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ASME Y14.

5M

ADOPTION NOTICE
ASME Y14.5M, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, was adopted on 13 March 1994 for
use by the Department of Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must
be submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity: Commanding Officer, Naval Aviation Supply
Office, ATTN: Code 051 1.07, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA. 1911 1 -5098. DoD
activities may obtain copiesof this standard from the Standardization DocumentOrder
Desk, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. The private
sector and other Government agencies may purchase copies from the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, New York 10017.

Custodians: Adopting Activity:


Army - AR Navy SA-
Navy - SA
Air Force - 1O Agent Activity:
DLA - DH Commander
Dahlgren Division
Naval Surface Warfare Center
ATTN: G52 (King)
17320 Dahlgren Road
Dahlgren, VA 22448-51 O0

(Project DRPR-0297)

Review activities:
Army - AT, AV, CE, CR, EA, ER, GL, ME, MI, SC, TE
Navy - AS, CH, EC, MC, OS, SH, T D , YD
Air Force - 11,13, 19, 68,70,71, 80, 84,90,99
DLA - CS, ES, GS, IS
NSA - NS

AMSC
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENTA. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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A S I E YL4.5M 94 W 0759670 0549429 T B 7 W

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ASME Y14.5M

ADOPTION NOTICE

ASME Y14.5M, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, was adopted on 13 March 1994 for use by the Department
of Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must be submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity:
Commanding Officer, Naval Aviation SupplyOffice, AlTN.: Code 0511.07,700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia,
PA 19111-5098. DoD activities may obtain copies of this standard from the Standardization Document Order
Desk, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. The private sector and other govern-

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
ment agencies may purchase copies from the AmericanSociety of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street,
New York, NY 10017.

Custodians: Adopting Activity:


Army - AR Navy - SA
Navy - SA
Air Force - 10 Agent Activity:
DLA - DH Commander
Dahlgren Division
Naval Surface Warfare Center
ATTN: G52 (King)
17320 Dahlgren Road
Dahlgren, VA 22448-5100

(Project DRPR-0297)
Review activities:
Army - AT, AV, CE, CR, EA, ER, GL, ME, MI, SC, TE
Navy - AS, CH, EC, MC, OS, SH, TD, YD
Air Force - 11, 13, 19, 68, 70, 71, 80, 84, 90, 99
DLA - CS, ES, GS, IS
NSA - NS

AMSC DRPR AREA


DISTRIBUTION STATEMENTA. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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ASME Y 1 4 - 5 M 74 m 0757670 0547433 b37 m

AN ASME NATIONAL STANDARD


ENGINEERING DRAWING AND RELATED DOCUMENTATION PRACTICES

Dimensioning and
Tolerancing
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ASME Yl4.5M-I994
[REVISION OF ANSI Y14.5M-1982 (R1988)I

The American Society of


Mechanical Engineers

345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017

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ASME Y L 4 = 5 M 94 m 0759670 0 5 4 9 4 3 25 7 3 m

Date of Issuance: January 23, 1995

This Standard will be revised when the Society approves the issuance of a
new edition. There will be no addenda orwritten interpretations of the require-
ments of this Standard issuedto this edition.

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ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for
American National Standards. The ConsensusCommittee that approved the code or standard was
balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have hadan opportu-
nity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review and
comment which provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia,
regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device, or
activity.
ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in
connection with any items mentioned in this document, and doesnot undertake to insure anyone
utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable Letters Patent, nor assume
any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the
validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own
responsibility.
Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to
be interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard,
ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations issued in accordance with governing
ASME procedures and policies which preclude the issuanceof interpretations by individual
volunteers.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form,


in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Copyright O 1995 by
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
All Rights Reserved
Printed in the U.S.A.

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FOREWORD

(This Foreword is not a part of ASME Y14.5M-1994.)

Additions, modifications, and clarification contained this


in revision of ANSI Y 14.5”
1982 are intended to improve national and international standardization and to harmonize
the United States practices and methodology with the universal standards trend toward
more efficient worldwide technical communication. Coordinating and integrating these
techniques into and via computer graphics and other electronic data systems for design,
manufacture, verification, and similar processes is also a prime objective.
Incorporating this Standard as avehicle to assist the United States’ active participation
and competitiveness in the world marketplaceis a major goal.The emergenceof priorities
on total quality management, world-class engineering, and emphasis on compatibility
withtheInternationalOrganization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 series of quality
standards has had a significant influence in the work of the Y14.5 Subcommittee.
This revision was initiated immediately after the official release of ANSI Y14.5”
1982 inDecember 1982 inresponse to deferredcomments from thatrevision,new
conceptual developments, newsymbology, and international standards expansion.
Twenty-three Subcommitteemeetingsandnumerousworking group meetings of the
ASME Y 14.5 Subcommittee were convenedduring the developmentalperiod. The meet-
ings were held in various cities around the United States. The Subcommittee’swork was
coordinated as much as possible with other related ASME committees and other standard
developingbodiesthat share a common purpose on dimensioningandtolerancing or
related standards. Particularly close alliance and liaison were sought with the ASME
B89 Committee on “Dimensional Metrology,” and new committees ASME Y 14.5.1 on
“Mathematical Definition of Y14.5,” and ASME Y14.5.2 on “Certification of GD&T
Professionals.”
Of high priority was the continuing United States participation in the development of
I S 0 standards’ through its U.S. member body, the American National Standards Institute
(ANSI). Some members of the Y14.5 Subcommittee have attended and participated in
numerous international meetings and activities during and since the last revision of this
Standard. Meetings were attended inParis, France (1981), West Berlin, Germany (1982),
New York City, New York (1984), West Berlin, Germany (1987), Zurich, Switzerland
(1989), Orlando, Florida (1991), and Carmel, California (1992). United States delegates
have served as members and conveners of Working Groups, chaired some TClO/SCS

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international meetings and have participated in all I S 0 standards projects on the subject
of dimensioning and tolerancing during this period.
In addition to past participation in developing and maintaining all of such I S 0 stan-
dards as I S 0 5458, I S 0 5459, I S 0 2692, I S 0 3040, I S 0 TR 5460, I S 0 1660, I S 0 406,
I S 0 129, I S 0 8015, and I S 0 7083, U.S. delegates have also participated in all new I S 0
standards development projects. U.S. delegates have provided convenership (chairman-
ship) to the development of IS0/2692: 1988 DAM1 on “Least Material Condition,” I S 0
10578 on “Projected Tolerance Zone,” and I S 0 10579 on “Nonrigid Parts.” Current
projects related to the revision of I S 0 1101, “Technical Drawings, Geometrical Toleranc-
hg” and I S 0 5458, “Positional Tolerancing” also have participation and input by U.S.
delegates. Current new work on a revision to I S 0 2692 includes consideration of the
“principle of reciprocity” (symbol 8)that was originally put forth by the U.S. and Japan
in the early 1970’s as a proposed standard. It was considered by some countries to be
premature for inclusion thenand zero positional tolerancing was adopted as a near
substitute.
As a recent significant development, theUnited States, through its member body,
ANSI, has received the ISO/TClO/SC5 Secretariat. Thus, the U.S. inherits theworld
leadership for standards developmenton “Technical drawings, product definition and
related documentation, geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing.” Work will continue
on maintenance of existing standards and the development of new standards related to
geometrical tolerancing.
The conflict in principle regarding limits of size between the “envelope principle”
(Taylor Principle, Rule #1) and the “independency principle” continues, although some-
what abated. Issuance of I S 0 8015: 1985,“Technical Drawings-Fundamental Tolerancing
Principle,” features the independency principle but allows the option of the envelope
principle by either reference to a national standard (for example, ASME Y14.5M-1994)
0.

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on the drawing, or by invoking the symbol The Y 14.5 Standard continues to advocate
and use the envelope principle (boundary of perfect form at MMCof the individual
feature) that has been traditionally used in the U.S. and widely accepted elsewhere.
The least material condition 0concept is expanded. More complete coverage on this
subject is to be considered in future revisions as the state of the art progresses.
Significant steps are taken in this revision to resolve some long-standing differences
between the Y14.5 and IS0 practices. As U.S. delegates also play a significant role in
the development andmaintenance at the level of international standards, these differences
are eventually tempered and resolved by a merging of these dual objectives. In addition,
some long-range planning by the Y 14.5 activity has also now materialized in the transi-
tion to eliminating these differences. Two significant changes found in this revision are
adoption and extension of the universal datum feature symbol and discontinuance of the
use of the W S symbol 0.Other changes, additions, extensions of principles, and resolu-
tion of differences are listed in Appendix A, “Principal-Changes and Improvements.”
The technical expertise and experience of the Y14.5 Subcommittee are provided by
the dedicated interests and resources of its personnel. Its members represent a broad
cross section of U.S. industry, the Department of Defense (DOD), educational institu-
tions, national laboratories, professional societies, and members of the private sector.
The Subcommittee encourages participation by all andworks diligently to achieve a
consensus on all matters. It seeks a balance betweenpast practices, state of the art,
national and international standards, new technology, computer and electronic integration,
and most importantly, the understandability of the technical data contained in the Stan-
dard itself. Since members are also users of the Standard, a “jury of peers” is constantly
present to ensure, as well as possible, that all voices are heard and satisfactory compro-
mises are made in the interests of all users. Through the due process of final approval
iv

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procedures via ASME, ANSI, DOD,and public review, the Standard achieves its final
make-up as the result of the voluntary consensus standard system.
The expansion and extension of principles of the composite positional tolerancing
concept occupied a sizable segment of the Subcommittee’s time and resources during
this revision. This valuable concept, originally bom out of need for a convenient method
to state two requirements together for a pattern of features, one the “pattern-locating
tolerance” (larger tolerance) and the other the “feature-relating tolerance” (smaller toler-
ance), gave rise to the need for further clarification and coverage in this revision. As
these principles are extended from the original examples, frrst introduced in ANSIY 14.5-
1973, varying interpretations are possible where a secondary datum feature is added to
the feature-relating tolerance zone frame. Since the original coverage in ANSI Y 1 4 5
1973 made no attempt to indicate clearly an interpretation representing this extension of
principle, varied applications and interpretations have occurred during the interim, each
supposedly having some support from the original Standard example and text. ANSI
Y14.5M-1982 repeated the same examples, added two figures (Figs. 142 and 143), and
made a slight change of words in the text. The changes and additions in this revision
eventually highlighted the areas of question and the Subcommittee debated this issue
with many prolonged and in-depth discussions. As a result, the composite tolerancing
text and figures have now been expanded to enhance and c l 6 applicability. To effect
this clarification and expansion, and to “set the standard,” an explicit meaning has been
assigned to the feature-relating tolerance frame for composite positional tolerancing con-
trol. The feature-relating tolerance can no longer be interpreted as including location of
the pattern. Section 5 clarifies the application of composite tolerancing and contrasts it
with the use of two single-segment feature control frames.
Since profile composite tolerancing is now also introduced into the Standard, its fea-
ture-relating tolerance frame likewise controls the orientation of the profile to the datums
without regard to the basic dimensions that locate the profile. Section 6 further explains
the details of composite profile tolerancing.
Although the continuity and stability of the technical content of the Standard are
paramount,numerouschanges, additions, and clarifications havetakenplacein this
revision. To meet the objectives and purposes of the Standard as before referenced, it
must remain dynamic and is, thus, subject to modification as deemed necessary. Forhelp
in using this Standard and to isolate those areas and subjects involving any changes or
additions of consequence, refer to Appendix A. A detailed compendium of changes and
additions is provided.
Suggestions for improvement of this Standard will be welcomed. They should be sent
to The American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Attention: Secretary, Y14Main
Committee; 345 East 47th Street; New York, NY 10017.
This revision was approved as an ASME National Standard on March 14, 1994.

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ASME STANDARDS COMMllTEE Y14
Engineering Drawing and Related Documentation Practices

(The following is the roster of the Committeeat the time of approval of this Standard.)

OFFICERS
P. E. McKim, Chairman
F. Bakos, Jr., Vice Chairman
C. J. Gomez, Secretaly

COMMllTEE PERSONNEL
A. R. Anderson, Trikon Corp.
F. Bakos, Jr., Eastman Kodak Co.
T. D. Benoit, Alternate, Pratt 8 Whitney CEB
D. E. Bowerman, Copeland Corp.
J. V. Burleigh, The Boeing Co.
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L. Burns
R. A. Chadderdon, Southwest Consultants
F. A. Christiana, ASEA Brown Boveri Combustion Engineering Systems
M. E. Curtis, Jr., Rexnord Corp.
R. W. Debok, Motorola, Government b Systems Technology Group
H. L. Dubocq
L. W. Foster, L. W. Foster Associates, Inc.
C. J. Gomez, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
D. Hagler, E-Systems, Inc., Garland Division
E. L. Kardas, Pratt 8 Whitney CEB
C.G. Lance, Santa Cruz Technology Center
W. J. McGee, National Standards Educators Association
P. E. McKim, Caterpillar Inc.
C. D. Merkley, IBM Corp.
E. Niemiec, Westinghouse Electric Corp.
R. J. Polizzi
D. L. Ragon, Deere b Company, John Deere Dubuque Works
R. L. Tennis, Caterpillar Inc.
R. P. Tremblay, US. Department of the Army, ARDEC
R. K. Walker, Westinghouse Marine
G. H. Whitmire, TECnREND
K. E. Wiegandt, Sandia National Laboratory
P. Wreede, E-Systems, Inc.

PERSONNEL OFSUBCOMMllTEE 5 - DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING


L. W. Foster, Chairman, L. W. Foster Associates, Inc.
D. J. Buchman, Vice Chairman, University of Cincinnati/GE Aircraft Engines
C. G. Lance, Vice Chairman, Santa Cruz Technology Center

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A. R. Anderson, Secretary, General Motors Corp., Powertrain Divisionflrikon Corp.
F. Bakos, Jr., Eastman Kodak Co.
T. D. Benoit, Alternate, Pratt b Whitney CEB
D.E. Bowerman, Copeland Corp.
R. A. Chadderdon, Southwest Consultants
R. E. Coombes, Caterpillar Inc.
N. W. Cutler, Polaroid Corp.
G. P. Gooldy, GPG Consultants, Inc.
W. A. Haefele, Williams Creek Graphics
B. W. Heathcotte, Geometrics Consulting
A. M. Johnson, The Boeing Co.
E. L. Kardas, Pratt b Whitney CEB
D. P. Karl, Ford Motor Co.
K. S. King, Dahlgren Division, Naval Surface WarfareCenter
C.D. Merkley, IBM Corp.
T. C. Miller, Los Alamos National Laboratory
A. G. Neumann, Technical Consultants, Inc.
E. Niemiec, Westinghouse Electric Corp.
J. M. Palmer, Jr., Garrett Turbine Engine Co.
D. L. Ragon, Deere & Company, John Deere Dubuque Works
D. W. Shepherd, Shepherd Industries/Northern Illinois University
G. S. Tokunaga, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
R. P. Tremblay, U.S. Department of the Army, ARDEC
B. A. Wilson, McDonnell Douglas Corp.
J. E. Winconek, Allied-Signal Aerospace

Y14/SC 5 Editing and Illustrations Group


L. S. Darcy, Herman Miller, Inc.

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R. M. Evans, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group
C. W. Ferguson, Steelcase, Inc.
A. L. Herpich, Xerox Corp.
A. Krulikowski, General Motors Corp., Powertrain Division
W. M. Stites, Accratronics Seals Corp.
B. A. Wilson, McDonnell Douglas Corp.
J. E. Winconek, Allied-Signal Aerospace
P. Wreede, E-Systems, Inc.

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CONTENTS

...
Foreword .................................................................... 111
Standards Committee Roster .................................................. vii

Scope. Definitions. and General Dimensioning ........................ 1


1.1
General ........................................................... 1
1.2
References ......................................................... 1
1.3
Definitions ........................................................ 2
1.4FundamentalRules ................................................. 4
1.5Units of Measurement .............................................. 4
1.6 Types ofDimensioning ............................................. 5
1.7 Application of Dimensions ......................................... 6
1.8 Dimensioning Features ............................................. 10
1.9 LocationofFeatures ............................................... 18
General Tolerancing and Related Principles ........................... 23
2.1 General ........................................................... 23
2.2 Direct Tolerancing Methods ........................................ 24
2.3 Tolerance Expression ............................................... 24
2.4 Interpretation of Limits ............................................. 25
2.5 Single Limits ...................................................... 25
2.6 Tolerance Accumulation ............................................ 25
2.7 Limits of Size ..................................................... 26
2.8 Applicability of RFS. "C. and LMC .............................. 28
2.9 Screw Threads ..................................................... 29
2.10 Gears and Splines .................................................. 29
2.1 1 ViaVResultant Condition ......................................... 29
2.12 Angular Surfaces................................................... 29
2.13 Conical Tapers..................................................... 29
2.14 Flat Tapers ........................................................ 37
2.15 Radius ............................................................ 38
2.16 Statistical Tolerancing .............................................. 38
Symbology ............................................................. 41
3.1 General ........................................................... 41
3.2 Use of Notes to Supplement Symbols ............................... 41
3.3
SymbolConstruction ............................................... 41
3.4 Geometric Tolerance Symbols ...................................... 47
3.5 Feature Control FramePlacement ................................... 48
3.6Definition of the Tolerance Zone .................................... 48
3.7 Tabulated Tolerances............................................... 50

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ASME YL4.5M 74 m 0757670 0547437 728 H

4 Datum Referencing..................................................... 51
4.1 General ........................................................... 51
4.2 Immobilization of Part ............................................. 51
4.3 Datum Features .................................................... 52
4.4 Specifying Datum Features inan Order of Precedence ................ 52
4.5 Establishing Datums ............................................... 55
4.6 Datum Targets ..................................................... 70
5 Tolerances of Location ................................................. 81
5.1 General ........................................................... 81
5.2Positional Tolerancing.............................................. 81
5.3 Fundamental Explanation of Positional Tolerancing .................. 81
5.4Feature Pattern Location ............................................ 93
5.5 Projected Tolerance Zone ........................................... 115
5.6 Nonparallel Holes .................................................. 135
5.7 Counterbored Holes ................................................ 135
5.8 Closer Control at One End of aFeature ............................. 135
5.9 BidirectionalPositional Tolerancing of Features ...................... 135
5.10 Noncircular Features ............................................... 139
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5.1 1 Coaxiality Controls ................................................ 142


5.12 Concentricity ...................................................... 144
5.13 Positional Tolerancing for Symmetrical Relationships................. 149
5.14 Symmetry Tolerancing to Control the Median Points of Opposed or
Correspondingly-Located Elements of Features....................... 149
5.15 Spherical Features.................................................. 149
6 Tolerances of Form, Profile, Orientation, and Runout ................. 157
6.1 General ........................................................... 157
6.2 Form and Orientation Control ....................................... 157
6.3 Specifying F o m and Orientation Tolerances ......................... 157
6.4 Form Tolerances ................................................... 157
6.5 Profile Control ..................................................... 163
6.6 Orientation Tolerances ............................................. 174
6.7
Runout ............................................................ 189
6.8FreeState Variation ................................................ 191

Appendices
A PrincipalChangesand Improvements .................................. 197
Al General ........................................................... 197
A2 Figures ............................................................ 197
A3 Section1, Scope.Definitions. and General Dimensioning ............. 197
A4 Section 2. General Tolerancing and Related Principles ............... 198
A5 Section 3. Symbology .............................................. 199
A6 Section 4. Datum Referencing ...................................... 199
A7 Section 5. Tolerances of Location ................................... 200
A8 Section 6. Tolerances of Form. Profile. Orientation. and Runout....... 202
A9 Appendix A. Principal Changes and Improvements ................... 202
A10 Appendix B. Formulas for Positional Tolerancing .................... 203
A l 1 Appendix C. Form. Proportion. and Comparison of Symbols .......... 203
A12 Appendix D. Former Practices ...................................... 203
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ASME Y14.51 9 4 m 0 7 5 9 6 7 00 5 4 9 4 4 0 64T H

A13Appendix E. Decision Diagrams for Geometric Control ............... 203


B FormulasforPositionalTolerancing ................................... 205
B1 General ........................................................... 205
B2 Formula Symbols .................................................. 205
B3 Floating Fastener Case ............................................. 205
B4 Fixed Fastener Case When Projected Tolerance Zone Is Used ......... 205
B5 provision for Out-of-Squareness When Projected Tolerance Zone is
NotUsed ....................................................... 206
B6 Coaxial Features ................................................... 207
B7 Limits and Fits .................................................... 207
C Form. Proportion.andComparison of Symbols ....................... 209
Cl General ........................................................... 209
C2Formand Proportion ............................................... 209
C3 Comparison ....................................................... 209
D FormerPractices ....................................................... 215
Dl General ........................................................... 215
D2Definition for Feature of Size ....................................... 215
D3 Applicability of RFS. "C. andLMC .............................. 215
D4 Tangent Radii ..................................................... 215
D5 Datum Feature Symbol ............................................. 215
D6 Projected Tolerance Zone ........................................... 215
E Decision Diagrams for Geometric Control ............................. 219
El Purpose ........................................................... 219
E2 Functional Requirements ........................................... 219
E3 Reference to Standard .............................................. 219
E4 Geometric Controls ................................................ 219
E5 Choosing Other Controls ........................................... 219
E6Use of Modifiers................................................... 219
E7 Datums............................................................ 219

Index ....................................................................... 229

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ASME Y34-5M 9 4 m 07596700549443 58b m

ASME Y14.5M-1994

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

1 Scope, Definitions,andGeneralDimensioning

1.1 GENERAL 1.1.5 Notes. Notes herein in capital letters are


intendedto appear on finished drawings. Notesin
This Standard establishes uniform practices for
lower case letters are explanatory only and are not
stating and interpreting dimensioning, tolerancing,
and related requirements for use on engineering intended to appear on drawings.
drawings and in related documents. For a mathemati- 1.1.6 Reference to Gaging. This document is
cal explanation of many of the principles in this Stan- not intended as a gaging standard. Any reference to
dard, see ASME Y 14.5.1M. Practices unique to ar- gaging is included for explanatory purposes only.
chitectural and civil engineering and welding
symbology are not included. 1.1.7 Symbols. Adoption of the symbols indicat-
ing dimensional requirements, as shown in Fig. C-2
1.1.1 Section 1, General. This Section estab- of Appendix C, does not preclude the use of equiva-
lishes definitions, fundamental rules, and practices lent terms or abbreviations where symbology is con-
for general dimensioning that apply to coordinate as sidered inappropriate.
well as geometric dimensioning methods. For toler-
ancing practices, see Sections 2 through 6.
1.1.2 Units. The International System of Units
1.2 REFERENCES
(SI) is featured in this Standard because SI units are
expected to supersede United States (U.S.) custom- When the following American National Standards
ary units specified on engineering drawings. Custom- referred to in this Standard are superseded by a revi-
ary units could equally well have been used without sion approved by the American National Standards
prejudice to the principles established. Institute, Inc., the revision shall apply.
American National Standards
1.1.3 Reference to this Standard. Where draw-
ings are basedonthis Standard, this fact shall be ANSI B4.2-1978, Preferred Metric Limits and Fits
noted on the drawings or in a document referenced ANSI B5.10-1981, Machine Tapers - Self Hold-
onthe drawings. References tothis Standard shall ing and Steep Taper Series
state ASME Y14.5M-1994. ANSUASME B46.1-1985, Surface Texture (Sur-
face Roughness, Waviness, and Lay)
1.1.4 Figures. The figures in this Standard are ANSI B89.3.1-1972, Measurement of Out-of-
intended only as illustrations to aid the user in under- Roundness
standing the principles and methods of dimensioning ANSI B92.1-1970,l Involute Splines and Inspec-
and tolerancing described in the text. The absence of tion, Inch Version
a figure illustrating the desired application is neither ANSI B92.2M-1980,' Metric Module, Involute
reason to assume inapplicability, nor basis for draw- Splines
ing rejection. In some instances, figures show added ANSUASME B94.6-1984, hurling
detail for emphasis. In other instances, figures are ANSI B94.11" 1979, Twist Drills
incomplete by intent. Numerical values of dimen- ANSI Y14.1-1980, Drawing Sheet Size and
sions and tolerances are illustrative only. Format
NOTE: To assist the users of this Standard, a listing of the para-
graph(s) that refer to an illustration appears in the lower right-
hand corner of each figure. This listing may not be all-inclusive. 'SAE standardsare available from the Society of Automotive
The absenceof a listing is not a reasonto assume inapplicability. Engineers, 400 Warrendale Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096.

1
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Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 0759b70 0 5 4 9 4 4 2 412

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGAND TOLERANCING

ASME Y14.2M-1992, Line


Conventions
and departure from its specified material condition. See
Lettering Figs. 2-9 through 2-12.
ASME Y14.5.1M-1994, Mathematical Definition 1.3.3 Datum. A theoretically exact point, axis, or
of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principles plane defiled from the true geometric counterpart of
ANSI Y14.6-1978, Screw Thread Representation a specified datum feature. A datum is the origin from
ANSI Y14.6aM-1981, Screw Thread Representa- which the location or geometric characteristics of
tion (Metric Supplement) features of a part are established.
ANSI Y14.7.1-1971, Gear Drawing Standards -
Part 1: For Spur, Helical, Double Helical, and Rack 1.3.4 Datum Feature. An actual feature of a part
ANSI Y14.7.2-1978, Gear and Spline Drawing that is used to establish a datum.
Standards - Part 2: Bevel and Hypoid Gears 1.3.5 Datum Feature Simulator. A surface of
ASME Y14.8M-1989, Castings and Forgings adequately precise form (such as a surface plate, a
ANSI Y14.36-1978, Surface Texture Symbols gage surface, or a mandrel) contacting the datum
ANSZ/IEE 268- 1992,*Metric Practice feature(s) and
used to establish the simulated
1.2.1 Additional Sources (Not Cited) datum(S).
ANSUASME B 1.2-1983, Gages and Gaging for NOTE: Simulated datum features are used as the practical em-
Unified Inch Screw Threads bodiment of the datums during manufacture and inspection.
ANSI B4.4M-1981 (R1987), Inspection of
Workpieces 1.3.6 Datum, Simulated. A point, axis, or plane
ASME Y l.1-1989, Abbreviations - For Use on established by processing or inspection equipment,
Drawings and in Text such as the following simulators: a surface plate, a
ASME Y14.3M-1994,Multiviewand Sectional gage surface, or amandrel. See paras. 4.4.1 and
View Drawings 4.4.2.
1.3.7 Datum Target. A specified point, line, or
area on a part used to establish a datum.
1.3.8 Dimension. A numerical value expressed
in appropriate units of measure and used to define
the size, location, geometric characteristic, or surface
1.3 DEFINITIONS texture of a part or part feature.
The following terms are defined as their use ap- 1.3.9 Dimension, Basic. A numerical value used
plies
in this Standard. Additionally, definitions to describe the theoretically exact size, profile, orien-
throughout the Standard of italicized terms are given tation, or location of a feature or datum target. See
in sections describing their application. Their loca- Fig. 3-7. It is thebasis from which permissible varia-
tion may be identified by referring to the index. tions are established by tolerances on other dimen-
sions, in notes, or in feature control frames. See Figs.
1.3.1 Boundary, Inner. A worst case boundary 2-14, 2-15, and 3-25.
(that is, locus) generated by the smallest feature
C
"
( for an internal feature and LMC for an exter- 1.3.10 Dimension,Reference. A dimension,
nal feature) minus the stated geometric tolerance and usually without tolerance, used for information pur-
any additional geometric tolerance (if applicable) poses only. A reference dimension is a repeat of a
from the feature's departure from its specified mate- dimension or is derived from other values shown on
rial condition. See Figs. 2-9 through 2-12. the drawing or on related drawings. It is considered
auxiliary information and does notgovern production
1.3.2 Boundary, Outer. A worst case boundary or inspection operations. See Figs. 1-17 and 1-18.
(that is, locus) generated by the largestfeature (LMC
for an internal feature and MMC for an external fea- 1.3.11 Envelope, Actual Mating. This term is
ture) plus the geometric tolerance and any additional defined according to the type of feature, as follows:
geometric tolerance (if applicable) from the feature's (a) For an External Feature. A similar perfect
feature counterpart of smallest size that can be cir-
cumscribed about the feature so that it just contacts
IEEE standards are available from the Instituteof Electrical and the surface atthe highest points. Forexample, a
Electronics Engineers, Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscata-
way, NJ 08854. smallest cylinder of perfect form or two parallel

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

planes of perfect f o i at minimum separation that 1.3.20 Maximum Material Condition (MMC).
just contact(s) the highest points of the surface(s). The condition in which a feature of size contains the
For features controlled by orientation or positional maximum amount of material within the stated limits
tolerances, the actual mating envelope is oriented rel- of size - for example, minimum hole diameter,
ative to the appropriate datum(s), for example, per- maximum shaft diameter.
pendicular to a primary datum plane.
1.3.21Plane,Tangent. A theoretically exact
(b) For an Internal Feature.A similar perfect fea-
plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of
ture counterpart of largest size that can be inscribed
the specified feature surface.
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

within the feature so that it just contacts the surface


at the highest points. For example, a largest cylinder 1.3.22 Regardless of Feature Size (RFS). The
of perfect form or two parallel planes of perfect form term used to indicate that a geometric tolerance or
at maximum separation that just contact(s) the high- datum reference applies at any increment of size of
est points of the surface(s). the feature within its size tolerance.
For features controlled by orientation or positional
1.3.23
ResultantCondition. The variable
tolerances, the actual mating envelope is oriented rel-
boundary generated by the collective effects of a size
ative to the appropriate datum(s).
feature’s specified MMC or LMC material condition,
1.3.12Feature. The general term applied to a the geometric tolerance for that material condition,
physical portion of a part, such as a surface, pin, tab, the size tolerance, and the additional geometric toler-
hole, or slot. ance derived from the feature’s departure from its
specified material condition. See Figs. 2-9 through
1.3.13 Feature, Axis Of. A straight line that co- 2-12.
incides with the axis of the true geometric counter-
part of the specified feature. 1.3.24 Size, Actual.The general term for the size
of a produced feature. This term includes the actual
1.3.14 Feature, Center Plane Of. A plane that mating size and the actual local sizes.
coincides with the center plane of the true geometric
counterpart of the specified feature. 1.3.25 Size, Actual Local. The value of any indi-
vidual distance at any cross section of a feature.
1.3.15 Feature, Derived Median Plane Of. An
imperfect plane (abstract) that passes through the 1.3.26Size,Actual Mating. The dimensional
center points of all line segments bounded by the value of the actual mating envelope.
feature. These line segments are normal to the actual 1.3.27 Size, Limits Of. The specified maximum
mating envelope. and minimum sizes. See para. 2.7.
1.3.16 Feature, Derived Median Line Of. An 1.3.28 Size, Nominal. The designation used for
imperfect line (abstract) that passes through the cen- purposes of general identification.
ter points of all cross sections of the feature. These 1.3.29 Size, Resultant Condition. The actual
cross sections are normalto the axis of the actual value of the resultant condition boundary.
mating envelope. The cross section center points are
determined as per ANSI B89.3.1. 1.3.30 Size,Virtual Condition. The actual value
of the virtual condition boundary.
1.3.17 Featureof Size. One cylindrical or spher-
ical surface, or a set of two opposed elements or 1.3.31Tolerance. The total amount a specific
opposedparallel surfaces, associated with a size dimension is permitted to vary. The tolerance is the
dimension. difference between the maximum and minimum
limits.
1.3.18 Full IndicatorMovement (FIM). The to-
tal movement of an indicator where appropriately 1.3.32Tolerance, Bilateral. A tolerance in
applied to a surface to measure its variations. which variation is permitted in both directions from
the specified dimension.
1.3.19 Least Material Condition (LMC). The
1.3.33 Tolerance, Geometric. The general term
condition in which a feature of size contains the least
applied to the category of tolerances used to control
amount of material within the stated limits of size -
form, profile, orientation, location, and runout.
for example, maximum hole diameter, minimum
shaft diameter. 1.3.34Tolerance,Unilateral. A tolerance in

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ASMEY14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

whichvariation is permitted in one direction from where manufacturing, processing, quality assurance,
the specified dimension. or environmental information is essential to the defi-
nition of engineering requirements, it shall be speci-
1.3.35 TrueGeometric Counterpart. The theo-
fied on the drawing or in a document referenced on
retically perfect boundary (virtual condition or actual
the drawing.
mating envelope) or best-fit (tangent) plane of a
specified datum feature. See Figs. 4-11 and 4-10.
cf3 It is permissible to identify as nonmandatory
certain processing dimensions that provide for finish
Also see paras. 1.3.5 and 1.3.6 regarding the simu-
lated datum. allowance, shrink allowance, and other requirements,
provided the final dimensions are given on the draw-
1.3.36 True Position. The theoretically exact lo- ing. Nonmandatory processing dimensions shall be
cation of a feature established by basic dimensions. identified by an appropriate note, such as NON-
MANDATORY (MFG DATA).
1.3.37 Virtual Condition. A constant boundary (g) Dimensions should be arranged to provide re-
generated by the collective effects of a size feature's quired information for optimum readability. Dimen-
specified MMC or LMC material condition and the sions should be shown in true profile views and refer
geometric tolerance for that material condition. See to visible outlines.
Figs. 2-9through 2-12. (h) Wires, cables, sheets, rods, and other materials
manufactured to gage or code numbers shall be spec-
ified by linear dimensions indicating the diameter or
1.4 FUNDAMENTAL RULES thickness. Gage or code numbers may be shown in
Dimensioning and tolerancing shall clearly define parentheses following the dimension.
engineering intent and shall conform to the (i) A 90" angle applies where center lines and
following. lines depicting features are shown on a drawing at
(a) Each dimension shall have a tolerance, except right angles and no angle is specified. See para.
for those dimensions specifically identified as refer- 2.1.1.2.
ence, maximum, minimum, or stock (commercial (j) A 90" basic angle applies where center lines
stock size). The tolerance maybe applied directly of features in a pattern or surfaces shown at right
to the dimension (or indirectly in the case of basic angles on the drawing are located or defined by basic
dimensions), indicated by a general note, or located dimensions and no angle is specified.
in a supplementary block of the drawing format. See (k) Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions are
ANSI Y14.1. applicable at 20°C (68°F).Compensation may be
(b) Dimensioning and tolerancing shall be com- made for measurements made at other temperatures.
plete so there is full understanding of the characteris- ( I ) All dimensions and tolerances apply in a free
tics of each feature. Neither scaling (measuring the state condition. This principle does not apply to non-
size of a feature directly from an engineering draw- rigid parts as defined in paras. 2.7.1.3(b) and 6.8.
ing) nor assumption of a distance or size is permitted, (m)Unless otherwise specified, all geometric tol-
except as follows: Undimensioned drawings, such as erances apply for full depth, length, and width of the
loft, printed wiring, templates, and master layouts feature.
prepared on stable material, are excluded provided (n) Dimensions and tolerances apply only at the
the necessary control dimensions are specified. drawing level where they are specified. A dimension
(c) Each necessary dimension of an end product specified for a given feature on one level of drawing,
shall be shown. No more dimensions than those nec- (for example, a detail drawing) is not mandatory for
essary for complete definition shall be given. The that feature at any other level (for example, an as-
use of reference dimensions on a drawing should be sembly drawing).
minimized.
(d) Dimensions shall be selected and arranged to
suit the function and matingrelationship of a part and 1.5 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
shall not be subject to more than one interpretation.
For uniformity, all dimensions in this Standard are
(e) The drawing should define a part without
given in SI units. However, the unit of measurement
specifying manufacturing methods. Thus, only the selected should be in accordance with the policy of
diameter of a hole is given without indicating
the user.
whether it is to be drilled, reamed, punched, or made
by any other operation. However, in those instances 1.5.1 SI (Metric) Linear Units. The commonly

4
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ASIE YL4-51 94 m 07596700549445 L21 m

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

used SI linear unit used on engineering drawings is


the millimeter.
1.5.2 U.S. Customary Linear Units. The com-
monly used U.S. customary linear unit used on engi-
neering drawings is the decimal inch.
1.5.3 Identification of Linear Units. On draw-
ings where all dimensions are either in millimeters
or inches, individual identification of linear units is

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
not required. However, the drawing shall contain a
notestating UNLESS OTHERWISESPECIFIED,
ALL DIMENSIONSARE IN MILLIMETERS(or IN A
INC HES, as applicable).
1.5.3.1 Combination SI (Metric) and U.S.
CustomaryLinearUnits. Where some inch di-
mensions areshownon a millimeter-dimensioned
drawing, the abbreviation IN. shall follow the inch
values. Where some millimeter dimensions are
shown on an inch-dimensioned drawing, the symbol
m m shall follow the millimeter values. FIG. 1-1 ANGULAR
UNITS

1.5.4 Angular Units.Angular dimensions are ex-


pressed in either degrees and decimal parts of a de-
gree or in degrees, minutes, and seconds. These latter
dimensions are expressed by symbols: for degrees O,

for minutes ', and for seconds ". Where degrees are
indicated alone, the numericalvalueshall be fol-
lowed by the symbol. Where only minutesor seconds
are specified, the number of minutes or seconds shall
c t
be precededby O" or O"O', as applicable. See Fig.
1-1.

