North l18th Street, Omaha, NE Box 384, Augusta, WV 26704. (304) 496-
a problem for me. Paul C. Worthington, 83
The Marines have landed! AGUNG HO 68164. (402) 498-3525. 9391.
Maple Court, Hebron, IN 46341. (219) 996-
ASL player seeks new opponents. Are there 5789. PBM: AK, STAL, PN, PL. Reliable 30-year Wanted: opponents for ASLRB CG3 within
any ASLers nearby? Robert Orf, 1166 East old seeks friendly, reliable, unrated compe- one hour of Madison (including Milwaukee
Alexander Avenue, San Bernadino, CA Novice gamer in Kokomo area seeks FTF
tition. Jeff Wise, 4711 North l18th Street, and Rockford IL). Will travel. Let's get
92404. 883-4898. opponents in AK, MD, TRC, SL, VITP,
W&P, WAT. Willing to learn others. Brian Omaha, NE 68164. (402) 498-3525: started. Rich Summers, 2207 Woodview
Would like opponent and/or gamemaster for Court #2, Madison, WI 53713. (608) 258-
Gifford, 738 South Washington, Kokomo, Adult gamer seeks PBM for PB, PL, MD,
PBM: FT, Pacific War, VITP, PL, PB, TLD, IN 46901. (317) 452·4955. 8262.
SL, TRC, FE; rated or non-rated. Any PBM
5th or 7th Fleet. AREA 1500. Michael S. systems for ASL? John A. Trosky, 247 AREA 1500 player looking for rated/non-
Fleming, 555 John Muir Drive #B62l, San FTF in or near Lafayette, Indiana. Will play
most historical games. Carl Schwamberger, Woodlawn Avenue, Jersey City, NJ 07205. rated PBM games of SOA, 3R, PB. Will
Francisoo, CA 94132. (415) 333-0502. (20l) 433-4784. also play FTF games locally. Steve
1212 North 18th Street, Lafayette, IN
AIR FORCE Campailin Game "Battle of 47904. (317) 742-7995. Looking for committed FTF 3R players Cochran, S452 West Green Tree Road, Mil·
Britain". Fly for the Luftwaffe or RAF. Only only! Even at death's door, I will grapple waukee, WI 53223. 358-0949.
players interested in long-term play. C. Wanted: PBM PL, PB, 3R, W &P; AREA or
with thee. Now that's committment. I have Fox Valley Gamers meet on alternate Satur-
Webb, c/o Hulett Associates, 701 Santa non-AREA. Michael Patterson, 9833 Over-
unique 3R big board set up. Fred Kowalski, days. Mature players welcome! CIV, PB,
Monica Boulevard #200, Santa Monica, CA brook Court, Leawood, KS 66206.
41 Elizabeth Street, Port Chester, NY PAA. Also two-player with emphasis on
90265. Tulane and New Orleans area garners 10573. (9l4) 934-1374. historical games. William Jacobsen, 1309
Adult gamer seeks FTF opponents for ASL. wanted. FTF play of VITP, 3R, DIP, CIY, Liberty Court, Neemah, WI 54956. (414)
Local opponents wanted in Albany area for
San Fernando Valley area. SL Okay. Com- BRIT, SP sports games. Will learn others! 722-6187.
MD, MBT, RB, DUNE, ClV, UF and more.
petitive but easy-going. Don Burton, 16601 Jay Ovzts, 6440 South Claiborne, Apt. 106,
Michael Charbonneau, 224 Shirlwood Adult FTF opponent wanted for AH and VG
Osborne Street, Sepulveda, CA 91343. New Orleans, LA 70125. (504) 866-8156.
Drive, Rotterdam, NY 12306. (5l8) 356- games. Brian Clemens, Site J2, CS, RR #2,
(818) 893-3955. I would like to PBM in a multi-player game 5813. Nanaimo, BC V9R 5K2. 722-2555.
Adult gamer seeks FTF opponents for ASL, of 3R run by a GMlreferee. Leave mesaage.
Experienced gamer relocated to Buffalo Any wargamers in area? Play RF, W&P,
AF, FT, FL and VG Fleet series. Kim Mark, Ernest Bartis, 71 Longwood Drive, Port-
area. Prefer FTF ASL, 3R, others. Will also PAA. Willing to learn new games and travel
33648 Hartford Drive, Union City, CA land, ME 04102. (207) 772-1462. PBM. Will travel reasonable distance. in immediate area. Desperate! Ron
94587. (510) 471-6443. Aberdeen area wargamers seek new oppo- Kevin Koenig, 255 Palmdale Drive, Alderdice, 1109 Water Street, Prince
Seeking FTF opponent in Fairfield-Vacav- nents. Meet every Sunday. EIA, CM, ClV, Williamsville, NY 14221. (716) 631-8615. Rupert,BC, V8J lC1. 627-7095
illearea for ASL, W&P, 3R, WS&1M. Will- MACH, EIS, KR, BRIT, MOV, ASL, UF, Adult player needs DEVIL's DEN oppo-
TPS. Kurt Schlegel, 708 Clayton Street, PBM for DD, AK, STAL, BL, TLD. Must
ing to play almost anything. Scott Peuse, nent. Learn best while under fire. Need
Aberdeen, MD 21001. (410) 272-3248. be willing to pIa y both sides. AillKS or
317 Ogden Way, Vacaville, CA 95687. PBM system. Willie Voll, 250 Underhill AREA matches OK. Paul Martin, 1914-
(l07) 451·0394. Come play AH games at the "Chess-Story". Avenue #31, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598. 1971 St. Laurent Boulevard, Ottawa, ONT
3-person gaming squad wants opponents Personally, I will take all comers in any (914) 245-4636. KlG 3P8. (6l3) 739-7053.
forrole-playing games and ASL, BL, CM, game; prefer ASL. Damon Norko, 332 Park Rise from your foxholes! Play ASL PBM.
Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21201. (4l0) 783- Windsor-Detroit area gamer would like
DIP, GE'88, KR, MOV, TT, 1830. Dustin Great system. All letters answered since my
4261. opponents for FT, 3R, FP, 1776. David
Hatchett, 7301 Jay Street, Arvada, CO wife won't let me FTF anymore. Jef Paull,
Micola, 2957 Meadowbrook Lane, Wind-
80003. (303) 427-5413. Looking to have KM tournament in DC 404 Trappers Run, Cary, NC 27513. (9l9)
sor, ONT NBT 3C4. 974-1822.
Serious gamer seeks FTF ASL tutor or TPS metro area. All welcome. Call/write for 469-5045.
details. Kirk Harris, l639-G Carriage House Hey Yankees! Experienced Brazilian player
opponents. Or, let me know what you've got East-sider seeks same for FTF play of ASL,
Terrace, Silver Spring, MD 20904. (30l) wants opponents to PBM. I bet you lose!
and we'll explore options! Kurt Ballard, CAE, WS&IM, MD, others. Peter A.
622-2618. Need system. All letters answered. EIA, FE,
2285 Parliament Drive, Colorado Springs, Shelling, 2891 East 111, Cleveland, OH
GOA, RF, W&P, WS&IM, 3R. Nedilson
CO 80920. (719) 548-1328. Pbm opponents wanted for BL, PB, BB'65, 44104. (2l6) 229-0438.
Jorge, Sqn 307, "B", ap. 301, Brasilia, DF,
Experienced but rusty adult gamer getting many others. AREA 1600 verified. Would Beginning adult gamer in north central Ohio 70746, BRASIL. Phone: (0055) (61) 347-
back into the hobby. Seeks AREA/non- like to try/learn SON and EIA. Douglas area willing to take his lumps seeks FTF 2532.
AREA pBM/FTF for FE, PK, TRC, BB'8l, Ilioff, 1087 Buckhorn Road, Sykesville, opponents for BB, SOA, CASS, STAL.
IPS, TLD or FT. Jeff Martin, 38 Hannah MD2l784. John Simatacolas, 25 Cedargate Court, Average Brazilian player needs opponents.
Street, Bristol, CT 06010. (203) 585-6827. Galion, OH44833. (4l9) 462-5883. CIY, DIP, GOA, MOV, ROR, 3R; rated or
Gamer with eclectic tastes seeks same for not (my AREA, 1500 Provisional). All let-
Old Guard awrgamer new to AREA. Will FTF. Some favorites are ASL, DIP, NAP, Beginning adult wargamer seeks FTF or ters answered. Luiz Claudio Duarte, SillS-
play AK, BB, TRC, FE, PGG, TPS. No TT, UF; but will try anything. Seth Owen, PBM opponents in WAT, WS&IM, DEV, QI19, Con Junto 7, Casa 35, Brasilia, OF,
beginners or SL players please. Randy 62 Howland Road, Fairhaven, MA 02719. BB'8l, BR. Michael O'Connor, 19901 Lau- 71655, BRASIL. Phone: 366-3432.
Heller, 138 Osprey Drive, Groton, CT (508) 999-6118. rel Avenue, Rocky River, OH 44116. (216)
06340.448-0198. 356-1539. Any garners near Koln (Cologne)? FT,
The Greater Springfield ASL Club is now TRC, RW, MBT, 6th Fleet, etc. PeS Nov
Adult gamer seeks FTF or PBM 3R, the Southern New England ASL Players 12 ASLers now in OKCjTulsa metro! More '92, Box 177, APO 09072. Kevin Knoell,
WS&lM. Am willing to set up multi-player Association. We meet most Saturdays. Call in OK for friendly fun and future State Bruesselerstrasse 61, Kerpen, GERMANY
game for each. John Moulton, 12262 SW or write: Vic Provost, 1454 Northampton Championship? Novices and old SL players 5014. Phone: 02237-52927.
131stAvenue, Miami, FL 33186. (305) 233- Street, Holyoke, MA 01040. (413) 536- welcome! Call or write John Farris, P.O.
5714. 9661. Box 547, Norman, OK 73070. (405) 799- Reliable adult gamer in Great Britain wants
8691. opponents for 3R, WS&IM, and DIP. All
Wanted: Adult PBM, rated or unrated, for Looking for FTF opponents for BRIT, 3R, letters answered. Jonathan Smith, 90 Alder-
RF, 3R, Pacific War. Have playable postal TRC, STAL, KREM, DIP, HW, VITP, 1776 UF, TPS,FT,NAP,GWE,BB '9l,RF,HW,
ney Street, Pirnlico, London, SWI V 4EY,
systems. Dave McFarland, 2247 Quail from eastern and central Massachusetts. ASL, DEV, VITP, WS&IM. Anthony
GREAT BRITAIN. Phone: 071-2336810.
Ridge South, Palm Beach Gardens, FL David Gage, 8 Massachusetts Avenue, Toglia, 2404 Hirst Terace, Apt. 5, Haver-
33418. Worcester, MA 01609. (508) 752-2077. town, PA 19083. (2l5) 853-2671.


