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2 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals

Fig. 1 Classification of Air Distribution Strategies

Fig. 1 Classification of Air Diffusion Methods


Licensed for single user. © 2009 ASHRAE, Inc.

discuss UFAD in detail. (These three ASHRAE books were pro- Core area. Area of a register, grille, or linear slot pertaining to
duced by research projects for Technical Committee 5.3.) More in- the frame or border, whichever is less.
formation on ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 is available in its Damper. Device used to vary the volume flow rate of air passing
user’s manual (ASHRAE 2007). through a confined cross section by varying the cross-sectional area.
Diffuser. Outlet discharging supply air in various directions and
APPLICABLE STANDARDS AND CODES planes.
The following standards and codes should be reviewed when Diffusion. Dispersion of air within a space.
applying various room air diffusion methods: Distribution. Moving air to or in a space by an outlet discharg-
ing supply air.
• ASHRAE Standard 55 specifies the combination of indoor ther-
Draft. Undesired or excessive local cooling of a person caused
mal environmental factors and personal factors that will produce
by low temperature and air movement.
thermal acceptability to a majority of space occupants.
• ASHRAE Standard 62.1 establishes the ventilation requirements Drop. Vertical distance that the lower edge of a horizontally pro-
for acceptable indoor environmental quality. This standard is jected airstream descends between the outlet and the end of its throw.
adopted as part of many building codes. Effective area. Net area of an outlet or inlet device through which
• ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 provides energy efficiency re- air can pass; equal to the free area times the coefficient of discharge.
quirements that affect supply air characteristics. Entrainment. Movement of space air into the jet caused by the
• ASHRAE Standard 113 describes a method for evaluating the airstream discharged from the outlet (also known as secondary air
effectiveness of various room air distribution systems in achiev- motion).
ing thermal comfort. Entrainment (or induction) ratio. Volume flow rate of total air
• ASHRAE Standard 129 specifies a method for measuring air- (primary plus entrained air) divided by the volume flow rate of pri-
change effectiveness in mechanically ventilated spaces. mary air at a given distance from the outlet.
Envelope. Outer boundary of an airstream moving at a percepti-
Local codes should also be checked to see how they apply to each ble velocity.
of these subjects.
Exhaust opening or inlet. Any opening through which air is re-
moved from a space.
TERMINOLOGY
Free area. Total minimum area of openings in an air outlet or
Adjacent zone. Area adjacent to an outlet in which long term inlet through which air can pass.
occupancy is not recommended because of potential discomfort. Grille. Functional or decorative device covering any area
Also called clear or near zone. through which air passes.
Aspect ratio. Ratio of length to width of opening or core of a Induction. See Entrainment.
grille. Isothermal jet. Air jet with same temperature as surrounding air.
Axial flow jet. Stream of air with motion approximately sym-
Lower (mixed) zone. In partially mixed systems, zone directly
metrical along a line, although some spreading and drop or rise can
adjacent to floor, in which air is relatively well mixed.
occur from diffusion and buoyancy effects.
CAV. Constant air volume. Neck area. Nominal area of duct connection to air outlet or inlet.
Coanda effect. Effect of a moving jet attaching to a parallel Nonisothermal jet. Air jet with a discharge temperature differ-
surface because of negative pressure developed between jet and ent from surrounding air.
surface. Occupied zone. Room volume where occupants are located
Coefficient of discharge. Ratio of area at vena contracta to area (typically 6 ft above floor level and 1 ft from walls).
of opening. Outlet velocity. Average velocity of air emerging from outlet,
Cold air. General term for supply air, typically between 35 to measured in plane of opening.
45°F. Primary air. Air delivered to an outlet by a supply duct.

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Space Air Diffusion 20.7

it leaves the diffuser outlet. The jet then remains attached to the Outlet Types
surface for some distance before separating again.
Straub and Chen (1957) and Straub et al. (1956) classified outlets
In nonisothermal cases, the jet’s trajectory is determined by the
into five groups:
balance between thermal buoyancy and the Coanda effect, which
depends on jet momentum and distance between the jet exit and Group A. Outlets mounted in or near the ceiling that discharge
solid surface. The behavior of such nonisothermal surface jets has air horizontally.
been studied by Kirkpatrick et al. (1991), Oakes (1987), Wilson Group B. Outlets mounted in or near the floor that discharge air
et al. (1970), and Zhang et al. (1990), each addressing different vertically in a nonspreading jet.
factors. More systematic study of these jets in room ventilation Group C. Outlets mounted in or near the floor that discharge air
flows is needed to provide reliable guidelines for designing air dis- vertically in a spreading jet.
tribution systems.
Group D. Outlets mounted in or near the floor that discharge air
Multiple Jets horizontally.
Group E. Outlets mounted in or near the ceiling that project pri-
Twin parallel air jets act independently until they interfere. The
mary air vertically.
point of interference and its distance from outlets vary with the
distance between outlets. From outlets to the point of interference, Analysis of outlet performance was based on primary air pattern,
maximum velocity, as for a single jet, is on the centerline of each total air pattern, stagnant air layer, natural convection currents, re-
jet. After interference, velocity on a line midway between and par- turn air pattern, and room air motion. Figures 5 to 9 show room air
allel to the two jet centerlines increases until it equals jet center- motion characteristics of the five outlet groups; exterior walls are
line velocity. From this point, maximum velocity of the combined depicted by heavy lines. The principles of air diffusion emphasized
jet stream is on the midway line, and the profile seems to emanate by these figures are as follows:
from a single outlet of twice the area of one of the two outlets.
• Primary air (shown by dark envelopes in Figures 5 to 9) from the
Airflow in Occupied Zone outlet down to a velocity of about 150 fpm can be treated analyt-
Licensed for single user. © 2009 ASHRAE, Inc.