1.6 TYPES OF DIMENSIONING


1r
Decimal dimensioning shall be used on drawings
except where certain commercial commodities are
identified by standardized nominal designations,
such as pipe and lumber sizes.
1.6.1 Millimeter Dimensioning. The following
shall be observed where specifying millimeter di-
FIG. 1-2 MILLIMETER
DIMENSIONS
mensions on drawings:
(a) Where the dimension is less than one millime-
ter, a zero precedes the decimal point. See Fig. 1-2. (d) Neither commas nor spaces shall be used to
(b) Where the dimension is a whole number, nei- separate digits into groups in specifying millimeter
ther the decimal point nor a zero is shown. See Fig. dimensions on drawings.
1-2. 1.6.2 Decimal Inch Dimensioning.The follow-
( c ) Where the dimension exceeds a whole number ing shall be observed where specifying decimal inch
by a decimal fraction of one millimeter, the last digit dimensions on drawings:
to the right of the decimal point is not followed by (a) A zero is not used before the decimal point
a zero. See Fig. 1-2. for values less than one inch.
NOTE: This practice differs for tolerances expressed bilaterally (b) A dimension is expressed to the same number
or as limits. See paras. 2.3.l(b) and (c). of decimal places as its tolerance. Zeros are added

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ASME Y14.5M 7 4 W 07.57670054744b Ob8 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

T-

r ""7 1 r- .50

11711
FIG. 1-5 GROUPINGOFDIMENSIONS

FIG. 1-3 DECIMALINCHDIMENSIONS


1.6.4 ConversionandRounding of Linear
Units. For information on conversion and rounding
of U.S. customary linear units, see ANSMEEE 268.

1.7 APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONS


Dimensions are applied by means of dimension
lines, extension lines, chain lines, or a leader from

r4L" a dimension, note, or specification directed to the


appropriate feature. See Fig. 1-4. General notes are
used to convey additional information. For further
information on dimension lines, extension lines,
chain lines, and leaders, see ASME Y14.2M.
1.7.1 Dimension Lines. A dimension line, with
its arrowheads, shows the direction and extent of a
dimension. Numerals indicate the number of units of
a measurement. Preferably, dimension lines should
be broken for insertion of numerals as shown in Fig.
1-4. Where horizontal dimension lines are not bro-
1.7.1.3
1.7.1
ken, numerals are placed above and parallel to the
1.7 dimension lines.
NOTE: The following shall not be used as a dimension line: a
FIG.1-4APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONS center line, an extension line, a phantom line, a line that is part
of the outline of the object, or a continuation of any of these
lines. A dimension line is not used as an extension line, except
where a simplified method of coordinate dimensioning is used
to define curved outlines. See Fig. 1-33.

to the right of the decimal point where necessary. 1.7.1.1 Alignment. Dimension lines shall be
See Fig. 1-3 and para. 2.3.2. aligned if practicable and grouped for uniform ap-
pearance. See Fig. 1-5.
1.6.3 Decimal Points. Decimal points must be
uniform, dense, and large enough to be clearly visible 1.7.1.2Spacing. Dimension lines are drawn
and meet the reproduction requirements of ASME parallel to the direction of measurement. The space
Y14.2M. Decimal points are placed in line with the between the first dimension line and the part outline
bottom of the associated digits. should be not less than 10 mm; the space between

6 --`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y l 1 4 . 5 M 74 0757670 0 5 4 9 4 4 7 T T 4

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

6
Min
r 8 r*
'P
Mln
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

P
1.7.1.2

FIG. 1-6 SPACING OF DIMENSIONLINES


p-z
FIG. 1-8 OBLIQUE
EXTENSION
LINES

1.7.1.4 Crossing Dimension Lines.Crossing


dimension lines should be avoided. Where unavoid-
able, the dimension lines are unbroken.

Im-i
1.7.2 Extension (Projection) Lines. Extension
lines are used to indicate the extension of a surface
or point to a location preferably outside the part out-
line. See para. 1.7.8. Extension lines start with a short
visible gap from the outline of the part and extend
beyond the outermost related dimension line. See
Fig. 1-6. Extension lines are drawn perpendicular to
dimension lines. Where space is limited, extension
lines may be drawn at an oblique angle to clearly
illustrate where they apply. Where oblique lines are
I used, the dimension lines are shown in the direction
in which they apply. See Fig. 1-8.
FIG. 1-7 STAGGERED
DIMENSIONS
1.7.2.1 Crossing Extension Lines.Wherever
practicable, extension lines should neither cross one
another nor cross dimension lines. To minimize such
succeeding parallel dimension lines should be not crossings, the shortest dimension line is shown near-
less than 6 mm. See Fig. 1-6. est the outline of the object. See Fig. 1-7. Where
extension lines must cross other extension lines, di-
NOTE: These spacings are intended as guides only. If the draw-
ing meets the reproduction requirements of the accepted industry mension lines, or lines depicting features, they are
or military reproduction specification, nonconformance to these not broken. Where extension lines cross arrowheads
spacing requirements is not a basis for rejection of the drawing. or dimension lines close to arrowheads, a break in
Where there are several parallel dimension lines, the extension line is permissible. See Fig. 1-9.
the numerals should be staggered for easier reading. 1.7.2.2 Locating Points. Where a point is lo-
See Fig. 1-7. cated by extension lines only, the extension lines
1.7.1.3AngleDimensions. The dimension from surfaces should pass through the point. See Fig.
line of an angle is an arc drawn with its center at the 1-10.
apex of the angle. The arrowheads terminate at the 1.7.3 LimitedLength orAreaIndication.
extensions of the two sides. See Figs. 1-1 and 1-4. Where it is desired to indicate that a limited length

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ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

FIG. 1-9 BREAKS INEXTENSIONLINES

I 11.7.2.2
FIG. 1-11 LIMITED LENGTH OR AREA INDICATION
FIG. 1-10 POINT
LOCATIONS

or area of a surface is to receive additional treatment place on the drawing. Normally, a leader terminates
or consideration within limits specified on the draw- in an arrowhead. However, where it is intended for
ing, the extent of these limits may be indicated by a leader to refer to a surface by ending within the
use of a chain line. See Fig. 1-1l . outline of that surface, the leader should terminate
1.7.3.1 Chain Lines.In an appropriate view or in a dot. A leader should be an inclined straight line
section, a chain line is drawn parallel to the surface except for a short horizontal portion extending to the
profile atashort distance from it. Dimensions are mid-height of the first or last letter or digit of the
added for length and location. If applied to a surface note or dimension. Two or more leaders to adjacent
of revolution, the indication may be shown on one areas on the drawing should be drawn parallel to
side only. See Fig. 1-ll(a). each other. See Fig. 1-12.
1.7.3.2 Omitting Chain Line Dimensions. If 1.7.4.1
Leader Directed Dimensions.
the chain line clearly indicates the location and extent Leader directed dimensions are specified individu-
of the surface area, dimensions may be omitted. See ally to avoid complicated leaders. See Fig. 1-13. If
Fig. 1-1l(b). too many leaders would impair the legibility of the
drawing, letters or symbols should be used to identify
1.7.3.3 Area Indication Identification. features. See Fig. 1-14.
Where the desired area is shown on a direct view of
the surface, the area is section lined within the chain 1.7.4.2 Circle and Arc. Where a leader is di-
line boundary and appropriately dimensioned. See rected to a circle or an arc, its direction should be
Fig. 1-1l(c). radial. See Fig. 1-15.
1.7.4 Leaders (Leader Lines). A leader is used 1.7.5 Reading Direction. Reading direction for
to direct a dimension, note, or symbol to the intended the following specifications apply:
8
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Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 94 0759670 0549449 877 m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

PLATE THIS
SURFACE PER
AMs2400
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

11.7.4.2

1174 FIG. 1-15 LEADER


DIRECTIONS

FIG. 1-12 LEADERS

2 45
T-I f
24

FIG. 1-16 READING


DIRECTION

FIG. 1-13 LEADER-DIRECTED


DIMENSIONS
1.7.5.1 Notes.Notes should be placed to read
from the bottom of the drawing with regard to the
orientation of the drawing format.
1.7.5.2 Dimensions. Dimensions shown with
dimension lines and arrowheads should be placed to

5
read from the bottom of the drawing. See Fig. 1-16.
1.7.5.3 Baseline Dimensioning. Baseline di-
mensions are shown aligned to their extension lines
and read from the bottom or right side of the draw-
ing. See Fig. 1-49.
1.7.6 Reference Dimensions. The method for
identifying a reference dimension(or reference data)
3X $68.6
ondrawings is to enclose thedimension (or data)
within parentheses. See Figs. 1-17 and 1-18.
p T 1.7.7 Overall Dimensions. Where an overall di-
mension is specified, one intermediate dimension is
FIG. 1-14 MINIMIZING
LEADERS omitted or identified as a reference dimension. See

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ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 74 W 0759670 0549450 597 9

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

T-
Ø26 -

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
FIG. 1-19 DIAMETERS

FIG. 1-17 INTERMEDIATE


REFERENCE
DIMENSION

manually or on an interactive computer graphics sys-


tem, and it is not feasible to update the pictorial
view of the feature, the defining dimension is to be
underlined with a straight thick line.
(b) Where the sole authority for the product defi-
nition is a dataset prepared on a computer graphics
system, agreement shall be maintained between the
defining dimension and the graphics presentation of
the feature, in all views. The defining dimension and
the true size, location, and direction ofthe feature
shall always be in complete agreement.
-
-
1.7.7
-
1.7.6
1.3.10 1.8 DIMENSIONING FEATURES
FIG. 1-18 OVERALL
REFERENCE
DIMENSION Various characteristics and features of partsre-
quire unique methods of dimensioning.
1.8.1,Diameters. The diameter symbol precedes
all diametral values. See Fig. 1-19 and para. 3.3.7.
Fig. 1-17.Where the intermediate dimensions are
Where the diameter of a spherical feature is speci-
more important than theoverall dimension, the over-
fied, the diametral value is preceded by the spherical
all dimension, if used, is identified as a reference
diameter symbol. See Fig. 3-8 and para. 3.3.7. Where
dimension. See Fig. 1-18.
the diameters of a number of concentric cylindrical
1.7.8 Dimensioning Within the Outline of a features are specified, such diameters should be di-
View. Dimensions are usuallyplaced outside the mensioned in a longitudinal view if practicable.
outline of a view. Where directness of application
1.8.2 Radii. Each radius value is preceded by the
makes it desirable, or where extension lines or leader
appropriate radius symbol. See Figs. 1-20 and 3-8
lines would be excessively long, dimensions may be and para. 3.3.7. A radiusdimension line usesone
placed within the outline of a view. arrowhead, at the arc end. An arrowhead is never
1.7.9Dimensions Notto Scale. Agreement used at the radius center. Where location of the cen-
should exist between the pictorial presentation of a ter is important and space permits, a dimension line
feature and its defining dimension. Where a change is drawn from the radius center with the arrowhead
to a feature is made, the following, as applicable, touching the arc, andthedimension is placedbe-
must be observed. tween the arrowhead and the center. Where space is
(a) Where the sole authority for the product defi- limited, the dimension line is extended through the
nition is a hard copyoriginal drawing prepared either radius center. Where it is inconvenient to place the

10

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DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

r' r
- c 3
+
r

FIG. 1-20
RADII FIG. 1-22RADIIWITHUNLOCATEDCENTERS

lis21
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIG. 1-21RADIUSWITHLOCATEDCENTER

fi
FIG. 1-23 FORESHORTENED
RADII
arrowhead between the radius center and the arc, it
may be placed outside the arc with a leader. Where
the center of a radius is not dimensionally located,
the center shall not be indicated. See Fig. 1-20. controlled by other dimensioned features such as tan-
gent surfaces. See Fig. 1-22.
1.8.2.1 Center of Radius. Where a dimension
is given to the center of a radius, a small cross is 1.8.2.2 Foreshortened Radii.Where the cen-
drawn at the center. Extension lines and dimension ter of a radius is outside the drawing or interferes
lines are used to locate the center. See Fig. 1-21. with another view, the radius dimension line may
Where location of the center is unimportant, the be foreshortened. See Fig. 1-23. That portion of the
drawing must clearly showthat the arc location is dimension line extending from the arrowhead is ra-

11

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

I
1

dRuER2
FIG. 1-24 TRUE
RADIUS
118231
....................
m
T 5 5 7
Chord

11.8.:
FIG. 1-26DIMENSIONINGCHORDS,ARCS,ANDANGLES

dial relative to the arc. Where the radius dimension


line is foreshortened and the center is located by
coordinate dimensions, the dimension line locating
the center is also foreshortened.
I
ei;
L2X R

FIG.1-27FULLYROUNDEDENDS
I

1.8.2.3 True Radius.Where a radius is dimen-


sioned in a view that does not show the true shape sioned. See Fig. 1-27. For features with partially
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

of the radius, TRUE R is added before the radius rounded ends, the radii are dimensioned. See Fig.
dimension. See Fig. 1-24. 1-28.
1.8.2.4 Multiple Radii. Where apart has a 1.8.5RoundedCorners. Where comers are
number of radii of the same dimension, a note may rounded, dimensions define the edges, and the arcs
be used instead of dimensioning each radius are tangent. See Fig. 1-29.
separately.
1.8.6 Outlines Consisting of Arcs. A curved
1.8.2.5 SphericalRadii. Where a spherical outline composed of two or more arcs is dimensioned
surface is dimensioned by a radius, the radius dimen- by giving the radii of all arcs and locating the neces-
sion is preceded by the symbol SR. See Fig. 1-25. sary centers with coordinate dimensions. Other radii
1.8.3Chords,Arcs,andAngles. The dimen- are located on the basis of their points of tangency.
sioning of chords, arcs, and angles shall be as shown See Fig. 1-30.
in Fig. 1-26. 1.8.7 Irregular Outlines. Irregular outlines may
1.8.4RoundedEnds. Overall dimensions are be dimensioned as shown in Figs. 1-31 and 1-32.
used for features having rounded ends. For fully Circular or noncircular outlines may be dimensioned
rounded ends, the radii are indicated but not dimen- by the rectangular coordinate or offset method. S e e

12

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y / 4 * 5 M 74 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0549453 2T8 H

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

FIG. 1-28 PARTIALLYROUNDEDENDS

m
I r-01 FIG. 1-31 COORDINATEOROFFSETOUTLINE

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
5

FIG. 1-29 ROUNDED


CORNERS Y

rt #/q

*
I

R10

STATION 1

8.2 15 19.3 24.4

FIG. 1-32 TABULATED


OUTLINE

FIG. 1-30 CIRCULAR


ARC
OUTLINE

1.8.8 Symmetrical Outlines. Symmetrical out-


lines may be dimensioned on one side of the center
Fig. 1-31. Coordinates are dimensioned from base
line of symmetry. Such is the case where, due to the
lines. Where many coordinates are required to define
size of the part or space limitations, only part of the
an outline, the vertical and horizontal coordinate di-
outline can be conveniently shown. See Fig. 1-33.
mensions may be tabulated, as in Fig. 1-32.
One-half the outline of the symmetrical shape is
1.8.7.1 Grid System. Curved pieces that rep- shown and symmetry is indicated by applying sym-
resent patterns may be defined by a grid system with bols for part symmetry to the center line. See ASME
numbered grid lines. Y 14.2M.
13

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

1.8.13 Spotfaces. The diameter of the spotfaced


area is specified. Either the depth or the remaining
thickness of material may be specified. See Fig. 1-
40. A spotface may be specified by note only and
need not be delineated on the drawing. If no depth
or remaining thickness of material is specified, the
spotface is the minimum depth necessary to clean up
the surface to the specified diameter.
1.8.14 Machining Centers. Where machining
centers are to remain on the finished part, they are
indicated by a note or dimensioned on the drawing.
See ANSI B94.11M.
1.8.15 Chamfers. Chamfers are dimensioned by
FIG, 1-33
SYMMETRICAL
OUTLINES a linear dimensionandan angle, or by two linear
dimensions. See Figs. 1-41 through 1-44. Where an
angle and a linear dimension are specified, the linear
dimension is the distance from the indicated surface
1.8.9RoundHoles. Round holes are dimen- of the part to the start of the chamfer. See Fig. 1-41.
sioned as shown in Fig. 1-34. Where it is not clear
thata hole goes through, the abbreviation THRU 1.8.15.1 Chamfers Specifiedby Note. A
follows a dimension. The depth dimensionof a blind note may be used to specify 45" chamfers, as in Fig.
hole is the depth of the full diameter from the outer 1-42. This method is used only with 45" chamfers,
surface of the part. Where the depth dimensionis not as the linear value applies in either direction.
clear, as from a curved surface, the depth should be 1.8.15.2 Round Holes. Where the edge of a
dimensioned. For methods of specifying blind holes, round hole is chamfered, the practice of para.
see Fig. 1-34. 1.8.15.1 is followed, except where the chamfer diam-
eter requires dimensional control. See Fig. 1-43. This
1.8.10 Slotted Holes. Slotted holes are dimen-
type of control may also be applied to the chamfer
sioned as shown in Fig. 1-35. The end radii are indi- diameter on a shaft.
cated but not dimensioned.
1.8.15.3 Intersecting Surfaces. Where cham-
1.8.11 Counterbored Holes. Counterbored
fers are required for surfaces intersecting at other
holes may be specified as shown in Fig. 1-36. Where
than right angles, the methodsshowninFig. 1-44
the thickness of the remaining material has signifi-
are used.
cance, this thickness (rather than the depth) is dimen-
sioned. For holes having more than one counterbore, 1.8.16 Keyseats. Keyseats are dimensionedby
see Fig. 1-37. width, depth, location, and if required, length. The
depth is dimensioned from the opposite side of the
1.8.12
Countersunk and
Counterdrilled shaft or hole. See Fig. 1-45.
Holes. For countersunk holes, the diameter and in-
cluded angle of the countersink are specified. For 1.8.17 Knurling. Knurling is specified interms
counterdrilled holes, the diameter and depth of the of type, pitch, and diameter before and after hurling.
counterdrill are specified. Specifying theincluded Where control is not required, the diameter after
angle of the counterdrill is optional. See Fig. 1-38. hurling is omitted. Where only a portion of feature
a
The depth dimension is the depth of the full diameter requires hurling, axial dimensioning is provided.
of the counterdrill from the outer surface of the part. See Fig. 1-46.
1.8.12.1 Chamfered and Countersunk 1.8.17.1 KnurlingforPress Fit. Where re-
Holes onCurved Surfaces. Where a hole is cham- quired to provide a press fit between parts, hurling
fered or countersunk ona curved surface, the diame- is specified by a note that includes the type of knurl
ter specified on the drawing applies at the minor required, its pitch, the toleranced diameter of the fea-
diameter of the chamfer or countersink. See Fig. 1- ture before hurling, and the minimum acceptable
39. diameter after hurling. See Fig. 1-47.

14
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

.Ø8
316

ØS
316

m
FIG. 1-34 ROUND
HOLES

f 8x22 /-2x R

P"" R 47L
@ uØ14

11.8.11
FIG. 1-36 COUNTERBORED
HOLES
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(c) 1.9.6
1.8.10
FIG. 1-35 SLOlTED HOLES

15

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YI14.5174 m 07576700547456T07 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 TOLERANCING


DIMENSIONING AND

U Ø 7
U$14 3

THIS ON THE DRAWING MEANS THIS

l:vj
94313
UØ6310
UØ1033

13
I 1.8.11
FIG. 1-37 COUN 'ERBOREDHOLES

A
Ø6.8
J 20
I
1 vØ10 x SO'

i'
I ~~

Countersunk holes
I

r6 6 3 2 0
A
I .

@
ØI036

I 1.8.12
1
I -_
c
I
cIunterdrilled holes
FIG. 1-38 COUNTERSUNK AND COUNTERDRILLED HOLES
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

16
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 74 m O757670 0549457 743

994 DIMENSIONING
ASME AND TOLERANCING

Curved
surface Minor radius equals
\
the shortest distance
from center to edge
of countersink on

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
actual part

11.8.12.1
FIG. 1-39COUNTERSINK ON ACURVEDSURFACE

FIG.1-42 45 DEGREE
CHAMFER

I 1.8.13 I
FIG. 1-40
SPOTFACED
HOLES

I 1.8.15
FIG.
1-41
CHAMFERS
1.8.15.2
1.8.15
FIG.
1-43
INTERNAL
CHAMFERS
17
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 m 0759670 0549458 A B T m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

PITCH 0.8 RAISEDDIAMOND

TKNURL
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

u 1 2 FULLKNURL
FIG. 1-44 CHAMFERSBETWEENSURFACES
AT OTHER THAN 90 DEGREES

FIG. 1-46 KNURLS

3.98
Tt-
@$- PITCH 0.8 STRAIGHTKNURL
9 2 0 MIN AFTERKNURLING

7-

U 12 FULLKNURL

I 1.8.16 11.8.17.1
FIG, 1-45 KEYSEATS FIG, 1-47 KNURLS
FOR
PRESS
FITS

1.8.17.2 Knurling Standard. For information


on inch hurling, see ANSUASME B94.6.
ASME Y 14.7series of standards. Methods of speci-
1.8.18 Rods andTubing Details. Rods and tub- fying involute spline requirements are covered in the
ing are dimensioned in three coordinate directions ANSI B92 series of standards.
and toleranced using geometric principles or by spec-
ifying the straight lengths, bend radii, angles of bend, 1.8.22CastingsandForgings. Methods of
and angles of twist for all portions of the item. This specifying requirements peculiar to castings and
may be done by means of auxiliary views, tabulation, forgings are covered in ASME Y14.8M.
or supplementary data.
1.8.19 Screw Threads. Methods of specifying 1.9 LOCATION OF FEATURES
and dimensioning screw threads are covered in ANSI
Y 14.6 and ANSI Y 14.6aM. Rectangular coordinate or polar coordinate dimen-
sions locate features with respect to one another, and
1.8.20 Surface Texture. Methods of specifying as a group or individually, from a datum or an origin.
surface texture requirements are covered in ANSI The features that establish this datum or origin must
Y14.36. For additional information, see ANSI/ be identified. See para. 5.2.1.3. Round holes or other
ASME B46.1. features of symmetrical contour are located by giving
1.8.21Gearsand Involute Splines. Methods distances, or distances and directions to the feature
of specifying gear requirements are covered in the centers. See Figs. 1-48 through 1-56.

18

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 = 5 M 9 4 0757670 0547457 7bb

AND DIMENSIONING

FIG. 1-48 RECTANGULARCOORDINATEDIMENSIONING

SIZE SYMBOL I A I B I C I D
HOLE 6 I 7 I 4.8 I 3.6 1 3.1

~~
E
1.9.2

FIG. 1-49 RECTANGULARCOORDINATEDIMENSIONING WITHOUT DIMENSIONLINES

1.9.1 Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning. as zero coordinates, or they may be labeled as X, Y,


Where rectangular coordinate dimensioning is used and Z. See Figs. 1-49 and 1-50.
to locate features, linear dimensions specify distances
in coordinate directions from two or three mutually
1.9.3 TabularDimensioning. Tabular dimen-
perpendicular planes. See Fig. 1-48. Coordinate di-
sioning is a type of rectangular coordinate dimen-
mensioning must clearly indicate which features of
sioning in which dimensions from mutually perpen-
the part establish these planes. For methods to ac-
dicular planes are listed in a table on the drawing,
complish this, see Section 4.
rather than on the pictorial delineation. See Fig. 1-
1.9.2 Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning 50. This method is usedon drawings that require
Without DimensionLines. Dimensions maybe the location of a large number of similarly shaped
shown on extension lines without the use of dimen- features. Tables are prepared in any suitable manner
sion lines or arrowheads. The base lines are indicated that adequately locates the features.

19
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
A S I E YZ4.5M 94 0759670
05Y94bO Y38

1994 ASME

r
LÏ I - 24- 4
-X -2
1.9.3
-
7

1.9.2
1.9

FIG. 1-50 RECTANGULARCOORDINATEDIMENSIONINGINTABULARFORM

"

*
"C

C.-.-. F1.9.5.1
1.9.5
11.9

FIG. 1-52 REPETITIVE


FEATURES

FIG. 1-51 POLAR COORDINATE


DIMENSIONING
the use of an X in conjunction with a numeral to
indicate the "number of places" required. See Figs.
1-52 through 1-56. Where used with a basic dimen-
1.9.4 Polar Coordinate Dimensioning. Where sion, the X may be placed either inside or outside
polar coordinate dimensioning is used to locate fea- the basic dimension frame. See Figs. 4-26 and 5-14.
tures, a linear and an angular dimension specifies a
1.9.5.1 SeriesandPatterns. Features, such
distance from a fixed point at an angular direction
as holes and slots, that are repeated in a series or
from two or three mutually perpendicular planes. The
pattern, maybe specified by giving the required
fixed point is the intersection of these planes. See
number of features and an X followed by the size
Fig. 1-51.
dimension of the feature. A space is used between
1.9.5 Repetitive Features or Dimensions.Re- the X and the dimension, See Figs. 1-52 through
petitive features or dimensions may be specified by 1-56.

20

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 74 m 0757670 05474b2 374 m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

6X $7

5X 10’ ( = 5 0 ’ )

FIG.1-55REPETITIVEFEATURESANDDIMENSIONS

FIG. 1-53 REPETITIVE


FEATURES 4x10-l r r 4X 4

flax
I
Ø7 I
IC \+ + + + + 2

i l
i 15tL?7X 16 (=272)-4 1.9.5.2
1.9.5.1
1.9.5

FIG.1-54REPETITIVEFEATURESANDDIMENSIONS
FIG.1-56REPETITIVEFEATURESANDDIMENSIONS

1.9.5.2 Spacing. Equal spacing of features in


a series or pattern maybe specified by giving the 1.9.6 Use of X to Indicate ”By.” An X may be
required number of spaces andan X, followed by used to indicate “by” between coordinate dimensions
the applicable dimension. A space is used between as shown in Figs. 1-35(b) and 1-42. In such cases,
the X and the dimension. See Figs. 1-54 through 1- the X shall be preceded and followed by one charac-
56. Where it is difficult to distinguish between the ter space.
dimension and the number of spaces, as in Fig. 1- NOTE: Wherethepracticesdescribed in paras. 1.9.5 and 1.9.6
54, one space may be dimensioned and identified as are usedonthesamedrawing,caremustbetaken to besure
reference. each usage is clear.

21
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

2GeneralTolerancingandRelated Principles

2.1 GENERAL
This Section establishes practices for expressing
tolerances on linear and angular dimensions, applica-
bility of material condition modifiers, and interpreta-
tions governing limits and tolerances.
CAUTION: If CAD/CAM database models are used and they do
not include tolerances, then tolerances must be expressed outside
of the database to reflect design requirements.

2.1.1 Application. Tolerances may be expressed


as follows:
(a) as direct limits or as tolerance values applied
directly to a dimension (see para. 2.2);
(b) as a geometric tolerance, as described in Sec-
tions 5 and 6;
(c) in a note referring to specific dimensions;

m
(d) as specified in other documents referenced on
the drawing for specific features or processes;
( e ) in a general tolerance block referring to all Ø7.5 - 7.6
dimensions on a drawing for which tolerances are
not otherwise specified; see ANSI Y 14.1
2.1.1.1 Positional Tolerancing Method.
Preferably, tolerances on dimensions that locate fea-
tures of size are specified by the positional toleranc-
ing method described in Section 5 . In certain cases,
such as locating irregular-shaped features, the profile
tolerancing method described in Section 6 may be
used.
2.1.1.2 Implied 90" Angle. By convention,
where center lines and surfaces of features of a part
are depicted on engineering drawings intersecting at
right angles, a 90" angle is not specified. Implied 90"
angles are understood to apply. The tolerance on
these implied 90" angles is the same as for all other
angular features shown on the field of the drawing
governed by general angular tolerance notes or gen-
eral tolerance block values. Where center lines and
surfaces of a part are depicted on engineering draw-
ings intersecting at right angles and basic dimensions 12:
or geometric controls have been specified, implied
FIG. 2-1 LIMIT
DIMENSIONING
90" basic angles are understood to apply. The toler-
ance on the feature associated with these implied 90"
basic angles is provided by feature control frames

23

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 m 0759670 0549463 L47 m

ASMEY14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

mo 12+o.1

FIG. 2-3
(c) 30 f7

INDICATINGSYMBOLS FOR METRICLIMITS


ANDFITS

by a basic size and tolerance symbol as in Fig. 2-


(a)Unilateraltolerancing 3. See ANSI B4.2 for complete information on this
system.
2.2.1.1 Limits and Tolerance Symbols. The
method shown in Fig. 2-3(a) is recommended when

r" 1 222 O**


the system is introduced by an organization. In this
case, limit dimensions are specified, and the basic
size and tolerance symbol are identified as reference.
2.2.1.2Tolerance Symbol and Limits. As
experience is gained, the method shown in Fig. 2-
3(b) may be used. When the system is established
and standard tools, gages, and stock materials are
available with size and symbol identification, the
method shown in Fig. 2-3(c) may be used.