The following games are ranked by their reader-generated Overall
Value. Further aspects of reader response to our titles are indicated
REPUBLIC OF ROME 9.611A In which phase are concessions by the ratings in other categories. By breaking down a game's rat-
destroyed by the 2nd Punic War or Gladiator
6.22 Does a War (such as the Jugurthine Slave Revolt? ings into these individual categories, the gamer is able to discern
War) whose card does not indicate a subtrac- A. The Senate Phase. for himself where each title's strengths and weaknesses lie in the
tion of 20T sti11 cost the Rome Treasury 20 qualities he values highly. Readers are reminded that ratings take
Talents? 9.631 Can you repeal a Type I landbill during
the Senate Phase? the form of a numerical value ranging from 1 to 9 (with "1" equalling
A. Yes, but they are rarely repealed because "excellent" and "9" equalling "terrible"). However, the Game Length
7.3128 If Statesmen 29A and 29B are both in they expire during the next turn anyway. category is measured in multiples of ten minutes (thus, a rating of
play when the Family card #29 is drawn, who "18" equates to three hours). A "+" following the Year of release
gets it? 9.64 Can a Legion or fleet be disbanded and
A. It is placed beneath Stateman 29A. rebuilt in the same Senate Phase? indicates that the game is continued or complemented by additional
A.No. modules in successive years (for instance, the ratings for SL reflect
9.24 & 9.91 Can a Senator refuse to be Mas- the entire system - original game plus add-on modules). Game
ter of Horse? 9.64 How is the status of Veteran Legions
determined when sending a force to oppose a Type is broken down into three broad categories: SO = Solitaire;
particular war? MP = Multi-Player; 2P = Two Player. Finally, it should be noted that
9.411 Does a successful Minor Prosecution A. Should the proposal to send forces fail to a minimum requirement of 50 responses (see the Sample Base)
strip the prosecuted Senator of any office he specify the specific makeup of those forces, was judged necessary for a valid representation; additional titles
is currently holding? the Commander of the forces may pick which
A.No. ones to take. that garner such will be added to the RBG in the future.

9.412 Can the Censor name himself as Pros- 9.67 Can a "Consul for Life" nomination ~ l=- ::
'..§" . ...... -=:;. .= ... .. ..
l=- = Oll