ically. Heating or cooling load has a strong effect on the charac-


Mixing Systems. Laboratory experiments on jets usually involve
teristics of primary air.
recirculated air with negligible resistance to flow on the return path.
Experiments in small-cross-sectional mine tunnels, where return • Total air, shown by light gray envelopes in Figures 5 to 9, is influ-
flow meets considerable resistance, show that jet expansion termi- enced by primary air and is of relatively high velocity (but less
nates abruptly at a distance that is independent of discharge velocity than 150 fpm). Total air is also influenced by the environment and
and is only slightly affected by outlet size. These distances are deter- drops during cooling or rises during heating; it is not subject to
mined primarily by the return path’s size and length. In a long tunnel precise analytical treatment.
with a cross section of 5 by 6 ft, a jet may not travel more than 25 ft; • Natural convection currents form a stagnant zone from the ceiling
in a tunnel with a relatively large section (25 by 60 ft), the jet may down during cooling, and from the floor up during heating. This
travel more than 250 ft. McElroy (1943) provides data on this phase zone forms below the terminal point of the total air during heating
of jet expansion. and above the terminal point during cooling. Because this zone re-
Zhang et al. (1990) found that, for a given heat load and room air sults from natural convection currents, its air velocities are usu-
supply rate, air velocity in the occupied zone increases when outlet ally low (approximately 20 fpm), and the air stratifies in layers of
discharge velocity increases. Therefore, the design supply air veloc- increasing temperatures. The concept of a stagnant zone is impor-
ity should be high enough to maintain the jet traveling in the desired tant in properly applying and selecting outlets because it consid-
direction, to ensure good mixing before it reaches the occupied ers the natural convection currents from warm and cold surfaces
zone. Excessively high outlet air velocity induces high air velocity and internal loads.
in the occupied zone and results in thermal discomfort. • A return inlet affects room air motion only in its immediate vicin-
Turbulence Production and Transport. Air turbulence in a ity. The intake should be located in the stagnant zone to return the
room is mainly produced at the diffuser jet region by interaction of warmest room air during cooling or the coolest room air during
supply air with room air and with solid surfaces (walls or ceiling) in heating. The importance of the location depends on the relative
the vicinity. It is then transported to other parts of the room, in- size of the stagnant zone, which depends on the type of outlet.
cluding the occupied zone (Zhang et al. 1992). Turbulence is also • The general room air motion (shown by arrows in white areas in
damped by viscous effect. Air in the occupied zone usually contains Figures 5 to 9) is a gentle drift toward the total air. Room condi-
very small amounts of turbulent kinetic energy compared to the jet tions are maintained by entraining room air into the total air-
region. Because turbulence may cause thermal discomfort (Fanger stream. The room air motion between the stagnant zone and the
et al. 1989), air distribution systems should be designed so that sta- total air is relatively slow and uniform. The highest air motion
tionary occupants are not subjected to the region where primary occurs in and near the total airstreams.
mixing between supply and room air occurs (except in specialized Group A Outlets. This group includes high sidewall grilles,
applications such as task ambient or spot-conditioning systems). sidewall diffusers, ceiling diffusers, linear ceiling diffusers, and
similar outlets. High sidewall grilles and ceiling diffusers are illus-
SYSTEM DESIGN trated in Figure 5.
Primary air envelopes (isovels) show a horizontal, two-jet pattern
MIXED-AIR SYSTEMS for the high sidewall and a 360° diffusion pattern for the ceiling out-
In mixed-air systems, high-velocity supply jets from air outlets let. Although variation of vane settings might cause a discharge in
maintain comfort by mixing room air with supply air. This air mix- one, two, or three jets in the case of the sidewall outlet, or have a
ing, heat transfer, and resultant velocity reduction should occur out- smaller diffusion angle for the ceiling outlet, the general effect in
side the occupied zone. Occupant comfort is maintained not directly each is the same.
by motion of air from the outlets, but from secondary air motion that During cooling, the total air drops into the occupied zone at a dis-
results from mixing in the unoccupied zone. Comfort is maximized tance from the outlet that depends on air quantity, supply velocity,
when uniform temperature distribution and room air velocities of temperature differential between supply and room air, deflection set-
less than 50 fpm are maintained in the occupied zone. ting, ceiling effect, and type of loading within the space. Analytical

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20.10 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals

Fig. 8 Air Motion Characteristics of Group E Outlets

Fig. 7 Air Motion Characteristics of Group D Outlets

Fig. 9 Air Motion Characteristics of Group E Outlets


(Straub et al. 1956)
Licensed for single user. © 2009 ASHRAE, Inc.

Wide deflection settings also cause a ceiling effect, which in-


creases throw and decreases drop. To prevent smudging, total air
should be directed away from the ceiling, but this is rarely practicable,
except for very high ceilings. For optimum air diffusion in areas with
normal ceilings, total air should scrub the ceiling surface.
Drop increases and throw decreases with larger temperature dif-
ferentials. For constant temperature differential, airflow rate affects
drop more than velocity. Therefore, to avoid drop, several small out-
lets in a room may be better than one large outlet.
Fig. 8 Air Motion Characteristics of Group D Outlets With the data in the section on Principles of Jet Behavior, throw
(Straub et al. 1956) may be selected for part of the distance between outlet and wall or,
preferably, for the entire distance. For outlets in opposite walls,
or (2) locating an exhaust or return grille adjacent to the source (more throw should be one-half the distance between the walls. Following
economical for cooling applications, because heat is withdrawn at its these recommendations, the air drops before striking the opposite
source rather than dissipated into the space). Where lighting loads wall or the opposing airstream. To counteract specific sources of
are heavy (5 W/ft2) and ceilings relatively high (above 15 ft), outlets heat gain or to provide higher air motion in rooms with high ceil-
should be located below the lighting load, and the stratified warm air ings, a longer throw may be necessary. In no case should the drop
should be removed by an exhaust or return fan. An exhaust fan is rec- exceed the distance from the outlet to the 6 ft level.
ommended if the wet-bulb air temperature is above that of the To maintain maximum ventilation effectiveness with ceiling dif-
outdoors; a return fan is recommended if the wet-bulb temperature is fusers, throws should be kept as long as possible. With VAV designs,
below this temperature. These methods reduce the requirements for some overthrow at maximum design volumes is desirable; the high-
supply air. est induction can be maintained at reduced flows. Adequate induc-
The following selection considerations for outlets in groups A tion by a ceiling-mounted diffuser prevents short-circuiting unmixed
through E are based on analysis of outlet performance tests con- supply air between supply outlet and ceiling-mounted returns.
ducted by Straub and Chen (1957) and Straub et al. (1956). Group B Outlets. In selecting these outlets, it is important to
Group A Outlets. Outlets mounted in or near the ceiling with provide enough throw to project air high enough for proper cooling
horizontal air discharge should not be used with temperature differ- in the occupied zone. Increased supply air velocity improves air dif-
fusion during both heating and cooling. Also, a terminal velocity of
entials exceeding 25°F during heating. Hart and Int-Hout (1980) and
about 150 fpm is found at the same distance from the floor during
Lorch and Straub (1983) recommended that temperature differen-
both heating and cooling. Therefore, outlets should be selected from
tials not exceed 15°F during heating. Consequently, these outlets
data given in the section on Principles of Jet Behavior, with throw
should be used for heating buildings in regions where winter heating
based on a terminal velocity of 150 fpm.
is only a minor problem and, in northern latitudes, solely for interior
With outlets installed near the exposed wall, primary air is drawn
spaces. However, these outlets are particularly suited for cooling and
toward the wall, resulting in a wall effect similar to the ceiling effect
can be used with high airflow rates and large temperature differen- for ceiling outlets. This scrubbing of the wall increases heat gain or
tials. They are usually selected for their cooling characteristics. loss. To reduce scrubbing, outlets should be installed some distance
Performance is affected by various factors. Vane deflection set- from the wall, or supply air should be deflected away from the wall.
tings reduce throw and drop by changing air from a single straight However, to prevent air from dropping into the occupied zone
jet to a wide-spreading or fanned-out jet. Accordingly, a sidewall before it reaches maximum projection, the distance should not be
outlet with 0° deflection has a longer throw and a greater drop than too large nor the angle too wide. A distance of 6 in. and an angle of
a ceiling diffuser with a single 360° angle of deflection. Sidewall 15° is satisfactory.
grilles and similar outlets with other deflection settings may have These outlets do not counteract natural convection currents unless
performance characteristics between these two extremes. they are installed in sufficient numbers around the space perimeter,