2.3TOLERANCEEXPRESSION
(b) Bilateraltolerancing
12.2
The conventions shown in the following para-
FIG. 2-2 PLUSANDMINUSTOLERANCING
graphs shall be observed pertaining to the number of
decimal places carried in the tolerance.
2.3.1 Millimeter Tolerances. Where millimeter
that govern the location, orientation, profile, or run- dimensions are used on the drawings, the following
out of features of the part. See paras. 1.4 (i) and G). apply
( a ) Where unilateral tolerancing is used and either
the plus or minus value is nil, a single zero is shown
2.2 DIRECT TOLERANCING METHODS without a plus or minus sign.
Limits and directly applied tolerance values are EXAMPLE:
specified as follows. O
or
32-~.~2 32+:-02
(a) Limit Dimensioning. The high limit (maxi-
mum value) is placed above the low limit (minimum (b) Where bilateral tolerancing is used, both the
value). When expressed in a single line, the low limit plus and minus values have the same number of deci-
precedes the high limit and a dash separates the two mal places, using zeros where necessary.
values. See Fig. 2-1. EXAMPLE:
+0.25
(b) Plus and Minus Tolerancing. The dimension not
32-~.~
is given first and is followed by a plus and minus
(c) Where limit dimensioning is used and either
expression of tolerance. See Fig. 2-2.
the maximum or minimum value has digits following
2.2.1 MetricLimits and Fits For metric applica- a decimal point, the other value has zeros added for
tion of limits and fits, the tolerance may be indicated uniformity.
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
24
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ASME Y 1 4 . 5 M 94 m 0757670 0549464 083 m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

EXAMPLE: EXAMPLES:
25.45 12.2 means 12.20...o
25.00
not
25
12.0 means 12.00...o
12.01 means 12.010...o
(d) Where basic dimensions are used, associated
tolerances contain the number of decimal places nec- To determine conformance within limits, the mea-
essary for control. The basicdimensionvalueob- sured value is compared directly with the specified
serves the practices of para. 1.6.1. value and anydeviation outside the specified limiting
EXAMPLE: value signifies nonconformance with the limits.
1251 125.001 2.4.1 Plated or Coated Patts. Where a part is
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

not
with to be plated or coated, the drawing or referenced
document shall specify whether the dimensions are
before or after plating. Typical examples of notes are
2.3.2 Inch Tolerances. Where inch dimensions the following:
are used on the drawing, the following apply: (a) DIMENSIONAL LIMITS APPLY AFTER
(a) Where unilateral tolerancing is used and either PLATING.
the plus or minus value is nil, its dimension shall be (b) DIMENSIONAL LIMITS APPLYBEFORE
expressed with the same number of decimal places, PLATING.
and the appropriate plus or minus sign. (For processes other than plating, substitute the
EXAMPLE: appropriate term.)
+.O05
not .500
+ ,005
o
m500- .o00
(6) Where bilateral tolerancing is used, both the
plus and minus values and the dimension have the 2.5SINGLE LIMITS
same number of decimal places. MIN or MAX is placed after a dimension where
EXAMPLE: other elements of the design definitely determine the
2.005
.500 not .50 2.005
other unspecified 'limit. Features, such as depths of
(c) Where limit dimensioning is used and either holes, lengths of threads, comer radii, chamfers, etc.,
the maximum or minimum valuehas digits following may be limited in this way. Single limits are used
a decimal point, the other value has zeros added for where the intent will be clear, and the unspecified
uniformity. limit can be zero or approach infinity and will not
EXAMPLE: result in a condition detrimental to the design.
.750
not
.748 .748
(d) Where basic dimensions are used, associated
tolerances contain the number of decimal places nec- 2.6 TOLERANCE ACCUMULATION
essary for control. The basic dimension value is ex- Figure 2-4 compares the tolerance values resulting
pressed with the same number of decimal places as from three methods of dimensioning.
the tolerance. (a) Chain Dimensioning. The maximum variation
EXAMPLE: between two features is equal to the sum of the toler-
not
Iloo] anceson the intermediate distances; this results in
with the greatest tolerance accumulation. In Fig. 2-4(a),
I$I@.005@IAIBICI [$1@.005@IAIBICI the tolerance accumulation between surfaces X and
Y is i~0.15.
2.3.3AngleTolerances. Where angle dimen- (b) Base Line Dimensioning. The maximum vari-
sions are used, both the plus and minus values and ation between two features is equal to the sum of the
the angle have the same number of decimal places. tolerances on the two dimensions from their origin
EXAMPLE: to the features; this results in a reduction of the toler-
25.0" k.2" not 25" 2.2" ance accumulation. In Fig. 2-4(b), the tolerance accu-
mulation between surfaces X and Y is kO.1.
( c ) Direct Dimensioning. The maximum variation
2.4 INTERPRETATION OF LIMITS between two features is controlled by the tolerance
All limits are absolute. Dimensional limits, regard- on the dimension between the features; this results
less of the number of decimal places, are used as if in the least tolerance. In Fig. 2-4(c), the tolerance
they were continued with zeros. between surfaces X and Y is k0.05.
25
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
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ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 94 m 0 7 5 7 6 7 0 05494b5 T L T m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING

X
(a) Chain dimensioning -greatest tolerance MEANS THIS
Fi7 t- 3.3.16

2.6.1

accumulation between X and Y. Tolerance zone


1
11.6 A
L Indicated origin plane

NOT THIS

7
L
, ~ 12.4
X I
(b) Base line dimensioning -lesser tolerance
accumulation between X and Y. LLonger sudace 11.6
used as the origin

FIG. 2-5 RELATINGDIMENSIONALLIMITS TO AN ORIGIN

I
I
I two parallel surfaces of unequal length is to be
I
I I I
IY
mounted on the shorter surface. In this example, the
dimension origin symbol described in para. 3.3.16
'L-2620.05-4 signifies that the dimension originates from the plane
established bythe shorter surface and dimensional
(c) Direct dimensioning -least tolerance
between X and Y. limits apply to the other surface. Without such indi-
cation, the longer surface could have been selected as
the origin, thus permitting a greater angular variation
FIG. 2-4 TOLERANCEACCUMULATION between surfaces.

2.7 LIMITS OF SIZE


2.6.1 Dimensional Limits Related to an Ori-
Unless otherwise specified, the limits of size of a
gin. In certain cases, it is necessary to indicate that
feature prescribe the extent within which variations
adimensionbetween two features shall originate
of geometric form, as well as size, are allowed. This
from one of these features andnottheother. The
control applies solely to individual features of size
high points of the surface indicated as the origin
as defined in para. 1.3.17.
define a plane for measurement. The dimensions re-
lated to the origin are taken from the plane or axis 2.7.1 Individual Feature of Size (Rule #l).
and define a zone withinwhichthe other features Where only a tolerance of size is specified, the limits
mustlie. This concept does not establish a datum of size of an individual feature prescribe the extent
reference frame as described in Section 4. Such a to which variations in its geometric form, as well as
case is illustrated in Fig. 2-5, where a part having size. are allowed.

26
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 m 0759670 0549466 956 m

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING ALLOWS THIS

t - t Ø 2 0 . 1 ("C)

boundary
form Ø20 (LMC)
I I

/$$W

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
form Perfect
MMC boundary
Ø
T
2
0+
.* (LMC)

6.2
I I I I
Ø20.2 (LMC) J C c t Ø 2 0 . 1 ("C)
2.7.1.2

FIG. 2-6 EXTREMEVARIATIONS OF FORM ALLOWED BY ASIZETOLERANCE

2.7.1.1 Variations of Size. The actual local dustry or government standards that prescribe limits
size of an individual feature at each cross section for straightness, flatness, and other geometric charac-
shall be within the specified tolerance of size. teristics. Unless geometric tolerances are specified
on the drawing of a partmade from these items,
2.7.1.2 Variations of Form (Envelope Prin- standards for these items govern the surfaces that
ciple). The form ofan individual feature is con- remain in the as-furnished condition on the finished
trolled by its limits of size to the extent prescribed
in the following paragraphs and illustrated in Fig. Part.
(b) parts subject to free state variation in the unre-
2-6. strained condition. See para. 6.8.
(u) The surface or surfaces of a feature shall not
extend beyond a boundary (envelope) of perfect form 2.7.2PerfectForm at MMC Not Required.
at MMC. This boundary is the true geometric form Where it is desired to permit a surface or surfaces of
represented by the drawing. No variation in form is a feature to exceed the boundary of perfect form at
permitted if the feature is produced at its MMC limit MMC, a note such as PERFECT FORM AT MMC
of size except as specified in para. 6.4.1.1.2. NOT REQD is specified, exempting the pertinent
(b) Where the actual local size of a feature has size dimension from the provision of para. 2.7.1.2(a).
departed from MMCtowardLMC, a variation in
form is allowed equal to the amount of such
2.7.3Relationship Between Individual Fea-
departure. tures. The limits of size do not control the orienta-
( c ) There is no requirement for a boundary of per- tion or location relationship between individual fea-
fect form at LMC. Thus, a feature produced at its tures. Features shown perpendicular, coaxial, or
LMC limit of size is permitted to varyfrom true
symmetrical to each other must be controlled for lo-
form to the maximum variation allowed by the
cation or orientation to avoid incomplete drawing
boundary of perfect form at MMC. requirements. These controls maybe specified by
2.7.1.3 Form Control Does Not Apply (Ex- one of the methods given in Sections 5 and 6. If it
ceptions to Rule #l). The control of geometric is necessary to establish a boundary of perfect form
form prescribed by limits of size does not apply to at MMC tocontrol the relationship between features,
the following: the following methods are used.
(a) stock, such as bars, sheets, tubing, structural (a) Specify a zero tolerance of orientation at
shapes, and other items produced to established in- MMC, including a datum reference (at MMC if ap-
17

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14-5M 9 4 0 7 5 9 6 7005 4 9 4 6 7 892

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

plicable), to control angularity, perpendicularity, or ance is applied on an MMC basis, the allowed toler-
parallelism of the feature. S e e para. 6.6.1.2. ance is dependent on the actual mating size of the
(b) Specify a zero positional tolerance at MMC, considered feature. The tolerance is limited to the
including a datum reference (at MMC if applicable) specified value if the feature is producedat its MMC
to control coaxial or symmetrical features. See paras. limitof size. Where the actual mating size of the
5.11.1.3 and 5.13.2. feature has departed from MMC, an increase in the
(c) Indicate this control for the features involved tolerance is allowed equal to the amount of such
by a note such as PERFECT ORIENTATION (or departure. The total permissible variation in the spe-
COAXIALITY or LOCATION OF SYMMETRICAL cific geometric characteristic is maximum when the
FEATURES) AT MMC REQUIRED FOR RE- feature is at LMC. Likewise, referencing a datum
LATED FEATURES. feature on an MMC basis means the datum is the
(d) Relate dimensions to a datum reference frame axis or center plane of the feature at the MMC limit.
by a local or general note indicating datum prece- Where the actual mating size of the datum feature
dence. See para. 4.4. The noted dimensions define has departed from MMC, a deviation is allowed be-
only the maximum material condition envelope re- tween its axis or center plane and the axis or center
lated tothe datum reference frame definedbythe plane of the datum.
datums. For LMC, see para. 2.7.1.2(c).
2.8.3 Effectof Zero Tolerance at MMC.Where
a tolerance of position or orientation is applied on a
2.8 APPLICABILITY OF RFS, MMC, AND LMC zero tolerance at MMC basis, the tolerance is totally
dependent onthe actual mating size of the considered
Applicability of RFS, MMC, and LMC is limited feature. No tolerance of position or orientation is
to features subject to variations in size. They may be allowed if the feature is produced at its MMC limit
datum features or other features whose axes or center of size; and in this case, it must be located at true
planes are controlled by geometric tolerances. In the position or be perfect in orientation, as applicable.
case of straightness covered in paras. 6.4.1.1.2 and Where the actual mating size of the considered fea-
6.4.1.1.3, it is the derived median line and the de- ture has departed from MMC, a tolerance is allowed
rived median plane, rather than the axis and center equal to the amount of such departure. The total per-
plane that are controlled. In all cases, the following missible variation in position or orientation is maxi-
practices apply for indicating RFS, MMC, and LMC: mum when the feature is at LMC, unless a maximum
(a) All ApplicableGeometric Tolerances (Rule is specified. See Figs. 6-41 and 6-42.
#Z). RFS applies, with respect to the individual toler-
ance, datum reference, or both, where no modifying 2.8.4 Effect of LMC. Where a positional toler-
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

symbol is specified. MMC or LMC mustbe specified ance is applied on an LMC basis, the allowed toler-
on the drawing where it is required. ance is dependent on the actual mating size of the
considered feature. The tolerance is limited to the
NOTE,:Circular runout,total runout, concentricity, and symmetry
are applicable only on an W S basis and cannot be modified to specified value if the feature is produced at its LMC
MMC or LMC. limit of size. Where the actual mating size ofthe
feature has departed from LMC, an increase in the
(b) Alternative Practice. For a tolerance of posi- tolerance is allowed equal to the amountof such
tion (Rule #2a), RFS may be specified on the draw- departure. The total permissible variation in position
ing with respect to the individual tolerance, datum is maximum when the feature is at MMC. Likewise,
reference, or both, as applicable. See Appendix D referencing a datum feature' on an LMC basis means
(Fig. D-1). the datum is the axis or center plane of the feature
2.8.1 Effect of RFS. Where a geometric tolerance at the LMC limit. Where the actual mating size of the
is applied on an RFS basis, the specified tolerance datum feature has departed from LMC, a deviation is
is independent of the actual size of the considered allowed between its axis or center plane and the axis
feature. The tolerance is limited to the specified value or center plane of the datum.
regardless of the actual size of the feature. Likewise,
2.8.5 Effect of Zero Tolerance at LMC.Where
referencing a datum feature on an RFS basis means
a tolerance of position or orientation is applied on a
that a centering about its axis or center plane is nec-
F r o tolerance at LMC basis, the tolerance is totally
essary, regardless of the actual size of the feature.
dependent on the size of the considered feature. No
2.8.2 Effect of MMC. Where a geometric toler- tolerance of position or Orientation is allowed if the

28

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Yl14.5M 9 4 W 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0 5 4 9 4 6 8 7 2 9 W

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

feature is produced at its LMC limit of size; and in 2.11.2 Resultant Condition. From para. 2.11
this case, it must be located at true position or be considerations, the worst case inner locus and worst
perfect in orientation, as applicable. Where the actual case outer locus values are derived and termed resul-
mating size of the considered feature has departed tant condition. S e e Figs. 2-7 through 2-12.
from LMC,a tolerance is allowed equal to the 2.11.3 Datum Features at Virtual Condition.
amount of such departure. The total permissible vari- A virtual condition exists for a datum feature of size
ation in position or orientation is maximum when the where its axis or center plane is controlled by a geo-
feature is at MMC unless a maximum is specified.
metric tolerance. In such cases, the datum feature
See Figs. 5-13, 5-14, and 6-42.
applies at its virtual condition even though it is refer-

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
enced in a feature control frame at MMC or LMC.
Where a virtual condition equal to the maximum ma-
2.9 SCREW THREADS terial condition or the least material condition is the
Each tolerance of orientation or position and da- design requirement, a zero tolerance at MMC or
tum reference specified for a screw thread applies to LMC is specified. See Sections 4, 5 , and 6.
the axis of the thread derived from the pitch cylinder.
Where an exception to this practice is necessary, the 2.12 ANGULAR SURFACES
specific feature of the screw thread (such as MAJOR
Where an angular surface is defined by a combina-
DIA or MINOR DIA) shall be stated beneath the
tion of a linear dimension and an angle, the surface
feature control frame, or beneath or adjacent to the
must lie within a tolerance zone represented by two
datum feature symbol, as applicable. See Fig. 5-62.
nonparallel planes. See Fig. 2-13. The tolerance zone
will widen asthe distance from the apex of the angle
increases. Where a tolerance zone with parallel
2.10 GEARS AND SPLINES boundaries is desired, a basic angle may be specified
Each tolerance of orientation or position and da- as in Fig. 2-14. The dimensions related to the origin
tum reference specified for features other than screw are then used in the same manner described in para.
threads, such as gears and splines, must designate 2.6.1. Additionally, an angularity tolerance may be
the specific feature of the gear or spline to which specified within these boundaries. See Fig. 6-27.
each applies (such as MAJOR DIA, PITCH DIA, or
MINOR DIA). This information is stated beneath the 2.13 CONICAL TAPERS
feature control frame or beneath the datum feature
symbol, as applicable. Conical tapers include the category of standard
machine tapers used throughout the tooling industry,
classified as American Standard Self-Holding and
Steep Taper series. See ANSI B5.10. American Stan-
2.11 VIRTUAL/RESULTANT CONDITION dard machine tapers are usually dimensioned by
Depending upon its function, a feature is con- specifying the taper name and number. See Fig. 2-
trolled by size and applicable geometric controls. 16(b). The diameter at the gage line and the length
Material condition (MMC or LMC) may also be ap- may also be specified. The taper in inches per foot
plicable. Consideration must be given to the collec- and the diameter of the small end may be shown as
tive effects of MMC and applicable tolerances in reference. A conical taper may also be specified by
determining the clearance between parts (fixed or one of the following methods:
floating fastener formula) and in establishing gage (a) a basic taper and abasic diameter (see Fig.
feature sizes. Consideration must be given to the col- 2- 15);
lective effects of LMC and applicable tolerances in (b) a size tolerance combined witha profile of
determining guaranteed area of contact, thinwall a surface tolerance applied to the taper (see para.
conservation, and alignment hole location in estab- 6.5.8);
lishing gage feature sizes. ( c ) a toleranced diameter at both ends of a taper
and a toleranced length. See Fig. 2-16(a).
2.11.1 Virtual Condition. From para. 2.11 con-
siderations, constant value outer locus and constant NOTE: The method described in (c) above is applicable for non-
critical tapers, such as the transition between diametersof a shaft.
value inner locus values are derived and termed vir-
tual condition. See Figs. 2-7 through 2-12. (d) a composite profile tolerance.

29

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M 94 m 0757670 0549469 b b 5

4 ASME

1 INTERNAL FEATURE I I EXTERNAL


FEATURE 1
+
RESULTANT VIRTUAL RESULTANT
CONDITION

1
CONSTANT VARIABLE
VALUE VALUE

1
OUTER OUTER INNER
BOUNDARY BOUNDARY BOUNDARY BOUNDARY
(LOCUS) (LOCUS) (LOCUS) (LOCUS)
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

I LMC 1

]"MC/
[@HOLE I@TOLI V COND I R COND II

I
30.5

30.2
30.1
I
0.5

I
I
0.2
0.1
I 31.0 I

30.4
30.2
29.0
I I MMC I
I
LMC
ml
IØPIN I Ø T O L ~ V C O N D ~ R C O N D
29.9

29.6
29.5
I 0.1 I
30.0 pl
I 29.8

29.2

The virtual condition of an internal feature The virtual condition of an external feature
is a constant value equal to its maximum is a constant value equal to its maximum
material condition size MINUS its applicable material condition size PLUS its applicable
tolerance of location. tolerance of location.

The resultant condition of an internal feature The resultant condition of an external feature
is a variable value equal to its actual is a variable value equal to its actual
mating envelope size PLUS its applicable mating envelope size MINUS its applicable
tolerance of location. toleraice of location.

12.11.1

FIG. 2-7 MMC CONCEPT - VIRTUALANDRESULTANTCONDITION

30

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ND DIMENSIONING ASME Y14.5M-1994

h LC INTERNAL FEATURE EXTERNAL FEATURE


I I

VIRTUAL RESULTANT
CONDITION CONDITION CONDITION CONDITION

CONSTANT
1 1
VARIABLE
VALUE VALUE VALUE

INNER
1 OUTER
1
BOUNDARY BOUNDARY BOUNDARY BOUNDARY
(LOCUS) (LOCUS) (LOCUS) (LOCUS)
I

o
I ~ H O L EI ~ T OI VLCOND I R COND I IGPINI ~ T OI LV COND I R GOND I

29.7 29.4
I 30.2 I 0.4 29.8 29.6 29.8
IMMCl 30.1 I 0.5 29.6 LMC 29.5 29.6

The virtual condition of an internal feature The virtual condition of an external feature
is a constant value equal to its least is a constant value equal to its least
material condition size PLUS its applicable material condition size MINUS its applicable
tolerance of location. tolerance of location.

The resultant condition of an internal feature The resultant condition of an external feature
is a variable value equal to its actual is a variable value equal to its actual
mating envelope size MINUS its applicable mating envelope size PLUS its applicable
tolerance of location. tolerance of location.

FIG, 2-8 LMCCONCEPT - VIRTUALANDRESULTANTCONDITION

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y34.5M 74 H 0 7 5 9 b 7 00 5 4 9 4 7 32 3 3 H

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

Ø30.1Holeshown at
4 maximumpossible
locations

VIRTUAL CONDITION BOUNDARY

at Ø30.5
shownHole LMC at zone
4 maximumpossible
locations
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

E2.11.2
2.11.1
+m$30.5LMCSize

Ø31
of feature
Postionalzone at LMC
Resultant
condition(Outer
boundary)

RESULTANT CONDITION BOUNDARY

FIG. 2-9 VIRTUALANDRESULTANTCONDITIONBOUNDARIESUSING MMC CONCEPT -


INTERNALFEATURE

32

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
A S I E Y L 4 - 5714 0759670 0547472 L5T m

DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

Ø30.5 Hole shown at Positional


4 maximum possible zone at LMC
locations

.
Ø30.5 LMCSize of feature
+@ 0.1 Postional zone at LMC
Ø30.6 Virtualcondition(Outerboundary)

VIRTUAL CONDITION BOUNDARY

$830.1 Hole shown at


4 maximum possible

RESULTANT CONDITION BOUNDARY

FIG. 2-10 VIRTUAL AND RESULTANTCONDITIONBOUNDARIESUSINGLMCCONCEPT -


INTERNALFEATURE
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

33

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 9 4 m 0759670 0549473 096 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

9 2 9 . 9 Pin shown at Positional


4 maximum possible zone at MMC
locations

929.9 MMC Size of feature


+B 0.1
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Postional zone at MMC


930 Virtual condition(Outer
boundary)

VIRTUAL CONDITION BOUNDARY

t-
Pin
929.5 shown at I i-Ø0.5 Positional
zone at LMC

929.5 LMC Size of feature


- $2
Postionalzone at LMC
929 Resultant
condition(Inner
boundary)

RESULTANT CONDITION BOUNDARY

FIG. 2-11 VIRTUALANDRESULTANTCONDITIONBOUNDARIESUSING MMC CONCEPT -


EXTERNAL FEATURE

34

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
~~ ~

A S I E Y14.51 9 4 W 0757b70 O547474 T 2 2 m

DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

Ø29.5 Pin shown at


possible
maximum 4 at zone LMC
locations

Ø29.5 LMCSize of feature


-9 0.1PostionalzoneatLMC
Jd29.4 Virtual condition(Innerboundary)

VIRTUAL CONDITION BOUNDARY

Pin 1629.9
at zone
shown at MMC

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
4maximumpossible
locations

+m
Ø29.9MMCSize of feature
PostionalzoneatMMC
J630.4Resultantcondition(Outerboundary)

RESULTANT CONDITION BOUNDARY

FIG. 2-12 VIRTUALANDRESULTANT CONDITIONBOUNDARIESUSINGLMCCONCEPT -


EXTERNALFEATURE

35

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 . 5 1 94 m 0759670 0 5 4 9 4 7 5 969 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING THIS ON THE DRAWING

MEANS THIS
fi
MEANS THIS
P
1.3.2

10.5

L Indicated origin plane Indicated origin plane

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
The surface controlled by the angular dimension The surface controlled by the angular dimension
may be anywhere within the tolerance zone may lie anywhere within the tolerance zone
withonerestriction:itsanglemustnot be less having parallel boundaries inclined at the basic
than 29'30' nor more than 30'30'. angle.

FIG. 2-13 TOLERANCING AN ANGULARSURFACE USING FIG. 2-14 TOLERANCING ANANGUIAR SURFACE WITH
A COMBINATION OF LINEAR AND ANGULAR DIMENSIONS A BASICANGLE

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 9 0759670 0547476 B T 5 m

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

The slope of the taper may be given


The basic diameter controls the size of the tapered as a reference to aid manufacturing,
section as well as its longitudinal position in relation (a) Non-critical taper
to some other surface.

AMERICANSTANDARD
MEANS THIS
TAPER X4 (.6232 INIFT)

7
Basic Ø 30 f 0.05 @
27.4)i
Radial
diameter
I tolerance
zone

9.9 M ko.
2
(b) Standardtaper
The taper must fall within the zone created by the
basic taper and the locating dimension of the basic
1213
diameter. FIG. 2-16 SPECIFYING
TAPERS

FIG. 2-15 SPECIFYING A BASICTAPERANDABASIC


DIAMETER
2.14 FLAT TAPERS
Conical taper is defined as the ratio of the differ- A flat taper may bespecified by a tolerancedslope
ence in the diameters of two sections (perpendicular and a toleranced height at one end. See Fig. 2-17.
to the axis) of a cone to the distance between these Slope may be specified as the inclination of a surface
sections. expressed as a ratio of the difference in the heights
Thus, taper = ( D - d)/L. at each end (above and at right angles to a base line)
to the distance between those heights.
Thus, slope = (H- h)/L.
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

L L - 4

The symbol for a conical taper is shown in Fig.


2-15. The symbol for slope is shown in Fig. 2-17.

37

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASMEY14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING MEANSTHIS

Minimum radius 2.1

CR2.42 0.3
Maximum radius 2.7

Part contour

I
13.3.17j
FIG. 2-19 SPECIFYING A CONTROLLEDRADIUS
FIG. 2-17 SPECIFYING A FLATTAPER

THISONTHE DRAWING
II MEANSTHIS

r Minimumradius 2.1
2.16 STATISTICAL TOLERANCING
Statisticaltolerancing is the assigning of toler-
ances to related components of an assembly on the
basis of sound statistics (such as the assembly toler-
ance is equal to the square root of the sum of the
squares of the individual tolerances).
2.16.1 Application to Assemblies. The toler-
12.15.1 1' ances assigned to component items of an assembly
are determined by arithmetically dividing the assem-
FIG. 2-18 SPECIFYING A RADIUS
bly tolerances among the individual components of
the assembly. When tolerances assigned by arithme-
tic stacking are restrictive, statistical tolerancing may
be used for increased individual feature tolerance.

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
2.15RADIUS The increased tolerance may reduce manufacturing
A radius is any straight line extending from the cost, but shall only be employed where the appro-
center to the periphery of a circle or sphere. priate statistical process control will be used. For
application see appropriate statistics or engineering
2.15.1RadiusTolerance. A radius symbol R design manuals.
creates a zone defined by two arcs (the minimum
and maximumradii). The part surface must lie within 2.16.2 Identification. Statistical tolerances on di-
this zone. See Fig. 2-18. mensions are designated as illustrated in Figs. 2-20
through 2-22.
NOTE: This is a change from the previous editions of this Stan- (a) A note such as the following shall be placed
dard. See Appendix D.
on the drawing: FEATURES IDENTIFIEDAS STA-
2.15.2 Controlled RadiusTolerance. A con- TISTICALLY TOLERANCED (ST) SHALL BE
trolled radius symbol CR creates a tolerance zone PRODUCED WITH STATISTICAL PROCESS
definedbytwo arcs (the minimum and maximum CONTROLS. See Fig. 2-20.
radii) that are tangent to the adjacent surfaces. When (b) It may be necessary to designate both the sta-
specifying a controlled radius, the part contour tistical limits and the arithmetic stacking limits when
within the crescent-shaped tolerance zone must be a the dimension has the possibility of being produced
fair curve without reversals. Additionally, radii taken without statistical process control (SPC). A note such
atallpointson the part contour shall neither be as the following shall be placed on the drawing:
smaller than the specified minimum limit nor larger FEATURESIDENTIFIED AS STATISTICALLY
than the maximum limit. See Fig. 2-19. Where it is TOLERANCED (ST) SHALL BE PRODUCED
necessary to apply further restrictions to the part ra- WITH STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROLS,
dius, they shall be specified on the drawing or in a OR TO THE MORE RESTRICTIVE ARITHMETIC
document referenced on the drawing. LIMITS. See Fig. 2-21.

38

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ND DIMENSIONING

Anotesuchas the following must be placed on the drawing:


FEATURES IDENTIFIED AS STATISTICALLY TOLERANCED @SHALL BE
PRODUCEDWITHSTATISTICALPROCESSCONTROLS.

FIG.
2-20
STATISTICAL
TOLERANCING

ØlO.14+0.05
Ø10.14f 0.02

Anotesuchas the following must be placed on the drawing:


FEATURES IDENTIFIED AS STATISTICALLY TOLERANCED @SHALL BE
PRODUCEDWITHSTATISTICALPROCESSCONTROLS, OR TOTHEMORE
RESTRICTIVEARITHMETICLIMITS.

FIG.2-21STATISTICALTOLERANCING WITH ARITHMETICLIMITS

-@10.14?0.05 @
f-

12.18.2
FIG.2-22STATISTICALTOLERANCINGWITHGEOMETRICCONTROLS

39
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y / 4 * 5 M 74 0757670 0547477 504

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

3 Symbology

3.1 GENERAL other locations of a drawing, it need not beidentified


as reference. The datum feature symbol is applied to
This Section establishes the symbols for speci-
the concerned feature surface outline, extension line,
fying geometric characteristics and other dimensional
dimension line, or feature control frame as follows:
requirements on engineering drawings. Symbols
(a) placed on the outline of a feature surface, or
should be of sufficient clarity to meet the legibility
onan extension line of the feature outline, clearly
and reproducibility requirements of ASME Y 14.2M.
separated from the dimension line, when the datum
Symbols are to be used only as described herein.
feature is the surface itself. See Fig. 3-3.
(b) placed on an extension of the dimension line
of a feature of size when the datum is the axis or
3.2 USE OF NOTES TO SUPPLEMENT
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

center plane. If there is insufficient space for the two


SYMBOLS arrows, one of them may be replaced by the datum
Situations may arise where the desired geometric feature triangle. See Figs. 3-4(a) through (c).
requirements cannot be completely conveyed by (c) placed on the outline of a cylindrical feature
symbology. In such cases, a note maybeused to surface or an extension line of the feature outline,
describe the requirement, either separately or to sup- separated from the size dimension, when the datum
plement a geometric symbol. See Figs. 5-18 and 6- is the axis. For CAD systems, the triangle maybe
44. tangent to the feature. See Figs. 3-4(d) and (f).
(d) placed on a dimension leader line to the fea-
ture size dimension where no geometrical tolerance
3.3SYMBOLCONSTRUCTION and feature control frame are used. See Figs. 3-4(e)
and 5-2.
Information related to the construction, form, and (e) placed on the planes established by datum tar-
proportion of individual symbols described herein is getson complex or irregular datum features (see
contained in Appendix C. para. 4.6.7), or to reidentify previously established
3.3.1 Geometric Characteristic Symbols.The datum axes or planes on repeated or multisheet draw-
symbolic means of indicating geometric characteris- ing requirements.
tics are shown in Fig. 3-1. cfl placed above or below and attached to the fea-
ture control frame when the feature (or group of fea-
3.3.2 Datum FeatureSymbol. The symbolic tures) controlled is the datum axis or datum center
meansof indicating a datum feature consists of a plane. See Figs. 3-5 and 3-23.
capital letter enclosed in a square frame and a leader
line extending from the frame to the concerned fea- 3.3.3 Datum TargetSymbol. The symbolic
ture, terminating with a triangle. The triangle may means of indicating a datum target is a circle divided
be filled or not filled. See Fig. 3-2. Letters of the horizontally into halves. See Fig. 3-6. The lower half
alphabet (except I, O, and Q) are used as datum contains a letter identifying the associated datum,
identifying letters. Each datum feature of a part re- followed by the target number assigned sequentially
quiring identification shall be assigned a different starting with 1 for each datum. See Fig. 4-30. A
letter. When datum features requiring identification radial line attached to the symbol is directed to a
on a drawing are so numerous as to exhaust the single target point, target line, or target area, as applicable.
alpha series, the double alpha series (AA through See para. 4.6.1. Where the datum target is an area,
M , BA through BZ, etc.) shall be used and enclosed the area size is entered in the upper half of the sym-
in a rectangular frame. Where the same datum feature bol; otherwise, the upper half is left blank. If there
symbol is repeated to identify the same feature in is not sufficient space within the compartment, the

41

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 9 4 m 0759670 0549480 226 m

94 ASME

I TYPE OF
TOLERANCE
I CHARACTERISTIC

t
I

STRAIGHTNESS

I
I
I t
FOR FLATNESS 6.4.2
INDIVIDUAL FORM
FEATURES CIRCULARITY(ROUNDNESS)
I I
CYLlNDRlClTY
FOR PROFILE OF A LINE
INDIVIDUAL PROFILE
OR RELATED
FEATURES
PROFILE OF A SURFACE

I
I
I
l
ANGULARITY 6.6.2

ORIENTATION PERPENDICULARITY

PARALLELISM 6.6.3

FOR
RELATED
FEATURES LOCATION
POSITION

CONCENTRICITY
+0 I
I
5-2

5.11.3
-
- I
SYMMETRY - 5.13

+
RUNOUT

ARROWHEADS MAY BE FILLED OR NOT FILLED


CIRCULAR RUNOUT

TOTAL RUNOUT ”
fl ” 6.7.1.2.2

13.3.1
FIG. 3-1 GEOMETRIC
CHARACTERISTIC
SYMBOLS

3.3.6 Projected Tolerance Zone Symbol. The


r Datum identifying letter 7 symbolic means of indicating a projected tolerance

d zone is shown in Fig. 3-8. The use of the symbol in


local and general notes is prohibited.