ever be made without the approval of the Pre-
siding Magistrate or use of a Tribune? ..= "S.
"S. :0
C ~
"S. ..
A.No. ";j
Q ~ ""
E ~
c.i'l ~
9.421 Does an exiled Senator lose negative Title U U ii: -0( ><~
Popularity also? 9.72 Can a Tribune veto either an appoint- ADVANCEDSl.: . 5 2. 3.'14 2.04 33.02 + 2P 172
A. No, he loses only positive Popularity. ment or a Dictator's election? 1830 3.88 2.72 2.04 3.20 24.52 '86 MP 50
A. It can't veto an appointment. It can veto a CIVILIZATION 3.20 2.03 1.72 4.09 32.08 '82 MP 152
9.34 Does a Senator who forced a proposal to Dictator's election, but only during its fac- FLATTOP 3.61 3.12 3.56 1.76 43,96 ,'81 2P 95
a vote using a Tribune lose influence if the tion•s turn to vote.
motion is unanimously defeated by the votes
of all the Senators of all the other"factions in 9.8 Maya Faction attempt to assassinate one
play? of its own Senators?
A. No - he is not the "Presiding Magistrate" A. No. "Opposing" Senators are the only
during the phase. Defeat of his proposal and possible targets.
loss of his Tribune is penalty enough in the
game. 9.83 Are re-rolls for possible capture modi-
fied by the played Assassin and Bodyguard
9.41 Can the same Senator be prosecuted cards?
twice in the same tum if he held two conces- A.Yes.
sions. or a concession and an office?
9.84 If "neither the Censor nor Prosecutor" TRC
A. Yes.
is involved in a special Major Prosecution, ENEMY IN SIGHT
9.423 Does a faction that cast the most votes who chooses the voting order? 7th Fleet
for an exiled Statesman's return and makes a A. The Censor. CASSINO
successful Persuasion Attempt versus that DIPLOMACY
Statesman also get the Family card of the 9.91 Can more than one Dictator election be ST. RE
Statesman even if it is held by another fac- held if the first is defeated? FIREPOWER
tion? A. Yes, but unlike Consular elections, there FUGHT LEADER
A. Yes- even if that Family card is the Fac- doesn't have to be one elected; 9.23 doesn't MBT
tionLeader. apply.
B-17 2.83
2nd Fleet 2.89
Avalon Hill's Mammoth Game of the Battle for Normandy, 1944 THIRD REICH 2.95
At last, enough responses were systems and historical detail. For both WAR & PEACE 3,13
received to insure a new entry on the simulationists and garners. this Hold" TITAN 3.16
RBG. And, in general, these were quite design offers something worthy of praise. CMIWar 3.20
complimentary concerning Avalon Hill's IC
first "monster" game (an "Overall Rating" Overall Value: 2.53 NAVAL WAR
of 2.53 places it 14th on the list). Given KINGMAKER
that the sample base is sufficiently broad,
Components: 2.65
the results brought a couple of interesting Map: 3.00 PATTON'S BEST
points to mind. Counters: 2.18 GlADIATOR
One such is the correlation between Rulebook: 2.98 CM
"Playing Time" and "Playability". Aver- 61hFleet
age game length for THE WNGEST DAY Complexity: 6.35 AIR FORCE
is the highest to date on our chart. I sus- Completeness of Rules: 3.52 PANZERBlrrz
pect that this fact had something to do Playability: 4.29
with the rating for "Playability", also the Pax Britannica
highest thus far. It's not easy to find the Excitement Level: 3.17
time (nor the space, for that matter) to Play Balance: 3.36 Ambush
enjoy this challenge to its fullest. Yet Authenticity: 2.88 AFRIKA KORPS
those who made the effort rated the HITLER'S WAR
"Excitement Level" as quite high.
Game Length (average): 189.1
Also of note is the players' concensus Shortest: 6 hrs., 27 mins.
opinion on "Complexity", which they set Longest: 56 hrs., 34 mins.
significantly lower than that we accorded Year: 1980
TLD. Seemingly less complex than some
of Avalon Hill's recent products, the game Type:2P
system may be a perfect blend of simple Sample Base: 62
Returning to our roots, Vol. 27, No.3 of invested in the design of each of the separate pro-
The GENERAL featured THIRD REICH - grams certainly saved quite an amount of time.
Infiltrator's Report These programs were written in BASIC (MicroSoft
along with its expansion into an "QuickBasic, to be exact). I will be glad to furnish the
"Advanced" and computer version. Backed listings to any who are interested.
by some excellent articles on THE ble. Remuneration is limited to a free copy After some soul-searching, we decided
LONGEST DA Y and AvalonCon, this of the game for each group co-ordinator nothing precluded using "artificial" intelli-
brought the issue a very respectable 3.44 upon publication. If interested, you should gence to solve one of our new brand of
Overall Rating. Based upon a random dispatch a short letter of introduction to contests. Rather, we'll just have to learn to
sampling of 200 responses, the various Don Greenwood (c/o Avalon Hill). We put more twists into them to out-think those
articles therein rated as follows: regret that, due to the volume of mail such damnable machines.
MAKING THE TRANSITION 223 playtest invitations usually generate, we
AVALONCON 215 will be able to reply only to those actually
BATTLE LOG 154 selected for the playtest. Wrapped in a fictitious account of "Team
PULLING OLD CHESTNUTS, Part II 145 'CEPT" at AvalonCon, our 157th contest
ADVANCED GAME DESIGN 133 was devised (and revised) to kill off a few of
AH PHILOSOPHY 76 Seems many of our readers have a bet- the surplus brain cells of the readership. In
DOUBLE-TURN SHOTGUN 57 ter memory than we, for Contest #156 had short, it was a devilishly clever little logic
TO SPRING A TRAP 47 more than the 76 entries that we had puzzle. For those who may not yet have
SHOOT-OUT IN THE WEST 38 pegged. GO, 00, MRWHO, TUF, TAC, untangled the terse clues offered to arrive
BEHIND THE HIGH-WATER MARK 36 RAM and NBA (the latter three computer at the proper sequence of nicknames, last
COMPUTER CORNER 29 games) inadvertently slipped into the letter ,names and games played, here is our
COMING ATTRACTIONS 21 grid; although defunct and eminently for- eight-step method:
NORMANDY'S BACK DOOR 17 gettable, all are legitimate responses. Too, #1: From the first clue, "Trireme" lost in either his sec-
AREA NEWS 9 ond or third round, Mr. Midway in the third or fourth
a case can be made that AREA (found in round of his tournament, and the fellow beaten at PB
the upper right-hand corner of the grid) is a in the first or second round of that competition.
"product", and hence was an allowed #2: From the second clue, "Panzer" or Mr. Bismarck
Der Musketier is undoubtedly the best played PB.
answer; however, we discounted CAP, as it #3: From the third clue, "Erwin" or Mr. Arnhem could
German-language wargaming magazine, was not specific enough (although Avalon also have played PB.
and three-time nominee for a "Charles Hill caps were much seen at the recent #4: But, more importantly, PB could not have been the
Roberts Award" for amateur periodical (the AvalonCon). Hence, there were 84 possi- first game lost - so our team member must have lost
only non-English publication ever nomi- it in his second round (see #1 above). Which means,
ble entries on the letter grid of Contest of course, that "Trireme" lost in his third round and
nated). It is printed four times a year, aver- #156! After dispatching those that had the Mr. Midway in his fourth round.
aging 40-52 pages in length - and every misspelled REPUBLIC OF ROME indi- #5: Further, you can eliminate ''Caesar" from the possi-
word is devoted to our favorite hobby. A cated, we found that several dozen still had
ble 2nd round losers' list (for he didn't playa WW2
game). "
sample issue is available for two Interna- 80+ correct entries. From these, by way of #6: Next, the first game lost by the team must have
tional Reply Coupons by contacting the the infamous random draw, we selected been either MBT or 2nd Fleet, so you can eliminate
editor: Ulrich Blennemann (Rosenthal 76, the following ten winners: Carlo Amato, "Erwin" and Mr. Arnhem as potential first-round
0-4320 Hattingen, Germany). losers. And, since "Caesar" cannot be the loser in
Norristown, PA; Mike Arnold, Leominster, the first round, "Panzer" is the only remaining possi-
MA; Jim Burnett, Clinton, TN; Paul bility. Further, "Erwin" must be the second-round
loser, and ''Caesar'' the fourth.
MacArthur, Maplewood, NJ; Steven
We're looking for volunteers to playtest #7: Since "Panzer" played an "armor wargame", elimi-
Mones, Bear, DE; Don Maddox, St. Louis, nate 2nd Fleet, he must have lost at MBT.
again. This time the subject is a "Mad Max"
MO; Scott Romanowski, Wilmington, MA; #8: By the third clue, "Caesar" Midway could not have
type of futuristic, demolition-derby, cross- played WAS, leaving 2nd Fleet as the only remaining
John Spurgeon, Council Bluffs, IA; James
country auto race. The game system is possibility for him. And, hence, WAS was lost in the
Truitt, North Grafton, MA; and Jeff Wollf, third round.
exceedingly simple, much in the ATTACK
Willow Bunch, SASK. The rest is merely a matter of matching
SUB school of design. The playtest will
One last word regarding our contest. Jim up the last names with the proper games.
require groups of at least four players
Burnett, in his letter, admitted to making And, it is fitting that Mr. Circus, who started
(preferably six). Volunteers must be willing
use of a computer to solve our puzzle: all this, lost in his first-round match. The
to spend a minimum of 20 hours per month As this contest would have posed a bit of a problem
in the effort and submit three written correct solution to Contest 157 should read
to old, tired eyes, I knocked out a short computer
monthly reports regarding their findings. program to convert all the various directions of text as follows:
into linear left-right. Even this left the difficulty of "Panzer" Circus lost MBTin the first round.
Applicants are cautioned that the playtest "Erwin" Bismarck lost PANZERBLlTZin the second.
visually searching the text, so I dumped the output to
materials are of pre-production quality and a file and began string-searching. This program "Trireme" Arnhem lost WAR AT SEA in the third round.
may involve considerable labor to assem- turned up the more arcane titles easily. The hour "Caesar" Midway lost 2nd Fleet in the fourth round.

Flown your umpteenth fighter plane? Shot up your

50,OOOth enemy tank? Challenge your mind instead
of your reflexes...play

World War I, the conquest of Europe...

Out of the ashes and turmoil of post-World War II Europe an
Austrian artist rose from obscurity to command the greatest
military machine ever known to man. His name was Adolph Hitler.
He and his band of Nazi cutthroats promised a starving German
people revenge for the injustices of World War I and a Reich that
would last for a thousand years.
Gaining absolute power in 1934, Hitler embarked upon the return
of Germany to her previous place of prominence with massive
rearmament programs. First Austria, then Czechoslovakia fell under
the Nazi boot.
The west viewed the German rise to power with growing alarm,
and when Germany invaded Poland on September 1,1939, Britain
and France declared war.
The stage was set for a war of such magnitude that it could only
be compared to the greatest of natural disasters.

Computer Wargaming like you've never seen it!