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Space Air Diffusion 20.11

preferably in locations of greatest heat gain or loss (under windows). Velocity. Airflow patterns and room air movement are not influ-
The effect of drapes and blinds must be considered with outlets in- enced by the location of return and exhaust inlets beyond a distance
stalled near windows. Correctly installed, these outlets handle large of one characteristic length of the return or exhaust inlet (e.g.,
airflow rates with uniform air motion and temperatures. square root of the inlet area). Air handled by the inlet approaches
Group C Outlets. These outlets can be used for heating, even from all directions, and its velocity decreases rapidly as distance
with severe heat load conditions. Higher supply velocities produce from the inlet increases. Therefore, drafty conditions rarely occur
better room air diffusion than lower velocities, but velocity is not near return inlets.
critical in selecting these units for heating. Permissible pressure drop. Permissible pressure drop depends on
To achieve required projection for cooling, use temperature dif- the designer’s choice. Proper pressure drop allowances should be
ferentials of less than 15°F. With higher temperature differentials, made for control or directive devices.
supply air velocity is not sufficient to project the total air up to the Noise. Noise generation and transmission through return inlets
desired level. should also be taken into account in space acoustical space calcu-
These outlets have been used successfully for residential heating, lations.
but they may also offer a solution for applications where heating Location. Inlets should be located to minimize short-circuiting
requirements are severe and cooling requirements are moderate. For of supply air, although tests conducted under ASHRAE Standard
throw, refer to the section on Principles of Jet Behavior. 129 show little short circuiting with cold ceiling supply and return
Group D Outlets. These outlets direct high-velocity total air air. If air is supplied by jets attached to the ceiling, exhaust inlets
into the occupied zone, and, therefore, are not recommended for should be located between the jets or at the side of the room, away
comfort, particularly for summer cooling. For heating, outlet from supply air jets. In rooms with vertical temperature stratifica-
velocities should not be higher than 300 fpm, so that air velocities tion, such as foundries, computer rooms, theaters, bars, kitchens,
in the occupied zone will not be excessive. These outlets have been dining rooms, and club rooms, exhaust inlets should be located near
applied successfully to process installations where controlled air the ceiling to collect warm air, odors, and fumes.
velocities are desired. For industrial rooms with gas release, selection of exhaust inlet
Group E Outlets. The different throws shown in the heating and locations depends on the density of released gases and their temper-
for single user. © 2009 ASHRAE, Inc.

cooling diagrams for these outlets become critical in selecting and ature; locations should be specified for each application.
applying the outlets. Because the total air enters the occupied zone Exhaust inlets located in walls and doors, depending on their ele-
for both cooling and heating, outlets are used for either cooling or vation, have the characteristics of either floor or ceiling returns. In
heating, but seldom for both. large buildings with many small rooms, return air may be brought
During cooling, temperature differential, supply air velocity, and through door grilles or door undercuts into the corridors and then to
airflow rate strongly influence projection. Therefore, low values of a common return or exhaust. If pressure drop through door returns
each should be selected. is excessive, air diffusion to the room may be seriously unbalanced
During heating, it is important to select the correct supply air by opening or closing doors. Outward leakage through doors or
velocity to project warm air into the occupied zone. Temperature windows cannot be counted on for dependable results.
differential is also critical because a small temperature differential
reduces variation of throw during cyclic fluctuation of the supply air Ceiling-Based Air Diffusion
temperature. Vane setting for deflection is as important here as it is For the best thermal comfort conditions and highest ventilation
for group B and C outlets. effectiveness in an occupied space (e.g., office or retail store), the
Investigations by Miller and Nevins (1969) and Nevins and Ward entire system performance of air diffusers should be considered.
(1968) in full-scale interior test rooms indicate that air temperatures This is particularly true for open spaces, where airstreams from dif-
and velocities throughout a room cooled by a ventilating ceiling are fusers may interact with each other, and for perimeter spaces, where
a linear function of room load (heat load per unit area), and are not airstreams from diffusers interact with hot or cold perimeter walls.
affected significantly by variations in ceiling type, total air temper- Although throw data for individual diffusers are used in system
ature differential, or air volumetric flow rate. Higher room loading design, a mixed-air distribution system should maintain a high qual-
produces wider room air temperature variations and higher veloci- ity of air diffusion in the occupied space with low temperature vari-
ties, which decrease performance. ation, good air mixing, and no objectionable drafts in the occupied
These studies also found no appreciable difference in the perfor- space (typically 6 in. to 6 ft above the floor).
mance of air-diffusing ceilings and circular ceiling diffusers for lower Adequate ventilation requires that the selected diffusers effectively
room loads (20 Btu/h·ft2). For higher room loads (80 Btu/h·ft2), an mix (by entrainment) the total air in the room with the conditioned
air-diffusing ceiling system has only slightly larger vertical tempera- supply air, which is assumed to contain adequate ventilation air.
ture variations and slightly lower room air velocities than a ceiling Interior Spaces. An interior space is conditioned exclusively for
diffuser system. cooling loads, except after unoccupied periods when the space may
When the ventilating ceiling is used at exterior exposures, the have cooled to below a comfortable temperature. Tests by Hart and
additional load at the perimeter must be considered. During heating, Int-Hout (1981), Miller (1979), Miller and Nash (1971), and Miller
the designer must provide for the cold-wall effect (radiation, con- and Nevins (1970) suggest that the air diffusion performance index
vection, and conduction loads), as with any ceiling supply distribu- (ADPI) (see the section on ADPI under System Performance Eval-
tion system. Sound generated by the air supply device must also be uation) can be improved by moving diffusers closer together (i.e.,
considered in total system analysis to ensure that room sound levels specifying more diffusers for a given space and air quantity) and by
do not exceed the design criteria. limiting the supply air/room air temperature difference. In a given
Noise. Noise generated by diffusers transmits to the occupied system of diffusers, these studies found an optimum operating range
space directly and cannot be attenuated. Therefore, the distribution of air volumetric flow rates at a given thermal load. Operating load
system design should meet the sound level criteria specified in varies with diffuser design, ceiling height, thermal load, and diffuser
Chapter 47 of the 2007 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications. orientation. This information can be obtained by constructing a
mock-up representing the proposed building space, with several
Inlet Selection and Location alternatives tested for ADPI values, in accordance with ASHRAE
Selection. Selection of return and exhaust inlets depends on Standard 113. Usually, the diffuser manufacturer performs these
(1) velocity in the occupied zone near the inlets, (2) permissible tests and can provide the best choice of design options for a partic-
pressure drop through the inlets, and (3) noise. ular building. For a VAV system, diffuser spacing selection should