3.3.7 Diameter andRadiusSymbols. The


Datum feature triangle may be filled or not filled. symbols used to indicate diameter, spherical diame-
Leader may be appropriately directed to a feature. ter, radius, spherical radius, and controlled radius are
1332 shown in Fig. 3-8. These symbols precede the value
FIG. 3-2 DATUM FEATURE
SYMBOL of a dimension or tolerance given as a diameter or
radius, as applicable. The symbol and the value are
not separated by a space.
is not sufficient space within the compartment, the
area size may be placed outside and connected to the 3.3.8 Reference Symbol. The symbolic means
compartment by a leader line. See Fig. 4-29. of indicating a dimension or other dimensional data
as reference is byenclosing the dimension (or dimen-
3.3.4 Basic Dimension Symbol. The symbolic
sional data) within parentheses. See Fig. 3-8. In writ-
means of indicating a basic dimension is shown in
ten notes, parentheses retain their grammatical inter-
Fig. 3-7.
pretation unless otherwise specified.
3.3.5 Material Condition Symbols. The sym-
bolic means of indicating “at maximum material 3.3.9 Arc Length Symbol. The symbolic means
condition” and “at least material condition” are of indicating that a linear dimension is an arc length
shown in Fig. 3-8. The use of these symbols in local measured on a curved outline is shown in Fig. 3-8.
and general notes is prohibited. The symbol is placed above the dimension.
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
42
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
FIG. 3-3 DATUM FEATURE SYMBOLS ON A FEATURE SURFACE AND AN EXTENSION LINE

Ø @ Ø

1332
FIG. 3-4 PLACEMENTOF DATUM FEATURESYMBOLS ON FEATURESOFSIZE

43
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 9 4 m 0759670 0547482 O T 7 m

94 ASME

I fi
FIG. 3-5 PLACEMENTOF DATUM FEATURESYMBOL IN
CONJUNCTIONWITHAFEATURECONTROLFRAME

/
3.3.10 Statistical Tolerancing Symbol. The
r Target area size, where applicable 7
symbolic means of indicating that a tolerance is
based on statistical tolerancing is shown in Fig. 3-8.
D a t
identifying u m A If the tolerance is a statistical geometric tolerance,
r Target letter the symbol is placedinthe feature control frame
Ø following the stated tolerance and any modifier. See
Fig. 3-9. If the tolerance is a statistical size
tolerance,
or f the symbol is placed adjacent to the size dimension.
Datum See Figs. 2-20 and 3-10.
Target letter 3.3.11 Between Symbol. The symbolic means
number of indicating that a tolerance applies to a limited
segment of a surface between designated extremities
is shown in Figs. 3-8, 3-11, 6-13, and 6-14. In Fig.
FIG. 3-6 DATUMTARGETSYMBOL
3-1 1, forexample, the tolerance applies only between
point G and point H.
3.3.12 Counterbore or Spotface Symbol. The
symbolic means of indicating a counterbore or a
spotface is shown inFig. 3-12. The symbol precedes,
with no space, the dimension of the counterbore or
spotface.
3.3.13 Countersink Symbol. The symbolic
means of indicating a countersink is shown in Fig.
3-13. The symbol precedes, with no space, the di-
mensions of the countersink.
3.3.14 Depth Symbol. The symbolic means of
indicating that a dimension applies to the depth of a
feature is to precede that dimension with the depth
symbol, as shown in Fig. 3-14. The symbol and the
FIG. 3-7 BASICDIMENSIONSYMBOL value are not separated by a space.

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
44

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Yl14.5M 94 m 0759670 0547483 T35 m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

TERM SEE: SYMBOL

ATMAXIMUMMATERIALCONDITION @ 3.3.5

ATLEASTMATERIALCONDITION Q 3.3.5

PROJECTEDTOLERANCEZONE @ 3.3.6

I
I I

STATE FREE I @)
- I 3.3.19

PLANE
TANGENT
I

I @
I

I 3.3.20 I
DIAMETER Ø 3.3.7

SPHERICALDIAMETER SØ 3.3.7

RADIUS R 3.3.7

SPHERICAL RADIUS SR 3.3.7

I CONTROLLED RADIUS I CR I 3.3.7 I


REFERENCE

LENGTH ARC

STATISTICAL TOLERANCE

BETWEEN 3.3.11
. .

FIG. 3-8 MODIFYING


SYMBOLS

L Between
symbol

13.3.10 3.3.11

FIG.3-9SYMBOLINDICATINGTHESPECIFIED FIG. 3-11 BETWEEN


SYMBOL
TOLERANCE IS ASTATISTICALGEOMETRICTOLERANCE

I 1 I
5.17 Q
5.13

t I
(or spotface)
symbol
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIG. 3-10 STATISTICALTOLERANCESYMBOL


I

FIG. 3-12 COUNTERBORE OR SPOTFACESYMBOL

45

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

. @ 6 . 5THRU
v 6 1 0 x 90'
20 2 0.3
Countersink
I
symbol
82 0.2
Dimension
origin symbol
13316
FIG.3-16DIMENSIONORIGINSYMBOL

FIG. 3-13 COUNTERSINK


SYMBOL

Ø9.4 - 9.8 I r Symbol for all around


I
Depthsymbol
J
P 0.6 A

13.3.18
FIG. 3-17SYMBOL FOR ALLAROUND

FIG. 3-14 DEPTH


SYMBOL 3.3.17 TaperandSlopeSymbols. The sym-
bolic means of indicating taper and slope for conical
and flat tapers are shown in Figs. 2-15 and 2-17.
These symbols are always shown with the vertical
leg to the left.
3.3.18 All Around Symbol. The symbolic means
Square
of indicating that a tolerance applies to surfaces all
symbol around the part is a circle located at the junction of
the leader from the feature control frame. See Fig.
3-17.
13.3.15
3.3.19 Free State Symbol. For features subject
FIG. 3-15 SQUARE
SYMBOL
to free state variation as defined in para. 6.8, the
symbolic means of indicating that the geometric tol-
erance applies in its "free state" is shown in Fig. 3-
8. The symbol is placed in the feature control frame
following the stated tolerance and any modifier. See
3.3.15 Square Symbol. The symbolic means of
Fig. 3-18.
indicating that a single dimension applies to a square
shape is to precede that dimension with the square 3.3.20 Tangent Plane Symbol. The symbolic
symbol, as shown in Fig. 3-15. The symbol and the means of indicating a tangent plane is shown in Fig.
value are not separated by a space. 3-8. The symbol is placedin the feature control
frame following the stated tolerance as shown in Fig.
3.3.16Dimension Origin Symbol. The sym-
6-43. Also see paras. 1.3.21 and 6.6.1.3.
bolic means of indicating that atoleranced dimension
between two features originates from one of these 3.3.21 Surface Texture Symbols. For informa-
features and not the other is shown in Figs. 2-5 and tionon the symbolic means of specifying surface
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3-16. texture, see ANSI Y14.36.

46

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

Geometric
characteristic
symbol -, ,-Tolerance
Free state symbol’

I=
3 3 19

L Datum reference
FIG. 3-18 FEATURECONTROLFRAMEWITHFREE Diameter symbol letter
STATESYMBOL
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Materialcondition
symbol
J
FIG. 3-20 FEATURECONTROLFRAMEINCORPORATING
ADATUM REFERENCE
Geometric
Tolerance
characteristic
symbol

m] (a)One
datum
1 datum
reference
Diameter
symbol f-Material
symbol
condition

1341
(b) Two r Primary
FIG. 3-19 FEATURECONTROLFRAME datum Secondary
references

I
\I
IØ0.25@(BIC@I

3.3.22 Symbols for Limits and Fits. For infor- 1343


mation on the symbolic means of specifying metric (c) Three Primary
datum r Secondary
limits and fits, see para. 2.2.1. references
\\ y Tertiary

3.4 GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE SYMBOLS


Geometric characteristic symbols, the tolerance
value, and datum reference letters, where applicable, FIG. 3-21 ORDEROFPRECEDENCEOF DATUM
are combined in a feature control frame to express a REFERENCE
geometric tolerance.
3.4.1 Feature Control Frame. A geometric tol-
erance for an individual feature is specified by means
of a feature control frame divided into compartments an axis established by two datum diameters - both
containing the geometric characteristic symbol fol- datum reference letters, separated by a dash, are en-
lowed by the tolerance. See Fig. 3-19. Where appli- tered in a single compartment. Where applicable,
cable, the tolerance is preceded by the diameter sym- each datum reference letter is followed by a material
bol and followed by a material condition symbol. condition symbol. See Figs. 3-21(a) and 4-19 and
para. 4.5.7.
3.4.2FeatureControlFrameIncorporating
One Datum Reference. Where a geometric toler- 3.4.3FeatureControlFrameIncorporating
ance is related to a datum, this relationship is indi- Two or Three Datum References. Where more
cated by entering the datum reference letter in a com- than one datum is required, the datum reference let-
partment following the tolerance. Where applicable, ters (each followed by a material condition symbol,
the datum reference letter is followed by a material where applicable) are entered in separate compart-
condition symbol. See Fig. 3-20. Where a datum is ments in the desired order of precedence, from left
established by two datum features - for example, to right. See Figs. 3-21(b) and (c). Datum reference

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M 94 m 0759b70 0549486 7 4 4 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

6.5.9.1
(a)Composite 5.4.1
3.4.4

+ FIG, 3-23 COMBINEDFEATURECONTROLFRAMEAND

I - +
60.8 @ D E F
Ø 0.25 @ D

(b) Two singlesegments


DATUM FEATURESYMBOL

FIG, 3-22 MULTIPLEFEATURECONTROLFRAMES

I / L Minimum projected height


tolerance zone
L Projected tolerance zone symbol
of

letters need not be in alphabetical order in the feature


control frame. 1347
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.4.4 Composite Feature Control Frame.The FIG. 3-24 FEATURECONTROLFRAMEWITHA


composite feature control frame contains a single en- PROJECTEDTOLERANCEZONESYMBOL
try of the geometric characteristic symbol followed
by each tolerance and datum requirement, one above
the other. See Figs. 3-22(a) and paras. 5.4.1 and
and any modifier. See Fig. 3-24. Where necessary for
6.5.9.
clarification, the projected tolerance zone is indicated
3.4.5 Two Single-Segment Feature Control with a chain line and the minimum height of the
Frames. The symbolic meansof representing two tolerance zone is specified in a drawing view. The
single-segment feature control frames is shown in height dimension may then be omitted from the fea-
Fig. 3-22@). Application of this control is described ture control frame. See Fig. 5-34.
in para. 5.4.1.3.
3.4.6 Combined Feature Control Frame and
3.5 FEATURE CONTROL FRAME
Datum Feature Symbol. Where a feature or pat-
PLACEMENT
tem of features controlled by a geometric tolerance
also serves as a datum feature, the feature control The feature control frame is related to the consid-
frame and datum feature symbol are combined. See ered feature by one of the following methods and as
Fig. 3-23. Wherever a feature control frame and da- depicted in Fig. 3-25:
tum feature symbol are combined, datums referenced (a) locating the frame below or attached to a
in the feature control frame are not considered part of leader-directed callout or dimension pertaining to the
the datum feature symbol. In the positional tolerance feature;
example, Fig. 3-23, a feature is controlled for posi- (b) running a leader from the frame to the feature;
tion in relation to datums A and B, and identified as (c) attaching a side or an end of the frame to an
datum feature C. Whenever datum C is referenced extension line from the feature, provided it is a plane
elsewhere on the drawing, the reference applies to surface;
datum C, not to datums A and B. (d) attaching a side or an end of the frame to an
extension of the dimension line pertaining to a fea-
3.4.7 FeatureControlFrame With aPro-
ture of size.
jected Tolerance Zone. Where a positional or an
orientation tolerance is specified as a projected toler-
ance zone, the projected tolerance zone symbol is
3.6 DEFINITION OF THE TOLERANCE ZONE
placed in the feature control frame, along with the
dimension indicating the minimum height of the tol- Where the specified tolerance value represents the
erance zone. This is to follow the stated tolerance diameter of a cylindrical or spherical zone, the diam-

48

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
A S I E YL4.51 9 4 E 0 7 5 9 6 7 00 5 4 9 4 8 7 680 E

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING


ASME Y14.5M-1994

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
FIG. 3-25 FEATURECONTROLFRAMEPLACEMENT

49

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
~~

ASME Y14=5M 94 0 7 5 9 6 7005 4 9 4 8581 7

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

I Y ~ T O LC I R - S ]
Datumreferenceletters
Tabulated tolerance letter designation
Tabulated column heading

PART NUMBER A 0 C D E F

I
I
137
FIG. 3-26 TABULATEDTOLERANCES

eter or spherical diameter symbol shall precede the


tolerance value. Where the tolerance zone is other
thana diameter, identification is unnecessary, and
the specified tolerance value represents the distance
between two parallel straight lines or planes, or the
distance between two uniform boundaries, as the spe-
cific case may be.

3.7 TABULATED TOLERANCES


Where the tolerance in a feature control frame is
tabulated, a letter representing the tolerance, pre-
ceded by the abbreviation TOL, is entered as shown
in Fig. 3-26.

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4-5M 9 4 M 0759670 0549487 453 M

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

4 Datum Referencing

4.1 GENERAL and dimensions verified. See Figs. 4-11and4-12.


When magnified surfaces of manufactured parts are
This Section establishes the principles of identi- seento have irregularities, contact is made with a
fying features of a part as datum features for the simulated datum at a number of surface extremities
purpose of establishing geometric relationships im- or high points.
posed bya feature control frame. Datums are theoret-
ically exact points, axes, and planes. These elements 4.2.2 Datum Reference Frame. Sufficient da-
exist within a framework of three mutually perpen- tum features, those most important to the design of
dicular intersecting planes known as the datum refer- a part, or designated portions of these features are
ence frame. See Fig. 4-1. This Section also estab- chosen to position the part inrelation to a set of three
lishes the criteria for establishing datums andthe mutually perpendicular planes, jointly called a datum
datum reference frame from datum features. reference frame. This reference frame exists in theory
only and not on the part. Therefore, it is necessary
to establish a method of simulating the theoretical
4.2 IMMOBILIZATION OF PART reference frame from the actual features of the part.
This simulation is accomplished by positioning spe-
Where features of a part have been identified as cifically identified features in contact with appro-
datum features, the part is oriented and immobilized
priate datum simulators, in a stated order of prece-
relative to the three mutually perpendicular planes
dence, to restrict motion of the part and to relate the
of the datum reference frame in a selected order of part adequately tothe datum reference frame. See
precedence. This in turn makes the geometric rela- Fig. 4-1.
tionships that exist between the features measurable.
A true geometric counterpart of a feature usedto 4.2.2.1 Mutually Perpendicular Planes. The
establish a datum may be: planes of the datum reference frame are simulated
( a ) a plane; in a mutually perpendicular relationship to provide
(b) a maximum material condition boundary direction as well as the origin for related dimensions
"(C concept); and measurements. Thus, when the part ispositioned
(c) a least material condition boundary (LMC on the datum reference frame (by physical contact
concept); between each datum feature and its counterpart in
( d ) a virtual condition boundary; the associated processing equipment), dimensions re-
(e) an actual mating envelope; lated to the datum reference frame by a feature con-
If) a mathematically defined contour. trol frame or note are thereby mutually perpendicu-
lar. This theoretical reference frame constitutes the
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.2.1 Application. As measurements cannot be three-plane dimensioning system used for datum
made from a true geometric counterpart that is theo- referencing.
retical, a datum is assumed to exist in and be simu-
lated by the associated processing equipment. For 4.2.2.2
Number of Datum Reference
example, machine tables and surface plates, though Frames. In some cases, a single datum reference
not true planes, are of such quality that the planes frame will suffice. In others, additional datum refer-
derived from them are used to simulate the datums ence frames may be necessary where physical sepa-
from which measurements are taken and dimensions ration or the functional relationship of features re-
verified. See Fig. 4-10. Also, for example, ring and quires that datum reference frames be applied at
plug gages, and mandrels, though not true cylinders, specific locations onthepart.In such cases, each
are of such quality that their axes are used as simu- feature control frame must contain the datum feature
lated datums from which measurements are taken references that are applicable. Any difference in the

51

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 m 0759b70 0549490 175 m

94 ASME

Datum point
v ,-Datum axis

Direction of measurements
7
axis

Datumplanes
I -i origin of
measurement axis L Datum

FIG. 4-1DATUM REFERENCE


FRAME

order of precedence or in the material condition of identifies physical features and shall not be applied
any datum features referenced in multiple feature to center lines, center planes, Ór axes except as de-
control frames requires different datum simulation fined in paras. 4.6.6 and 4.6.7.
methods and, consequently, establishes a different
datum reference frame. See para. 4.5.1 1. 4.3.3 Datum Feature Controls. Measurements
made from a datum reference frame do not take into
account any variations of the datum features. Consid-
eration shall be given to controlling the desired accu-
racy of the datum features by applying appropriate
4.3 DATUM FEATURES geometric tolerances. Where a control of an entire
feature becomes impracticable, use of datum targets
A datum feature is selected on the basis of its may be considered or a partial surface may be desig-
geometric relationship to the toleranced feature and nated as the datum feature. See paras. 4.5.10 and 4.6.
the requirements of the design. To ensure proper as-
sembly, corresponding interfacing features of mating
parts should be selected as datum features. However,
a datum feature should be accessible on the part and
be of sufficient size to permit its use. Datum features
4.4 SPECIFYING DATUM FEATURES IN AN
must be readily discernible on the part. Therefore, in
ORDER OF PRECEDENCE
the case of symmetrical parts or parts with identical
features, physical identification of the datum feature Datum features must be specified in an order of
on the part may be necessary. precedence to position a part properly on the datum
reference frame. Figure 4-2 illustrates a part where
4.3.1 Temporary and Permanent Datum Fea-
the datum features are plane surfaces. The desired
tures. Selected datum features of in-process parts,
order of precedence is indicated by entering the ap-
such as castings, forgings, machinings, or fabrica-
propriate datum feature reference letters, from left to
tions, may be used temporarily for the establishment
right, in the feature control frame. In Fig. 4-2(a), the
of machined surfaces to serve as permanent datum
datum features are identified as surfaces D, E, and
features. Such temporary datum features may or may
F. These surfaces are most important to the design
not be subsequently removed by machining. Perma-
and function of the part, as illustrated by Fig. 4-2(b).
nent datum features should be surfaces or diameters
Surfaces D, E, and F are the primary, secondary,
not appreciably changed by subsequent processing
and tertiary datum features, respectively, since they
operations.
appear in that order in the feature control frame.
4.3.2 Datum FeatureIdentification. Datum
NOTE: When necessary to relate linear and angular dimensions
features are identified on the drawing by means of to a datum reference frame, the desired order of precedence may
a datum feature symbol. The datum feature symbol be indicated by a note such as: UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECI-
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

52
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M 74 0 7 5 7 6 7005 4 7 4 7 3 O02

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

L First datum plane


(a) 14.4.1

Seconddatum p l a n e 7

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
144

1441
FIG. 4-3 SEQUENCE OF DATUM FEATURESRELATES
PARTTO DATUM REFERENCEFRAME

FIG. 4-2 PARTWHERE DATUM FEATURESAREPLANE


SURFACES
mary datum feature relates the parttothe datum
reference frame by bringing a minimum of three
points on the surface into contact with the first datum
plane. See Fig. 4-3(a). The partis further related
FIED, DIMENSIONS ARE RELATEDTO DATUM A (PRI- to the frame by bringing at least two points of the
MARY), DATUM B (SECONDARY), AND DATUM C (TER- secondary datum feature into contact with the second
TIARY). This note is not to be used in lieu of indicating datum
references in a feature control frame for geometric tolerancing datum plane. See Fig. 4-3(b). The relationship is
applications. completed by bringing at least one point of the ter-
tiary datum feature into contact with the third datum
plane. See Fig. 4-3(c). As measurements are made
from simulated datum planes, positioning of the part
4.4.1 PositioningParts With PlaneSurface on a datum reference frame in this manner ensures
Datum Featureson Datum ReferenceFrame.
a common basis for measurements.
Figure 4-3 illustrates the sequence for positioning the
part shown in Fig. 4-2 on a datum reference frame 4.4.1.1 Parts With Inclined Datum Fea-
that is simulated by the processing equipment. Where tures. For partswithinclined datum features as
a surface is specified as a datum feature without qual- shown in Fig. 4-4, a true contacting plane is oriented
ification, a high point or points anywhere on the en- at the basic angle of the feature. The corresponding
tire surface must contact the datum plane. The pri- plane of the datum reference frame is rotated through
53

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING

MEANS THIS

t-
I

F Thirddatumplane
-*--7
Firstdatumplane
7
I

True geometric counterpart


of datum feature C I

Second datum plane -7-


(W
FIG. 4-4 INCLINED DATUM FEATURES

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
54
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

Primary datum feature K relates the part to the first


"
datumplane. Since secondary datum feature M is
"
cylindrical, itis associated withtwotheoretical
planes, the secondand
third in a three-plane
relationship.
4.4.2.2 Datum Axis and Two Planes. These
two theoretical planes are represented on a drawing
by center lines crossing at right angles, as in Fig. 4-
5(a). The intersection of these planes coincides with
the datum axis. See Fig. 4-5(b). Once established, the
datum axis becomes the origin for related dimensions
while the second and third planes indicate the direc-
tion of measurements.
4.4.2.3 Orientation of Two Planes. In Fig.
4-5, the rotational orientation of the second and third
planes of the datum reference frame is not specified,
as rotation of the pattern of holes about the datum
axis has no effect on the function of the part. In such
cases, only two datum features are referenced in the
feature control frame:
( a ) primary datum feature K, that establishes a
datum plane; and
(b) secondary datum feature M, that establishes a
datum axis perpendicular to datum plane K. This
axis is the intersection of the second and third datum
planes.
4.4.3 Rotational Orientation.To establish rota-
tional orientation of two planes about a datum axis,
a third or tertiary datum feature is referenced in the
First 4.4.2.: feature control frame.
datum 4.4.2.: ( a ) Figure 4-6 illustrates rotational orientation of
plane
4.4.2.1 the two planes intersecting through shaft B, the sec-
4.4.2 ondary datum feature, established by the center plane
FIG, 4-5 PART WITH CYLINDRICALDATUMFEATURE . of slot C, the tertiary datum feature. Figure 4-7 illus-
trates the development of the theoretical datum refer-
ence frame for the positional tolerance of the three
this same basic angle to be mutually perpendicular holes in Fig. 4-6.
to the other two planes. For this method of establish- (b) Figure 4-8 illustrates rotational orientation of
ing a datum reference frame, the angle must be indi- the two planes intersecting through hole B, the sec-
cated as basic. ondary datum feature. Orientation is established by
the width ofhole C, the tertiary datum feature. Figure
4.4.2 Parts With Cylindrical Datum Features. 4-9 illustrates the development of the theoretical da-
A cylindrical datum feature is always associated with tum reference frame for the positional tolerance of
two theoretical planes intersecting at right angles on the other holes applied in Fig. 4-8.
the datum axis. The datum of a cylindrical surface
is the axis of the true geometric counterpart of the
datum feature (for example, the actual mating enve-
lope or the virtual condition boundary), andsimu-
lated bythe axis of a cylinder in the processing 4.5ESTABLISHING DATUMS
equipment. This axis serves as the origin of measure-
ment from which other features of the part are lo- The following paragraphs define the criteria for
cated. See Figs. 4-5, 4-11, and 4-12. establishing datums from datum features.
4.4.2.1 Cylindrical Datum Feature. Figure 4- 4.5.1Datum Features Not Subject to Size
5 illustrates a part having a cylindrical datum feature. Variations. Where a nominally flat surface is speci-
55
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y l 4 . 5 1 9 4 I0759670 0549494 810 m

94 ASME

31.81
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

L 3X 06.6-6.7

FIG. 4-6 PARTWHEREANGULARORIENTATION IS IMPORTANT

fíed as adatum feature, the corresponding datum is 4.5.3 Specifying Datum Features RFS. Where
simulated byaplanecontactingpointsof that sur- adatum feature of size is applied on an W S basis,
face. See Fig. 4-10. The exteni Öf contact depends the datum is established by physical contact between
on whether the surface is a primary, a secondary, or the feature surface(s) and surface(s) of the processing
a tertiary datum feature. See para. 4.4.If irregulari- equipment. A machine element that is variablein
ties on the surface of a primary or secondary datum size (such as a chuck, mandrel, vise, or centering
feature are such that the part is unstable (that is, it device) is used to simulate a true geometric counter-
wobbles) when brought into contact with the corres- part of the feature and to establish the datum axis or
ponding surface of a fixture, the part may be adjusted center plane.
to an optimum position, if necessary, to simulate the (a) Primary Datum Feature - Diameter RFS.
datum. S e e para. 4.3.3. The simulated datum isthe axis of the true geometric
counterpart of the datum feature. The true geometric
4.5.2 Datum Features Subject to Size Varia- counterpart (or actual mating envelope) is the small-
tions. Datum features, such as diameters and widths, est circumscribed (for an external feature) or largest
differ from singular flat surfaces in that they are sub- inscribed (for an internal feature) perfect cylinder
ject to variationsin size as well as form. Because that contacts the datum feature surface. See Figs. 4-
variations are allowedby the size tolerance, itbe- 1 1 and 4-12.
comes necessary to determine whether W S , MMC, (b) Primary Datum Feature - Width RFS. The
or LMC applies in each case. See para. 2.8. simulated datum is the center plane of the true geo-
56
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

True geometric counterpart of datum feature B


(MMC virtual conditioncylinderperpendicularto

datum feature A

datumfeature B

[Datum plane A cc,L Truegeometriccounterpart


of datum feature C
datum feature C (True geometric
counterpart of (MMCvirtualconditionwidth
datum feature A) perpendicular to datum
plane A. Centerplane
aligned with datum axis B)
(a)Datumfeatures ( b ) True geometric counterparts

y Datum plane A Datum reference


frame

Datum center plane C

(c) Datum planes and axisestablishedfromthetrue


geometric counterparts (d) Datum reference frame (443
FIG. 4-7 DEVELOPMENT OF A DATUM REFERENCEFRAME FOR PARTINFIG. 4-6

metric counterpart of the datum feature. The true the same manner as indicated in (c) above with an
geometric counterpart (or actual mating envelope) is additional requirement: The contacting cylinder or
two parallel planes atminimum separation (for an parallel planes must be oriented in relation to both
external feature) or maximum separation (for an in- the primary and the secondary datum - that is, the
ternal feature) that contact the corresponding sur- actual mating envelope relative to the primary and
faces of the datum feature. See Figs. 4-13 and 4- 14. secondary datum. The tertiary datum feature may be
( c ) SecondaryDatumFeatureRFS - Diameter aligned with a datum axis as in Fig. 4-15 or offset
or Width. For both external and internal features, the from a plane of the datum reference frame.
secondary datum (axis or center plane) is established
4.5.4Specifying Datum Features at MMC.
in the same manner as indicated in (a) and (b) above
Where a datum feature of size is applied on an MMC
with anadditional requirement: The contacting cylin-
basis, machine and gaging elements in the processing
der or parallel planes of the true geometric counter-
equipment that remain constant in size may be used
part must be oriented to the primary datum (usually
to simulate a true geometric counterpart of the fea-
a plane) - that is, the actual mating envelope rela-
ture and to establish the datum. In each case, the size
tive to the primary datum. Datum B in Fig. 4-15
of the true geometric counterpart is determined by
illustrates this principle for diameters; the same prin-
the specified MMC limit of size of the datum feature,
ciple applies for widths.
or its MMC virtual condition, where applicable.
(d) Tertiary Datum Feature -Diameter or Width
RFS. For both external and internal features, the ter- 4.5.4.1 Size of a Primary or Single Datum
tiary datum (axis or center plane) is established in Feature. Where a primary or single datum feature
57
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 = 5 M 9 4 0759b70 0549496 693 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 AND DIMENSIONING TOLERANCING

14.4.3

FIG. 4-8 ORIENTATIONOF TWO DATUM PLANESTHROUGH A HOLE

of size is controlled by a roundness or cylindricity sary in determining the size for simulating its true
tolerance, the size of the true geometric counterpart geometric counterpart. Consideration must be given
used to establish the simulated datum is the MMC to the effects of the difference in size between the
limit of size. Where a straightness tolerance is ap- applicable virtual condition of a datum feature and
plied on an MMC basis, the size of the true geometric its MMC limit of size. Where a virtual condition
counterpart is the MMC virtual condition. See Fig. equal to MMC is the design requirement, a zero geo-
6-3. Where a straightness tolerance is applied on an metric tolerance at MMC is specified. See para. 5.3.3
W S basis, the size of the true geometric counterpart and Fig. 6-41.
is the applicable inner or outer boundary. See Fig.
4.5.5 Specifying Datum Features atLMC.
6-2.
Where a datum feature of size is specified on an
4.5.4.2 Size of a Secondary or Tertiary Da- LMC basis, a primary datum may be established as
tum Feature. Where secondary or tertiary datum the axis or center plane of the LMC boundary. A
features of size in the same datum reference frame secondary or tertiary datum may be established as
are controlled by a specified tolerance of location or the axis or center plane of the true geometric counter-
orientation with respect to each other, the size of part of the feature's virtual condition size. See para.
the true geometric counterpart used to establish the 2.1 1 and Fig. 4- 17. This example illustrates both sec-
simulated datum is the virtual condition of the datum ondary and tertiary datum features specified at LMC
feature. See para. 2.11.1 and Fig. 4-16. This example but simulated at virtual conditions.
illustrates both secondary and tertiary datum features
specified at MMC but simulated at virtual condition. 4.5.6 Effectsof Datum Precedence andMate-
rial Condition. Where datums specified in an order
4.5.4.3 Determining Size. An analysis of tol- of precedence include a feature Ôf size, the material
erance controls applied to a datum feature is neces- condition at which the datum feature applies must be

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

True geometric counterpart


of datum feature B
(MMC virtual condition
Primary datum
feature A I r Secondary datum
feature B cylinder perpendicular
to datumplane A) ,X

..
of datum feature A)
True geometric counterpart -/
ofdatum feature C
(MMC virtual condition width
perpendicular to datum plane A
Center plane aligned with
datumaxis B)
(a)Datumfeatures (b) True geometric counterparts

frame

Datumplane C
‘L
(c) Datumplanes and axis established
from the true geometric counterparts Datum
(d)
reference
frame 114.1

FIG. 4-9 DEVELOPMENTOF ADATUM REFERENCEFRAMEFORPARTIN FIG. 4-8

determined. See para. 4.5.2. The effect of its material cylinder that contacts diameter A and is perpendicu-
condition and order of precedence should be consid- lar to the datum plane - that is, the actual mating
ered relative to fit and function of the part. Figure 4- envelope of a diameter that is perpendicular to datum
18(a) illustrates a part with a pattern of holes located plane B. In addition to size variations, this cylinder
in relation to diameter A and surface B. As indicated encompasses anyvariation in perpendicularity be-
by asterisks, datum requirements may be specified tween diameter A and surface B, the primary datum
in three different ways. feature.

4.5.6.1 Cylindrical Feature at RFS Primary. 4.5.6.3 CylindricalFeature at MMC Sec-


In Fig. 4-18(b), diameter A is the primary datum ondary. In Fig. 4-18(d), surface B is the primary
feature and W S is applied; surface B is the second- datum feature; diameter A is the secondary datum
ary datum feature. The datum axis is the axis of the feature and MMC is applied. The datum axis is the
smallest circumscribed cylinder that contacts diame- axis of a virtual condition cylinder of fixed size that
ter A - that is, the actual mating envelope of diame- is perpendicular to the datum plane B . Variations in
ter A. This cylinder encompasses variations in the the size and perpendicularity of datum feature A are
size of A within specified limits. However, any vari- permitted to occur within this cylindrical boundary.
ation in perpendicularity between surface B and di- Furthermore, as the actual mating envelope of datum
ameter A, the primary datum feature, will affect the feature A departs from its MMC size, a displacement
degree of contact of surface B with its datum plane. of its axis relative to the datum axis is allowed. See
para. 5.3.2.2.
4.5.6.2 Surface Primary. In Fig. 4-18(c), sur-
face B is the primary datum feature; diameter A is 4.5.7 Multiple Datum Features. Where more
the secondary datum feature and RFS is applied. The than one datum feature is used to establish a single
datum axis is the axis of the smallest circumscribed datum, the appropriate datum reference letters and

59

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 H 0759670 0549498 466 H

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING

4.5.1
4.2.1
1.3.3!
MEANS THIS

(True geometric counterpart


of datum feature A)
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Datum feature A
Workpiece

Datum Feature Simulator

Simulated datum plane A Simulated datum feature


(Plane derived from the (Surface of manufacturing or
datum feature simulator) verification equipment)

(a) Workpiece 8 datum feature simulator prior to contact

Datum feature A
Workpiece
"_c

Datum Feature Simulator

Simulated datum plane A Datum plane A


(Plane derived from the (True geometric counterpart
datum feature simulator) of datum feature A)

I (b) Workpiece & datum feature simulator in contact

FIG. 4-10DATUM FEATURE,SIMULATEDDATUM,AND


THEORETICAL DATUM PLANE

60

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 74 E 0757670 0547477 3 T 2 m

DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

THIS ON THE DRAWING

-
4.5.3
4.4.2
4.2.1
1.3.35
MEANS THIS feature datum
Simulated
NOTE:
not shown for clarity

Datum feature simulator


True geometric
counterpart of datum
”. - feature A
circumscribed (Smallest Workpiece
cylinder)

Datum axis A
feature
Datum A
(Axis of true
geometric counterpart)

FIG. 4-11 PRIMARYEXTERNAL DATUM DIAMETER - RFS

61

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 m O759670 0549500 944

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING

t- -
-+I
MEANS THIS
Datum feature A

J 2
True geometric counterpart
- - of feature
(Largest
Adatum
inscribed cylinder)
Datum feature simulator

t
L Datum axis A
(Axis of true
geometric counterpart)
NOTE:Simulateddatumfeature
not shown for clarity

FIG. 4-12 PRIMARYINTERNAL DATUM DIAMETER - RFS

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

62

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y34.5M94 m 0 7 5 9 6 7 00 5 4 9 5 0 38 8 0 m

DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

rHlS ON THE DRAWING

MEANS THIS
NOTE:Simulateddatumfeature
not shown for clarity

-Datum feature A

Datum plane A 2-
(Center plane of
geometric
true
counterpart)
5"
tt I WorkDiece
i
Datum feature simulator
True geometric counterpart
of datum feature A.
(Parallelplanes at
minimumseparation)

FIG. 4-13PRIMARYEXTERNAL DATUM WIDTH - RFS

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

63

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
~~~ ~~ ~

ASME YL4.5M 74 0757670 0549666 7LB

94 ASME

1
THIS ONTHEDRAWING

1453
MEANS THIS
NOTE: Simulateddatumfeature
not shown for clarity

r Datum feature A

Datum feature simulator True geometric counterpart


of datum feature A.
(Parallel planes at
Datum plane A separation)
maximum
(Center- planeof
true geometric
counterpart)
. . I I

FIG. 4-14 PRIMARYINTERNALDATUMWIDTH - RFS

-
THIS ON THE DRAWING MEANS THIS

I:K
True geometric counterpart
of datum feature C
(Parallel planes at maximum
separation perpendicular to
- datumplane A. Center
plane
aligned with datum axis B)

Datum center plane C

Datum axis B

r t
True geometric counterpart
of datum feature B
(Largest inscribed cylinder
I I perpendicular to datum
I I plane A)

Datum plane A
(True geometric counterpart
14.5.3 of datum feature A)

FIG. 4-15 SECONDARYANDTERlTlARY DATUM FEATURESRFS

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
64
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING MEANS THIS


True geometric counterpart
of datum feature C
(MMC virtual condition
width perpendicular t o

I 4 X (57.7 - 7.8
m
I
I
I
I
True geometric counterpart
of datum feature B
(MMC virtual condition
cylinder
perpendicular
datum
plane A)
to

L Datum plane A
(True geometric counterpart
IAI 14.5.4.2 of datum feature A)

FIG. 4-16 SECONDARYANDTERITIARY DATUM FEATURESATMMC

THIS ON THE DRAWING MEANS THIS

1”8 True geometric counterpart


of datum feature C
(LMC virtual condition
width perpendicular to
datum plane A. Center plane
aligned with datum axis B)

Datum center plane C

Datum axis B

t-
I
I
Ø12’6 True geometric
counterpart
of datum feature B
(LMC virtual condition
I cylinder perpendicular t o
I datum plane A)

Part

f
Datum plane A
(True geometric counterpart
IAl of datum feature A)

FIG. 4-17 SECONDARYANDTERITIARY DATUM FEATURES AT LMC

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
65
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 1 94 H 07596700549503653 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

/ *See below

4.5.6.1
4.5.6

Datum feature A
(Secondary) (Secondary)
counterpart of Datum plane B
datum feature B (True geometric Datum plane B
(Perpendicular to counterpart of (True geometric
datum axis A) datum feature B) counterpart of

Datum feature B Datum feature B Datum feature B


(Secondary) (Primary) (Primary)
Datum axis A Datum axis A Datum axis A

True geometric True geometric Virtual condition


counterpart of counterpart of cylinder
datum feature A datum feature A perpendicular to
(Smallest (Smallest circumscribed datum plane B
circumscribed cylinder perpendicular
(b) cylinder) (C) datum
to plane B) (dl

FIG. 4-18EFFECTOFMATERIALCONDITIONAND DATUM PRECEDENCE

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

66

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 9 9 D 0 7 5 9 6 7 00 5 4 9 5 0 45 9 T m

ND DIMENSIONING
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

o 1 1
@
-
L
Ø8.0 - 8.2
[ IØ0.3@lA@-B@ICI

~~~ ~~ ~

FIG, 4-19 TWO DATUM FEATURES,SINGLE DATUM AXIS

associated modifiers, separated by a dash, are entered


in one compartment of the feature control frame. See
THIS ON THE DRAWING
I para. 3.4.2 and Fig. 4-19. Since the features have
equal importance, datum reference letters may be en-
tered in any order within this compartment.
4.5.7.1 Simulation of Singlea Datum
Plane. Figure 4-20 is an example of a single datum
plane simulated, as explained in para. 4.5.1, by si-
multaneously contacting the high points of'two sur-
145711 faces. Identification of two features to establish a
MEANS THIS single datum plane may be required where separation
Datum plane A-B of the features is caused by an obstruction, such as
\Datum in Fig. 4-20, or by a comparable opening (for exam-
feature A ple, a slot) of sufficient width. Where appropriate,
an extension line may be used to indicate a continua-
tion of one datum feature across slots or obstructions.
For controlling coplanarity of these surfaces, see
para. 6.5.6.
4.5.7.2 Single Axis of Two CoaxialFea-
tures. Figure 4-21 is an example of a single datum
FIG. 4-20 TWO DATUM FEATURES,SINGLE DATUM axis established by two coaxial diameters. The datum
PLANE axis is simulated by simultaneously contacting the
high points of both surfaces with two coaxial cylin-

67

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 94 m O759670 0549505 426

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING

1 THIS ON THE DRAWING


ence, the datum axis is derived from the pitch cylin-
der, unless otherwise specified. See para. 2.9. Where
a gear or spline is specified as a datum reference, a
specific feature of the gear or spline must be desig-
nated to derive a datum axis. See para. 2.10. In gen-
eral, these types of datum features should be avoided.