It's more than a game, it is the definitive historical simulation
of E';rope during World War II. All the elements: military,
economic, geographical, ideological and chronological are
included in the game. Until now, Third Reich has been a game
for the truly dedicated boardgamer. Recent advances in
electronics now make it possible to put all of the rich detail of
the boardgame into your home com utero

COMPUTER THIRD REICH includes the following:

• State of the art graphics.
• Easy to use interface.
• Choice of human or computer opponents for either side.
• Three historical scenarios plus the campaign game.
• Advanced SAVE GAME function to make play-by-mail easier.

COMPUTER THIRD REICH system requirements: Commodore Amiga: Amiga 500-3000

(including 1000) with one meg of RAM and color monitor. Atari ST: 520, 1040, or Mega with at least
512K RAM, double side disk drive and color monitor. (Single-side version for 520 availsble upon request.)
See what all this excitement is all about.
Computer Third Reich is available for $39.95. Please add $6.00 shipping and handling (Canadian
orders $12.00; overseas $18.00). IBM PC/PS and compatibles version is coming soon.
Get Computer Third Reich wherever great computer games are sold, or direct

Strategy Magazine had this to say:

"The point and click interface is a
pleasure to use...The map graphics
themselves are excellent.•.A t first I
thought this new version would be too 4517 Harford Road Baltimore, MD 21214 410254-9200
a simple for the Third Reich player and
a too complex for the newcomer. Six For quick credit card purchasing,
00 h:ours play changed this viewpoint." call TOLL FREE 1-800-999·3222.

A t last... the classic board game ACQUIRE is now

on computer. Voted into Games Magazine's "Hall of
Fame", ACQUIRE's high standards of fun, strategy
and greed allow you to step into the world of high
In ACQUIRE, each player buys hotels, creates chains,
and trades stock in those chains to try to become the
richest player in the game. The rules are simple and
the possible winning strategies unlimited in this fast·
paced game.
A few of its features include:
• Clear, easy to read graphics
• A variety of computer players
• Menu driven commands
• MICROSOFT® mouse compatible
The game supports from 1 to 6 players in any
combination of human or computer players you wish.
The broad range of strategies employed by the
computer players makes for hours of challenging play
while the natural player interface makes game play
simple and easy to learn.
Available at leading computer games stores or direct
from Avalon Hill.

MIl micl"QcQmputel" games DIVISION

IIUJ The Avalon Hill Game Company

4517 Harford Road· Baltimore, MD 21214

BULGE '91 $19.00
Oe'{j Introductory Game of the German
PLAYING? ~ ;;l" "~ .." 2 ?' ....
a: '8" ""iI;;'
a Ardennes Offensive, Dec. 1944
[;;ti.[i~llil~~S G")
i\:l'8 g
~ I'D IJQ$'C.=
Top ten lists are always in vogue-be the subject books, television, ~ Er;:/ '<" INSTRUCTIONS:
::;" '" ~
.. " il"",,," Cl.
Rate each category by placing a number
shows, movies or even games. The public seems never to tire of seeing ..... Sic Cl
Coo "';-;
~S'8 \;' ranging from 1 through 9 in the appropriate
how its favorite way of spending their leisure time stacks up against the
competition. So, to cater further to your whims (and to satisfy our own ~h & !: ~J' i~ ""l space to the right ("1" equating to excellent;
"5", average; "9", terrible). EXCEPTION: Rate
6. =~ > " S 0" a ~ c ~
C' .. "......
items 7a and 7b in terms of minutes neces-
curiosity), this is The GENERAL's version of the gamer's top ten. From ,,"":: F:a"scii!.
:' a 2 ii ... i '"" '" '" sary to play the game, in ten-minute incre-
the responses to this form the editors produce the regular column "So
That's What You've Been Playing" found elsewhere in this issue. iia' l[&r~§~ ~ = mants. (Example: If you've found it takes two
and a half hours to play the basic scenario
!Iill;t i."SiiU of HITLER'S WAR. enter "'5" for category
~" "~iS::;= n
We aren't asking you to subjectively rate any game. That sort of thing
is already done in these pages and elsewhere. Instead, we ask that you
merely list the three (or fewer) games which you've spent the most time
~i~ ="
a· g l;t!t =
7a.1 For an explanation of the categories,
refer to the AH Philosophy of Vol. 24, No.5.
Enter ratings only for those categories relevant
playing since you received your last issue of The GENERAL. With the ~~ ... e S - ... ~ ... ~ to the game in question. Note that AH's ratings
collation of these responses, we can generate a consensus list of what's aa "'" ca."~ '"
... ., ...,,("=g. for Complexity, Year of Publication and Type
::I :Ii! Co ~
Jood f") .,
0 (2P=two player. MP=muki-player; SO=solitaire)
being played by our readership. This list can serve both as a guide for
us (for coverage in these pages) and others (<::onvention organizers spring 'Cis» S'2ellaSlJi
E~~Q,c:...Q =
have been provided for your information.

~i~ :-Q~i ~~ 1. Overall Value --

instantly to mind). The degree of correlation between this listing, the ;$UI ~!~gtlS § 2. Components --
Best Sellers Lists, and the RBG should prove extremely interesting. ~ii !.at .. .g,;
Feel free to list any game of any sort regardless of manufacturer. There j'8!" J:g,~!lsi n
2a. Mapboard --
will be, of course, a built-in bias to the survey since the readers all play e;; 5 C
1"''' a 2b. Counters --
Avalon Hill games to some extent; but it should be no more prevalent .....'8.
~ ~~ ""
a" l;t"t:l'~
~i "C 2c. Rulebook --
than similar projects undertaken by other periodicals with special-interest
based circulation. The amount to which this bias affects the final out-
Avalon Hill Complexity
come will be left to the individual's own evaluation.
~ii ~i ji~ --
4. Completeness

n" •. ",. "i. a ~ 5. Playability --

1. _ ~;;'i :;'1; s.,,;l 5a. Excitement Level --
ootojo - . .
JS'g.l;t"'" C" ="

"" IQ
g. ftI
l 5b.
Play Balance

"1 ii= ~
2. ---'- _ 7. Game Length --
,g.' a ;;; ~
.. a 7a. Shortest --
g t~ =:- ~ -: ~ 7b.
'8n !!.a. !taa Longest --
3. _ IQ.'< 5.,t:l :'~tfI 8. Year of Publication 1991
9. Type 2P

Opponent Wa,!ted 50C CONTEST #158

1. Want-ads will be accepted only when printed on this form or a facsimile and must be accompanied On Page 38 of this issue, readers will fmd yet another contest to
by a 50C token fee. No refunds. Payment may be made in uncancelled U.S. postage stamps.
2. For Sale, Trade, or Wanted To Buy ads will not be accepted. No refunds. challenge their knowledge of the hobby and Avalon Hill. As
3. Insert copy on lines provided (25 words max.imum) and print name, address, and phone number on explained there, to enter our 158th contest, simply return the com-
the appropriate lines.
4. Please PRINT. If your ad is illegible. it will not be printed.
pleted crossword puzzle. For those not wise in the way of crossword
5. So that as many ads as possible can be printed within our limited space, we request that you use puzzles, the clue references relate to the alpha-numeric location of the
official state and game abbreviations. Don't list your entire collection, list only those you are most first letter of the appropriate answer. While most of the answers to
interested in locating opponents for.
Advanced Squad Leader-ASL, Afrika Korps-AK, Air Force-AF, Anzio-AZ, Blitzkreig-BL, these clues deal with wargaming or military history, some demand a
Britannia-BRIT, Battle Of The Bulge-BB, Bull Run-DR, Circus Maximus-CM, Civilization-CIV, more eclectic knowledge. To insure that your entry is accorded proper
D·Day-DD, Devil's Den-DEV, Diplomacy-DIP, Empires in Arms-EIA, Enemy in Sight-EIS,
Firepower-FP, Flat Top-FT, Flight Leader-FL, Gettysburg-GE, Gladiator-GL, Hitler's War- consideration, please print the answers to the clues legibly in the
HW, Kremlin-KR, Kingmaker-KM, Knights of the Air-KOTA, The Longest Day-TLD, Luftwaffe- spaces provided. Winners will be drawn from those who offer a com-
LW, Magic Realm-MR, Merchant of Venus-MOV, Midway-MD, Napoleon's Battles-NB, Naval
War-NAV, New World-NW, PanzerArmee Afrika-PAA, Panzerblitz-PB, PanzerGruppe Guderian- pleted crossword; failing that, those with the most correct answers
PGG, Panzerkrieg-PK, Panzer Leader-PL, Rail Baron-RB, Republic of Rome-ROR, Richthofen's will be declared winners.
War-RW, The Russian Campaign-TRC, Russian Front-RF, Siege of Jerusalem-SOJ, Stellar
Conquest-SC, Squad Leader-SL, Storm Over Amhem-SOA, Tac Air-TA, Third Reich-3R, Thunder
The answer to this contest must be entered on the official entry fonn
at Cassino-CASS, Titan-TT, Turning Point: Stalingrad-TPS. Up Front-UF, Victory In The Pacific- (or a reasonable facsimile - a photocopy of Page 38 with the answers
VlTP. War and Peace-W&P, WaT At Sea-WAS, Waterloo--WAT, Wooden Ships & Iron Men-WSIM. thereon will serve). Ten winning entries will receive a merchandise
credit voucher from The Avalon Hill Game Company. To be valid, an
entry must include a numerical rating for this issue as a whole and a
listing of the three best articles in the judgement of the contestant. The
solution to Contest #158 will appear in the next issue, and the list of
winner in the following issue.