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20.14 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals

Table 2 Characteristic Room Length for Several Diffusers popularity has recently spread to North America because of their
Diffuser Type Characteristic Length L
high contaminant removal efficiencies and their possible energy
savings, especially in relatively mild climates. Thermal displace-
High sidewall grille Distance to wall perpendicular to jet ment ventilation (TDV) systems are the most widely used variant
Circular ceiling pattern Distance to closest wall or intersecting air jet of these systems.
diffuser The main objective of a mixed-air system is to create a homoge-
Sill grille Length of room in direction of jet flow nous mixture of supply and room air throughout the space. Contam-
Ceiling slot diffuser Distance to wall or midplane between outlets inants and heat are diluted and then extracted through the return
Light troffer diffusers Distance to midplane between outlets plus inlet. TDV systems (Figure 12) do not attempt to mix heat and con-
distance from ceiling to top of occupied zone
taminants; instead, they allow them to escape into the upper unin-
Cross-flow pattern ceiling Distance to wall or midplane between outlets
habited zone, from which they are extracted. With a TDV system,
diffusers
supply air is introduced directly into the occupied zone at low veloc-
ity and a temperature lower than that of room air. Contaminants and
Table 3 Air Diffusion Performance Index (ADPI) heat in the space are carried by convective flows (created by space
Selection Guide heat sources) into the upper part of the room. Warm air in the upper
Room X50 /L for Maxi- For ADPI zone does not recirculate into the occupied zone, so the temperature
Terminal Load, Maximum mum Greater Range of and concentration of most impurities at the exhaust inlet exceed
Device Btu/h·ft2 ADPI ADPI than X50 /L those in the occupied zone and at the breathing level.
High sidewall 80 1.8 68 — — TDV systems offer increased ventilation effectiveness and may
grilles 60 1.8 72 70 1.5 to 2.2 reduce HVAC energy consumption. Applications include class-
40 1.6 78 70 1.2 to 2.3 rooms, conference rooms, theaters, restaurants, supermarkets, and
20 1.5 85 80 1.0 to 1.9 spaces with high ceilings (10 ft and above) (Skistad et al. 2002).
<10 1.4 90 80 0.7 to 2.1 Sandberg and Blomqvist (1989) suggest that the maximum con-
Circular ceiling 80 0.8 76 70 0.7 to 1.3 vective cooling load in office buildings with TDV not exceed about
for single user. © 2009 ASHRAE, Inc.

diffusers 60 0.8 83 80 0.7 to 1.2 8 Btu/h·ft2, so that the maximum vertical temperature gradient in
40 0.8 88 80 0.5 to 1.5 the occupied zone is not larger than 5°F. Kegel and Schulz (1989)
20 0.8 93 80 0.4 to 1.7 and Svensson (1989) suggested higher cooling load limits of 10 to
<10 0.8 99 80 0.4 to 1.7 13 Btu/h·ft2. However, Chen and Glicksman (1999) demonstrated
that cooling loads up to 40 Btu/h·ft2 can be handled in the office
Sill grille, 80 1.7 61 60 1.5 to 1.7
straight vanes
environment if the ventilation rate is increased. Howe et al. (2003)
60 1.7 72 70 1.4 to 1.7
reported successful application of TDV in a telecommunication
40 1.3 86 80 1.2 to 1.8
equipment room with cooling loads up to 108 Btu/h·ft2, although
20 0.9 95 90 0.8 to 1.3
thermal comfort was not the primary objective of this application.
Sill grille, 80 0.7 94 90 0.6 to 1.5
spread vanes 60 0.7 94 80 0.6 to 1.7 Convective Flows Associated with Space Heat Sources
40 0.7 94 — — Convective heat flows in the space are the driving forces behind
20 0.7 94 — — TDV systems. When the surface temperature of a heat source ex-
Ceiling slot 80 0.3 85 80 0.3 to 0.7 ceeds that of the air surrounding it, heat is transferred to ambient air
diffusers (for 60 0.3 88 80 0.3 to 0.8 by convection. This transfer warms the air and causes it to rise be-
T100/L) 40 0.3 91 80 0.3 to 1.1 cause of buoyancy. These rising plumes grow as they entrain room
20 0.3 92 80 0.3 to 1.5 air. Radiant heat transfer does not directly affect heat plume forma-
Light troffer 60 2.5 86 80 <3.8 tion, but may indirectly influence development of other heat source
diffusers 40 1.0 92 90 <3.0 plumes by raising the surface temperature of the source.
20 1.0 95 90 <4.5 Each space heat source forms its own thermal plume. Formation
Cross-flow 11 to 50 2.0 96 90 1.4 to 2.7 of the plume and its vertical travel are determined by several factors:
pattern 11 to 50 2.0 96 80 1.0 to 3.4
diffusers • Shape and surface area of heat source
• Intensity of heat source
• Air turbulence around heat source (turbulence discourages plume
highest loads; however, the optimum design condition changes formation)
only slightly with load.
• Temperature gradient in the space (affects plume volume)
Design Conditions. The quantity of air must be known from
other design specifications. If it is not known, the solution must be The heat plume rises until it encounters ambient air of similar
obtained by trial and error. temperature.
The devices for which data were obtained are (1) high sidewall The Archimedes number [Equation (15)] relates the ratio be-
grilles; (2) circular pattern ceiling diffusers; (3) sill grilles; (4) two- tween buoyancy forces and velocity forces of the air surrounding the
and four-slot ceiling diffusers; (5) light troffer diffusers; and (6) heat source. Larger Archimedes numbers indicate that buoyancy
square-faced one-, two-, three-, and four-jet pattern (cross-flow) dominates the air behavior, whereas smaller numbers indicate that
ceiling diffusers. Table 3 summarizes recommendations on XVT /L inertia (velocity) dominates. Lower Archimedes numbers in mixed-
by giving the value of X50 /L at which ADPI is maximized for vari- air systems usually inhibit plume formation.
ous loads, as well as a range of values of X50 /L for which ADPI is Characteristics of Thermal Plumes
above a minimum specified value.
As a thermal plume rises because of natural convection above a
FULLY STRATIFIED SYSTEMS heat source, it entrains surrounding air and therefore increases in
size and volume, and decreases in velocity (Figure 13). The maxi-
Fully stratified air distribution systems have been used in indus- mum height to which a plume rises depends primarily on the heat
trial applications for many years. In the 1980s, they became a pop- source’s strength, and secondarily on stratification in the room
ular alternative for office and classroom HVAC in Europe, and their (which decreases the rising plume’s buoyancy). The stratified zone