4.5.10 Partial Surfaces as Datum Features. It


is often desirable to specify only part of a surface,
instead of the entire surface, as defined in para. 4.4.1,
14.5.7.2 to serve as a datum feature. This may be indicated
MEANS THIS
by means of a chain line drawn parallel to the surface
Datum axis A-B
profile (dimensioned for length and location) as in
Datu m
Fig. 4-23, specified in note form, or by a datum target
area as described in para. 4.6.1.3. Figure 4-23 illus-
feature A 7 trates a long part where holes are located only on
one end.
4.5.10.1 Mathematically DefinedSurface.
It is sometimes necessary to identify a compound
curve or a contoured surface as a datum feature. Such
a feature can be used as a datum feature only when
it can be mathematically defined and can be related
to a three-plane datum reference frame. In such
Smallestpair of
cases, the theoretically true geometric counterpart of
the shape is used to establish the datum.
cylinders

I
4.5.11 MultipleDatum ReferenceFrames.
FIG. 4-21 TWO DATUM FEATURESAT RFS, SINGLE
More than one datum reference frame may be neces-
DATUM AXIS sary for certain parts, depending upon functional re-
quirements. In Fig. 4-24, datum features A, B, and
C establish one datum reference frame, while datum
ders, as explained in para. 4.5.3(a). A datum axis features D, B, and C and datum features D, E, and
established by coaxial datum features is normally B establish different datum reference frames.
used as a primary datum. For one possible method
of controlling the coaxiality of these diameters, see 4.5.11.1 Functional Datum Features. Only
para. 6.7.1.3.4 the required datum features should be referenced in
feature control frames when specifying geometric
4.5.8 Pattern of Features. Multiple features of tolerances. An understanding of the geometric con-
size, such as a pattern of holes at "C, maybe trol provided by these tolerances (as explained in
used as a group to establish a datum when part func- Sections 5 and 6) is necessary to determine effec-
tion dictates. See Fig. 4-22. In this case, individual tively the number of datum references required for a
datum axes are established at the true position of given application. Additionally, functional require-
each hole. These are the axes of true cylinders that
ments of the design should be the basis for selecting
simulate the virtual condition of the holes. When the
the related datum features to be referenced in the
part is mounted on the primary datum surface, the
feature control frame. Figure 4-25 illustrates a part
pattern of holes establishes the second and third da-
where three geometric tolerances are specified, each
tum planes of the datum reference frame. Where the
having the required number of datum references. Al-
secondary datum feature is referenced at MMC in the
though common datum identifying letters appear in
feature control frame, the axis of the feature pattern
each frame, each combination is a different and inde-
established by all the holes may depart from the axis
pendent requirement.
of the datum reference frame as the datum feature
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

departs from MMC.


4.5.12SimultaneousRequirements. Where
4.5.9ScrewThreads,Gears,andSplines. two or more features or patterns of features are lo-
Where a screw thread is specified as a datum refer- cated by basic dimensions related to common datum
68
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 = 5 M 9 4 m 0757670 0547506 362 m

DIMENSIONINGAND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING MEANS THIS

Datum Secondandthird
danes of the

7".

/-""i

LMCholesat

Virtual
hole
condition
perpendicular
rotatlon
to
of -/ 4 Posslbledisplacement
( ', IS
, shown) of
primary
datum
plane A hole
the pattern axis
respect
withplane)
(First the to datum
reference frame

FIG. 4-22 HOLEPATTERNIDENTIFIEDAS DATUM

THIS ON THE DRAWING

+- &m- ,'
Ø

T
~~ ~

MEANS THIS

# L True geometric
counterpart of A
\ d
FIG. 4-23 PARTIAL DATUM

L6.6.1

FIG. 4-24 INTERRELATED DATUM REFERENCE FRAMES

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 69

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 74 H O757670 0547507 2T7 m

ASMEY14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

4.6 DATUM TARGETS


Datum targets designate specific points, lines, or
areas of contact on a part that are used in establishing
a datum reference frame. Because of inherent irregu-
larities, the entire surface of some features cannot be
effectively used to establish a datum. Examples are
nonplanar or uneven surfaces produced by casting,
forging, or molding; surfaces of weldments; and thin-
section surfaces subject to bowing, warping, or other
inherent or induced distortions. Datum targets and
datum features (as described earlier) may be com-
bined to establish a datum reference frame.
4.6.1 DatumTarget Symbols. Points, lines, and
areas on datum features are designated on the draw-
ing by means of a datum target symbol. See Fig. 3-
6. The symbol is placed outside the part outline with
a radial (leader) line directed to the target. The use
of a solid radial (leader) line indicates that the datum
target is on the near (visible) surface. The use of a
dashed radial (leader) line, as in Fig. 4-38, indicates
that the datum target is on the far (hidden) surface.
The datum feature itself is usually identified with a
datum feature symbol.
4.6.1.1 Datum TargetPoints. A datum target
point is indicated by the target point symbol, dimen-
sionally located on a direct viewof the surface.
Where there is no direct view, the point location is
145111 dimensioned on two adjacent views. See Fig. 4-27.
4.6.1.2 Datum Target Lines. A datum target
FIG. 4-25 MULTIPLE DATUM REFERENCEFRAMES line is indicated by the target point symbol on an
edge view of the surface, a phantom line on the direct
view, or both. See Fig. 4-28. Where the length of the
datum target line must be controlled, its length and
location are dimensioned.
features referenced in the same order of precedence
and at the same material condition, as applicable, 4.6.1.3 Datum Target Areas. Where it is de-
they are considered a composite pattern with the geo- termined that an area or areas of contact is necessary
metric tolerances applied simultaneously as illus- to assure establishment of the datum (that is, where
trated by Fig. 4-26. If such interrelationship is not spherical or pointed pins would be inadequate), a
required, a notation such as SEP REQT is placed target area of the desired shape is specified. The da-
adjacent to each applicable feature control frame. See tum target area is indicated by section lines inside a
para. 5.3.6.2, and Fig. 5-18. phantom outline of the desired shape, with control-
ling dimensions added. The diameter of circular areas
4.5.12.1 Simultaneous Requirement, Com-
is given in the upper half of the datum target symbol.
posite Feature Control Frames. The principle
See Fig. 4-29(a). Where it becomes impracticable to
stated in para. 4.5.12 does not applytothe lower
delineate a circular target area, the method of indica-
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

segments of composite feature control frames. See tion shown in Fig. 4-29(b) may be used.
paras. 5.3.6.2, 5.4.1, and 6.5.9. If a simultaneous re-
quirement is desired for the lower segments of two 4.6.2 Datum Target Dimensions. The location
or more composite feature control frames, a notation and size, where applicable, of datum targets are de-
such as SIM REQT is placed adjacent to each appli- fined with either basic or toleranced dimensions. If
cable lower segment of the feature control frames. defined with basic dimensions, established tooling or

70

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For Internal Use Only

~~ ~
ASME YL4.5M 94 O759670 0549508 L35 m

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DFAWING


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

MEANS THIS
2X 957.7Virtual conditionholes
(Ø8-0.3 =Ø7.7)

.8 Virtual condition holes


(Ø12.3 - 0.5 = 1611.8)

Part outline

FIG. 4-26 SIMULTANEOUSPOSITION AND PROFILE


TOLERANCES

71

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y34.5M 94 m O 7 5 9 6 7 00 5 4 9 5 0 90 7 3 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

THIS ON THE DRAWING

Ø
I THIS ON THEDRAWING

14.6.1.2
MEANS THIS

14.61.
MEANS THIS

Point
basic location
FIG. 4-28DATUM TARGETLINE
Locatingpin

FIG.4-27 DATUM TARGETPOINT

72

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 . 5 M 9 4 0759670 054,9510 8 9 3 m

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

tance between the surfaces). Profile tolerancing may


be used onthe offset surface in lieu of the toleranced
dimension and dimension origin symbol. Curved or
free-form surfaces may require datum planes com-
pletely offset from the datum targets. See Fig. 4-39.
4.6.4 Primary Datum Axis. Two sets of three
equally spaced targetsmay be usedto establish a
datum axis for a primary datum feature (WS). See
Figs. 4-34 and 4-35. The two target sets are spaced
as far apart as practicable and dimensioned from the
secondary datum. The centering device used to estab-
lish the datum axis has two sets of three equally
spaced contacting features capable of moving radi-
ally atan equal rate from a common axis. Where
two cylindrical datum features are used to establish
a datum axis, as in Fig. 4-35, each datum feature is
identified with a different datum feature symbol.
Each target set contains different datum identifying
letters.
4.6.4.1 CircularandCylindricalTargets.
Circular target lines and cylindrical target areas may
be used to establish a datum axis on rotating parts.
See Fig. 4-36.
4.6.1.3
3.3.3 4.6.5 Secondary Datum Axis. For a secondary
datum feature (WS), a set of three equally spaced

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
FIG.4-29DATUMTARGET AREA targets may be used to establish a datum axis. See
Fig. 4-37. The centering device used to establish the
datum axis has a set of three equally spaced con-
tacting features capable of movingradiallyatan
gaging tolerances apply. Figure 4-30 illustrates a part equal rate from a common axis that is perpendicular
where datum target points are located by means of to the primary datum plane. In this example, the da-
basic dimensions. In this example, the three mutually tum targets and the contacting features are oriented
perpendicular planes of the datum reference frame relative to a tertiary datum feature.
are established by three target points on the primary
datum feature, two on the secondary, and one on the 4.6.6 Equalizing Datums.Where a part configu-
tertiary. ration is such that rounded features on opposite ends
are used to establish datums, pairs of datum target
4.6.3 Datum PlanesEstablishedby Datum points or lines are indicated on these surfaces, as in
Targets. A primary datum plane is established by Fig. 4-38. Equalizing pin locations are intended
at least three target points or areas not on a straight where target pointsare coordinately dimensioned. V-
line. See Fig. 4-31. A secondary datum plane is usu- type equalizers are intended where target points are
ally established bytwo targets. A tertiary datum defined by angles showntangenttothe surface.
plane is usually established by one target. A combi- Where target lines are defined by a dimension from
nation of target points, lines, and areas may be used. another datum plane, as in Fig. 4-38 for lines B1
See Fig. 4-32. For irregular or step surfaces, the da- and B2, knife edge V-type equalizers are intended,
tum plane should contain at least one of the datum whereas V-type planesmaybe indicated by only
targets. showing the lines in the top view. Equalizing datums
4.6.3.1 SteppedSurfaces. A datum plane may be applied to other suitable part configurations.
may also be established by targets located on step It is permissible, in such a case, touse the datum
surfaces, as in Fig. 4-33. The basic dimension defines feature symbol to identify the equalized theoretical
the offset between the target points (the toleranced planes of the datum reference frame. It should be
linear dimension in this example controls the dis- noted however, that this is an exception, and is to be

73

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 TOLERANCING
DIMENSIONING AND

FIG. 4-30 DIMENSIONING DATUM TARGETS

THIS ON THE DRAWING MEANS THIS

Area contact A l , A 2 , A3
A

LDatum feature surface


Datum plane A --`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIG. 4-31 PRIMARY DATUM PLANEESTABLISHEDBYTHREE DATUM TARGETAREAS

74

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 . 5 M 94 0 7 5 9 b 70 05 4 9 5 3b2b b

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING MEANS THIS

A3

u- Point contact Al, A2

FIG. 4-32PRIMARY DATUM PLANEESTABLISHEDBY TWO DATUM TARGETPOINTS AND


ONE DATUM TARGETLINE

FIG. 4-33 STEP DATUM FEATURE

75
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
994 ASME AND TOLERANCING
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIG. 4-34PRIMARY DATUM AXIS ESTABLISHEDBY DATUM TARGETPOINTS ON A


SINGLECYLINDRICALFEATURE

FIG, 4-35 PRIMARY DATUM AXISESTABLISHED BY DATUM TARGETPOINTS ON TWO


CYLINDRICALFEATURES

76

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 . 5 M 9 4 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0547514 439 m

ND DIMENSIONING

Circular
datum
target Cylindrical datum target area
line-,

I 14.6.4.1

FIG. 4-36 DATUM TARGETLINES AND AREAS

FIG. 4-37 SECONDARY DATUM AXIS

77

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y l 1 4 . 5 M 9 4 m 0759670 0549535 375 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIG. 4-38 APPLICATIONS OF EQUALIZING DATUMS

78

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For Internal Use Only
AND DIMENSIONING

/
/ 63
/
/

\
\
\

\
\
\ I

FIG. 4-39DATUMTARGETSUSEDTOESTABLISHDATUMREFERENCEFRAMEFOR
COMPLEXPART

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
done only when necessary and in conjunction with
datum targets.
4.6.7 Datums Established From Complex or
IrregularSurfaces. The datum feature symbol
should be attached onlyto identifiable datum fea-
tures. Where datums are established by targets on
complex or irregular surfaces, the datum feature
symbol is not required. See Fig. 4-39. In this exam-
ple, although the datum targets establish a proper
datum reference frame (A,B,C), no surface of the
part can be identified as a datum feature. Where a
datum reference frame has been properly established
but its planes are unclear, the datum feature symbol
may be applied to appropriate extension or center
lines as needed.

79

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For Internal Use Only
A S I E Y14.51 94 m 0759670 0549517 148

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

5Tolerances of Location

5.1 GENERAL (u) applying the basic dimension symbol to each


of the basic dimensions [see Figs. 5-l(a) and (b)];
This Section establishes the principles of toler- (b) specifying on the drawing (or in a document
ances of location. Included are position, concentric- referenced on the drawing) the general note: UN-
ity, and symmetry used to control the following TOLERANCED DIMENSIONS LOCATING TRUE
relationships: POSITION ARE BASIC. See Fig. S-l(c).
(u) center distance between such features as holes,
slots, bosses, and tabs; 5.2.1.2Use of FeatureControlFrame. A
(b) location of features [such as in (a) above] as feature control frame is added to the callout used to
a group, from datum features, such as plane and cy- specify the size and number of features. See Figs. 5-
lindrical surfaces; 2 through 5-4. These figures show different types of
(c) coaxiality of features; feature pattern dimensioning.
(d) concentricity or symmetry of features - cen-
ter distances of correspondingly-located feature ele- 5.2.1.3IdentifyingFeatures to Establish
ments equally disposed about a datum axis or plane. Datums. It isnecessaryto identify features on a
part to establish datums for dimensions locating true
positions. For example, in Fig. 5-2, if datum refer-
5.2 POSITIONAL TOLERANCING ences had beenomitted, it would not be clear whether
the inside diameter or the outside diameter was the
A positional tolerance defines: intended datum feature for the dimensions locating
(a) a zone within which the center, axis, or center true positions. The intended datum features are iden-
plane of a feature of size is permitted to vary from tified with datum feature symbols, and the applicable
a true (theoretically exact) position; or datum references are included in the feature control
(b) (where specified on an MMC or LMC basis) frame. For information on specifying datums inan
a boundary, defined as the virtual condition, located order of precedence, see para. 4.4.
at the true (theoretically exact) position, that may not
be violated by the surface or surfaces of the consid- 5.2.2 Application to Base Line and Chain Di-
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ered feature. mensioning. True position dimensioning can be ap-


Basic dimensions establish the true position from plied as base line dimensioning or as chain dimen-
specified datum features and between interrelated sioning. For positional tolerancing, unlike plus and
features. A positional tolerance is indicated by the minus tolerancing as shown in Fig.2-4, basic dimen-
position symbol, a tolerance value, applicable mate- sions are used to establish the true positions of fea-
rial condition modifiers, and appropriate datum refer- tures. Assuming identical positional tolerances are
ences placed in a feature control frame. specified, the resultant tolerance betweenanytwo
5.2.1 Method.The following paragraphs describe holes will be the same for chain dimensioning as for
methods used in expressing positional tolerances. base line dimensioning. This also applies to angular
dimensions, whether base line or chain type.
5.2.1.1 Basic Dimensions and GeneralTol-
erances. The location of each feature (hole, slot,
stud, etc.) is given by basic dimensions. Many draw-
ings are based on a schedule of general tolerances, 5.3 FUNDAMENTAL EXPLANATION OF
usually provided near the drawing title block. Di- POSITIONAL TOLERANCING
mensions locating true position mustbe excluded
from the general tolerance in one of the following The following is a general explanation of posi-
ways: tional tolerancing.
81

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 - 5 M 9 4 0759670 0549518 O B 4

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

I I l

(a)Basicdimensions
in polar coordinates.
(b) Basicdimensionsinrectangularcoordinates.

NOTE:UNTOLERANCEDDIMENSIONSLOCATINGTRUEPOSITIONAREBASIC

(c) Basicdimensionsidentified by a note.

I 5.2.1.1
FIG. 5-1 IDENTIFYINGBASICDIMENSIONS

82

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For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
5.2.1.3
NOTE:UNTOLERANCEDDIMENSIONSLOCATINGTRUEPOSITIONAREBASIC 5.2.1.2
3.3.2

FIG. 5-2 POSITIONALTOLERANCINGWITH DATUM REFERENCES

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 9 4 m 0759670 0549520 732 H

DIMENSIONING
ASME Y14.5M-1994 AND TOLERANCING

I i
44

FIG.5-3POSITIONALTOLERANCINGRELATIVE
L

TO PLANE DATUM FEATURESURFACES


15.2.1.2

14 I @ 0 . 2 5 @ I A I B @ l C @ I
r5.2.1.2

FIG.5-4POSITIONALTOLERANCING AT MMC RELATIVETO DATUM FEATURECENTERPLANES


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

84
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DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

5.3.1 Material Condition Basis. Positional tol- Hole position mayvary


erancing is applied on an MMC, WS, or LMC basis. but no point on its surface shall be
inside theoretical boundary.
WhenMMCorLMCis required, the appropriate
modifier follows the specified tolerance and applica-
ble datum reference in the feature control frame. See
para. 2.8.
5.3.2 MMC as Related to PositionalToler-
ancing. The positional tolerance and maximum ma-
terial condition of mating features are considered in (Virtual condition)
relation to each other. MMC by itself meansa feature minimum diameter of hole (MMC)
minus the positional tolerance.
of a finished product contains the maximum amount
of material permitted by the toleranced size dimen-

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
sion for that feature. For holes, slots, and other inter- FIG. 5-5 BOUNDARY FOR SURFACEOF HOLE AT MMC
nal features, maximum material is the condition
where these features are at their minimum allowable
sizes. For shafts, bosses, lugs, tabs, and other exter-
nal features, maximum material is the condition be positioned relative to a datum feature at MMC.
where these features are at their maximum allow- See Fig. 5-8. Where datum feature B is at MMC, its
able sizes. axis determines the location of the pattern offeatures
5.3.2.1 Explanation of Positional Tolerance as a group. Where datum feature B departs from
at MMC. A positional tolerance applied atMMC MMC, its axis may be displaced relative to the loca-
may be explained in either of the following ways. tion of the datum axis (datum B atMMC)in an
(a) Ia Terms of theSu@ace of a Hole. While amount equal to one-half the difference between its
maintaining the specified size limits of the hole, no actual mating size and MMC size.
element of the hole surface shall be inside a theoreti- NOTE: If a functional gage is used to check the part, this shift
cal boundary located at true position. See Fig. 5-5. of the axis of the datum feature is automatically accommodated.
(b) In Terms of the Axis of a Hole. Where a hole However, if open set-up inspection methods are used to check
the location of the feature pattern relative
to the axis of the datum
is at MMC (minimum diameter), its axis must fall feature's actual mating envelope, this must be taken into account.
within a cylindrical tolerance zone whose axis is lo-
cated at true position. The diameter of this zone is Since the axis of the datum feature's actual mating
equal to the positional tolerance. See Figs. 5-6(a) and envelope must serve as the origin of measurements
(b). This tolerance zone also defines the limits of for the pattern of features, the features are therefore
variationinthe attitude of theaxis of theholein viewed as if they, as a group, hadbeen displaced
relation to the datum surface. See Fig. 5-6(c). It is relative to the axis of the datum feature's actual mat-
onlywherethe hole is atMMCthat the specified ing envelope. This relative shift of the pattern of
tolerance zone applies. Where the actual mating size features, as a group, with respect to the axis of the
of the hole is larger than MMC, additional positional datum feature does not affect the positional tolerance
tolerance results. See Fig. 5-7. This increase of posi- of the features relative to one another withinthe
tional tolerance is equal to the difference between pattern.
the specifiedmaximum material condition limit of 5.3.2.3CalculatingPositionalTolerance.
size ("C) and the actual mating size of the hole. Figure 5-9 shows a drawing for one of two identical
Where the actual mating size is larger than MMC, plates to be assembled with four 14 mm maximum
the specified positional tolerance for a hole may be diameter fasteners. The 14.25 minimum diameter
exceeded and still satisfy function and interchange- clearance holes are selected with a size tolerance as
ability requirements. shown. Using conventional positional tolerancing,
NOTE: In certain cases of extreme form deviation (within limits therequired tolerance is found by theequationas
of size) or orientation deviation of the hole, the tolerance in terms given in para. B3 of Appendix B.
of theaxis maynot be exactlyequivalenttothetolerancein
terms of the surface.In such cases, the surface interpretation shall
take precedence. T = H - F

5.3.2.2DisplacementAllowed by Datum = 14.25 - 14


Features at MMC. In many instances, a group of
features (such as a group of mounting holes) must = 0.25 diameter

85
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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 94 0759670 0549522 505

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

lk
Cylindrical tolerance zone (equal to positional tolerance)

Axis of hole at true position

-)1 Extreme
positional
treme variation
positional variation

variation
Extreme attitude variation

Primary datum

Minimum hole diameter H

Axis of hole is Axis of holeislocatedAxis of holeisinclined


coincident with atextremeposition toto extremeattitude
true position axis. theleft of truepositionwithintolerance zone.
axis (but within toler-

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
ance zone).

Note that the length of the tolerance zone is equal to the length of the feature,
unless otherwise specified on the drawing.

FIG. 5-6 HOLEAXESINRELATIONTOPOSITIONALTOLERANCEZONES

86

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DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

Tolerance zone when hole is at MMC


(minimum diameter)

Tolerance zone increased by an


amount equal to departure from MMC
(larger than minimum diameter)

\ Hole at MMC ? \
\J 2
(minimum diameter]

\ :t%
v
minimum
diameter)

[ 5.3.2.1
FIG. 5-7 INCREASE IN POSITIONALTOLERANCE WHERE HOLE IS NOTAT MMC

87
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 0759670 0547524 388 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

5.3.3.1
. 5.3.2.3

15.3.2.2 FIG. 5-9 CONVENTIONALPOSITIONALTOLERANCING


FIG. 5-8 DATUM FEATURE AT MMC AT MMC

Note that if the clearance holes were located exactly


at true position, the parts would still assemble with fastener. This results in an increase in the size toler-
clearance holes as small as 14 diameter (or slightly ance for the clearance holes, the increase being equal
larger). However, otherwise usable parts having to the conventional positional tolerance specified in
clearance holessmallerthan 14.25 diameter would Fig. 5-9. Although the positional tolerance specified
be rejected for violating size limits. in Fig. 5-10 is zero at MMC, the positional tolerance
allowed is in direct proportion to the actual clearance
5.3.3 Zero Positional Tolerance at MMC. In hole size as shown by the following tabulation:
the preceding explanation, a positional tolerance of
some magnitude is specified for the location of fea- Clearance
tures. The application of MMC permits the tolerance Hole Diameter
(Feature Actual Positional Tolerance
to exceed the value specified, provided features are Mating Size) Diameter Allowed

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
within size limits, and the feature locations are such 14 O
as to make the part acceptable. However, rejection 14.1 o. 1
of usable parts can occur where these features are 14.2 0.2
actually located on or close to their true positions, 14.25 0.25
butproducedtoa size smaller than the specified 14.3 0.3
14.4 0.4
minimum (outside of limits). The principle of posi- 14.5 0.5
tional tolerancing at MMC can be extended in appli-
cations where it is necessary to provide greater toler- 5.3.4 RFS as Related to Positional Toleranc-
ance within functional limits thanwould otherwise ing. In certain cases, the design or function of a part
be allowed. This is accomplished byadjusting the may require the positional tolerance, datum refer-
minimum size limit of a hole to the absolute mini- ence, or both, to be maintained regardless of feature
mum required for insertion of an applicable fastener actual mating sizes. W S , where applied to the posi-
locatedpreciselyattrue position, and specifying a tional tolerance of circular features, requires the axis
zero positional tolerance at MMC. In this case, the ofeach feature to be located within the specified
positional tolerance allowed is totally dependent on positional tolerance regardless of the size of the fea-
the actual mating size of the considered feature, as ture. This requirement imposes a closer control of
explained in para. 2.8.3. the features involved and introduces complexities in
verification.
5.3.3.1 Example of Zero Positional Toler-
ance at MMC. Figure 5-10 shows a drawing of the 5.3.4.1 RFS Applied to a Pattern of Holes.
same part with a zero positional tolerance at MMC In Fig. 5-11, the six holes may vary in size from 25
specified. Note that the maximum size limit of the to 25.6 diameter. Each hole must be located within
clearance holes remains the same but the minimum the specified positional tolerance regardless ofthe
was adjusted to correspond with a 14 mm diameter size of that hole. A hole at LMC (25.6 diameter) is

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
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ASME Y14.5N 74 M 07596700549525214 m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