Issue as a whole (Rate from I to 10, with "I" equating excellent and "10" terrible).
To be valid for consideration, your contest entry must also include the three best anicles, in
your view:

CITY _ _ _ _ _ _ STATE __ ZIP _ CITY STATE ZIP _
JULY 30th AUGUST 2nd

o I am ;not yet an AREA member. As a paid registrant to AVALONCON, I will receive my free Generic AREA membership which will allow
me to play rated games in any tournament. I understand I'll receive AREA membership materials in the mail before the Convention program.

o I am already an AREA member. My AREA Membership Number is: _

o I've lost my AREA number. I believe my Zip Code at the time I entered the AREA system was: _

o I am already an AREA member and already have a Specific Game membership rating in the game which I would like printed
on my badge for use in that tournament.
o I enclose $10.00 to purchase a Specific AREA membership for use at (or before) AVALONCON for the game.

o TEAM TOURNAMENT: I wish to register my four-person team in the Team Tournament at no additional charge. I
realize that all the members of my team must be pre-registered and that we must each playa different title for which we .
have pre-registered. Substitutions of team participants or game selections can be made by mail or phone (410-254-9200,:
ex 320) anytime prior to July 27th. Our team members and the game each will play are listed below: 1,;;; .. =====u

1. _ 2. _ '3. _ 4. _
Game to be played by this team member:
1. _ 2. _ 3. _ 4. _
o HATS & T-SillRTS: Please reserve my free AVALONCON souvenir because I've pre-registered before July 1st. ,/ one only:
.0 AValO:~;~~ 0 Small 0 Medium 0 Large 0 Xtra Large. MI~I~.~lffi.~
o Please reserve additional hats for which I enclose $8 each.
o Please reserve additional t-shirts in sizes for which I enclose $8.00 each or $12.00 each for size XXL or larger.
o I enclose $25 in check or money order made payable to The Avalon Hill Game Company to register for AVALONCON.
o Charge my: 0 VISA 0 MASTERCARD 0 AMERICAN EXPRESS Expiration Date _

Account Number _ Signature _

Name _

Address ---' _

City State ZIP Total Enclosed: _

HURRY! Registrations postmarked after July 1st, 1992 will not receive a free AVALONCON souvenir t-shirt or hat. Make your check or
money order payable to: The Avalon Hill Game Company and mail to 4517 Harford Rd., Baltimore, MD 21214 or to FAX it, ~ 410-254-0991.
• Be sure to register for your main event(s) on the reverse side. •
or SMOKING POLICY: There is a No Smoking policy in effect in all public areas of AVALONCON which will be strictly enforced.