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Round Ceiling Diffusers (continued) diffusers
XC-310
Redefine your comfort zone. ™ | www.titus-hvac.com

• Model XC-310 heavy duty round ceiling diffusers are designed


for both heating and cooling applications
• Uniform 360° discharge pattern
• Excellent performance in variable air volume applications
• Discharge pattern can be adjusted from full horizontal to full
vertical. At the full vertical setting the diffuser forces the air in a
long downward projection. The result is effective heating and spot
cooling from high mounting locations.
• Especially suitable for factories, warehouses, convention halls,
coliseums, shopping malls, and other applications where
ceilings are high and conditions are variable

XC-310

F AVAILABLE MODEL:
factories open ceiling

See website for Specifications

XC-310 / Steel / Ring Operated / Vertical to Horizontal Discharge Pattern

FINISH
Standard Finish - #26 White

OVERVIEW
Adjustable Heavy Duty / Steel
Titus model XC-310 heavy duty round ceiling diffusers are especially
suitable for factories, warehouses, convention halls, coliseums,
shopping malls, and other applications where ceilings are high and Face View
conditions are variable.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES
• Ring operator can be adjusted with a pole
• Outer cone is contoured to guard against ceiling smudging
• Optional damper is adjustable by removing the inner core of the
diffuser
• Material is steel
XC-310

F72
F72
DIMENSIONS diffusers
XC-310 UNIT DIMENSIONS

Redefine your comfort zone. ™ | www.titus-hvac.com


Outside Diameter C

Ceiling Opening Diameter B


Nominal Round Duct Size D
D minus 1/32"

E Open
Threaded
F Closed
Post

Nut

G
Ring Operator F
Nominal
Round Duct B C E F G
Size D

10 10½ 18¼ 7½ 3 10
12 12½ 22 93/8 4 12
14 14½ 26 6¾ 4 14
16 16½ 29 8½ 5 16
18 18½ 32½ 91/8 5 18
20 20½ 36 103/8 5½ 20
24 24½ 43¼ 12¼ 65/8 24
30 30½ 535/8 137/8 8¼ 30
36 36½ 643/8 155/8 10 36

DIMENSIONS

All dimensions are in inches


F73
PERFORMANCE DATA diffusers
XC-310
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Neck Velocity 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600
Velocity Pressure 0.010 0.016 0.022 0.031 0.040 0.051 0.062 0.090 0.122 0.160
Air Flow, cfm 220 270 330 380 435 490 545 655 765 870
Total Pressure, H 0.021 0.033 0.047 0.064 0.083 0.105 0.130 0.187 0.255 0.333
Total Pressure, V 0.012 0.019 0.027 0.037 0.048 0.061 0.076 0.109 0.148 0.194
NC ( Noise Criterion), H. - 17 22 27 31 35 38 44 49 53
10" DIa.
NC ( Noise Criterion), V. - 14 19 24 28 32 35 41 46 50
Throwfeet,H. 1-2-4 2-2-5 2-3-6 2-3-7 3-4-8 3-4-9 3-5-10 4-6-12 4-7-13 5-8-15
Throw feet, V, 20F Cool Delta-T, 50 fpm 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 48 56 63
Throw feet, V, 40F Heat Delta-T, 50 fpm 5 7 8 9 11 12 13 16 19 21
Air Flow, cfm 315 390 470 550 630 705 785 940 1100 1255
Total Pressure, H 0.021 0.032 0.046 0.063 0.083 0.104 0.129 0.186 0.253 0.330
Total Pressure, V 0.012 0.019 0.028 0.038 0.050 0.063 0.078 0.113 0.153 0.200
NC ( Noise Criterion), H. 11 18 23 28 32 36 39 45 50 54
12" DIa.
NC ( Noise Criterion), V. - 15 20 25 29 33 36 42 47 51
Throwfeet, H. 2-2-5 2-3-6 2-3-7 3-4-8 3-5-9 3-5-10 4-6-12 5-7-14 5-8-16 6-9-18
Throw feet, V, 20F Cool Delta-T, 50 fpm 14 20 24 28 33 36 41 49 57 65
Throw feet, V, 40F Heat Delta-T, 50 fpm 4 6 8 9 11 12 14 16 19 22
Air Flow, cfm 425 530 635 745 850 955 1060 1270 1490 1695
Total Pressure, H 0.020 0.032 0.046 0.063 0.082 0.103 0.128 0.184 0.250 0.327
Total Pressure, V 0.012 0.018 0.028 0.038 0.050 0.063 0.078 0.113 0.153 0.200
NC ( Noise Criterion), H. 12 19 24 29 33 37 40 46 51 55
14" DIa.
NC ( Noise Criterion), V. - 16 21 26 30 34 37 43 48 52
Throwfeet, H. 2-3-5 2-3-7 3-4-8 3-5-9 4-5-11 4-6-12 4-7-13 5-8-16 6-9-19 7-11-21
Throw feet, V, 20F Cool Delta-T, 50 fpm 13 20 26 31 35 39 44 52 61 70
Throw feet, V, 40F Heat Delta-T, 50 fpm 4 6 8 10 12 13 15 17 20 23
Air Flow, cfm 710 885 1060 1240 1420 1590 1770 2120 2480 2830