I
d
o l
I 15.3.3.1
FIG. 5-10 ZERO POSITIONALTOLERANCING AT MMC

as accurately located as a hole at MMC (25 diame-


ter). This positional control is more restrictive than

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
the MMC principle.
5.3.4.2 Datum Features at RFS. The func-
tional requirements of some designs may require that
RFS be applied to a datum feature. That is, it may
be necessary to require the axis of an actual datum SECTION A-A
feature (such as datum diameter B in Fig. 5-11) to
_____
be the datum axis for the holes in the pattern regard-
~~~

FIG. 5-11 RFS APPLIEDTOAFEATURE AND DATUM


less of the datum feature's size. The W S application
does not permitanyshiftbetween the axis of the
datum feature and the pattern of features, as a group, mum where the boss and hole are at their LMC sizes
where the datum feature departs from MMC. and both features are displaced in opposite extremes.
Since positional tolerances are specified on an LMC
5.3.5 LMC as Related to Positional Toleranc-
basis, as each feature departs from LMC, the wall
ing. Where positional tolerancing at LMC is speci-
thickness increases. This permits a corresponding in-
fied, the stated positional tolerance applies where the
crease in the positional tolerance, thus maintaining
feature contains the least amount of material permit-
the desired minimum material thickness between
ted by its toleranced size dimension. Specification of
these surfaces.
LMC requires perfect form at LMC. Perfect form at
MMC is not required. Where the feature departs from 5.3.5.2 LMC Applied to a Radial Pattern of
its LMC limit of size, an increase in positional toler- Slots. In Fig. 5-14, a radial pattern of slots is located
ance is allowed, equal to the amount of such depar- relative to an end face anda center hole. LMC is
ture. See Fig. 5-12. LMC may be specified in posi- specified to maintain the desired relationship be-
tional tolerancing applications where MMC does not tween the side surfaces of the slots and the true posi-
provide the desired control and RFS is toorestrictive. tion, where rotational alignment with the mating part
See Figs. 5-13 through 5-15. LMC is used to main- may be critical.
tain a desired relationship between the surface of a
5.3.5.3 LMC Applied to SingleFeatures.
feature anditstrue position at tolerance extremes.
LMC may also be applied to single features, such as
Considerations critical to the design are usually
the hole shown in Fig. 5-15. In this example, the
involved.
position of the hole relative to the inside web is criti-
5.3.5.1 LMC toProtect Wall Thickness. Fig- cal. RFS can be specified. However, LMC is applied,
ure 5-13 illustrates a boss and hole combination lo- permitting an increase in the positional tolerance in
cated by basic dimensions. Wall thickness is mini- specifying the design considerations.

89

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ASME YL4.5M 94 m 0759670 054952b-L50 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING

Tolerance zone when hole is at LMC


(maximum diameter)

Tolerance zone increased by an amount


equal to departure from LMC (smaller
A
\\<
than maximum diameter)

' I

/
e'f\
-
\

y\ \
I

Actualhole
(smaller
than
maximum diameter)
\

\
True position

\ at
(maximum diameter)
Hole

V
FIG. 5-12 INCREASE IN POSITIONALTOLERANCE WHERE HOLEIS NOT ATLMC --`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

90

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONING ANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

THIS ON THE DRAWING

MEANS THIS AT LMC MEANS THIS AT MMC

r Boss tolerance zone


r Boss tolerance zone

e tolerance zonE
Hole tolerance zone

f
0 4.125
4.125

LI "31.5
Ø'9.5 Y
FIG. 5-13 LMC APPLIEDTO BOSS AND HOLE

91

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 m O759670 0547528 T 2 3 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 TOLERANCING


DIMENSIONING AND

THIS ON THE DRAWING

4 k- 12X 3.5f0.05

Ø12.5i

E5.3.5.2
5.3.5
12.8.5
~~
11.9.5
MEANS THIS AT LMC MEANS THIS AT MMC

-4 3.55 k- 4 t"3.45

k' "I/
' I

center line Slot True center Slot plane


position center line True center position plane

I I

- L-
I
Exact center

(datum axis B) - ?L- Exact center


(datum axis B)

FIG. 5-14 LMCAPPLIEDTO PATERN OF SLOTS

5.3.6 Multiple Patterns of Features Located


by Basic Dimensions Relative to Common Da-
tums. Where two or more patterns of features are
located by basic dimensions relative to common da-
tum features referenced in the same order of prece-
dence, and at the same material conditions, the fol-
lowing apply.
5.3.6.1 Simultaneous Requirement RFS. -
Where multiple patterns of features are located rela-
tive to common datum features not subject to size
tolerances, or to common datum features of size
specified on an RFS basis, they are considered to be
a single pattern. For example, in Fig. 5-16 each pat-
502 0.07 5.3.5.3 tern of features is located relative to common datum
5.3.5 features not subject to size tolerances. Since all locat-
FIG. 5-15 LMC APPLIED TO A SINGLE FEATURE ing dimensions are basic and all measurements are
92 --`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 . 5 N 9 4 m 0759670 0549529 7bT W

AND DIMENSIONING

FIG. 5-16 MULTIPLEPATTERNSOFFEATURES

from a common datum reference frame, verification ence frame for each pattern of features, as a group.
of positional tolerance requirements for the part can These datum reference frames mayshift indepen-
be collectively accomplished in a single setup or dently of each other, resulting in an independent rela-
gage as illustrated by Fig. 5-17. The actual centers tionship between the patterns. This principle does not
of all holes must lie on or within their respective applytothe lower segments of composite feature
tolerance zones when measured from datums A, B, control frames except as noted in para. 4.5.12. l .
and C.
NOTE: The explanationgiveninFig. 5-17 still applies where
independent verification of pattem locations becomes necessary
due to size or complexity of the part.
5.4 FEATUREPATTERN LOCATION
5.3.6.2 Simultaneous Requirement - Where design requirements permit a Feature-Re-
MMC. Where any of the common datums in multiple
lating Tolerance Zone Framework (FRTZF) tobe
patterns of features is specified on an MMC basis,
located and oriented within limits imposed upon it
there is an option whether the patterns are to be con-
by a Pattern-LocatingTolerance Zone Framework
sidered as a single pattern or as having separate re-
(PLTZF), composite positional tolerancing is used.
quirements. If nonote is addedunder the feature
(The acronyms are pronounced “Fritz” and “Plahtz.”)
control frames, the patterns are to betreated as a
single pattern. Where it is desired to permit the pat- 5.4.1 Composite Positional Tolerancing.This
ternstobetreated as separate patterns, a notation provides a composite application of positional toler-
such as SEP REQT is placed beneath each feature ancing for the location of feature patterns as well as
control frame. See Fig. 5-18. This allows the datum the interrelation (position and orientation) of features
features of size to establish a separate datum refer- within these patterns. Requirements are annotated by
93 --`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGAND TOLERANCING

4 32

I
I
I

Ø0.8 tolerance zone


at LMC of 4 holes
I I
Ø0.5 tolerance zone
at MMC of 4 holes
I
I

Ø0.3 tolerance zone


at LMC of 6 holes

Ø0.i tolerance zon


at MMC of 6 holes
I
90

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIG, 5-17 TOLERANCEZONES FORPATTERNS SHOWNIN FIG. 5-16

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ND DIMENSIONING ASME Y14.5M-1994

FIG. 5-18
SEPREQT

MULTIPLE PATERNS OF FEATURES,SEPARATEREQUIREMENTS


i 5.3.6.2
4.5.12
3.2

the useof a composite feature control frame. See the lower segment of the composite feature control
para. 3.4.4 and Fig. 3-22(a). The position symbol frame, the FRTZF is free to be located and oriented
is entered once and is applicable to both horizontal (shiftand/or tilt) withinthe boundaries established
segments. Each complete horizontal segment in the and governed by the PLTZF. If datums are specified
feature control frames of Figs. 5-19 and 5-20 may be in the lower segment, they govern the orientation of
verified separately, but the lower segment isalways a the FRTZF relative to the PLTZF. See Figs. 5-19(c)
subset of the upper segment. and 5-20(c). Where datum references are specified,
(a) Pattern-Locating Tolerance Zone Framework one or more of thedatums specified in the upper
(PLTZF). Where composite controls are used, the segment of the frame are repeated, as applicable, and
upper segment is referred to as the pattern-locating in the same order of precedence, to govern the orien-
control. The PLTZF is located from specified datums tation of the FRTZF.
by basic dimensions. It specifies the larger positional
NOTE: If differentdatums,differentdatummodifiers, or the
tolerance for the location of the pattern of features as same datums inadifferentorder of precedencearespecified,
a group. Applicable datums are specified in a desired thisconstitutesadifferentdatumreferenceframeanddesign
order of precedence, and serve to relate the PLTZF requirements. This isnottobespecifiedusingthecomposite
positional tolerancing method, since such a requirement no longer
to the datum reference frame. See Figs. 5-19(a) and represents a liberation-within-given-limitsof the FRTZF. A sepa-
5-20(a). rately-specified feature-relating tolerance, using a second single-
(b) Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Framework segment feature control frame is used, including applicable da-
tums, as an independent requirement. See Fig. 5-28.
( F R Z F ) . The lower segment is referred to as the
feature-relating control. It governs the smaller posi- 5.4.1.1 Primary Datum Repeated in Lower
tional tolerance for each feature within the pattern Segment. As can be seen from the sectional view
(feature-to-feature relationship). Basic dimensions of the tolerance zones in Fig. 5-19(d), since datum
used to relate the PLTZF to specified datums are not plane A has been repeated in the lower segment of
applicable to the FRTZF. See Figs. 5-19(b) and 5- the composite feature control frame, the axes of both
20(b). Where datum references are not specified in the PLTZF and FRTZF cylinders are perpendicular

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Yl14.5M 74 O757670 0549532 4 5 4

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

-I 6X

" /r4 x Ø6+;"4

/- 3x Ø5+i.14

E5.4.1.4
5.4.1.2
5.4.1.1
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5.4.1

FIG. 5-19 HOLE PAlTERNS LOCATED BY COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING

96

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
A S I E Y L 4 - 5 M 74 m 0759670 0 5 4 9 5 3 3 390 m

AND DIMENSIONING

I ,
FIRST PART OF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

True position
r Ø0.8 pattern-locating
tolerance zone cylinder
at MMC (three zones
basically related to
each other and basically
reference frame
located to the datums)

I I 6.4 from
datum B
1/L 76 from
datum C

Pattern-locating tolerance zone framework


(PLTZF) basically located relative to the
specified datum reference frame.

I FIG. 5-19(b) I
SECOND PARTOF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

Ø0.25 feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinder
at MMC (three zones
basically related to
each other)

Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF)

FIG.5-19HOLEPATTERNSLOCATEDBYCOMPOSITE
POSITIONALTOLERANCING(CONT'D)
ToleranceZones for Three-Hole Pattern

97
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 1 94 m O759670 0549534 227 m

4 ASME

ADDITIONALLY, SECOND
PART OF CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

Pattern-locating LFeature-relating
tolerance zone tolerance zone
cylinder cylinder

One possible displacement of feature-relating


tolerance zone framework (FRTZF) relative to
pattern-locating tolerance zone framework (PLTZF).

[FIG. 5-19(d) I
ADDITIONALLY, SECOND
PART OF CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

hole Actual
ce zone both within
cylinder

Feature-relating
zone
90' 4
tolerance Parallel
4 00.25 cylinder

Datum plane A J
L ØO.8
Actual hole axis within both
zones shown at its maximum
inclination to datum plane A

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern

FIG. 5-19 HOLEPATTERNSLOCATEDBYCOMPOSITE


POSITIONALTOLERANCING(CONT'D)
Tolerance Zones for Three-Hole Pattern (Cont'd)

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
98

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 0759670 0549535 Lb3 m

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

FIG. 5-19(e) I

I
Øo.8 pattern-locating tolerance
zone cylinder (4 zones, basically
related to each other and
basically located to the datums)

Ø0.25 feature-relating

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
tolerance zone cylinder
(4 zones, basically related
to each other and oriented
datums)the to

f
l 38
LFeature axes must
simultaneously lie
within both tolerance
zone cylinders
38

-./L 12.5
from datum C
4- 25 4
One possible displacement of actual feature pattern.

FIG. 5-19HOLEPATTERNSLOCATEDBYCOMPOSITE
POSITIONALTOLERANCING(CONT'D)
ToleranceZones for Four-Hole Pattern

99

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

Jd0.25 feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinders
(6 zones, basically related
to each other and oriented
to the datum)

+- 50
from d a t u m 4 \ ,A
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

from datum B L Actual feature axes


must simultaneously
lie within both
tolerance zones

L J d 0 . B pattern-locating
tolerance zone cylinders
(6 zones, basically related
to each other, basically
located to the datums)

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern.

FIG. 5-19 HOLE PATTERNS LOCATED BY COMPOSITE '

POSITIONALTOLERANCING(CONT'DI
Tolerance Zones for Six-Hole Pattern

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
AND DIMENSIONING Y14.5M-1994

1- True position
PART FIRST OF datum to related
CALLOUT MEANS THIS: Pattern-locating 7 reference
frame
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

from datum C
No portion of the surface of any hole is permitted to be inside its
respective Ø4.2 pattern-locating boundary, each boundary being
basically located in relation to the specific datum reference frame.

1-
SECOND PART OF
CALLOUT MEANS TH1

No portion of the surface of any hole is permitted to be inside its


respective Ø4.75 feature-relating boundary, each boundary being
basically related to the other and basically oriented to datum plane A.

1-1
Ø5 MMC of hole
- Øo.8 pattern-locating
tolerance - Ø0.25 feature-locating
tolerance
acceptance
boundary 1 154.75 acceptance
boundary 1
I I 4 I
Datum Datum 7

i plane

Pattern-locating boundary
shown with hole nearing its
Feature-relating boundary shown
with hole at its maximum inclination
i
lane A

maximum positional shift. in relation to datum plane A.

I (Note: Verificationsaremadeindependent of eachother)

FIG. 5-19 HOLE PATTERNSLOCATED BY COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING(CONT'D)


Acceptance Boundaries for Three-Hole Pattern

101

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 = 5 M 94 m 0759b70 0549538 972 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Y
6X 60'

-a /-4x Ø6+;*'4

/ W' ØO.8 @A IB C

r 3x

'I.

*-=---
15.4.1

FIG. 5-20 HOLEPATTERNSOFFIG. 5-19 WITH SECONDARY DATUMSIN FEATURE-RELATING SEGMENTS


OF COMPOSITEFEATURECONTROLFRAMES

102

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
AND DIMENSIONING

FIRST PART OF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS:
Ø0.8 pattern-locating
tolerance zone cylinder
True position at MMC (three zones
related to datum

7 / basically related to

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
reference frame each other and basically
located to the datums)

I I 6.4 from

c
datum B
76 from
datum C

Pattern-locating tolerance zone framework


(PLTZF) basically located relative to the
specified datum reference frame.

SECOND PART OF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

Ø0.25 feature-relating

i
tolerance zone cylinder
at MMC (three zones
basically related to
each other)

Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF)

FIG. 5-20HOLE PAlTERNS OFFIG. 5-19 WITHSECONDARYDATUMS


INFEATURE-RELATINGSEGMENTS OF COMPOSITEFEATURECONTROLFRAMES(CONT'D)
Tolerance Zones for Three-Hole Pattern

103

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 TOLERANCING AND DIMENSIONING

1-
ADDITIONALLY, SECOND
PART OF CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

Pattern-locating
tolerance zone

7 cylinder

LFeature-relating
tolerance zone
cylinder

One possible displacement of feature-relating


tolerance zone framework (FRTZF) relative to
pattern-locating tolerance zone framework (PLTZF).

ADDITIONALLY, SECOND
PART OF CALLOUT MEANS THIS:
Actual hole axis
Pattern-locating within both zones
tolerance zone
cylinder

LFeature-relating
tolerance zone
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

zones shown at its maximum


inclination to datum plane A
One Dossible displacement of actual feature pattern.

FIG. 5-20 HOLEPATTERNSOFFIG. 5-19 WITH SECONDARY DATUMS


IN FEATURE-RELATINGSEGMENTSOFCOMPOSITEFEATURECONTROLFRAMES(CONT'D)
Tolerance Zones for Three-Hole Pattern (Cont'd)

104

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

F I G . 1
60.8 pattern-locating tolerance
zone cylinder (4 zones,
related to each other and
basically located to the datums)

90.25 feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinder
(4 zones, basically related
to each other and oriented
to the datums)

38 II LFeature axes must 38


simultaneously lie
within both tolerance
zone cylinders

10
from datum B

from datum C

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern.

FIG. 5-20 HOLEPATTERNS OF FIG. 5-19 WITH


SECONDARYDATUMSINFEATURE-RELATINGSEGMENTS
OFCOMPOSITEFEATURECONTROLFRAMES(CONT'D)
ToleranceZones for Four-Hole Pattern

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
1994 ASME

I FIG. 5-20(f) J
1 +" 1
Ø0.25 feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinders
(6 zones, basically related
to each other and oriented
to the datum)

Actual feature axes


must simultaneously
lie within both
tolerance zones

L Ø 0 . 8 pattern-locating
tolerance zone cylinders
(6 zones, basically related
to each other, basically
located to the datums)

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern.

FIG. 5-20 HOLE PATERNS OFFIG.5-19WITH


SECONDARYDATUMSINFEATURE-RELATINGSEGMENTS
OFCOMPOSITEFEATURECONTROLFRAMES(CONT'D)
Tolerance Zones for Six-Hole Pattern

to datum plane A and therefore, parallel to each at "C of thefeatures.Thelargezoneswouldincreasein size


other. In certain instances, portions of the smaller by *e amountthefeatures dePm from "C, as would *e
smaller zones; the two zones are not cumulative.
zones may fall beyond the peripheries of the larger
tolerance zones. However, these portions of the 5.4.1.2 Primaryand
Secondary Datums
smaller tolerance zones are not usable because the Repeated in Lower Segment. Figure 5-20 repeats
axes of the features must not violate the boundaries the hole patterns of Fig. 5-19. In Fig. 5-20, the lower
of the larger tolerance zones. The axes of the holes segment of the composite feature control frame re-
must lie within the larger tolerance zones and within peats datums A and B. Figure 5-20(c) shows that the
the smaller tolerance zones. The axes of the actual tolerance cylinders of the FRTZF maybe displaced
holes mayvary obliquely (out of perpendicularity) from the true position locations (as a group) as gov-
only within the confines of the respective smaller erned by the tolerance cylinders of the PLTZF, while
positional tolerance zones (FRTZF). Figure 5-19(e) remaining perpendicular to datum plane A and paral-
repeats the heretofore-described relationships for the lel to datum plane B. Figure 5-20(d) shows that the
four-hole pattern, and Fig. 5-19(f) for the six-hole actual axes of the holes in the actual feature pattern
pattern of features shownin Fig. 5-19. must reside within both the tolerance cylinders of the
FRTZF and the PLTZF. Figure 5-20(e) repeats the
NOTE: The zones in Figs. 5-19 and 5-20 are sbown as they exist heretofore-described relationships for the four-hole
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

106
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ND DIMENSIONING

I
L

I A
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

15.4.1.3
FIG. 5-21 HOLE PAlTERNS OF FIG. 5-19. TWO SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURECONTROL
FRAMESWITHSECONDARYDATUM IN LOWERFEATURECONTROLFRAME

pattern, and Fig. 5-20(f) for the six-hole pattern of tolerance cylinders of the FRTZF and the PLTZF.
features shown in Fig. 5-20. Figure 5-2 1(e) repeats the heretofore-described rela-
tionships for thefour-hole pattern, and Fig. 5-21(f)
5.4.1.3 Two Single-Segment Feature Con-
for the six-hole patternof features shownin Fig.
trol Frames. Whereit is desired to invoke basic
5-21.
dimensions along with the datum references, single-
segment feature control frames are used. See Fig. 3- 5.4.1.4 In Terms of Hole Surfaces. Figures
22(b). Figure 5-21 shows two single-segment feature 5-19(g) through (i) illustrate the same three-hole pat-
control frames. The lower feature control frame re- tern of Figs. 5-19(a) through (d), explained in terms
peats datums A and B. Figure 5-21(c) shows that the of hole surfaces relative to acceptance boundaries.
tolerance cylinders of the FRTZF (as a group) are See para. 5.3.2.1(a). By comparing Fig. 5-19(d) with
free to be displaced to the left or right as governed Fig. 5-19(i), it can be seen that the result is the same
by the basically-located tolerance cylinders of the for both axis and surface explanations except as
PLTZF,while remaining perpendicular to datum noted in para. 5.3.2.1(b).
plane A and parallel to datum plane B. Figure 5-
21(d) shows that the actual axes of the holes in the 5.4.1.5 Appliedto Circular Patterns of Fea-
actual feature pattern must reside withinboth the tures. Composite positional tolerancing may be ap-
107
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4-5M 94 m 0759670 0549544 L76

1994 ASME

FIRSTPARTOF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS:
Ø0.8 pattern-locating
f tolerance zone cylinder
True position at MMC (three zönes
basically related to
reference frame each other and basically
located to the datums)

I 1 6.4 from

c
datum B
+ 76 from
datum C

Pattern-locating tolerance zone framework


(PLTZF) basically located relative t o the
specified datum reference frame.

1-
SECOND PART OF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

Ø0.25 feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinder
at MMC (three zones
basically related to
each other)

I I I 6.4 from

1/L 76from
datum C
does not
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

apply

Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF)

FIG. 5-21 HOLEPATTERNSOFFIG.5-19. TWO SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURECONTROL


FRAMESWITHSECONDARY DATUMIN LOWERFEATURECONTROLFRAME (CONT'D)
Tolerance Zones for Three-Hole Pattern

108

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 m 0759670 0549545 O02 m

ND DIMENSIONING

ADDITIONALLY, SECOND
PART OF CALLOUT MEANS THIS:
'
Pattern-locating
tolerance zone

Feature-relating
tolerance zone

One possible displacement of feature-relating


tolerance zone framework (FRTZF) relative to
pattern-locating tolerance zone framework (PLTZF).

1-
ADDITIONALLY, SECOND
PART OF CALLOUT MEANS THIS:
Actual hole axis
within both z o n e s 1 r Pattern-locating
tolerance zone cylinder

L Feature-relating
tolerance zone
cylinder
/
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Datum
plane A L Actual hole
axis
within
both
zones shown at its maximum
inclination t o datum plane A
I One possible displacement of actual feature pattern.

FIG. 5-21 HOLEPATFERNSOFFIG, 5-19. TWO SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURECONTROL


FRAMESWITHSECONDARY DATUMINLOWERFEATURECONTROLFRAME(CONT'D)
ToleranceZones for Three-Hole Pattern (Cont'd)

109

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 m 0759670 0549546 T49 m

DIMENSIONING
ASME Y14.5M-1994 AND TOLERANCING

FIG. 5-21(e)]
Ø0.8 pattern-locating tolerance
zone cylinder (4 zones,
related to each other and
basically located to the datums)

Ø0.25 feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinder
(4 zones, basically related
to each other and oriented
to the datums)

38 I I LFeature axes
must

Il
I I
simultaneously lie
within both tolerance
zone cylinders

-4L" @
"L/L 12.5 &- 25
from datum C
does not apply

12.5
from datum C
4-
I

I
25 4
I
.
'. v
+
1
10
from datum

1
B

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern

FIG. 5-21HOLE PAlTERNS OFFIG.5-19. TWO SINGLE-SEGMENT


FEATURECONTROLFRAMES WITH SECONDARY DATUM IN LOWER
FEATURECONTROLFRAME(CONT'D)
Tolerance Zones for Four-Hole Pattern
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

110
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
A S I E Y14.51 74 m 0757670 0547547 785 m

ND DIMENSIONING

Ø0.25 feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinders
(6 zones, basically related
t o each other and oriented
to the datum)
from datum C

from datum C

L Ø O . 8 pattern-locating
tolerance zone cylinders
(6 zones, basically related
to each other, basically
located to the datums)

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern.

FIG, 5-21 HOLEPATTERNSOFFIG. 5-19. TWO SINGLE-SEGMENT


FEATURECONTROLFRAMESWITHSECONDARY DATUMINLOWER
FEATURECONTROLFRAME(CONT'D)
Tolerance Zones for Six-Hole Pattern

plied to patterns of features on circular parts. See Fig.


5-22. With datum A repeated in the lower segment of
the composite feature control frame, Figs. 5-22(c)
and (d) shows the tolerance cylinders of the FRTZF
displaced (as a group) from the basic locations within
the bounds imposed by the PLTZF, whilemain-
taining a perpendicularity relationship with datum
plane A. Figure 5-23 shows two single-segment fea-
ture control frames. These are used where it is de- L

sired to establish a coaxiality relationship between I


the FRTZF and the PLTZF. Figure 5-23(c) shows
that the FRTZF may rotate relative to the PLTZF.
Figure 5-23(d) shows that the actual hole axes of the
actual feature pattern must reside withinboth the
tolerance cylinders of the FRTZF and the PLTZF.
FIG. 5-22 COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCINGOF A
CIRCULAR PATERN OF FEATURES

111
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 1 94 M O759670 0549548 811 m

94 ASME

Datum axis B
7
FIRSTPARTOF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS: Datum
plane A 7 \
Ø I pattern-locating
tolerance zone
cylinders

Pattern-locating tolerance zone


framework (PLTZF). Ø1 tolerance
cylinders basically located and
oriented relative to each other
and to the specified datum
reference frame.

[FIG. 5-22(b)l

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
SECOND PART OF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

Ø 0.5 feature-relating
tolerances zone
cylinders

Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF).


Ø0.5 tolerance cylinders basically located
and oriented relative to each other.

FIG. 5-22COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING OF A
CIRCULARPATTERNOFFEATURES(CONT'D)

112

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 94 m 0759670 05Lt9549 7 5 8 m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

1-
ADDITIONALLY, SECOND PART OF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

ØI pattern-locating
7
tolerance zone cylinders

Datum plane A

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
I Øo.5 feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinders

One possible location and orientation of feature-relating


tolerance zone framework (FRTZF) relative to
pattern-locating tolerance zone framework (PLTZF).

FIG. 5-22 COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING OF A


CIRCULARPATTERNOFFEATURES (CONT'D)

113

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
A S I E YL4.5M 9 4 W 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 0 5 4 9 5 5 0 47T

994 ASME

ADDITIONALLY, SECOND PART OF


CALLOUT MEANS THIS:
r Actualfeaturepattern.All
feature axes must simultaneouslv

\
l i e within both the pattern and
feature locating tolerance zones

tolerance
cylinder
zone I

One possible location and orientation of actual feature pattern.

L Datum plane A 7

I’ ‘I
Actual
hole
axis
within
both
zones -/ Øi
shown at its maximum inclination
relative to datum plane A

FIG. 5-22COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING OF A
CIRCULAR PAlTERN OFFEATURES(CONT’D)

114
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 74 m 0757670 054755L 30b m

DlMENSlONlNG AND TOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

5.4.1.6RadialHolePattern. Figure 5-24


shows an example of a radial hole pattern where the
plane of the PLTZF is located from a datum face by
a basic dimension. Where datum references are not
specified in the lower segment of a composite feature
control frame, the FRTZF is free to be located and
oriented (shift and/or tilt) as governed by the toler-
ance zones of the PLTZF. The same explanation
given in para. 5.4.1 also applies to Fig. 5-24. With
datum plane A referenced in the lower segment of
the composite feature control frame, the tolerance I

zones of the FRTZF (as a group) are parallel to da-


tum plane A and may be displaced as governed by
the tolerance zones of the PLTZF. Figure 5-26 shows
two single-segment feature control frames. These are
used where it isdesired to specify a need for a c o z i -
ality relationship between the FRTZF and the FIG. 5-23 POSITIONALTOLERANCINGWITHMULTIPLE
PLTZF. A secondary datum reference is shown in SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURECONTROLFRAMES
the lower feature control frame. Figure 5-26(c)
shows that the tolerance zones of the FRTZF are the relationships established by two single-segment
parallel to datum plane A and concentric about datum feature control frames.
axis B. While remaining parallel and concentric, the
FRTZF may be displaced rotationally, as governed
by the tolerance cylinders of the PLTZF. The axes 5.5 PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE
of the features in the actual feature pattern may be
displaced, individually orin concert, within the The application of this concept is recommended
boundaries of the smaller tolerance cylinders. Por- where the variationin perpendicularity of threaded or
tions of the smaller tolerance zones located outside press-fit holes could cause fasteners, such as screws,
the larger tolerance zones are not usable, since the studs, or pins, to interfere with mating parts. See Fig.
actual feature axes must reside within theboundaries 5-31. An interference can occur where a tolerance is
of bothzones. Where two single-segment feature specified for the location of a threaded or press-fit
control frames are used and it is desired to avoid a hole, and the hole is inclined within the positional
reorientation of the workpiece in mid-operation, the limits. Unlike the floating fastener application in-

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
same datumsin the same order of precedence are volving clearance holes only, the attitude of a fixed
specified toapply in the upper and lower feature fastener is governed by the inclination of the pro-
control frames. duced hole into which it assembles. Figure 5-32 illus-
trates how the projected tolerance zone concept real-
5.4.1.7WhereRadialLocationisImpor- istically treats the condition shown in Fig. 5-31. Note
tant. The control shown in Figs. 5-25 and 5-27 may that it is the variation in perpendicularity of the por-
be specified where radial orientation is important, yet tion of the fastener passing through the mating part
the design permits a feature-relating tolerance zone that is significant. The location and perpendicularity
tobe displaced withinthebounds governed by a of the threaded hole are only of importance insofar
pattern-locating tolerance zone,whileheld parallel as they affect the extended portion of the engaging
and perpendicular to the three mutually perpendicu- fastener. Where design considerations require a
lar planes of the datum reference frame. closer control in the perpendicularity of a threaded
hole than that allowed by the positional tolerance,
5.4.1.8 Difference Between Composite Po- a perpendicularity tolerance applied as a projected
sitional Toleranceand Two Single-Segment tolerance zone may be specified. See Fig. 6-38.
Feature Control Frames.Figure 5-29 explains the
relationships of the FRTZF to the PLTZF established 5.5.1 Clearance Holes in Mating Parts. Speci-
by a two-segment feature control frame having a sin- fying a projected tolerance zone will ensure that
gle positional tolerance symbol (composite positional fixed fasteners do not interfere withmating parts
tolerance). Two different part configurations are having clearance hole sizes determined by the formu-
shown for comparison. In contrast, Fig. 5-30 shows las recommendedin Appendix B. Further enlarge-

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 f l 9 4 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 0549552
242

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ASMEY14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

Datum axis B
7
FIRSTPART OF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS: Datum
plane A 7 \
$0.8 pattern-locating
tolerance zone
cylinders

Datum plane C

Pattern-locating tolerance zone


framework (PLTZF). $0.8 tolerance
cylinders basically located and
oriented relative to each other
and to the specified datum
reference frame. Verification is
independent of the lower segment.

1-
SECOND PART OF
CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

Jd0.25feature-relating
tolerances zone "

cylinders

W
Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF).
60.25 tolerance cylinders basically located
and oriented relative to each other. Verification is
independent of the upper segment.

FIG. 5-23 POSITIONALTOLERANCINGWITHMULTIPLE


SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURECONTROLFRAMES(CONT'D)
Multiple Single-Segment Tolerancing of a Circular Pattern
of Features

116

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

ADDITIONALLY, SECOND PART OF


CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

I I I 1 1

Feature-relating tolerance
zonecylinders.Portions
of the feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinders
that fall outside of the
pattern locating cylinders
are not usable

Datum plane A

Pattern-locating
tolerance zone

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
cylinders

One possible displacement of feature-relating


tolerance zone framework (FRTZF) relative to
pattern-locating tolerance zone framework (PLTZF).

FIG. 5-23 POSITIONALTOLERANCINGWITHMULTIPLE


SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURECONTROLFRAMES(CONT'D)
Multiple Single-Segment Tolerancing of a Circular Pattern
of Features(Cont'd)

117

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

ADDITIONALLY, SECOND PART OF


CALLOUT MEANS THIS:

Feature-relating 7
tolerance zone

Pattern-locating

Actualfeaturepattern.All

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
feature axes must simultaneously
lie within both the pattern and
feature locating tolerance zones

Parallel

Actual hole axis within both zones


shown at its maximum inclination
relative to datum plane A

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern.


~~

FIG. 5-23 POSITIONALTOLERANCINGWITHMULTIPLE


SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURECONTROLFRAMES(CONT'D)
Multiple Single-Segment Tolerancing of a Circular Pattern
of Features (Cont'd)

118

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 0759b70 0549555 T51 W

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

L
15.4.1.E

FIG. 5-24 RADIALHOLE PAlTERN LOCATED BY


COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING

119
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 9 4 0759670 0549556 998

94 ASME

(FIG.1 PATTERN-LOCATING TOLERANCE ZONE FRAMEWORK

1rt
i+'1
4X Ø0.8 pattern-
locating tolerance
zone cylinders at MMC

Datum
plane A

and oriented
to datum plane A
and datum axis B)

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Applicability of tolerance zones specified
in the upper entry of the composite
feature control frame.

1-1 FEATURE-RELATING TOLERANCE ZONE FRAMEWORK

œ- 4X Ø0.25 feature-
relating tolerance
zone cylinders at MMC

"" I

Applicability of tolerance zones specified


in the lower entry of the composite
feature control frame.

FIG. 5-24RADIALHOLE PATERN LOCATEDBYCOMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING(CONT'D)


Tolerance Zones for Radial Hole Pattern

120

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
AND DlMENSlONlNG

4X Ø0.8 pattern-locating tolerance zone cylinders


at MMC. Pattern-locatingtolerancezoneframework
(PLTZF) is located and oriented relative to datum
plane A and datum axis B (no rotational requirements)

4X $80.25 feature-relating tolerance zone cylinders


at MMC. Feature-relatingtolerancezoneframework
(FRTZF) is oriented to datum plane A

Datum

Rotation of Ø0.25 feature-


relating tolerance zone
area cylinders governed by $0.8
pattern-locating tolerance
Unusable zone cylinders
area
One possible displacement of feature-relating tolerance
zone framework (FRTZF) relative to pattern-locating
tolerance zone framework (PLTZF).

IFIG.1 One possible


displacement of actual
axisat MMC. Theactualfeatureaxis
feature

must be within both tolerance cylinders.


The feature pattern, as a group, may be
displaced within the usable confines of
the feature-relating tolerance cylinders

Actual feature tolerance zone


axis shown at its
maximum inclination
Feature-relating
tolerance zone
cylinder

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern (one hole shown).

FIG. 5-24 RADIAL HOLE PATTERNLOCATED BY COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING(CONT'D)


ToleranceZones for Radial Hole Pattern(Cont'd)

121

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4-5M 9 4 m 0759670 0549558 760 H

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
I I 5.4.1.7
FIG. 5-25 RADIALHOLEPATFERNLOCATEDBY
COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING

122

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4=5fl 9 9 m 0759670 0 5 4 9 5 5 9 bT7 m

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

FIG. 5-251all PATTERN-LOCATING TOLERANCE ZONE FRAMEWORK

locating tolerance
zone cylinders at MMC

Datum center

datum axis B and


datum center plane C)

Applicability of tolerance zones specified


in the upper entry of the composite
feature control frame.

1- FEATURE-RELATING TOLERANCE ZONE FRAMEWORK

4X Ø0.25 feature-
relating tolerance
zone cylinders at MMC
rp
I l

L+J

Applicability of tolerance zones specified


in the lower entry of the composite
feature control frame.

FIG. 5-25 RADIALHOLE PATERN LOCATED BY COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING(CONT'D)


Tolerance Zones for Radial Hole Pattern

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0549560 319

94 ASME

4X ØO.8 pattern-locating tolerance zone cylinders


at MMC. Pattern-locatingtolerancezoneframework
(PLTZF) is located and oriented relative to datum
plane A, datum axis B and datum center plane C

4X Ø0.25 feature-relating tolerance zone cylinders


at "C. Feature-relatingtolerancezoneframework
(FRTZF) is oriented to datum plane A, datum axis B
and datum center plane C
Datum
center
plane C
Unusable
area >===,

' LRotation
controlled
by datum axis B and
datum center plane C

One possible displacement of feature-relating tolerance


zone framework (FRTZF) relative t o pattern-locating
tolerance zone framework (PLTZF).

1- One possible
displacement of actual
feature
axisat MMC. The actualfeatureaxis
must be within both tolerance cylinders.
The feature pattern, as a group, may be
displaced within the usable confines
the feature-relating tolerance cylinders
of

7
Actual feature tolerance zone
axis shown at
maximum inclination
Feature-relating J
tolerance zone
cylinder

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern (one hole shown).

FIG. 5-25RADIALHOLE PATERN LOCATED BY COMPOSITEPOSITIONALTOLERANCING(CONT'D)


Tolerance Zones for Radial Hole Pattern (Cont'd)

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 3 4 = 5 1 94 m 0759670 0547563 255

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
FIG. 5-26 RADIALHOLEPATFERNLOCATED BY TWO SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURE
CONTROLFRAMES

125

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4-5M 74 W 0757b70 0547562 171 m

994 ASME

4X Ø0.8 pattern-
locating tolerance
zone cylinders at MMC

Datum center
plane C axis B

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
True position
axes (located
and oriented
to datum plane A,
datum axis B and
datum center plane C)

Applicability of tolerance zones specified


in the upper entry of the single segment
feature control frame.

4X ØO.25 feature-
relating tolerance
zone cylinders at MMC

Applicability of tolerance zones specified


in the lower entry of the single segment
feature control frame.

FIG. 5-26 RADIALHOLE PAlTERN LOCATED BY W O SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURE


CONTROLFRAMES(CONT'D)
Tolerance Zones for Radial Hole Pattern

126

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
A S I E Y L 4 - 5 1 94 m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0549.563 O28 m

AND DIMENSIONING

4X $250.8 pattern-locating tolerance zone cylinders


at MMC, located and oriented relative to datum
plane A, datum axis B and datum center plane C
4X Ø0.25 feature-relating tolerance zone cylinders
at MMC, located and oriented relative to datum
plane A and datum axis B

Datum
center Datum
plane C
Datum
axis B
l""l
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

controlled
Rotation
Unusable by
plane center datum area C

i Unusable
area One possible
displacement of feature-relating
tolerance
zone framework (FRTZF) relative to pattern-locating
1 framework
zonetolerance (PLTZF).

One possible displacement of actual feature


axis at MMC. Theactualfeatureaxis
must be within both tolerance cylinders.
The feature pattern, as a group, may be
displaced within the usable confines of
the feature-relating tolerance cylinders

Feature

Pattern-locating
Actual feature tolerance zone
axis shown at cylinder
maximuminclination
Feature-relating
tolerance zone
cylinder

One possible displacement of actual feature pattern (one hole shown).

FIG. 5-26 RADIALHOLE PATERN LOCATEDBY TWO SINGLE-SEGMENTFEATURE


CONTROLFRAMES(CONT'D)
Tolerance Zones for RadialHolePattern (Conrd)

127

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 m 5 M 74 E 0757b70 05495b4 T b 4

ASME Y14.5M-1994 TOLERANCING


DIMENSIONING AND

THIS ON THE DRAWING


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

I
MEANS THIS

Datum plane C

7\
Feat u
tolerance 2

Feature 1 'u-
I One possible
displacement feature.
actual
of the

FIG. 5-27 ORIENTATIONRELATIVETOTHREE DATUM PLANES

128

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Yl14.5M 94 m 0757b70 0 5 4 7 5 6 5 9 T O m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

r 4X d12.5-12.8
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

129

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
94 ASME

1 FIG. 5-29(a)l

plane A

Pattern-locating
f L One possible displacement
of Feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinders tolerance zone cylinders

Feature pattern not shown

I 3-Datum-plane
system
reference
P tern-locating tolerance zone framework (PLTZF)-
1
Tolerance zones of PLTZF (as a group) are
perpendicular to A and basically related to B and C
œ-Tolerance zones of PLTZF (as a group) are
perpendicular to A and basically related to B
-Tolerance zones of PLTZF
(as a group) are perpendicular to A
a- Size of pattern-locating
tolerance zones at MMC
1

Size of feature-relating
tolerance zones at MMC
Tolerance zones of FRTZF
(as a group) may skew
Tolerance zones of FRTZF 4
A

i
(as a group) are perpendicular to
+Tolerance zones of FRTZF (as a group)
are perpendicular to A and parallel to B
Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF)+
15.4.1.8

FIG. 5-29 RELATIONSHIPS OF FEATURE-RELATINGTOLERANCEZONEFRAMEWORK


(FRTZF) TOPATTERN-LOCATINGTOLERANCEZONEFRAMEWORK(PLTZF)

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
130

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M 74 0757670 05475b7 773

ND DIMENSIONING

FIG. 5-29(b)( Datumaxis B 7 ,-Datum plane A

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
One possible displacement A
of Feature-relating
tolerance cylinders
L center plane C
Pattern-locating
tolerance cylinders
Feature pattern not shown

4 system reference
3-Datum-plane c
* Pattern-locating
tolerance
framework
zone (PLTZF) c
Tolerance zones of PLTZF (as a group) are
perpendicular to A, positioned to B, and fixed on C
Tolerance zones of PLTZF(as a group) are
perpendicular to A and positioned t o B
Tolerance zones of PLTZF

Size of pattern-locating
tolerance zones at MMC
I I I I

3
L
Size of feature-relating
tolerance zones at MMC
Tolerance zones of FRTZF
(as a group) may skew
Tolerance zones of FRTZF
(as a group) are perpendicular to A
b- Tolerance zones of FRTZF (as a group)
are perpendicular t o A andoriented to B and C

Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF)-d


1
FIG. 5-29RELATIONSHIPS OFFEATURE-RELATINGTOLERANCEZONEFRAMEWORK
(FRTZF) TO PATERN-LOCATING TOLERANCEZONEFRAMEWORK(PLTZF)(CONT'D)

131

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
994 ASME

Pattern-locating
f LOne possible displacement
of Feature-relating
tolerance zone cylinders tolerance zone cylinders

Feature pattern not shown

3-Datum-plane reference system


Pattern-locating tolerance zone framework (PLTZF)
Tolerance zones of PLTZF (as a group) are

Tolerance zones of PLTZF (as a group) are


perpendicular to A and basically related to B
Tolerance zones of PLTZF

Size of pattern-locating
tolerance zones at MMC
1

't Size of feature-relating


tolerance zones at MMC
Tolerance zones of FRTZF
(as a group) may skew
i 4
B
B

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Tolerance zones of F R T Z F 4
as a group) are perpendicular to A
kTolerance zones of FRTZF (as a group) --c
are perpendicular to A and basically related to B
Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF)
5.4.1.8

FIG. 5-30 RELATIONSHIPS OF FEATURE-RELATINGTOLERANCEZONEFRAMEWORK


(FRTZF) TO PATERN-LOCATING TOLERANCEZONEFRAMEWORK(PLTZF)

132

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 9 4 E 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0549569 5 4 6 E

ND DIMENSIONING

Datum axis B
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Pattern-locating
possible
displacement
ne
tolerance
cylinders of Feature-relating
tolerance cylinders
center plane c
Feature pattern not shown

-
I system reference
3-Datum-plane
Pattern-locating tolerance zone framework (PLTZF)
Tolerance zones ofPLTZF (as a group) are
C

-D

perpendicular to A, positioned to B, and fixed on C


Tolerance zones of PLTZF (as a group) are
perpendicular to A and positioned to B
Tolerance zones of PLTZF

Size of pattern-locating
tolerance zones at MMC

B
B
Size of feature-relating
tolerance zones at MMC
Tolerance zones of FRTZF
(as a group) may skew
Tolerance zones of FRTZF d
(as a group) are perpendicular to A
Tolerance zones of FRTZF (as a group) +
are perpendicular to A and positioned to B
Feature-relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF)+

FIG. 5-30 RELATIONSHIPS OF FEATURE-RELATINGTOLERANCEZONEFRAMEWORK


(FRTZF)TOPAlTERN-LOCATINGTOLERANCEZONEFRAMEWORK(PLTZF)(CONT'D)

133

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

THIS ON THEDRAWING

r 4XM6X1-6H

Positional
tolerance zone
True position axis
Axis of
clearance hole
155;
MEANS THIS
Interference area Ø0.25 positional
tolerance zone

True position axis


7(e;; of threaded

L length
Tolerance
zone is equal to
of threaded hole
I Axis of
threaded
hole 14 minimum
155 projected
tolerance zone
height
FIG. 5-31 INTERFERENCEDIAGRAM,FASTENERAND
HOLE
FIG. 5-33 PROJECTEDTOLERANCEZONESPECIFIED

Positional
tolerance zone THIS ON THE DRAWING

True position axis


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Axis of
clearance hole
35 MIN

MEANS THIS
Ø0.4 positional
tolerance zone
rrue position axis
Minimum tolerance zone Axis of
height is equal to maximum threaded hole
thickness of mating par! 15.5
35 minimum pro-
FIG. 5-32 BASISFORPROJECTEDTOLERANCEZONE jected tolerance
zone height

t
FIG. 5-34 PROJECTEDTOLERANCEZONEINDICATED
WITHCHAINLINE

134

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 . 5 M 9 4 I0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0549571 1 T 4 I

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

ment of clearance holes to provide for an extreme


variation in perpendicularity of the fastener is not
necessary.
5.5.2 Application. Figures 5-33 and 5-34 illus-
trate the application of a positional tolerance using a
m"
Minimum tolerance zone
height is equal to
maximum pin height
projected tolerance zone. The specified value for the
projected tolerance zone is a minimumand repre-
sents themaximum permissible mating partthick-
ness, or the maximum installed length or height of
the components, such as screws, studs, or dowel pins.
See para. 5.5.3. The direction and height of the pro-
jected tolerance zone are indicated as illustrated. The
minimum extent and direction of the projected toler-
FIG.5-35PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONEAPPLIED FOR
ance zone are shown in a drawing view as a dimen- STUDS OR DOWELPINS
sioned value with a heavy chain line drawn closely
adjacent to an extension of the center line of the hole.
5.5.3 Stud and Pin Application. Where studs
or press-fit pins are located on an assembly drawing, One feature control frame is placed under the callout
the specified positional tolerance applies only to the specifying hole requirements and the other under the
height of the projecting portion of the stud or pin callout specifying counterbore requirements. See Fig.
after installation, and the specification of a projected 5-38. Different diameter tolerance zones for hole and
tolerance zone is unnecessary. However, a projected counterbore are coaxially located at true position rel-
tolerance zone is applicable where threaded or plain ative to the Specified datums.
holes for studs or pins are located on a detail part (c) Where positional tolerances are used to locate
drawing. In these cases, the specified projected holes and to control individual counterbore-to-hole
height should equal the maximum permissible height relationships (relative to different datum features),
of the stud or pin after installation, not the mating two feature control frames are used as in (b) above.
part thickness. See Fig. 5-35. In addition, a note is placed under the datum feature
symbol for the hole and under the feature control
frame for the counterbore, indicating the number of
5.6 NONPARALLELHOLES places each applies on an individual basis. See Fig.
5-39.

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Positional tolerancing lends itselfto patterns of
holes where axes are not parallel to each other and
where axes are not normal to the surface. See Fig.
5.8 CLOSER CONTROL AT ONE END OF A
5-36. FEATURE
Where design permits, different positional toler-
5.7 COUNTERBOREDHOLES ances may be specified for the extremities of long
holes; this establishes a conical rather than a cylindri-
Where positional tolerances are used to locate co- cal tolerance zone. See Fig. 5-40.
axial features, such as counterbored holes, the fol-
lowing practices apply.
( a ) Where the same positional tolerance isused
5.9 BIDIRECTIONAL POSITIONAL
to locate both holes and counterbores, a single feature TOLERANCING OF FEATURES
control frame is placed under the callouts specifying
hole and counterbore requirements. See Fig. 5-37. Where it is desired to specify a greater tolerance
Identical diameter tolerance zones for hole and coun- in one direction than another, bidirectional positional
terbore are coaxially located at true position relative tolerancing may be applied. Bidirectional positional
to the specified datums. tolerancing results in a noncylindrical tolerance zone
( b ) Where different positional tolerances are used for locating round holes; therefore, the diameter sym-
to locate holes and counterbores (relative to common bol is omitted from the feature control frame in these
datum features), two feature control frames are used. applications.

135

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

i6X 60'

m
FIG. 5-36 NONPARALLELHOLESINCLUDINGTHOSE NOT NORMAL TO SURFACE

136

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For Internal Use Only
A S I E Y l 1 4 . 5 M 94 m 0757670 0549573 T77 m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING

ma
rHlS ON THE DRAWING

ma8X 45'
8X 45'

8X 66.3-6.4

8X U Ø Q . 4 - 9 . 6 V 5 . 6 - 6 . 0 Ld70.0-

P
157
MEANS THIS
Trueposition axis
MEANS THIS
True position axis

tolerance zone for 9 0 . 5 positional


hole and counterbore
tolerance zone for
counterboreatMMC

9 0 . 2 5 positional
tolerance zone for
hole at MMC
LDatum plane A
FIG. 5-37 SAMEPOSITIONALTOLERANCEFORHOLES
AND COUNTERBORES,SAME DATUM REFERENCES
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIG. 5-38 DIFFERENTPOSITIONALTOLERANCES FOR


HOLES AND COUNTERBORES, SAME DATUM REFERENCES

137

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 m O759670 0549574 903 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING

THIS ON THE DRAWING


\ AT
SURF
C
4 I

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
SURFC

8X INDIVIDUALLY
3
T"-
@ . h. 8
U
X INDIVIDUALLY
157
MEANS THIS Possible location of \SURF D
counterbore axis 158
+I +60.15 oositional
tolerance zone for
MEANS THIS

counterbore at MMC True position


axis

Datum plane A

4I Hole
at MMC Length is equal
t o feature size
at MMC
LDatum axis C

FIG. 5-39POSITIONALTOLERANCESFORHOLESAND
COUNTERBORES,DIFFERENT DATUM REFERENCES

FIG. 5-40 DIFFERENTPOSITIONALTOLERANCEATEACH


ENDOFLONGHOLE

138

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Yl14.5M 9 4 9 0759670 0549575 8 4 T 9

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANClNG ASME Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING

\
I I I \
I

"
"

60

15.9.1
MEANS THIS
True position

4 k- 0.4 wide
tolerance /- related to datum reference frame

&
+A
4
60 60

-I
"
"/-60+* "

from
datum C
30 from 0.2 wide tolerance
datum B at zone MMC

Axes of holes must lie within the 0.4 X 0.2 rectangular tolerance
zone basically located in relation to the specified datum reference frame

FIG. 5-41BIDIRECTIONALPOSITIONALTOLERANCING,RECTANGULARCOORDINATEMETHOD

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
NOTE: A further refinementof perpendicularity within the posi- tolerance zone has been specified. The positional tol-
tional tolerance may be required. erance values represent distances between two con-
5.9.1 Rectangular Coordinate Method. For centric arc boundaries andtwo parallel planes, re-
holes located by rectangular coordinate dimensions, spectively, equally disposed about the true position.
separate feature control frames are used to indicate Coordinate hole-locating dimensions, indicated as
the direction and magnitude of each positional toler- reference, may be included on the drawing for manu-
ance relative to specified datums. See Fig. 5-41. The facturing convenience.
feature control frames are attached to dimension lines
applied in perpendicular directions. Each tolerance
value represents a distance betweentwo parallel
planes equally disposed about the true position. 5.10 NONCIRCULAR FEATURES
5.9.2 Polar Coordinate Method. Bidirectional The fundamental principles of true position dimen-
positional tolerancing is also applied to holes, such sioning and positional tolerancing for circular fea-
as gear-mounting centers located by polar coordinate tures, such as holes and bosses, apply also to noncir-
dimensions relative to specified datums, wherea cular features, such as open-end slots, tabs, and
smaller tolerance is desired in the direction of the elongated holes. For such features of size, aposi-
line-of-centers rather than at right angles to the line- tional tolerance is usedto locate the center plane
of-centers. See Fig. 5-42. In this application, one di- established by parallel surfaces of the feature. The
mension line is applied in a radial direction and the tolerance value represents a distance betweentwo
other at right angles to the line-of-centers. A further parallel planes. The diameter symbol is omitted from
requirement of perpendicularity within the positional the feature control frame. See Figs. 5-43and 5-44.
139
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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 . 5 M 94 m 0757670 0549576 786 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 TOLERANCING AND DIMENSIONING

THIS ON THE DRAWING

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
MEANS THIS

0.04 wide tolerance zone


Ik fi

True position related to


datum reference frame
Datum plane A
".Y

L
0.2 wide tolerance zone

Datumplane B

of Center 70'

datum D

Axis of hole must be perpendicular t o datum A as specified, and


must totally lie within the segment of a ring-shaped tolerance zone
basically located in relation to the specified datum reference frame.

FIG. 5-42 BIDIRECTIONALPOSITIONALTOLERANCING, POLAR COORDINATEMETHOD

140
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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M 9 4 m 0759670 0547577 b L 2 m

,6
DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

Slotpositionmayvaryasshown,butnopoint
on either side surface shall be inside of W

Theoreticalboundary(equalto
minimum width of slot minus
~ positional tolerance)

True position (center plane of W)


(a)
Side surfaces of slot may vary in attitude,
-. ._ provided W is not violated and slot width
is within limits of size
FIG,5-43POSITIONALTOLERANCING OF TABS 7

d 1510
FIG. 5-44 POSITIONALTOLERANCING OF SLOTS

5.10.1 Noncircular Features at MMC. Where FIG. 5-45BOUNDARY FORSURFACES OF SLOT AT MMC
a positional tolerance of a noncircular feature applies
at MMC, the following apply.
(a) In Terms of the Surfaces of a Feature. While tude of the center plane of the feature mustbe
maintaining the specified width limits of the feature, confined.
no element of its side surfaces shall be inside a theo- (c) Zn Terms of the Boundary for an Elongated
retical boundarydefinedbytwo parallel planes Feature. While maintaining the specified size limits
equally disposed about true position and separated of the elongated feature, no element of its surface
by a distance equal to that shown for W in Fig. 5-45. shall be inside a theoretical boundaryof identical
(b) Zn Terms of the Center Plane of a Feature. shape located at true position. The size of the bound-
While maintaining the specified width limits of the ary is equal to the MMC size of the elongated feature
feature, its center plane must be within a tolerance minus its positional tolerance. To invoke this con-
zone defined by two parallel planes equally disposed cept, the t e m BOUNDARY is placed beneath the
about true position, having a width equal to the posi- feature control frames. See Fig. 5-47.In this exam-
tional tolerance. S e e Fig. 5-46. This tolerance zone ple, a greater positional tolerance is allowed for its
also defines the limits within which variations in atti- length than for its width. Where the same positional
141
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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For Internal Use Only
A S I E Y l 1 4 - 5 M 9 4 W 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 0549578 5 5 9 m

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ASMEY14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

amount of permissible variation from coaxiality may


Center plane of slot
be expressed by a positional tolerance or a runout
tolerance. Selection of the proper control depends
True position on the nature of the functional requirements of the
(Center plane of tolerance zone)
design.
Minimum slot width
5.11.1 PositionalToleranceControl. Where
Extreme positional variation the surfaces of revolution are cylindrical and the con-
(for slot at minimum width) trol of the axes can be applied on a material condition
basis, positional tolerancing is recommended.
5.11.1.1 Coaxial Relationships.A coaxial re-
lationship maybe controlled by specifying a posi-
tional tolerance at MMC. See Fig. 5-48. A coaxial
P 4 *Tolerance zone relationship may also be controlled by specifying a
(equal(a) to positional
tolerance) positional tolerance at W S . See Fig. 5-55. The da-
tum feature may be specified on either an MMC or
an RFS basis, depending upon the design require-
ments. In Fig. 5-48, the datum feature is specified
on an MMC basis. In such cases, any departure of the
datum feature from MMC may result in an additional
displacement between its axis andthe axis of the
considered feature. See the condition shown in Fig.
Center plane of slot 5-49(c). Where two or more features are coaxially
related to such a datum - for example, a shaft hav-
Extreme attitude variation ing several diameters - the considered features are
displaced as a group relative to the datum feature, as
explained in para. 5.3.2.2 for a pattern of features.
5.11.1.2 Verification.The positional tolerance
control shown in Fig. 5-48 usually permits, but does
not dictate the use of a simple receiver gage for in-
spection. The application of such a gage is illustrated
in Fig. 5-49, that shows:
(a) both the considered feature and the datum fea-
ture at MMC;
(b) the considered feature at LMC and the datum
FIG.5-46TOLERANCEZONE FOR CENTERPLANEOF feature at MMC;
SLOT AT MMC
(c) both the considered feature and the datum fea-
ture at LMC, displaced in opposite extremes.
5.11.1.3
Coaxial
Features
Controlled
Within Limits of Size. Where it is necessary to
tolerance can be allowed for both, only one feature control coaxiality of related features within their lim-
control frame is necessary, directed to the feature by its of size, a zero positional tolerance at MMC is
a leader and separated from the size dimensions. spbcified. The datum feature is normally specified
NOTE:This boundary concept can also be applied to other irreg- on an MMC basis. See Fig. 5-50. Boundaries of per-
ularly shaped features - such as a D-shaped hole (with a flat- fect form are thereby established that are truly coax-
tened side) - where the center is not conveniently identifiable. ial, where both features are at MMC. Variations in
See para. 6.5.5.1.
coaxiality are permitted only where the features de-
part from their MMC size toward LMC.
5.11.1.4Alignment of CoaxialHoles. A
5.1 1 COAXIALITY CONTROLS
composite positional tolerance may be used to con-
Couxiality is that condition where the axes of two trol the alignment of two or more coaxial holes. This
or more surfaces of revolution are coincident. The method allows specific control of feature-to-feature
142

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y l 1 4 - 5 M 9Y m 0759670 0549577 495 m

ND DIMENSIONING

THIS ON THE DRAWING


r 3~ 7+:a2

I' +1
BOUNDARY
0.25@1A1B'c'

W I5.10.1

MEANS THIS
7.00MMC width of slot
-0.25 Positionaltolerance
I
r 6.75 Wide boundary

Holes must be within size limits and no


portion of their surfaces are permitted to

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
lie within the area described by the 6.7542.5
boundaries when part is positioned within
reference
datumthe frame MMC 14.0 length of slot
- 1.5 Positionaltolerance
12.5 Wide boundary
Datum plane

Datum plane

FIG. 5-47 POSITIONALTOLERANCING OF ENLONGATEDHOLES,BOUNDARYCONCEPT

143

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

coaxiality without excessively restricting the pattern-


locating tolerance.
5.1 1.1.5 Two or More Features in Pattern-
Locating Tolerance. Controls, such as are shown
THISONTHEDRAWING in Fig. 5-5 1, may be specified where it is desired to
produce two or more coaxial features within a rela-
tively larger pattern-locating tolerance zone. The
central axis of the PLTZF cylinders is parallel to
datums A and B. Since the lower (feature-relating)
segment of the feature control frame does not invoke
orientation datums, the central axis of the FRTZF
cylinders may be skewed relative to the central axis
of the PLTZF cylinders. Depending upon the actu-
5.11.1.: ally-produced size of each coaxial feature, each indi-
5.11.1.1 vidual feature axis may be inclined within its respec-
MEANS THIS tive tolerance zone cylinder.
5.11.1.5.1 Orientation of Feature-Relat-
ing Tolerances. Where it is desired to refine the
orientation of the FRTZF cylinders as governed by
A the boundary established by the PLTZF cylinders,
datum references specified in the upper segment of
- the frame are repeated, as applicable, and in the same
order of precedence, in the lower segment of the
r1
feature control frame. See Fig. 5-52. Since the lower
(feature-relating) segment of the feature control
-Maximum allowable distance frame invokes datums A and B, the comtpon axis of
betweenaxis of datum feature
and axis of considered feature the FRTZF cylinders must be parallel to the common
axis of the PLTZF cylinders.

I
5.11.1.6 Holes of Different Sizes. Where
Considered holes are of different specified sizes and the same
feature
sizes requirements apply to all holes, a single feature con-
0.2
0.21
0.220.23
0.24
0.25 trol symbol, supplemented by a notation such as
0.250.260.270.2130.290.3 TWO COAXIAL HOLES is used. See Fig. 5-53. The
0.3 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 same tolerance zone relationships apply as for Fig.
0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.4 5-5 l.
0.4 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45
5.11.2RunoutTolerance Control. Where a
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.5
combination of surfaces of revolution is cylindrical
or conical relative to a common datum axis, or spher-
ical relative to a common datum point, a runout toler-
ance is recommended. See para. 6.7. MMC is not
applicable where a runout tolerance is specified, be-
FIG. 5-48 POSITIONALTOLERANCING FOR COAXlALlTY cause runout controls the surface elements of a fea-
ture. See para. 2.8.

5.12 CONCENTRICITY
Concentricity is that condition where the median
points of all diametrically opposed elements of a fig-
ure of revolution (or correspondingly-located ele-
ments of two or more radially-disposed features) are

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For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

axis
DatumA

0.45
$j 1 0.9

Datum
axis A
0.9
datum
at LMC

F5.11.1.;
5.11.1.'

FIG. 5 4 9 VARIOUSCONDITIONS OF PART SHOWN IN FIG. 5-48

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

145

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 2 4 . 5 M 94 O759670
0549582 T8T

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

congruent with the axis (or center point) of a datum


feature.
5.12.1 Concentricity Tolerancing. A concen-
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

tricity tolerance is a cylindrical (or spherical) toler-


ance zone whoseaxis (or center point) coincides with
THIS ON THE DRAWING the axis (or center point) of the datumfeature(s). The
medianpoints of all correspondingly-located ele-
ments of the feature(s) being controlled, regardless
of feature size, must lie within the cylindrical (or
spherical) tolerance zones. The specified tolerance
and the datum reference can only apply on an W S
basis. See Fig. 5-54. Unlike the control covered by
para. 5.11.1, where measurements taken along a sur-
face of revolution are made to determine the location
(eccentricity) of the axis or center point of the actual
mating envelope, a concentricity tolerance requires
MEANS THIS the establishment andverificationofthe feature’s
median points.
NOTE: Irregularities in the form of an actual feature to be in-
spected may make it difficult to establish the location of that
feature’smedianpoints. For example,anominallycylindrical
surface of revolution may be bowed or out of round in addition
to being displaced from its datum axis. In such instances, finding
themedianpointsofthefeaturemay entail a time-consuming
analysis of surface variations. Therefore, unless there is a definite
need for the control of the feature’s median points, it is recom-
mended thata control be specified in terms of a runout tolerance
or a positional tolerance.
L Maximum allowable distance
betweenaxisofdatumfeature 5.12.2Difference Between Coaxiality Con-
andaxisofconsideredfeature trols and Concentricity. The items shown in Figs.
5-56 and 5-57 are two possible acceptable configura-
I L tions ofthe item depicted in Fig. 5-55. In Fig. 5-
Considered I
feature
sizes 114
Datum
feature

13.98
13.96
sizes

13.94
13.92
13.9
1I 56, the axis of the controlled feature’s actual mating
envelope has been displaced 0.2 to the left, relative
25 O 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 to the axis of datum feature A, and 0.5 material has
24.9 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 been removed from the right side of the feature’s
24.8 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 surface. In Fig. 5-57, the axis of the controlled fea-
24.7 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 ture’s actual mating envelopehas also been displaced
24.6 0.2 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.2 to the left, relative to the axis of datum feature
24.5 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.3 A, while 0.25 material has been removed from the
upper side of the feature’s surface and 0.25 material
has been removed from the lower side of the fea-
ture’s surface. Since the actual mating size of the
controlled features in Figs. 5-56 and 5-57 is 25.0
diameter, the controlled features remain within ac-
FIG. 5-50 ZERO POSITIONALTOLERANCING AT MMC ceptable limits of size. For coaxial positional toler-
FOR COAXlALlTY
ance, the location of the axis of the feature’s actual
mating envelope is controlled relative to the axis of
the datum feature. Where checkedfor a coaxial posi-
tional tolerance relationship, the items depicted in
Figs. 5-56 and 5-57 are acceptable. For concentricity,
the locations of the midpoints ofdiametricallyopposed
(or correspondingly-located)feature elements are con-
trolled relative to the axisof the datum feature.
146

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For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 m 075967005495839Lb m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

[HIS ON THE DRAWING

+0.15
Ø10.15

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
MEANS THIS

L ~ o . 1 5at MMC, four L ~ o . 2 5at MMC, four


coaxial tolerance coaxialtolerance zones
zones within which located at true position
the axes of the holes relative to the specified
must lie relative to datums within which the
each other axes of the holes, as a
group, must lie

FIG.5-51POSITIONALTOLERANCING FOR
COAXIALHOLES OF SAMESIZE

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5Pl 9 4 0759b70 0549584 852

ASMEY14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
15.11.1.5
MEANS THIS

LØ0.15 at MMC, four LØ0.25 at MMC, four


coaxial tolerance coaxial tolerance zones
zones within which located at true position
the axes of the holes relative to the specified
must lierelativeto datums within which the
each other axes of the holes, as a
group, must lie

FIG. 5-52 POSITIONALTOLERANCING FOR COAXIAL


HOLES OF SAME SIZE,PARTIAL(PARALLELISM)
REFINEMENTOFFEATURE-RELATINGAXIS

148

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For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

See Fig. 5-58. Where the items depicted in Figs. 5-56


and 5-57 are checked for a concentricity relationship,
only the part depicted in Fig. 5-57 would be accept-
able, since the midpoints of some of the diametrically
opposed elements in Fig. 5-56 would exceed the
I \ TWO COAXIAL
HOLES

boundary of the 0.4 diameter concentricity tolerance


cylinder.
I \ ~~+0.15
O 1

5.13 POSITIONAL TOLERANCING FOR


SYMMETRICAL RELATIONSHIPS
Positional tolerancing for symmetrical relation- h
ships is that condition where the center plane of the 15.11.1.f
actual mating envelope of one or more features is
congruent with the axis or center plane of a datum FIG, 5-53 POSITIONALTOLERgNClNGFORCOAXIAL
feature within specified limits. MMC, LMC, or W S HOLES OF DIFFERENT SIZE
modifiers may be specified to apply to both the toler-
ance and the datum feature.
5.14 SYMMETRY TOLERANCING TO
5.13.1 Positional Tolerancingat MMC for As- CONTROL THE MEDIAN POINTS OF
semblability. A symmetrical relationship maybe OPPOSED OR CORRESPONDINGLY-
controlled by specifying a positional tolerance at LOCATED ELEMENTS OF FEATURES
MMC as in Fig. 5-59. The explanations given in Symmetry is that condition where the median
paras. 5.10.l(a) and (b) apply to the considered fea- points of all opposed or correspondingly-locatedele-
ture. The datum feature may be specified either on ments of two or more feature surfaces are congruent
an MMC, LMC, or RFS basis, depending upon the withthe axis or center plane of a datum feature.
design requirements. Where design requirements dictate a need for the use
of a symmetry tolerance and symbol, the method
5.13.2 Zero Positional Tolerancing at MMC
shown inFig. 5-61 may be followed. The explanation
for Symmetrical Relationships. Where it is nec-
given in para. 5.12 applies to the considered fea-
essary to control the symmetrical relationship of re-
ture(s), since symmetryand concentricity controls
lated features within their limits of size, a zero posi-
are the same concept, except as applied to different
tional tolerance atMMC is specified. The datum part configurations. Symmetry tolerance and the da-
feature is normally specified onanMMCbasis.
tum reference can only apply on an RFS basis.
Boundaries of perfect form are thereby established
that are truly symmetrical where both features are at
MMC. Variations in position are permittedonly
5.15SPHERICALFEATURES
where the features depart from their MMC size to-
ward LMC. This application is the same as that A positional tolerance may be used to control the
shown in Fig. 5-50 except that it applies a tolerance location of a spherical feature relative to other fea-
to a center plane location. tures of a part. See Fig. 5-62. The symbol for spheri-
cal diameter precedes the size dimension of the fea-
5.13.3PositionalTolerancing RFS forAs- ture and the positional tolerance value, to indicate a
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

semblability. Some designs may require a control spherical tolerance zone. Where it is intended for
of the symmetrical relationship between features re- the tolerance zone shape to be otherwise, a special
gardless of their actual sizes. In such cases, both the indication is shown, similar to the example shown
specified positional tolerance and the datum refer- for a bidirectional tolerance zone of a cylindrical
ence apply on an RFS basis. See Fig. 5-60. hole. See Fig. 5-41.

149

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ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 m 0759b70 0549586 62.5 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

I THIS ON THE DRAWING

I
I fi
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

MEANS THIS
Extreme locational
Extreme attitude
variation

Median points derived


of this surface surface
this
from
must
lie within
the 0.1 diameter tolerance zone
Axis of datum feature A
Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of
diametrically-opposed elements of the feature must lie within a Ø0.l cylindrical tolerance
zone.Theaxis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of datum feature A. The
specified tolerance and the datum reference apply only on an RFS basis.

FIG. 5-54 CONCENTRICITY


TOLERANCING

150

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y l 1 4 - 5 M 9 4 m 0757b70 0 5 4 9 5 8 7 5 6 1 M

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

r-
Ø 25-o.5 -

-i
L O
Øi4-0.1

FIG.5-55ITEMCONTROLLED WITH POSITIONAL


TOLERANCEFORCOAXIALITYRFS-RFS

Datum axis A 7
Axis of actual
mating 7
enveloDe I

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

L Datum axis A (824.5

Ø0.4 RFS Coaxial


tolerance zone within
which the axis must lie

151

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 A f l 9 4 W O759670 0 5 4 9 5 8 8 4 T 8 W

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

L Datum axis A I -Ø25-\

Ø0.4 RFS Coaxial J


tolerance zone within
which the axis must lie
.5

r5.12.2J

FIG. 5-57 ONEPOSSIBLEACCEPTABLECONFIGURATION OF PARTDEPICTED IN FIG. 5-55

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 . 5 M 9 4 m 0759670 0 5 4 9 5 8 9 334 W

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

HIS ON THE DRAWING

r-
Ø 25-o.5

L -i

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
L Ø 1 4 O- ~ . ~
i"

Median points of
diametrically-
opposed elements

"-

tolerance zone within


whichall medianpoints
must lie

FIG. 5-58 ITEMDEPICTED IN FIG. 5-55CONTROLLED FORCONCENTRICITY

153

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL405M 94 m 0759670 0549590 056 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

THIS ON THE DRAWING

7.8 - 8.2

L 15.8
15.6 d
L 15.8
15.6 d MEANS THIS
15.13.:

The center plane of datum


feature B is perpendicular
to datum plane A
I
0.8 wide tolerance
zone
1

Datum
Size

The center plane of


Datum plane A
the actual mating envelope
A
of the slot must lie between two parallel planes
0.8 apart, equally disposed about the center plane
of datum B. The specified tolerance and the datum
reference can only apply on an RFS basis.

FIG. 5-59 POSITIONALTOLERANCINGAT MMC FOR FIG. 5-60 POSITIONALTOLERANCING RFS-RFS FOR
SYMMETRICALFEATURES SYMMETRICALFEATURES

154

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 = 5 M 9L, 0759670 05L,9591 T92 m

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

HIS ONTHEDRAWING

HIS ON THEDRAWING

7.8 - 8.2

M16X2 - 6g

AEANS THIS
AEANSTHIS
0.8 diameter
The center plane of
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

spherical tolerance zone


datum feature A

0.8 wide -
position
tolerancezone

Derivedmedian
points

Within the limits of size and regardless of feature


size, all median points of opposed elements of the Datum axis B
slot must lie between two parallel planes 0.8 apart,
the two planes being equally disposed about datum
plane A. The specified tolerance and the datum Regardless of feature size, the center of the
reference can only apply on an RFS basis. feature must lie within a spherical zone 0.8
diameter which is located at true position.

FIG. 5-61 SYMMETRY


TOLERANCING FIG. 5-62 SPHERICALFEATURELOCATEDBY
POSITIONAL TOLERANCING

155

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For Internal Use Only
~~ ~

ASME Y 1 4 - 5 1 9 4 0759670 0 5 4 9 5 9 2 9 2 9

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

6 Tolerances of Form, Profile, Orientation, and Runout

6.1 GENERAL of the surface, rather than control of the total surface.
In these instances, the area or length, and its location
This Section establishes the principles and meth-
are indicated by a heavy chain line drawn adjacent
ods of dimensioning and tolerancing to controlform,
to the surface with appropriate dimensioning. Where
profile, orientation, and runout of various geometri-
so indicated,thespecifiedtoleranceapplieswithin
cal shapes and free state variations.
these limits instead of to the total surface. See para.
4.5.10 and Fig. 4-23.
6.2 FORM AND ORIENTATION CONTROL 6.3.1.3Identifying Datum References. It is
necessary to identify featuyes on a part to establish
Form tolerances control straightness, flatness, cir-
datums from which dimensions control orientation,
cularity, and cylindricity. Orientation tolerances con-
runout, and when necessary, profile. For example, in
trol angularity, parallelism, and perpendicularity. A
Fig. 6-22, if datum references had been omitted,.it
profile tolerance may control form, orientation, size,
wouldnot be clearwhetherthelargerdiameteror
and location depending on how it is applied. Since,
the smaller diameter was the intended datum feature
to a certain degree, the limits of size control form
for the dimensions controlling profile. The intended
andparallelism,andtolerances oflocationcontrol
datumfeaturesareidentifiedwithdatumfeature
orientation,theextent of thesecontrolsshouldbe
symbols and the applicable datum references are in-
consideredbeforespecifying form andorientation
cluded in the feature control frame. For information
tolerances. See para. 2.7 and Figs. 2-6 and 5-6.
on specifying datums in an order of precedence, see
para. 4.4.
6.3 SPECIFYING FORM AND ORIENTATION
TOLERANCES
6.4 FORMTOLERANCES
Form and orientation tolerancescritical to function
and interchangeability are specified where the toler- Form tolerances are applicable to single (individ-
ances of size and location do not provide sufficient ual) features or elements of single features; therefore,
control. A tolerance of form or orientation may be form tolerances are not related to datums. The fol-
specifiedwherenotolerance of sizeisgiven,for lowingsubparagraphscovertheparticulars of the
example, in the control of flatness after assembly of form tolerances - straightness, flatness, circularity,
the parts. and cylindricity.
6.3.1Form and Orientation Tolerance Zones. 6.4.1 Straightness. Straightness is a condition
A formororientationtolerancespecifies a zone whereanelementof a surface,or an axis,is a
withinwhichtheconsideredfeature,its line ele- straight line.
ments, its axis, or its center plane must be contained.
6.4.1.1 Straightness Tolerance. A
6.3.1.1CylindricalToleranceZone. Where straightnesstolerancespecifies a tolerancezone
the tolerance value represents the diameter of a cylin- within which the considered element or derived me-
drical zone, it is preceded by the diameter symbol. dian line must lie. A straightness tolerance is applied
In all othercases,thetolerancevaluerepresents a in the view where the elements to be controlled are
total linear distance between two geometric bound- represented by a straight line.
aries and no symbol is required.
6.4.l.l. 1 Cylindrical Features. Figure 6-1
6.3.1.2LimitedAreaandLength. Certain shows an example of a cylindrical feature where all
designs require control over a limited area or length circular elements of the surface are to be within the

157
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING
~~

THIS ON THE DRAWING THIS ON THE DRAWING


A- 10.02I

I 6.4.1.1.1 I 6.4.1.1.2
MEANS THIS I 4.5.4.1

x+
MEANS THIS
..

-+ "
4
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

0.02 wide tolerance zone -I


0.04 diameter tolerance zone
-@l6.04 outer boundary

The derived median line of the feature's actual


local size must lie within a cylindrical tolerance
zone of 0.04 diameter, regardless of the feature
0.02 wide tolerance zone size.Eachcircularelementofthesurfacemust
"
be within the specified limits of size.
(c) - A" 1 " "1
Ø16.00
FIG. 6-2 SPECIFYINGSTRAIGHTNESSRFS

Each longitudinal element of the surface must lie


between two parallel lines (0.02 apart) where the be available for opposite elements in the case of
two lines and the nominal axis of the part share a waisting or barreling of the surface. See Fig. 6-1.
commonplane.The featuremustbewithinthe
specified limits of size and the boundary of 6.4.1.1.2 Violation of MMC Boundary.
perfect form at MMC(16.00).
Figures 6-2 and 6-3 show examples of cylindrical
Note:Waisting(b)orbarreling (c) of the surface, features where all circular elements ofthe surface
though within the straightness tolerance, must
not exceed the limits of size of the feature. are to be within the specified size tolerance; how-
ever, the boundary of perfect form at MMC may be
violated. This violation is permissible when the fea-
ture control frame is associated with the size dimen-
FIG. 6-1 SPECIFYINGSTRAIGHTNESS OF SURFACE sion or attached to an extension of the dimension
ELEMENTS line. In this instance, a diameter symbol precedes the
tolerance value and the tolerance is applied on either
an RFS or MMC basis. Where necessary and when
not used in conjunction with an orientation or posi-
specified size tolerance. Each longitudinal element tion tolerance, the straightness tolerance maybe
of the surface must lie between two parallel lines greater than the size tolerance. Where the
separated by the amount of the prescribed straightness tolerance is used in conjunction with an
straightness tolerance and in a plane common with orientation tolerance or a position tolerance, the
the nominal axis of the feature. The feature control specified straightness tolerance value shall not be
frame is Ettached to a leader directed to the surface greater than the specified orientation or position tol-
or extension line of the surface but not to the size erance values. The collective effect of size and form
dimension. The straightness tolerance must be less variation can produce a virtual condition or outer
than the size tolerance. Since the limits of size must or inner boundary equal to the MMC size plus the
be respected, the full straightness tolerance may not straightness tolerance. When applied on an RFS ba-

158

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 m 07.59670 0 5 4 9 5 9 4 7 T L m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

4CCEPTANCEBOUNDARY

6.4.1.1.2
4.5.4.1
MEANS THIS
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4
Feature
Diameter
tolerance
allowed
zone
size
0.04 16.00
15.99 0.05 (c)
0.06 15.90
Meanings:

0.14 15.90 (a)Themaximumdiameterof the pin


0.15 15.89 with perfect form is shown in a
gage with a 16.04 diameter hole;
(b) with the pin atmaximumdiameter
The derived median line of the feature actual (16.00), the gage will accept the
local sizes must lie within a cylindrical pin with up to 0.04 variation in
tolerance zone of 0.04 diameter at MMC. straightness;
Aseach actual local size departs from MMC,
an increase in the local diameter of the (c) withthe pin at minimumdiameter
tolerance cylinder is allowed which is equal (15.89), the gage will accept the
to theamountofsuchdeparture.Each pin with up to 0.15 variation in
circular element of the surface must be straightness.
within the specified limit of size.

FIG. 6-3 SPECIFYINGSTRAIGHTNESSAT MMC

159

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 = 5 M 9 4 0759670 0549595 b 3 B

ASME Y14.5M-1994 TOLERANCING


DIMENSIONING AND

t++" I
- I

r 6.4.1.I .4
MEANS THIS

loo -7 rØl5.69-16.00

1I- 0.4
diameter
tolerance
zone
diameter
0.1
mm 25 eachtolerance
in
zone

LJd16.4 outer boundary


of length

Thederivedmedianline of thefeature'sactuallocalsize must

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of 0.4 diameter for the
total 100 mm of length and within a 0.1 cylindrical tolerance
zone forany25 mmlength,regardless of featuresize.Each
circular element of the surface must be within the specified
limits of size.