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• If you select overlapping events, only the fIrst will be recorded. • Specify which Heat of multi-Heat events you'll enter. •
REGISTRATION INFORMATION: All specta- Those who cannot must forfeit. SCHEDULED:
tors and children 14 and under are admitted free and Play has designated, timed rounds with predeter-
may participate in Open Gaming without registra- mined meal/rest breaks of two hours or more.
tion. They will not receive a badge, program, or SPUT: Two or more qualifying heats at different
free souvenir items. Children 14 and under may times. Unless otherwise specified, players may par-
participate in specially designated "Juniors-only" ticipate in more than one qualifying heat
tournaments free of charge. All other participation In all formats, the GM may adjudicate games which
in official events at A VALONCON is limited to do not adhere to schedule.
paid registrants wearing their own badges.
Registrants may participate in unlimited events at Duration: The expected number of rounds and
ROOM RESERVATIONS no additional charge, but are limited to playing in length of each. NOTE: Some formats will require
one at a time. Most events will not be "sold out", more or less rounds than announced depending on
July 30- August 2,1992 but to guarantee your opportunity to play you must number of entrants. Players should schedule their
Complete this form or a facsimile and return bring a copy of the game (to ensure sufficient time accordingly and refrain from entering those
it with the required deposit to: Penn Harris copies on hand) and be present at the announced events which their time constraints will not allow
starting time. Those registering at the door will not them to finish should they advance to the finals. SE
Hotel, P.O. Box 839, Camp Hill, PA 17001. events are especially prone to the need for added
Or call 1-800-345-PENN. We suggest you receive a free AVALONCON souvenir but will be
eligible for a $5 discount if registering on Saturday rounds to accomodate larger-than-expected fields.
make your room reservations promptly, as The GM may accommodate the schedules of final-
and a $10 discount if registering on Sunday.
we cannot guarantee availability or equiva- ists in the final round at his discretion.
lent alternate lodging after July 16, 1992. WHAT YOU'LL GET: Pre-registrants of record
on July 1st will be entitled to their choice of a free GM: The Game Master who is in charge of the
Once the Penn Harris is sold out, lodging event. If an address is also present, the GM will
AVALONCON souvenir hat or t-shirt upon arrival.
requests will be referred to the nearest avail- Those who are not already members of the AREA provide additional photo-copied information in
able hotel honoring the AVAWNCON room Player Rating System will receive a free member- advance to all who send him a SASE.
rate. Be sure to fill out the form carefully, as ship and e:A:planatory materials by retwn mail. Any Times: Starting times of the initial round are abbre-
the Perm Harris will honor only those reser- game played at AVALONCON is subject to rating viated as follows: Th - Thursday, Fr - Friday, Sa -
vations received with complete information in the AREA system if any participant requests it at Saturday, Sun - Sunday, A - AM, P - PM. The
and'deposit or guarantee. the start of play. Refusal to submit to rated play is e:A:pected duration for all events is shown on the
Name: _ not allowed. All who are pre-registered by July 1st Chronological listing. You may wish to copy that
will have the Convention program mailed to them page before pre-registering.
on July 6th or shortly thereafter. This is the only Prizes: All winners will receive a championship
Address: _ confirmation you will receive. Those registering plaque. The winner and other finalists will receive
after July 1st must pick up their convention pro- Merchandise credits good for the purchase of our
gram at the site. merchandise or fmalist plaques according to a stan-
City: _ TEAM TOURNAMENT: You may pre-register dard schedule based on the number of entrants. For
any four players as a team provided each plays a example, there will be 32 prize-winners in a 128-
different title for which he has pre-registered. Team player tournament
State: Zip: _ entry and substitutions of players or game choices PRE-REGISTRATION: You may pre-register for
are allowed ONLY by pre-registration. You may more than one event if no portion of their respective
Phone: _ make such changes by mail or phone only if they time lines overlap on the Chronological listing.
are received by July 27th. Call 410-254-9200, ex Otherwise, select only one event. NOTE: Events
320 to make last-minute changes. Players in the with gray time lines have optional heats that do not
Team Tournament play individually for themselves, require play in every session. Indicate the letter of
Arrival Date: _ but also score in the event they have entered as a the Heat for which you wish to register on the line
Team Tournament entry for their team's total score. following its abbreviation. Pre-registration earns
Departure Date: _ The winners will receive a free suite at the 1993 preferential treatment for byes and helps us allocate
AVALOltIl'CON. space. Those events with a limited number of possi-
Check-in time is 3:00 PM. + DIeck-out time is 1:00 PM. EVENT DESCRIPTIONS: Events are listed in ble entrants are underscored; pre-registration for
Reservations which are not guaranteed by check (made chronological order on page 2, and in alphabetical these events is recommended for entry.
out to Penn Harris Hotel) or credit card will only be held order here using the following format:
unti15:00PM. THE EVENTS: Those designated "jr" are for those
Name, Class, Format, Style, Duration, GM, 14 and under only.
Credit Card Starting Time. Acquire (ACQ), A, Swiss EJim, Continuous, three prelimi-
& Number: _ nary l-hr rounds, four advance to I-round final. B. Cleary.
Name: Lists abbreviated name for the event used
Expiration Date: _ on the Chronological Chart & badges. Fr 11 A.
Adel Verflichtet (ADV), B, Swiss Elim, Continuous-Split,
RATE: The Room rate is $60.00 per day Class: A: Rules will not be explained; for experi-
four preliminary l-hr rounds, two SE final rounds. May
plus $3.60 tax for one-to-four guests per enced players only. B: Beginners welcome. Rules enter only one of two heats. R. Pfeiffer. Th 8 P.
room. Maximum of four people per room. A will be briefly explained. If you need to be taught
how to play, be present one hour before the Advanced Civilization (ACV), A, SE, Scheduled. Final
$63.60 deposit is required to guarantee each will start Saturday night and finish Sun AM. Fmal will use
scheduled playing time for instruction. Rules will Western Map Extension for an 8-player game. C. Hickok.
room reservation. NOT be taught during play except on an individ- Sa9A.
I will share this room with: ual basis as time allows.
Advanced Squad Leader (ASL); A, Swiss, Continuous,
Format: Swiss Elim: Play consists of a number of seven 5-hr rounds. R. Berger, 24 Verde Vista Dr East,
Name: _ preliminary rounds in which all entrants participate Thousand Oaks, CA 91360. Fr 9 A.
to determine a number of finalists which will then Advanced Third Reich (A3R), A, Swiss, Scheduled, three
play in Single Elimination format. Swiss: All munds of 3,8 & 12 hrs (1940, Batbarossa, 1941 scmario). J.
Name: _ entrants will play same number of rounds - usually Brophy, 16 Beachfront ln, New Rochelle, NY 10805. Fr 9A.
being paired against opponents with similar records. AFTER ACTION MEETING: Beat your chest or sing
SE: Single Elimination. Entrants play until they our praises. Your chance to critique AVALONCON 92 and
Name: _ lose a game. DE: Double Elimination. Entrants play influence next year's championships. Midnight Saturday.
until they lose two games. DEMO: No prizes. Afrika Korps (AFK), A, SE, Continuous, 6-hr rounds. J.
OTHER: System to be explained by the GM. Beard, 3822 E. Sahuaro Dr, Phoenix, AZ 85028. Th 8P.
Deposit Enclosed: _ Style: Continuous: Play continues round after Anzio (ANZ), A, SE, Continuous, 4-hr. rounds of the 15-
round until completed with no more tltan I-hour tum Basic Game. T. Oleson, Bergbostigen 5, 163 60
breaks. Rounds will not start after midnight and will Spanga, Sweden. Th 6 P.
Registration and Open Gaming will begin Thursay, July,
30th at 2 PM. Official tournaments will not start before 6 ' resume at 9 AM. The GM may require that rounds Attack Sub (ATS), B, SE, Continuous, five l-hr rounds.
PM that evening. begun by midnight be played to conclusion that Each is best 2-out-of-3 with one player choosing scenario
night. Players must adhere to the GM's schedule. and opponent choosing side. GM provides tie-breaker.
Rounds may go 10 single game fonnat if numing late. M. 6220 Sherbrooke SL W, #510, Mootrea1, QUE H4B 1M3 Super Deluxe ASL (SDA), A, Olher, Continuous, ongoing
Fitzgerald. Su lOA. Canada. Fr 9 A. round. Uses GHQ Miniatures & Terrain Maker hexes. Each
B-17 (BI?), A, Other, Continuous, four 2-hr. rounds. A Korean War (KRW), A, SE, Continuous, 4-hr rounds. player gets troops and a personal leader and plays tilllltat
multi-round bombing raid. Play till you're shot down or lite Opens with Invasion of S. Korea scenario. Must use leader is eliminated. Players may willtdraw and re-enter 10
last mission to take off before midnighL D. Terry, 7501 Advanced Game in fmal. Side determined by VP bid. J. accomodate lIteir schedules provided lItey can get lIteir
Norris Ave, Sykesville, MD 21784. Th 6 P. Bcllas. Th 6 P. force off lite board. GHQ will co-spoosor litis event and
offer additional GHQ credit prizes. A special "Hans
Battle of Bulge '81 (B81), A, SE, Continuous, 4-hr rounds Kremlin (KRM), B, Swiss-Elim, Continuous, three 2-hr Kroger" Award far Close Combat will be awarded by GM
using Racc to BaslOgne scenario, 2nd ed., Advanced rules Preliminary rounds using Advanced Game. Top six E. Ryan.1b 6 P.
& Optional Rule 36. B. Eshleman, 807 Logue St., advance 10 fina1 round to play Revolution variant (If major-
Williamsport, PA 17701. Sa 9 A. . ity agrees). S. Davis. Sa 12 P. Superstar Baseball (SSB), B, Swiss Elim, Split, two Heats
of four I-hr rounds. New charts of '91 Divisional Winners
Battle or Bulge '91 (B91), A, SE, Scheduled, 3-hr rounds. Legends orRobin Hood Jr (LRH), B, SE, Continuous, 2- will be provided all entrants. Play in bollt heats is advanta-
Scenario #1 willt all Basic Game and Optiooal rules and no hr rounds. C. Frattalli. Fr I P. geous but not required. Only lite two-highest scoring mgrs