F
Total Pressure, H 0.020 0.031 0.045 0.061 0.079 0.101 0.124 0.179 0.243 0.318
Total Pressure, V 0.011 0.017 0.028 0.038 0.050 0.063 0.078 0.113 0.153 0.200
NC ( Noise Criterion), H. 13 20 26 31 35 38 42 47 52 56
18" DIa.
NC ( Noise Criterion), V. - 17 23 28 32 35 39 44 49 53
Throwfeet, H. 2-3-7 3-4-9 3-5-10 4-6-12 5-7-14 5-8-16 6-9-17 7-10-21 8-12-24 9-14-28
Throw feet, V, 20F Cool Delta-T, 50 fpm 14 21 30 37 42 47 53 63 74 84
Throw feet, V, 40F Heat Delta-T, 50 fpm 4 6 9 12 14 16 18 21 25 28
Air Flow, cfm 875 1100 1310 1530 1750 1970 2190 2610 3060 3500
Total Pressure, H 0.020 0.031 0.044 0.060 0.078 0.099 0.122 0.176 0.239 0.312
Total Pressure, V 0.010 0.016 0.028 0.038 0.050 0.063 0.078 0.113 0.153 0.200
NC ( Noise Criterion), H. 14 21 26 31 35 39 42 48 53 57
20" DIa.
NC ( Noise Criterion), V. 11 18 23 28 32 36 39 45 50 54
Throwfeet, H. 3-4-8 3-5-10 4-6-12 4-7-13 5-8-15 6-9-17 6-10-19 8-11-23 9-13-27 10-15-31
Throw feet, V, 20F Cool Delta-T, 50 fpm 14 23 32 40 46 52 57 68 80 92
Throw feet, V, 40F Heat Delta-T, 50 fpm 4 7 9 13 15 17 19 23 27 31
Air Flow, cfm 1260 1570 1880 2200 2510 2820 3140 3770 4400 5020
Total Pressure, H 0.019 0.029 0.042 0.057 0.075 0.095 0.117 0.169 0.230 0.300
Total Pressure, V 0.010 0.014 0.028 0.038 0.050 0.063 0.078 0.113 0.153 0.200
NC ( Noise Criterion), H. 15 22 27 32 36 40 43 49 54 58
24" DIa.
NC ( Noise Criterion), V. 12 19 24 29 33 37 40 46 51 55
Throwfeet, H. 3-5-9 4-6-12 5-7-14 5-8-16 6-9-18 7-10-21 8-12-23 9-14-28 11-16-32 12-18-37
Throw feet, V, 20F Cool Delta-T, 50 fpm 16 25 35 47 54 60 67 81 94 107
Throw feet, V, 40F Heat Delta-T, 50 fpm 5 7 10 14 18 20 22 27 31 36
Air Flow, cfm 1963 2454 2945 3436 3927 4418 4909 5890 6872 7854
Total Pressure, H 0.017 0.027 0.039 0.053 0.069 0.088 0.108 0.156 0.213 0.278
Total Pressure, V 0.009 0.014 0.020 0.027 0.036 0.045 0.056 0.081 0.110 0.144
NC ( Noise Criterion), H. 16 23 29 34 38 41 45 50 55 59
30" DIa.
NC ( Noise Criterion), V. 13 20 26 31 35 38 42 47 52 56
Throwfeet, H. 4-6-12 5-7-14 6-9-17 7-10-20 8-12-23 9-13-26 10-14-29 12-17-35 13-20-40 15-23-46
Throw feet, V, 20F Cool Delta-T, 50 fpm 19 29 42 57 66 74 82 99 115 132
PERFORMANCE DATA

Throw feet, V, 40F Heat Delta-T, 50 fpm 2 3 5 7 9 11 14 20 25 28


Air Flow, cfm 2827 3534 4241 4948 5655 6362 7069 8482 9896 11310
Total Pressure, H 0.016 0.024 0.035 0.048 0.063 0.079 0.098 0.141 0.191 0.250
Total Pressure, V 0.007 0.012 0.017 0.023 0.030 0.038 0.046 0.067 0.091 0.119
NC ( Noise Criterion), H. 17 24 30 35 39 42 46 51 56 60
36" DIa.
NC ( Noise Criterion), V. 14 21 27 32 36 39 43 48 53 57
Throwfeet, H. 5-7-14 6-9-17 7-10-21 8-12-24 9-14-28 10-16-31 12-17-35 14-21-41 16-24-48 18-28-55
Throw feet, V, 20F Cool Delta-T, 50 fpm 22 34 49 67 78 88 98 117 137 156
Throw feet, V, 40F Heat Delta-T, 50 fpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 11 15 20

• All pressures are in inches of water • NC values are based on a room absorption of 10 dB, re 10-12 watts.
• Radius of diffusion values are given for a terminal velocity of 50 fpm Values shown are for the horizontal discharge pattern (center
with a 20°F cooling temperature differential closed). For the vertical pattern (center open), subtract three.
• Vertical projection values are given for a terminal velocity of 50 fpm. • Data obtained from tests conducted in accordance with ANSI/
Minimum projections are for a 40°F heating temperature differential, ASHRAE Standard 70-2006. Actual performance, with flexible duct
while maximum projections are for a 20°F cooling differential. inlet, may vary in the field. See the Engineering Guidelines section of
this catalog for additional information.

F74
F74
Perforated Ceiling Diffusers diffusers
PAS / PAR / PDS / PDR
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• Titus perforated ceiling diffusers are designed for both heating and
cooling applications
• Excellent performance in variable air volume systems
• A tight, uniform, horizontal blanket of air protects the ceiling
against smudging
• Return models have the same face and border construction as the
supply models, for harmonious appearance in the room
PAS PAR
• Discharge pattern (supply models) can be adjusted to vertical as
well as to 1-, 2-, 3- or 4-way horizontal. Can be adjusted before or
after installation.
• Discharge pattern is easily adjusted by unlatching and dropping
the perforated face, then rotating the pattern controllers
• Dropping the perforated face also gives access to the optional
damper

F AVAILABLE MODELS:
metric sizes

See website for Specifications

Steel Models:
PAS / Supply / Flush Face
PAR / Return / Flush Face
PDS / Supply / Drop Face
PDR / Return / Drop Face

