Você está na página 1de 5


by – K.Sivakumar, Larsen & Toubro Limited, Switchgear Training

Centre, Coonoor – 643243. T.N.

(Paper presented at the Technical Seminar on the above topic, organized by the
Tamilnadu Electrical Installation Engineers’ Association (‘A’ Grade) at
Coimbatore on March 17, 2007)


(Published in the April 2007 issue of “Electrical Installation Engineer” – the

monthly technical newsletter of the Tamilnadu Electrical Installation Engineers’
Association ‘A’ Grade)


In today’s power scenario, we are facing a major power crunch. Day by day, the
gap between demand and supply of electric energy is widening. At present, the
difference is about 9%, going up to about 12.8% in the peak period. Bridging
this gap from the supply side is a very difficult and expensive proposition. Also,
limited energy resources, scarcity of capital and high interest costs for the
addition of new generation capacity is leading to the increased cost of electrical
energy in India. The only viable way to handle this crisis, apart from capacity
addition, is the efficient use of available energy, which is possible only by
continuously monitoring and controlling the use of electric energy.

Indian Energy Scenario:

• Generation capacity increased from 1, 400MW in 1947 to 1, 28, 000 MW

in 2006.

• Gross generation increased more than 100-fold – from 5 billion units per
year to 600 billion units per year in the same period.

• Still, the per capita electricity consumption is one of the lowest in the
world @ 600kWh per annum.

• Percentage of population with access to electricity is only 43% as against

98.6% in China and 52.9% in Pakistan.

• In spite of added generation capacity, it is still inadequate – peak shortage

@ 12.8% and energy shortage @ 9%.

• Below Optimum Utilisation of existing generation capacity – Plant Load

Factor only 72%.

• High T & D Losses – 45 to 50% as against International standards of 8 to

• Inefficient Utilisation of electric power by end consumer – Planning
Commission estimates that over 25, 000MW equivalent capacity creation
could be achieved through efficient utilization of electric energy by the
end user.

Need to Conserve Energy:

• Ever increasing energy tariff

• Huge Demand-Supply Gap

• Efficient Use of Energy

• Efficient Use of Equipment

• To reduce cost of Production

Why Industry?

• Industry Consumes about 50% of Energy Produced in the Country

• Motors consume about 72% of power consumed in the industry

• Lighting consumes another 13% of energy

• Hence, huge scope for energy saving

• A small step in the right direction would help national economy too

Areas of Energy Conservation:

• Motors

• Lighting


• Reactive Power Management

• Power Quality

Energy Monitoring Instruments:

To control and to conserve energy one needs to continuously measure and

monitor the consumption of energy and its constituent units. There is a wide
variety of energy measuring and monitoring instruments available in the market
place. Some of the popular energy monitoring instruments are:
of L & T) – To monitor the active energy consumption of Single
Phase Loads.


EM 301 of L & T) – To monitor the active energy consumption of Three
Phase Loads – Available in 3 Phase, 3Wire (Balanced Loads) or 3 Phase, 4
Wire (Unbalanced Loads) Versions; whole current meters and CT
operated meters available.


of L & T) – To monitor the active energy consumption of Three Phase
Loads – Available in 3 Phase, 3Wire (Balanced Loads) or 3 Phase, 4 Wire
(Unbalanced Loads) Versions; very compact size; only 96 x 96 sq.mm


(Type ER300 SERIES – ER 300P/ER 300N/ER 300D of L & T) – For the
measurement & recording of Active, Reactive & Apparent Energies; Can
also control loads through output relays, if and when the load exceeds the
sanctioned maximum demand; Also monitors other parameters like
voltage, current, pf, frequency, etc.; Computer communication possible.


of L & T) – Compact meter for the measurement & recording of Active,
Reactive & Apparent Energies; Also monitors other parameters like
voltage, current, pf, frequency, etc.; Computer communication possible.


a suitable combination any of the above computer communicable energy
meters and with computer communicable intelligent microprocessor
based relays, energy measurement, monitoring, reporting, management,
administration and control could be achieved from a central control
station, using the energy management software. Also, complete history &
trends of the parameters measured could be archived. Complete
networking of entire plant electrics is possible from energy conservation
point of view.

With the availability of such a wide variety of instruments for measuring and
monitoring energy, one only has to be judicious in the selection and use of one or
more of the above instruments, to continuously monitor the energy consumption
pattern and take suitable corrective measures if, necessary, for conserving

Energy Monitoring Devices:

Industries consume about 50% of the power generated in the country and
electric motor consumes about 72% of the total electricity used in the industrial
sector. Any inductive equipment like a motor draws, apart from the power
needed for driving the equipment, a power called reactive power for
magnetization of its core and to supply for the magnetic losses. This power is
totally un-warranted. But, due to the inherent nature of the induction machine,
this cannot be avoided too. By suitably compensating for this reactive power, this
could be minimized. And, this is called reactive power management or power
factor improvement measures.

Reactive Power Management:

• Low Power Factor means

 Inefficient use of Electrical Energy

 Overloading of Transformer/Generator
 Overloading of Cable, Switchgear, Bus bar
 Higher temperature due to increased losses
 Imposes larger kVA demand
 Limits number of loads that can be connected
 Reduced revenue to Electrical Utilities

• Benefits of Improving Power Factor

 Avoid power factor penalties

 Reduction in current drawn
 Reduction in line losses
 Enables more loads to be connected
 Reduction in kVA Demand
 Increased life of Electrical Equipment
 More revenue to Utilities

• Methods of Improving Power Factor

 Fixed Compensation

–For Steady Loads

–No load compensation of Motors
–No load compensation of Transformers

 Variable Compensation

–For Varying Loads

• Solutions

 Requires investment in capacitors, panels & switchgear

 Capacitors should have low watt loss (0.5W/kvaR)
 Payback period from 6 months to 18 months

Present realities:

• Lack of Awareness
• Purchase Decision Criteria
• Investment in Energy Monitoring & Conserving Equipment normally
assigned a low priority
• Customer interested in price of the machine and not in the energy costs
• There are still many companies that have not implemented simple energy
efficiency initiatives
• Many implemented, but not maintained – savings erode over time
• Initiatives with investment often postponed
• Plant management not evaluated on energy efficiency results


• We need Rs. 8, 00, 000 cr. to add 1, 00, 000 MW

• An unit saved = 3 units generated

Energy Conservation measures taken by individual consumers will help the

national economy and benefit the environment on a global scale.

Let’s do it for the country


i) The Hindu Survey of Indian Industry 2005

ii) ‘Short Circuiting Power Reforms” – By Mr.S.D.Naik, published in

The Hindu Business Line, dated June 18, 2005

iii) The Complete Guide to Energy Efficient Motors – Published by the

International Copper Promotional Council (India)