draws. R. Eastep. Fr 9 A. March Madness (MMS), B, Olher, Split-Continuous, four will advance 10 best-of-seven World series. R. Cox. Fr 5 P.
Blackbeard (BKB) A, SE, Cootinuous Two-pirate games heats of four I-hr rounds. Advanced Game. Each Heat The Longest Day (TLD), A, Demo, Continuous. Non-stop
willt four players per game. If no winner after 4 hours, lite resolves one 16-team bracket for entry 10 Final Four on cootinuatioo of 91's marallton game session starting June
surviving pirate willt the most loot will advance. R. Sunday. Entrants draft from predetermined 16 teams 25l1t willt positions as lItey ended last year. Players should
Knowles. Fr 2 P. (including several new ones of recent vintage) in random be willing to enlist for a minimum of an 8-hr. stint. P.
Britannia (BRI), B, Swiss-Modified, Split, five 5-hr order. Those who enter more lItan one Heat are placed at Sommers. Th 6 P.
rounds. Must play in at least two of five heats 10 qualify for bottom of draft order in later Heats. J. E11mann. Fr 8 P.
The Russian Campaign (TRC), A, Swiss-Elim,
finals. T. Strong, 1027 E. 7l1t St #5, Long Beach, CA Merchant of Venus (MOy), A, Swiss, Continuous, two 3- Continuous, five 2-hr rounds & SE fmals. The swiss format
90813. Th 8 P. hr rounds. Winner based on % of game's mooey. G. Mayer, which will determine SE seeding will be 5-turn games willt
Candidate (CDT), B, SE, Cootinuous, 3-hr rounds. Dirty 5190 Winter Haven Ct, Imperial, MO 62052. Sa 9 A. historic weallter. Players will bid for Germans using nwn-
tricks aplenty in our new electioo game. J. Vroom. Th 7 P. Merchant of Venus JR (MYJ), B, SE, one round willt her of cities controlled after five turns as lite bid. P. Hory.
winner based on % of game money if multiple games in Fr9A.
Circus Maxlmus (CMS), B, SE, Split, Join any or all of
lite four qualifying race heats to qualify for lite Sunday play. C. Hickok. Th 6 P. Third Reich 4th Edilion (3R4), A, SE, Continuous, limit-
final. W. ForresL Fr 2 P. Napoleon's Battles (NPB), B, Demo. Straggler's Sortie: ed 10 16 players due to time restraints. GM will pick vari-
15mm miniatures for lItose who can't get enough and will ants and adjust SW rules. R. Barnfield, 3209 S. 114l1t E.
Civil War (CYW), A, SE, Continuous, 4-hr rounds. D.
be remaining at lite Penn Harris Sunday night. Starts Ave, Tulsa, OK 74146. Th 6 P.
Johnsoo, 11635 Crystal Creek Ln, Manassas, VA 22111. Fr
9A. - Sunday at 4 PM. R. BergerlE.Ryan. Su 4 P. Third Reich Teams 4th Edition (3RT), A, SE,
Naval War (NVW), B, SE, Continuous 2-hr rounds of six- Continuous, Teams of 3-6 players in two or three rounds of
Computer 3rd Reich (C3R), A, SE, Scheduled. Play two
players to 100 pts. J. Sharp. Th 7 P. Campaign Game play. Each team simultaneously plays a
games vs lite Omega - one as each side - anytime between
game as both lite Axis and Allies. Enter your own team or
noon and midnighL Top four scores advance 10 SE head-to- New World (NWD), A, SE, Continuous 5-hr rounds of
write 10 be assigned one. B. Sutton, 9225 F airlane Place,
head Saturday moming. J. Huff. Fr 12 P. six-player games. S. Nicewamer. Sa 7 P.
Laurel, MD 20708. Th 6 P.
D-Day '9Z (D09), B, Swiss-Elim, Cootinuous, two prelim- Panzerblitz (PZB), DE, Continuous 3-hr rounds. C.
Titan (TIN), A, Swiss Elim, Scheduled, three qualifying
inary 3-hr rounds playing each side once. Four highest Harris.Sa 9 A.
6-hr rounds to pick six finalists. B. Scott, 2317 Barracks
point totals advance 10 SE play in which lItey again play Panzer Gruppe Guderian (PGG), A, SE, Scheduled, 4-hr Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22901. Fr 9 A.
two-game rounds. S. Duncan. Fr lOA.
rounds, P. Rennert, 7135 Kurlh Ln, Seabrook, MD 20706.
Titan JR (ITJ), B, SE, Continuous, 3-hr rounds, L. Lingle.
Dinosaurs of Lost World JR (DLW), A, SE, Continuous, Fr6P.
two 3-hr rounds. R. Stakenas. Sa 10 A. Th6P.
Panzer Leader (PZL), A, DE, Continuous, 30hr rounds, K.
Turning Point: Stalingrad (TPS), A, SE, Continuous, 4-
Diplomacy (DIP), A, Swiss, Scheduled, three 5-hr rounds. Harris, 16390 Carriage House Terrace, Silver Spring, MD
Traditiooal Diplomacy prizes augment merchandise credit. hr rounds. One week games willt tie-breakers. Bid VPs for
20904. Sa 9 A.
sides. Ranged attacks x3 and Russian CB play balance
J. Yerkey, 4 Dutton Ave, Catonsville, MD 21228. Fr 6 P. Patlon's Best (PTB), A, Ollter, Continuous, one 6-hr rules. If more than 16 entrants, first round will be
Dragonhunt Jr (DGH), B, SE, Continuous, two-hour round. Rules adapted for multi-player formaL Can you lead Kuibyshev scenario. H. Jones. Fr 12 P.
rounds. K. Stroh. Fr 3 P. lite 999l1t "Armored Apparitions" Bn into Bastogne on
Tyranno Ex (TYX), B, SE, Continuous, 4-hr rounds.
Dune (DUN), A, Swiss-mod, Continuous, two 3-hr rounds. Xmas day? J. Robert, 11318 Chimineas Ave, Northridge,
Learn and play the newest AH game imported from
S. Cousins, 96 Cedar St #4, Bangor, ME 04401. Fr lOA. CA 91326. Sa 6 P.
Europe. If unavailable by lite convention, a prototype
1830 (183), A, SE, Split, lItree 5-hr qualifying 1st-round Pax Brlltannica (PXB), SE, Scheduled, 6+-hr rounds. demonstration will be played instead. M. Uhl. Fr 6 P.
heats to qualify for subsequent play. Players may enter Winners and lOp VP scorers advance to 7-player final. M.
Up Front (UPF), A, Swiss Elim, Continuous, four-9O min.
more lItan one HeaL A non-competitive teaching game will Herman. Fr 6 P.
rounds 10 detennine 16 fmalists for lite four rounds of SE
run concurrently if lItere is sufficient interesL K. Whitesell. Peloponneslan War (PPW), A, SE, Scheduled, 3-hr play. Any agreed-upoo scenario can be used in preliminar-
Th6P. rounds of lite Peloponnesian War scenario. M. Herman. Fr ies, but finalists must play Scenario B, City Fight. A. Maly,
E.Iw!iI:u ill AI:m.i (EIA), A, Other, Continuous, one 3-day 4P. 2120 Foxhall Dr, BelAir, MD 21015. Sa 9 A.
round of lite 1805 or 1792 sccnarlos willt lite winners based Rail Baron (RBN), A, SE, Scheduled, two 6-hour rounds. Victory In the Pacific (VIP), A, Swiss, Scheduled, seven
on % of VPs in lite game being played. This event limited C. Willis. Fr 4 P. 5-hr rounds. G. Petroski, 210 W. Hunt, Twin Lakes, WI
to multiples of 7. W. Jaffe, 7048 Darby Towne Ct.,
Kingstowne, VA 22310. Fr 12 P.
Republic or Rome (ROR), A, SE, Scheduled, 6-hr rounds. 53181. Fr 9 A.
No advance if lite game wins. The Early Republic scenario War At Sea (WAS), A, Swiss, Scheduled, six 2-hr rounds,
Enemy In Sight (EIS), B, SE, Continuous, 2-hr rounds by will be used in lite first round, and lite Middle Republic in A. Applebaum, 12 Gibbs St #3, Brookline, MA 02146. Sa
designer Neal Sch1affer. Su 9 A. lite second, but if decided by time limit, both will use 11 A.
Enemy In Sight Jr (Ell), B, SE, Continuous, 2-hr rounds. Sudden Dcallt VC published in Vol. 27, #5 of GENERAL
Waterloo (WAT), A, SE, Scheduled, 5-hr rounds. Three 5-
C. Villeneuve. Sa 5 P. J. Gottesman. Fr 6 P.
hr rounds/day. R. Robinson.. Fr 9 A.
Fifth Fleet (5FT), A, DE, Scheduled, first four rounds will Roadkill (RKL), B, SE, Continuous, 2-hr rounds. If litis
Win, Place & Show (WPS), B, Continuous, 3-hr rounds. J.
use lItcse scenarios in order: Nicobar War, Indian Ocean new futuristic demolition race game is not yet available at
BurnelL Sa II A.
Wolfpacks, Battle of the Maldives, and Battle of the lite convention, a prototype demonstration will be held
Hattops. K. Boylan. Fr 12 P. instead. R. Jenkins. Sa 2 P. Wizard's Quest Jr (WQJ), B, SE, Continuous. B.
Navolis. Fr lOA.
Flashpolnt: Golan (FPG), SE, Scheduled, 3-hr rounds Russian Front (RFT), A, SE, Scheduled, 7-hr rounds.
using Duel for lite Golan, Norlhem Incursion, & Battle of Advanced Game willt no options. June '41 scenario. Bid # Wooden Ships & Iron Men (WSM), A, Swiss-Elim,
Armageddon as lite rounds progress. Using a fixed game- of objectivesNP calculation. June '41 Fair Weallter. J. Continuous. Three 9().min rounds in preliminaries. Top 4
turn lengllt known only to lite GM. K. Boylan. Sa 3 P. Falling. Fr 9 A. ' advance to 3-hr finals SE. Advanced rules. J. McAden,
RR#2, Box 43, Millbrook, NY 12545. Fr 9 A.
Football Strategy (PBS), B, SE, Continuous, five 2-hr Speed Circuit (SCT), A, SE, Continuous 2-hr rounds willt
rounds. J. Powell. Th 7 P. six players/board. J. BurnelL Sa 7 P. Wrasslin' (WRS), A, SE, Continuous. Elimination bout
Each player =ives a stable of three wrestlers. C. Kibler.
Fortress Europa (FSE), A, SE, Continuous, 3-hr rounds of Squad Leader (SQL), A, Swiss-Elim, Continuous, three 4-
lite Invasion scenario. R. Heller, 138 Osprey Dr, Groton, hr preliminary rounds. Top 8 advance to SE. No COl,
CT 06340. Th 6 P. COD, GI - original SL rules only. S. Romanowski. Fr 1 P. Wrasslin' Jr (WRJ), B, SE, Continuous. GM picks
wrestlers. R. Stakenas Jr. Sa 4 P.
Gangsters (GSR), B, SE, Continuous, 2-hr rounds played Status Pro Baseball (SPB), A, Mini-League, Continuous.
10 a time limit in AIrs newest game. D. Hawlhorne. Fr 6 P. Draft 24-man teams and lIten play divisional schedule plus Wrasslin' Battle Royal (WBR), A, SE, Continuous. GM
play-offs for division leaders. Ouly lItose who write lite selects wrestlers. C. Kibler. Su II A.
Gettysburg '88 (GBG), A, SE, Continuous, 4-hr rounds of GM for a draft position beforehand may play. W. Patrick,
Scenario 5 using Optional rules lOA, B, C, & E. K. Wrasslln' Tag Team (WTT), A, SE, Continuous. Best
30575 Quinkert, Roseville, MI 48066. Sa lOA. two of three falls per match. Form your own two-player
McCarlhy. Th 7 P.
Storm Over Arnhem (SOA), A, SE, Continuous. Three- teams. GM selects wrestlers. C. Kibler. Suo 9 A.
Kingmaker (KGM), A, SE, Continuous, 4-hr rounds. hour rounds willt optional AT Gun placement in effecL 1.
Variant and Advanced Game cards will be used. H. Thoen, Fuqua. Th 8 P.
Southwest of BOLOGNA, ITALY, 23 February 1945: As a prelude to the final
offensive in Italy, it was vital that "Riva Ridge", a series of four peaks dominating
Route 64 between Vergato and the city of Bologna, be cleared. Following successes
on Mount Belvedere and Mount Gorgolesco, taken by coup-tie-main on the 18th and
19th, the U.S. 10th Mountain Division was ordered to press its luck and stonn Mount
Torraccia. But here the Gennan resistance stiffened. After several days of heavy
fighting, the 85th Mountain Infantry was unable to dislodge the emplaced defenders
on the hill-top. The 2nd Battalion, which had been pinned down 400 yards short of
the summit, was wi!hdrawn after having suffered over 400 casualties. General
Truscott, in command of the 5th Army, demanded the peak be attacked again and
promised air support for the next attempt. On the morning of the 23rd, the 3/86th was
committed from divisional reserve.