Aluminum Models:
PAS-AA / Supply / Flush Face
PAR-AA / Return / Flush Face

FINISH
Standard Finish - #26 White

OVERVIEW
PAS / PAR / PDS / PDR

1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-Way Discharge Pattern


Perforated ceiling diffusers are typically selected to meet architectural
demands for air outlets that blend into the ceiling plane. Titus perforated
diffusers can be selected for a round pattern to maximize capacity or
star pattern to maximize throw.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES
• Perforated face has 3/16" diameter holes on ¼" staggered centers
• Inlet collar (neck) has ample depth for easy duct connection
• Material is heavy gauge steel backpan; steel or aluminum
perforated face according to the model selected
• Optional factory-installed R-6 foil-backed insulation available for
24 x 24" full face models, neck sizes 6-16, borders 1, 2, 3 and 4

F78
F78
PERFORMANCE DATA diffusers
• Data obtained from tests conducted in accordance with ANSI / • NC values based on octave band 2 to 7 sound power levels minus a

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ASHRAE Standard 70-2006. Actual performance, with flexible duct room absorption of 10 dB
inlet, may vary in the field. See the Engineering Guidelines section of • Each NC value represents the noise criteria curve that will not
this catalog for additional information. be exceeded by the sound pressure in any of the octave bands, 2
• Throw values given are for terminal velocities of 150, 100 and 50 fpm through 7, with a room absorption of 10 dB, re 10-12 watts
and for isothermal conditions • Dash (-) in space denotes an NC value of less than 10
• For an explanation of catalog throw data, see the section, Engineering • All pressures are given in inches of water
Guidelines • To obtain static pressure, subtract the velocity pressure from the
total pressure

PAR, PXP, PMR, PXP-DR, PDR PERFORMANCE DATA


PAR, PXP, PMR - FLUSH FACE - RETURN; PXP-DR, PDR - DROP FACE - RETURN
Neck Vel, fpm 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400
Neck Size Vp, in. Wg 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.12
Ps (-), in. Wg 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.23 0.36 0.51 0.70
12 x 12 Flow Rate, cfm 59 78 98 118 137 157 196 235 275
6 Dia. *
Room NC - - - 14 18 21 27 32 36
Face Flow Rate, cfm 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350
6 x 6 Neck *
Room NC - - 12 17 21 24 30 35 39
Flow Rate, cfm 208 278 347 417 486 556 694 833 972
10 x 10 Neck
Room NC 15 23 29 33 37 41 47 51 55
Neck Vel, fpm 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400

F
Neck Size Vp, in. Wg 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.12
Ps (-), in. Wg 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.24 0.37 0.54 0.73
Flow Rate, cfm 59 78 98 118 137 157 196 235 275
6 Dia. * Room NC - - - 13 17 20 26 31 34
Flow Rate, cfm 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350
6 x 6 Neck *
Room NC - - - 14 18 21 27 32 35
Flow Rate, cfm 105 140 174 209 244 279 349 419 488
8 Dia. *
Room NC - - 13 17 21 24 30 35 38
Flow Rate, cfm 133 178 222 267 311 356 444 533 622
8 x 8 Neck *
Room NC - - 14 18 22 25 31 36 39
Flow Rate, cfm 164 218 273 327 382 436 545 654 763
10 Dia.*
Room NC - - 16 20 24 27 33 38 41
Flow Rate, cfm 208 278 347 417 486 556 694 833 972
24 x 24 10 x 10 Neck *
Room NC - 11 17 21 25 28 34 39 42
Face Flow Rate, cfm 235 314 392 471 549 628 785 942 1099
12 Dia. *
Room NC - 12 17 22 26 29 34 39 43
Flow Rate, cfm 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400
12 x 12 Neck *
Room NC - 14 20 24 28 31 37 42 45
Flow Rate, cfm 320 427 534 641 748 855 1068 1282 1495
14 Dia. *
Room NC - 15 21 25 29 32 38 43 46
Flow Rate, cfm 469 625 781 938 1094 1250 1563 1875 2188
15 x 15 Neck *
Room NC - 16 22 26 30 33 39 44 47
Flow Rate, cfm 419 558 698 837 977 1116 1395 1674 1953
16 Dia. *
Room NC 11 18 24 28 32 35 41 46 49
Flow Rate, cfm 675 900 1125 1350 1575 1800 2250 2700 3150
18 x 18 Neck *
Room NC 11 18 24 28 32 36 41 46 49
Flow Rate, cfm 1008 1344 1681 2017 2353 2689 3361 4033 4706
22 x 22 Neck PERFORMANCE DATA
Room NC 13 20 26 30 34 37 43 47 51
Neck Vel, fpm 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 1200 1400
Neck Size Vp, in. Wg 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.12
Ps (-), in. Wg 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.23 0.36 0.51 0.70
10 x 22 Flow Rate, cfm 458 611 764 917 1069 1222 1528 1833 2139
(12 x 24 Face) Room NC - - - 14 18 21 27 32 36
Other
14 x 14 Flow Rate, cfm 408 544 681 817 953 1089 1361 1633 1906
Sizes (16 x 16 Face) Room NC - - 12 17 21 24 30 35 39
18 x 18 Flow Rate, cfm 675 900 1125 1350 1575 1800 2250 2700 3150
(20 x 20 Face) Room NC - 11 17 22 26 29 35 40 44
22 x 46 Flow Rate, cfm 2108 2811 3514 4217 4919 5622 7028 8433 9839
(24 x 48 Face) Room NC 12 20 25 30 34 38 43 48 52

PAR, PXP, PMR, PXP-DR, PDR PERFORMANCE NOTES


• Supply unit with deflectors removed • These products have been tested per ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 70-
• Static pressures are negative, in inches of water, measured per 2006. Actual performance, with flexible duct inlet, may vary in the
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 70-2006 field.
• Noise Criteria (NC) based on a room absorption of 10 dB, re 10-12 • See the section, Engineering Guidelines for additional information
watts, measured per ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 70-2006
F89
PERFORMANCE DATA diffusers
TSW / SWIRL FACE

