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# Louisiana State University

Instructional Models

LSU Team: Madison Pratt and Caroline Clark Mentor Teacher: n/a Course: Algebra II
Date to be Taught: n/a School: n/a Classroom Number: n/a
Time to be Taught: n/a Grade Level: 11 Lesson Topic: Simulations

Title of Lesson:

## Justifying Conclusions from Sample Surveys, Observational Studies, and Experiments

Source of Lesson:

https://www.louisianabelieves.com/docs/default-source/teacher-toolbox-resources/algebra-ii---teachers-companion-document-pdf.pdf?sfvrsn=8

Description of Concepts to be Taught (include a brief summary of why the lesson is important to students):

In this lesson, students will discover the differences between sample surveys, observational studies, and experiments. They will also learn about the need for large
and representative sample sizes. Being able to evaluate a sampling method is important because it will help students to truly evaluate a statistical claim beyond
just checking for accuracy.

Standards:

A2: S-IC.A.1- Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population.

A2: S-IC.B.3- Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to
each.

## Student Learning Objectives:

SWBAT: Recognize a data collection method as being a sample survey, observational study, or experiment.

SWBAT: Explain how randomization relates to sample surveys, observational studies, and experiments.

Safety Precautions:

none

Print out all experiments, sample surveys, and observational studies before class or have students bring laptops to view them on.
ENGAGEMENT Approximate Time: 10 minutes

What the Teacher Will Do Eliciting Questions and Student Responses What the Students Will Do

The teacher will begin the class by asking students “If I flip this coin, what is the probability that I will Students will guess the probability.
what the probability of getting heads is when get heads?” 50%, ½, 1 in 2 are all possible
flipping a coin. answers. Students should have enough probability
sense to know this.
The teacher will flip the coin 6 times and record “If I flip the coin 6 times, and the probability of Students will guess how many heads will appear.
whether it lands on heads or tails for students to landing on heads each time is 50%, how many
see. It is very unlikely that the teacher will actually heads should I get?” 3
flip exactly 3 heads. If it does, flip 6 more times to When teacher does not get exactly 3 heads: Students will try to come up with reasons that the
show students that this will not always happen. “Why didn’t I get 3 heads then?” Student responses coin did not land on heads 3 times.
will vary. Some possible responses are: there were
not enough trials, it was random/luck/chance, etc.
Write down student ideas on the board. Tell
students that they will come back to these ideas
later in the class.

TRANSITION

When students are done brainstorming, pass out statistical reports to each group.

## EXPLORATION Approximate Time: 20 minutes

What the Teacher Will Do Eliciting Questions and Student Responses What the Students Will Do

The teacher will pass out a different statistical Some questions to help students identify the type Students will work with their group members (same
report to each group. Each report will be based off of data collection method: groups as the rest of the unit) to determine if their
of either a sample survey, observational study, or “Think about an experiment in a science class. report is based on a sample survey, observational
experiment. What kind of things do you do?” Test a hypothesis, study, or experiment. They will need to cite specific
compare different treatments of a variable to a parts of the report to back up their claims.
control. The goal here is to get students thinking
about an experiment as comparing two different
treatments to each other. “How are results different
when I change this variable?”

## “What does the word observation mean?” An

observation is something you see or notice. Use
this to get students thinking about observations as
watching trends, seeing something without
changing it. “How many cars use their blinker at
this turn vs. how many do not?”
“What does the word survey mean to you?” Asking
people questions, responses to questions, etc.
“How many hours a day do you spend on
“What are the researches looking for? What are Each report will have a set of questions attached
they testing or trying to find out?” This will depend asking students to identify the following:
on the report given.  The parameter of interest
 An appropriate method for obtaining a
“Does your sampling method include all relevant sample
groups to the sample?” For example, if students  An appropriate sample size
say to call landlines, how do they ensure younger
people who typically do not have landlines are
included?

## “Think back to our coin flipping experiment. Was 6

trials enough to be accurate?” No, we need many
trials

TRANSITION

When all students are done with the activity, the teacher will bring the class back together.

## EXPLANATION Approximate Time: 20 minutes

What the Teacher Will Do Eliciting Questions and Student Responses What the Students Will Do

The teacher will call on each group to explain to the “Why did you choose this data collection method?” Students will give a brief summary of their report.
class what they found. The teacher will also correct Students will talk about key features that told them Then they will tell the class which type of data
any mistakes the students may have made. which type of data collection method was used. collection method was used and explain why. They
will also share their answers to the questions at the
“How do you know this was the parameter of bottom of the report. This will be an informal
interest?” This is what was being discussion with the class rather than a
tested/compared/etc. presentation. This will allow other students to ask
their own questions and input their thoughts.
The teacher will then bring the conversation back to “So after this discussion, is this an experiment, Students will continue discussing with the teacher,
the coin flip. survey, or observation? Why?” Observation, we are but this time it will be about flipping the coin from
not asking anybody any questions, and we do not the beginning of class.
compare different treatments of the coins. We are
strictly observing whether they land on heads or
tails.

## “So why did we not get 3 heads then?” There were

not enough trials.
TRANSITION
“Now let’s try to think of this in terms of our big project.”

## ELABORATION Approximate Time: 10 minutes

What the Teacher Will Do Eliciting Questions and Student Responses What the Students Will Do

The teacher will help students bridge the gap “How can this be used to evaluate the report on Students will go back to their groups and discuss
between the lesson and their project by asking water bills?” We can look at the sample size, how ways to use the information they learned in their
guiding questions. they acquired their sample, and what type of data own projects until class is over.
collection was used.

## EVALUATION Approximate Time: 0 minutes

There will be no formal evaluation of this lesson. The teacher will formatively assess students based on the discussion held in class. At the end of the week,
there will be a formal assessment covering the entire week’s lessons.
Statistical Reports: Note- these will not be labeled for the students like they are here.

1. Observational Study
The city of Baton Rouge wants to know if they should put in a traffic light at a particular intersection. To make
this decision, they need to know the average number of cars passing through the intersection on any given day.
A statistician goes to the intersection every week day for two weeks. She records the number of cars passing
through the intersection for each day.

## 4. Is the sample size representative of the population? Why or why not?

2. Experiment
A farmer wants to know feeding his chickens strawberries will cause them to lay more eggs. He has 75 chickens
on his farm. He separates 25 of the chickens and add strawberries to their food. The rest of the chickens
continue with their normal diet. He then counts the number of eggs laid by each chicken every day. After 3
months, he tallies the results.
1. What type of data collection method is being use?

## 4. Is the sample size representative of the population? Why or why not?

3. Survey
A team of researchers wants to know if radio commercials are an effective form of advertisement. They use a
phonebook to randomly call 500 phone numbers. For those who answer, they ask if they listen to the radio, and
if so, how many hours per week? They compile the data to find the average number of hours spend listening to