""'f,,~1')'~;"i BOARD CONFIGURATION:

:<~~. ~. (Only llexrows R-GG arc playable on board 15)
.... ~.~
VICTORY CONDITIONS: The Americans win if, at game end, they Control ~ Delete the HMG from the American OR
~ seven Level-4-hill hexes on board 25.


* Add one 6-6-7 to the American OB.

1-f,;_~_G_E_R_M_AN_S_ets_U_p_F_irs_t _[84_]------------f ~;1

* AMERICAN Moves First [186]
2 3 4 5 6 7 END

Elements of Infanterie Division 334 [ELR: 4] sefup on hill hexes on board 25: {SAN: 4}
dI!; Trench Foxhole
9'I'P RIG tlS
. OVR,OBA: +4 ,~-
4·H A A ci. ;;i;
A= eO ~tOO
I !li [!]
5'~ -f
" !!; OJ
7 IIDr.le ~
Other: +2 5 "IS
OVR. OBA, +4
Other: +2
CC: +1/-1

12 2 3 9 2 8 4

Elements of the 3rd Battalion, 86th Mountain Infantry Regiment [ELR: 5] set up on board 15: {SAN: 3}

l~ f(~ ~ ~MG

N ' MMG ) ' MTR

.§.'·6·7 3-4·7
ci. eO
6·~ ,,:t-!!! r !!; WP6

12 3 2 2 2

SPECIAL RULES: AFTERMATH: Truscott made good on his promise, as Allied fighter-bombers struck the
German positions atop Torraccia at dawn and continued their attacks throughout the mom·
1. Weather is Ground Snow (E3.72), with Wet EC and a Mild Breeze from the ing's battle. Although the 3rd Battalion moved quickly across the saddle between the peaks
southwest at start. on Riva Ridge under cover of the air bombardment and strafmg, heavy Gennan fire slowed
2. Harnrnada does not exist; treat as Open Ground. Roads do not exist. All build- its further progress. For a time, it appeared that the attack would falter completely. But the
ings are stone. Gennan division was not as well-anned as others in the line, several key machinegun posi-
tions were ,destroyed by the bombing, and its own growing casualties took a toll. Persistent
3. All Gennan units, regardless of terrain, may set up concealed. The OB-given efforts on the part of the American officers got the Gis to move forward right into the zone of
"?" must be used as Dummy counters. the air attack. By mid-afternoon, a company had managed to fight its way to the top and cap-
4. All Americans are ski-capable (E4.2), have Winter Camouflage (E3.712), and ture the Gennan command post on the summit. Resistance collapsed. With Riva Ridge in
are considered Commandos for Climbing purposes (B11.433) only. American hands, a wedge had been driven into the Gothic Line. The April offensive would
see the Allies break into the plain beyond.
5. U.S. Air Support is available in the fonn of one FB with HE bombs, which
arrives automatically on Turn 1.
Perhaps no period in history has been more widely romanticized in contemporary
accounts than the Golden Age of Piracy near the turn of the 18th Century. Like the
gunmen of the Wild West, their names have passed into legend forevermore and read
like a veritable Rogue's Gallery of history's greatest villains: Edward Teach (Blackbeard)
... Bartholomew Roberts ... Long Ben Avery ... William Kidd ... and a score more
of the worst cutthroats to ever hoist a Jolly Roger now sail the Spanish Main again
rn search of plunder and adventure. A veritable cornucopia of sea faring lore is relived
in every game of BLACKBEARD.

A highly-informative game, BLACKBEARD puts to rest several myths about those who went" A-Pyrating", while
relating the careers of another era's scoundrels who became infamous, yet were often admired by the common
man for their misdeeds. Players work both sides of the law. Each commands several historic Pirates plus King's
Commissioners-a form of sea-going bounty hunter sent out to bring them to their final day of reckoning. The
pace is dictated by a Fast Action card system that brings merchants over the horizon to be plundered or ports
to be raided and sacked. An ill wind can bring all manner of misfortune ... warships, storms, hull rot, scurvy,
or even mutiny among one's own crew. A good Pirate needs to know when to make himself scarce and when
it's wise to reward his mates with a little harmless fun. Alas, a poor soul can't even find relief in a bottle without
some scoundrel running ye thru amidst your debauchery and revelry. Nor does it hurt to cross the right palm
with some ill-gotten pieces-of-eight when it comes time to rest and refit. There's more to BLACKBEARD than
simple swordplay. The game includes 2 Gameboards, 24 Pirate Cards, 40 Action Cards, Playing Pieces, Historical
Notes, and various Playing Aids, all designed to recapture the Golden Age of Piracy.
For 1 to 4 players ages 12 and up. Solitaire rules included.

No. Title Players Ages Complexity Retail
887 Blackbeard 1 to 4 12 & Up Medium $35.00


4517 Harford Road * Baltimore, MD 21214 * 301-254-9200