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Neck Velocity 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300
Velocity Pressure 0.002 0.006 0.010 0.016 0.022 0.031 0.040 0.051 0.062 0.075 0.090 0.105
Airflow, cfm 34 59 79 98 118 138 157 177 197 216 236 256
Total Pressure 0.004 0.012 0.022 0.034 0.049 0.067 0.087 0.106 0.126 0.155 0.188 0.219
6" Dia.
NC (Noise Criteria) -- -- 4 9 13 16 19 23 26 30 33 35
Throw 0-1-3 1-2-4 2-3-5 2-3-6 3-4-6 3-5-7 3-5-7 4-5-8 4-6-8 5-6-9 5-6-9 5-7-9
Airflow, cfm 70 105 139 174 209 245 279 314 349 384 419 454
Total Pressure 0.008 0.017 0.030 0.047 0.067 0.094 0.117 0.145 0.189 0.218 0.259 0.304
8" Dia.
NC (Noise Criteria) -- 6 12 17 21 27 31 35 38 40 41 43
24 x 24 Throw 1-2-3 1-2-4 2-3-5 2-3-7 3-4-7 3-5-8 4-5-9 4-6-9 5-7-10 5-7-10 5-7-11 6-8-11
Module Airflow, cfm 109 164 218 273 328 382 436 491 546 601 655
Total Pressure 0.011 0.024 0.043 0.068 0.114 0.152 0.191 0.240 0.297 0.359 0.427
10" Dia.
NC (Noise Criteria) -- 10 16 21 28 34 36 40 42 44 46
Throw 1-2-4 2-3-6 3-4-8 4-5-9 4-6-10 5-7-11 6-8-12 6-9-13 8-9-13 8-10-14 8-10-14
Airflow, cfm 157 239 319 393 471 550 628 707 785 864
Total Pressure 0.023 0.053 0.094 0.138 0.199 0.271 0.354 0.448 0.554 0.670
12" Dia.
NC (Noise Criteria) 9 18 24 30 38 41 44 47 49 51
Throw 2-3-5 3-4-8 4-5-10 5-6-11 5-8-13 6-9-14 7-10-15 8-11-15 9-12-16 9-12-17

F
• Data obtained from tests conducted in accordance with ANSI/ • Each NC value represents the noise criteria curve that will not
ASHRAE Standard 70-2006. Actual performance, with flexible duct be exceeded by the sound pressure in any of the octave bands, 2
inlet, may vary in the field. See the section, Engineering Guidelines through 7, with a room absorption of 10 dB, re 10-12 watts
of this catalog for additional information. • Dash (-) in space denotes an NC value of less than 10
• Throw values given are for terminal velocities of 150, 100 and 50 • All pressures are given in inches of water
fpm and for isothermal conditions. See the section, Engineering • To obtain static pressure, subtract the velocity pressure from the
Guidelines for the catalog throw data information. total pressure

PERFORMANCE DATA

F153
Fundamentals of Design and Control of Central Chilled-Water Plants I-P 105

also results in the same high DPs as Option 1. This is because these valves only
act to prevent flow rates above design; when the flow is below design, as it
always is, other than during rare design load conditions, the valves do nothing.
The last four columns indicate the condition of a transient warm-up or
cooldown scenario where all the control valves are completely open. Propo-
nents of balancing point to this condition as the justification for balancing:
without it, parts of the building may warm up or cool down much more slowly
than others due to flow imbalances. The numbers in each column indicate the
percentage design flow. The numbers in parentheses indicate the percentage
sensible coil capacity at this flow. Coils are very nonlinear so percent flow and
percent capacity do not track each other. For the CHW coil with the lowest cir-
cuit pressure drop, in Option 1 (No balancing), the flow was 212% of the
design flow, but this represented only 119% of design coil capacity. The worst-
case cooling coil had only 73% of the design flow but 89% of its design capac-
ity. The resulting capacities are so close to design (arguably within the accu-
racy of load calculation programs) that it is clear that system warm-up and or
cooldown time will not be significantly affected by these flow imbalances.
Table 4-2 summarizes the pump head, annual pump energy costs, and
incremental first costs for each of the options. The first costs are relative to
Option 1 (No balancing).
Table 4-3 ranks each option with respect to controllability, pump energy
costs, and first costs from best (1) to worst (8).

Table 4-2 Energy and Installed Cost of Balancing Options

Annual Pump Incremental First Costs vs. Option 1


Pump head,
Energy,
Balancing Method ft
$/yr $ $ per design gpm
CHW HW CHW HW CHW HW CHW HW
1 No balancing 58.5 82.7 $1910 $3930 – – – –
Manual balance
2 using calibrated 60.3 83.6 $1970 $3970 $7960 $47,530 $6.60 $88.00
balancing valves
Automatic flow
3 66.6 90.8 $2170 $4310 $11,420 $50,750 $9.50 $94.00
limiting valves
4 Reverse-return 55.3 80.0 $1810 $3800 $28,460 $17,290 $23.70 $32.00
Oversized main
5 45.0 59.3 $1470 $2820 $12,900 $7040 $10.80 $13.00
piping
Undersized branch
6 58.5 NA $1910 NA ($250) NA ($0.20) NA
piping
Undersized control
7 58.5 NA $1910 NA ($2340) NA ($2.00) NA
valves
106 Chapter 4 Hydronic Distribution Systems

Table 4-3 Summary of Balancing Alternatives


Controllability Pump Energy First
Balancing Method
(All Conditions) Costs Costs
No balancing 7 3 3
Manual balance using
4 6 6
calibrated balancing valves
Automatic flow limiting valves 7 7 7
Reverse-return 2 2 5
Oversized main piping 3 1 4
Undersized branch piping 6 4 2
Undersized control valves 5 4 1
Pressure independent control valve 1 7 8

Recommendations for balancing of variable-flow systems are as follows:

• For other than very large distribution systems with high pump head,
Option 1 (No balancing) appears to be the best option. It has a very low
first costs, excellent energy performance, and minimal or insignificant
operational problems.
• Using AFLVs is one of the most expensive options, yet it offers only the
benefit of reducing imbalances during transients which, as shown in
Table 4-1, has almost no functional impact on performance. Accordingly,
this is generally the worst balancing option for variable-flow systems.
• Manual balancing with calibrated balance valves also adds to first costs
with little benefit. They can also introduce coil performance problems
under certain operating conditions (refer to Taylor and Stein [2002] for a
detailed discussion). However, calibrated balance valves can be very handy
for diagnosing flow problems because flow can be readily measured. If
they are provided for this purpose, they should not be used for balancing
(i.e., all valves should be wide open).
• For systems with long hours of operation, the added cost of oversized
mains may be cost-effective, based on pump energy savings, but also offers
considerable flexibility for future changes because future loads can be
added anywhere to the system. This is an excellent option for campuses
where future additions can never be well predicted.
• Reverse return is effective at reducing DP across control valves and also
can reduce pump head, but the cost can be high and this option is unlikely
to be cost-effective. However, reverse return is sometimes almost free (e.g.,
for floors with a loop distribution, reverse return can be achieved by loop-
ing the CHW supply in one direction, for example, clockwise, while loop-
ing the CHW return in the other, for example, counterclockwise). In these
cases, reverse return should be used.