~~~~

FIG. 6-4 SPECIFYINGSTRAIGHTNESS PER UNIT LENGTH WITH SPECIFIEDTOTAL


STRAIGHTNESS,BOTH RFS

sis, as in Fig. 6-2, the maximum straightness toler- ter symbol is not used since the tolerance zone is
ance is the specified tolerance. When applied on an noncylindrical.
MMC basis, as in Fig. 6-3, the maximum straightness
6.4.1.1.4
Applied
on Unit Basis.
tolerance is the specified tolerance plus the amount
the actual local size of the feature departs from its Straightness maybe applied onaunit basis as a
means of preventing an abrupt surface variation
MMC size. The derived median line of an actual
withina relatively short length of the feature. See
feature at MMC must lie within a cylindrical toler-
Fig. 6-4. Caution should be exercised when using
ance zone as specified. As each actual local size de-
unit control without specifying a maximum limit be-
parts from MMC, an increase in the local diameter
cause of the relatively large theoretical variations that
of the tolerance zone is allowed that is equal to the
amount of such departure. Each circular element of may result if left unrestricted. If the unit variation
appears as a "bow" in the toleranced feature, and the
the surface (that is, actual local size) must be within
"bow" is allowed to continue at the same rate for
the specified limits of size.
several units, the overall tolerance variation may re-
6.4.1.1.3 Application of RFS or MMC to sult in an unsatisfactory part. Figure 6-5 illustrates
Noncylindrical Features. As an extension of the the possible condition where straightness per unit
principles of para. 6.4.l . 1.2, straightness may be ap- length given in Fig. 6-4 is used alone, that is, if
plied on an W S or MMC basis to noncylindrical straightness for the total length is not specified.
features of size. In this instance, the derived median
plane must lie in a tolerance zone between two paral- 6.4.1.1.5 Straightness of Line Elements.
lel planes separated by the amount of the tolerance. Figure 6-6 illustrates the use of straightness tolerance
Feature control frame placement and arrangement as on a flat surface. Straightness may be applied to con-
described in para. 6.4.1.1.2apply, except the diame- trol line elements in a single direction on a flat sur-

160
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
A S I E Y14.5M 94 E 0759b70 0549596 574

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING


~ 0 . r10 . 4 rO.9 rl.6

I 6.4.1.1.5
MEANS THIS
0.1 tolerance

0.05 tolerance

I 6.4.1.1.4
FIG. 6-5 POSSIBLERESULTSOFSPECIFYING
STRAIGHTNESSPER UNIT LENGTH RFS,
WITH NO SPECIFIEDTOTAL

Each longitudinal element of the surface must lie


between two parallel lines 0.05 apart in the left
view and 0.1 in the right view of the drawing.

face; itmay also be applied intwo directions as FIG. 6-6 SPECIFYING


STRAIGHTNESS
shown. Where function requires the line elements to OFFLATSURFACES
berelated to a datum feature(s), profile of a line
should be specified related to datums. See Fig. 6-18.
6.4.2 Flatness. Flatness is the condition of a sur- THIS ON THE DRAWING
face having all elements in one plane.
6.4.2.1 Flatness Tolerance. A flatness toler-
ance specifies a tolerance zone defined by two paral-
lel planes within which the surface must lie. When
a flatness tolerance is specified, the feature control
frame is attached to a leader directed to the surface
or to an extension line of the surface. It is placed in
a view where the surface elements to be controlled
16.4.2.1
are represented by a line. See Fig. 6-7. Where the
MEANS THIS
considered surface is associated with a size dimen-
sion, the flatness tolerance must be less than the size
tolerance.
r 0.25 wide tolerance zone

6.4.2.1.1 Applied on Unit Basis. Flatness


may be applied on a unit basis as a means of pre-
venting an abrupt surface variation within a relatively
small area of the feature. The unit variation is used
either in combination with a specified total variation, Thesurfacemust lie between two parallel planes
0.25 apart.Thesurfacemust be within the
or alone. Caution should be exercised when using specified limits of size.
unit control alone for the reasons given in para.
6.4.1.1.4. Since flatness involves surface area, the
size of the unit area, for example 25 X 25,is speci- FIG. 6-7 SPECIFYING
FLATNESS

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

161
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y l 1 4 . 5 M 74 0759670 0549577 400 m

DIMENSIONING
ASME Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THEDRAWING

MEANS THIS

tolerance
zone
0.25 wide tolerance
zone
0.25 wide

SECTION A-A SECTION A-A

Each circular element of the surface in a plane perpendicular to an


axis must lie between two concentric circles, one having a radius
0.25 larger than the other. Each circular element of the surface
must be within the specified limits of size.

FIG. 6-8 SPECIFYINGCIRCULARITYFOR A CYLINDER OR CONE

fied to the right of the flatness tolerance, separated 6-8 and 6-9. The circularity tolerance must be less
by a slash. For example: than the size tolerance, except for those parts subject
to free state variation. See para. 6.8.
NOTE: See ANSI B89.3.1 for further information on this subject.
[ =\
X 25 L, 0 . 0 5 / 25
6.4.4 Cylindricity. Cylindricity is a condition of
a surface of revolution inwhich all points of the
surface are equidistant from a common axis.
6.4.3 Circularity (Roundness). Circularity is a
6.4.4.1 Cylindricity Tolerance. A cylindricity
condition of a surface where: tolerance specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two
(a) for a feature other than a sphere, all points of
concentric cylinders within which the surface must
the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to lie. In the case of cylindricity, unlike that of circular-
an axis are equidistant from that axis; ity, the tolerance applies simultaneously to both cir-
(b) for a sphere, all points of the surface inter-
cular and longitudinal elements of the surface (the
sected by any plane passing through a common cen- entire surface). See Fig. 6-10. The leader from the
ter are equidistant from that center.
feature control frame may be directed to either view.
6.4.3.1 Circularity Tolerance. A circularity The cylindricity tolerance mustbe less than the size
tolerance specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two tolerance.
concentric circles within which eachcircular element NOTE: The cylindricity toleranceis a composite control of form
of the surface must lie? and applies at that includes
circularity,
straightness,
and taper ofcylindrical
a
any plane described in (a) and (b) above. See Figs. feature.
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
162
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y14.5fl 94 m 0757670 0547598 347 m

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASMEY14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING THIS ON THEDRAWING


Ø25t0.4

- -

MEANS THIS
A-
..

Q
J MEANS THIS 70.25 widetolerance z o n e 1

A 4
l 0 . 2 5 wide tolerance zone
SECTION A-A

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Each circular element of the surface in a plane The cylindrical surface must lie between two
passing through a common center must lie concentric cylinders, one having a radius 0.25
between two concentric circles, one having a largerthantheother. Thesurfacemust be
radius 0.25 larger than the other. Eachcircular within the specified limits of size.
element of the surface must be within the
specified limits of size. FIG. 6-10 SPECIFYING
CYLlNDRlClTY

FIG. 6-9 SPECIFYINGCIRCULARITYFOR A SPHERE

( 6 ) Depending on design requirements, the toler-


6.5 PROFILE CONTROL ance may be divided bilaterally to both sides of the
A profile is the outline ofan object in a given true profile or applied unilaterally to either side of
plane (two-dimensional figure). Profiles are formed the true profile. Where an equally disposed bilateral
by projecting a three-dimensional figure onto a plane tolerance is intended, it is necessarytoshowonly
or by taking cross sections through the figure. The the feature control frame with a leader directed to
elements of a profile are straight lines, arcs, and other the surface. For an unequally disposed ora unilateral
curved lines. If the drawing specifies individual tol- tolerance, phantom lines are drawn parallel to the
erances for the elements or points of a profile, these true profile to indicate the tolerance zone boundary.
elements or pointsmustbe individually verified. One end of a dimension line is extended to the fea-
Such a procedure maybe impracticable in certain ture control frame. The phantom line should extend
cases, particularly where accuracy of the entire pro- only a sufficient distance to make its application
file, rather than elements of a profile, is a design clear. See Fig. 6-1 1.
requirement. With profile tolerancing, the true profile ( c ) Where a profile tolerance applies all around
may be defined by basic radii, basic angular dimen- the profile of a part, the symbol used to designate
sions, basic coordinate dimensions, basic size dimen- “all around” is placed on the leader from the feature
sions, undimensioned drawings, or formulas. control frame. See Fig. 6-12. Where segments of a
profile have different tolerances, the extent of each
6.5.1 Profile Tolerancing. The profile tolerance
profile tolerance may beindicated by the useof refer-
specifies a uniform boundary along the true profile ence letters to identify the extremities or limits of
within which the elements of the surface must lie. It each requirement. See Fig. 6-13. Similarly, if some
is used tocontrol form or combinations of size, form, segments of the profile are controlled by a profile
orientation, and location. Where used as a refinement tolerance and other segments by individually toler-
of size, the profile tolerance mustbe contained anced dimensions, the extent of the profile tolerance
within the size limits. Profile tolerances are specified must be indicated. See Fig. 6-14.
as follows.
(a) An appropriate view or section is drawn show- 6.5.2 Tolerance Zone. A profile tolerance may
ing the desired basic profile. be applied to an entire surface or to individual pro-
163
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 m 0759b70 0549599 283 W

994 ASME

THIS ON THEDRAWING

(a) Bilateral tolerance (b) Unilateral tolerance


(inside)

(c) Unilateral tolerance (d) Bilateral tolerance


(outside) unequal distribution
165
MEANS THIS

0.8 wide tolerance zone 0.8 wide tolerance zone entirely


equally disposed about the disposed on one side of the
true profile (0.4 each side) true profile, as indicated

profileActualprofileActual
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

L-

"

Datum plane A
0.8 wide tolerance
zone entirely True relative
profile 0.8 wide tolerance zone
disposed
datum
one
toon
A unequally disposed on
side one side
true of the true of the
profile,
profile,
as indicated as indicated
profile Actual profile Actual
0.6
Datum plane A
0.2

(c) (dl
True profile
relative to datum A True profile
relative to datum
A

FIG. 6-11APPLICATION OF PROFILEOF A SURFACE


TOLERANCETO A BASICCONTOUR

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ND DIMENSIONING

-
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

THIS ON THE DRAWING

- 54

UNTOLERANCED DIMENSIONS ARE BASIC -


'6.5.:
6.5.;
6.5.'

I MEANS Datum plane A 4


0.6 wide tolerance zone
f

The surfaces, all around the part outline, must lie between two parallel boundaries
0.6 apart perpendicular t o datum plane A and equally disposed about the true profile.
Radii of part corners must not exceed 0.2.

FIG. 6-12 SPECIFYINGPROFILEOF A SURFACEALLAROUND

165

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 3 4 - 5 M 94 m 0759670 0549603 763 m
ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

lt
.8f0.1

o
FIG. 6-13 SPECIFYINGDIFFERENTPROFILETOLERANCES ON SEGMENTSOF A PROFILE

THIS ON THE DRAWING


--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

b- 65k0.25 -4 6.5.1
3.3.11
MEANS THIS
Datum plane C Datum plane A
0.25 wide tolerance zone

The surface between points D and E


must lie between two profile bound "
aries 0.25 apart, perpendicular to
Datum datum plane A, equally disposed
about the true profile and position€ !d
with respect to datum planes B an(j c.

FIG. 6-14 SPECIFYINGPROFILEOF A SURFACEBETWEENPOINTS

166

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For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4-5M 9 4 O759670 0 5 4 9 6 0 2 bTB m
AND DIMENSIONING Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING

MEANS THIS
Datum plane A

0.4 wide tolerance zone The surfaces all around must lie be-
tween two profile boundaries 0.4
apart,
True profile the and with
one coincident
other outside the true profile, and
both perpendicular to datum plane
A. The tolerancezoneextendsto
the intersection of the boundary
"" lines.

Outside boundary lines

FIG. 6-15 SPECIFYINGPROFILEOFASURFACEFORSHARPCORNERS

files taken at various cross sections through the part. 6.5.3 Explanation of ProfileTolerance. The
These two cases are provided for as follows. tolerance value represents the distance between two
(u) Profile of a Surjuce. The tolerance zone estab- boundaries equally or unequally disposed about the
lished by the profile of a surface tolerance is three- true profile or entirely disposed on one side of the
dimensional, extending along the length andwidth true profile. Profile tolerances apply normal (perpen-
(or circumference) of the considered feature or fea- dicular) to the true profile atallpoints along the
tures. This may be applied to parts having a constant profile. The boundaries of the tolerance zone follow
cross section as in Fig. 6-12, to parts having a surface the geometric shape of the true profile. The actual
of revolution, or to parts (such as castings) defined surface or line element must be within the specified
by profile tolerances applying "ALL OVER" as indi- tolerance zone, and all variations from the true pro-
cated below the feature control frame. file must blend. Where a profile tolerance encom-
( b ) Profle of a Line. The tolerance zone estab- passes a sharp corner, the tolerance zone extends to
lished by the profile of a line tolerance is two-dimen- the intersection of the boundary lines. See Fig. 6-
sional, extending along the length of the considered 15. Since the intersecting surfaces may lie anywhere
feature. This applies to the profiles of parts having within the converging zone, the actual part contour
a varying cross section, such as the tapered wing of could conceivably be rounded. If this is undesirable,
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

an aircraft, or to random cross sections of parts as in the drawing must indicate the design requirements,
Fig. 6-18, where it is not desired to control the entire such as by specifying the maximum radius. See Fig.
surface of the feature as a single entity. 6-12.
167

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YLY=5M94 m 07596700549603 53Y m

94 ASME

THIS ON THE DRAWING


I

MEANS THIS
~ 0 . wide
4 tolerance zone r 0.12 wide tolerance zone at each cross section

fDatum plane A
Datum plane B
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Section A-A
The surface between C and D must lie between two profile boundaries 0.4 apart, one coincident with and the other
nside of the true profile, and positioned with respect to datum planes A and B. Each line element of the consid-
3red surface, parallel to datum plane B, must lie between two lines 0.12 apart which are parallel to datum plane A.

FIG. 6-16 SPECIFYING COMBINED PROFILE AND PARALLELISM


TOLERANCES

6.5.4 Application of Datums. Inmost cases, ance and the circular elements must be within the
profile of a surface tolerance requires reference to specified runout tolerance. Figure 6-18 illustrates a
datums in order to provide proper orientation, loca- part with a profile of a line tolerance where size is
tion, or both, of the profile. With profile of a line controlled by a separate tolerance. Line elements of
tolerance, datums may be used under some circum- the surface along the profile must lie within the pro-
stances but would not be used whenthe only require- file tolerance zone and within a size limiting zone.
ment is the profile shape taken cross section by cross In certain instances, a portion of the profile tolerance
section. An example is the shape of a continuous zone may fall beyond the boundary of the size lim-
extrusion. iting zone. However, this portion of the profile toler-
ance zone is not usable because the line elements of
6.5.5 Combined Controls. Profile tolerancing
the surface must not violate the size limiting zone.
may be combined with other types of geometric tol-
erancing. Figure 6-16 illustrates a surface that has a 6.5.5.1 Boundary Control for a Noncylin-
profile tolerance refined by a parallelism tolerance. dricalFeature. Profile tolerancing maybe com-
The surface must not only be withinthe profile toler- bined with positional tolerancing where it is neces-
ance, but each straight line element of the surface sary to control the boundary of a noncylindrical
must also be parallel to the datum within the toler- feature. See Fig 6-19. In this example, the basic di-
ance specified. Figure 6-17 illustrates a surface that mensions and the profile tolerance establish a toler-
has a profile tolerance refined by a runout tolerance. ance zone to control the shape and size of the feature.
The entire surface must be within the profile toler- Additionally, the positional tolerance establishes a
168
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y / 4 * 5 M 9 4 0759670 0549604 470

TOLERANCING
DIMENSIONING AND ASME Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING

16.5.5
MEANS THIS
0.25 Profile zone

0.15 Runout zone

Secondary
datum axis N

I I I l

Primary
datum plane M

The surface between points A and B must lie between two profile
boundaries 0.25 apart, equally disposed about the true profile and
positioned with respect to primary datum plane M and secondary
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

datum axis N. Additionally, each circular element of the surface


must fall within the 0.15 runout tolerance.

FIG. 6-17 PROFILEOF A SURFACE OF REVOLUTION

169
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 m O7596700549605303 m

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

THISONTHEDRAWING

IA10.16 l A l B
C-D

I R12.7

I C
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

r 38f 0.25 "---I 6.5.5


6.5.2
6.4.1.1.5
MEANS THIS

R12.7

L 0 . l i wide
tolerance Datum plane
zone

Profile tolerance zone 40k0.5 Size tolerance zone

Each line element of the surface between points C and D, atany cross
section, must lie between two profile boundaries 0.16 apart in relation to
datumplanesAand B. Thesurfacemustbe within the specified limits of
size.

FIG. 6-18 PROFILEOF A LINEANDSIZECONTROL

170

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For Internal Use Only
A S I E Y14.51 9 4 I0759670 0549606 243 I

TOLERANCING
DIMENSIONING AND Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING

I
/ \

+
1251
t

-1361- I 6.5.5.1
MEANS THIS
LMC of feature

0.6
0.6

Trueprofile
datum plane B
MMC of feature
(at basiclocation)

$
Datum
plane A
Control Profile
Thesurface,allaround, must lie between two No portion of the surface may be permitted
profile boundaries 1.2 apart equally disposed to lie within the boundary of MMC contour
about the true profile. minusthepositionaltolerance when positioned
with respect to datum planes A, B and C.
FIG. 6-19 BOUNDARYPRINCIPLE USED WITH PROFILECONTROLS

theoretical boundary shaped identically to the basic a single interrupted or noncontinuous surface. In this
profile. For an internal feature, the boundary equals case, a control is provided similar to that achieved
the MMC size of the profile minus the positional by a flatness tolerance applied to a single plane sur-
tolerance, and the entire feature surface must lie out- face. As shown in Fig. 6-20, the profile of a surface
side the boundary. For anexternal feature, the bound- tolerance establishes a tolerance zone defined by two
ary equals the MMC size of the profile plus the posi- parallel planes within which the considered surfaces
tional tolerance, and the entire feature surface must must lie. No datum reference is stated in Fig. 6-20,
lie within the boundary. To invoke this concept, the as in the case of flatness, since the orientation of the
term BOUNDARY is placed beneath the positional tolerance zone is established from contact of the part
tolerance feature control frame. against a reference standard; the plane is established
by the considered surfaces themselves. Where two
6.5.6 Coplanarity. Coplanarity is the condition
or more surfaces are involved, it may be desirable to
of two or more surfaces having all elements in one
identify which specific surface(s) are to be used as
plane. the datum feature(s). Datum feature symbols are ap-
6.5.6.1 Profile Tolerance For Coplanar Sur- plied to these surfaces with the appropriate tolerance
faces. A profile of a surface tolerance may be used for their relationship to each other. The datum refer-
where it is desired to treat two or more surfaces as ence letters are added to the feature control frame
171
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 . 5 M 94 0759670 0549607 1 8 T M

ASMEY14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING 6.5.9.1 Composite Profile Tolerancing.This


provides a composite application of profile toleranc-
ing for location of a profiled feature as well as the
requirement of form, orientation, and in some in-
1-1 stances, the size of the feature, within the larger pro-
file locating tolerance zone. Requirements are anno-
7"- tated by the use of a composite profile feature control
4
-12 SURFACES
frame similar tothat shown in Fig. 3-22(a). Each
complete horizontal segment of a composite profile

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
feature control frame constitutes a separately verifi-
16.5.6.1 able component of a pair of interrelated require-
MEANS THIS ments. The profile symbol is entered once and is
applicable toboth horizontal segments. The upper
segment is referred to as the profile locating control.
It specifies the larger profile tolerance for the loca-
tionof the profiled feature. Applicable datums are
specified in a desired order of precedence. The lower
segment is referred to as a profile size/form/orienta-
0.08 wide tolerance zone
tion refinement control. It specifies the smaller pro-
Eachsurfacemust lie between two common
file tolerance for the feature within the profile locat-
parallelplanes 0.08 apart.Bothsurfacesmust ing zone (form and orientation refinement).
be within the sDecified limits ofsize.

6.5.9.1.1 Explanation of Composite Pro-


FIG. 6-20 SPECIFYINGPROFILEOFASURFACEFOR file Tolerance. Each feature is located from speci-
COPLANARSURFACES
fied datums by basic dimensions. Datum referencing
in the upper segment of a composite profile feature
control frame serves to locate the feature profile lo-
cating tolerance zone relative to specified datums.
See Figs. 6-25 and 6-26. Datum referencing in the
for the features being controlled. The tolerance zone lower segment serves to establish the limits of size,
thus established applies to all coplanar surfaces in- form, and orientation of the profile fondorientation
cluding datum surfaces. See Fig. 6-21. tolerance zone, relative to the profile locating toler-
6.5.7ProfileToleranceforPlaneSurfaces. ance zone. See Figs. 6-25 and 6-26. The tolerance
Profile tolerancing may be used to control form and values represent the distance between two boundaries
orientation of plane surfaces. In Fig. 6-22, profile of disposed about the true profile as defined by the basic
a surface is used to control a plane surface inclined dimensions and respective applicable datums. The
to a datum feature. actual surface ofthe controlled feature mustlie
within both the profile locating tolerance zone and
6.5.8 Profile Tolerance for a Conical Feature. the profile fondorientation tolerance zone.
A profile tolerance may be specified to control the
conicity of a surface in either oftwoways: as an
independent control of form, or as a combined con-
6.5.9.1.2Control of Orientation. Other
trol of form and orientation. Figure 6-23 depicts a
applications for composite profile tolerancing occur
conical feature controlled by a profile of a surface when the upper segment of the feature control frame
tolerance where conicity of the surface is a refine-
contains onlyan orientation datum(s). It specifies
ment of size. In Fig. 6-24, the same control is applied
the larger profile tolerance for the orientation of the
but is oriented to a datum axis.In each case, the
profiled feature. Applicable datums are specified in
feature must be within size limits.
a desired order of precedence. The lower segment is
6.5.9 Composite Profile. Where design require- a form refinement control and does not specify a
ments permit a feature locating tolerance zone to be datum. It specifies the smaller profile tolerance for
larger than the tolerance zone that controls the fea- the feature within the profile orientation zone (form
ture size, a composite profile tolerance may be used. refinement).

172

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y 1 4 . 5 M 94 IBI 0759670 0549608 016 m

DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

'HIS ON THE DRAWING

YWJ
2 SURFACES

1656
WEANS THIS

r SimulateddatumA-B

r 0.08 wide tolerance zone

L- Datum plane A-B

Thedatumfeatures A andBmust liebetweentwocommonplanes 0.04


apart.Thetwodesignatedsurfacesmustliebetweentwoparallelplanes
equallydisposedaboutdatumplaneA-B.Allsurfacesmust lie within the
specified limits of size.

FIG, 6-21 SPECIFYINGPROFILEOFASURFACEFOR


COPLANARSURFACES TO A DATUM ESTABLISHED BY
TWO SURFACES

173

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
ASME YL4.5M 94 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 0 5 4 9 b 0 9 T52

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING THIS ON THE DRAWING

MEANS THIS
r 0.02 wide tolerance zone

6.5.7
6.3.1.3
"
" diameter
I
qn 9
MEANS THIS

A&0.05 wide tolerance


II zone
The surface must lie between two coaxial
boundaries 0.02 apart having an included angle of
I r Datum axis A 15'. Thesurfacemustbewithinthespecifiedlimits
of size.

FIG. 6-23 SPECIFYINGPROFILEOF A CONICALFEATURE

Datum plane B
perpendicularity, and parallelism, when applied to
I+"35 4 plane surfaces, control flatness if a flatness tolerance
The surface must lie between two parallel planes 0.05 is not specified.
apart, equally disposed about a true plane which is
basically oriented in relation to the specified datums. 6.6.1.1 Tolerance Zones.Tolerance zones are
1 total in value requiring an axis, or all elements of the
considered surface, to fall within this zone. Where it
FIG. 6-22 SPECIFYING PROFILE OF A SURFACE FOR A
PLANESURFACE is a requirement to control only individual line ele-
ments of a surface, a qualifying notation, such as
EACH ELEMENT or EACH RADIAL ELEMENT,
6.6 ORIENTATION TOLERANCES is added to the drawing. See Figs. 6-44 and 6-45.
Angularity, parallelism, perpendicularity, andin This permits control of individual elements of the
some instances, profile are orientation tolerances ap- surface independently in relation to the datum and
plicable to related features. These tolerances control does not limit the total surface to an encompassing
the orientation of features to one another. zone.
6.6.1Specifying Orientation Tolerances in 6.6.1.2 Application of Zero Tolerance at
Relation to Datum Features. In specifying orien- MMC. Where no variations of orientation, such as
tationtolerances to control angularity,parallelism, perpendicularity, are permitted at the MMC size limit
perpendicularity, and in some cases, profile, the con- of a feature, the feature control frame contains a zero
sidered feame is related to one or more datum fea- for the tolerance, modified by the symbol for MMC.
tures. See Fig. 4-24. Relation to more thanone datum If the feature is finished at its MMC limit of size, it
feature is specified to stabilize the tolerance zone in must be perfect in orientation with respect to the
more than one direction. For a method ofreferencing datum. A tolerance can exist only as the feature de-
datum features, see para. 3.4.2. Note that angularity, parts from MMC. The allowable orientation toler-
174
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y34.5M 9 4 I0759670 0 5 4 9 6 3 0 774

DIMENSIONINGANDTOLERANCING ASME Y14.5M-1994

planes or a datum axis, within which the axis of the


considered feature must lie. See Fig. 6-28.
(c) a cylindrical tolerance zoneat the specified
basic angle from one or more datum planesor a
datum axis, within which the axis of the considered
feature must lie. See Fig. 6-29.
(d) a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines
at the specified basic angle from a datum plane or
axis, withmwhich the line element of the surface
must lie.

16.5.8
6.6.3 Parallelism.Parallelism is the condition of
MEANS THIS
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

0.02 wide a surface or center plane, equidistant atallpoints


tolerance zone 7 from a datum plane; or an axis, equidistant along its
length from one or more datum planes or a datum
axis.
LJ.0 6.6.3.1 Parallelism Tolerance. A parallelism
24-2 diamet,.
diameter 1 I I I -\I tolerance specifies one of the following:
v
4 ( a ) a tolerance zone defined by twoparallel planes
parallel to a datum plane or axis, within which the
Datum plane B surface or center plane of the considered feature must
Datum axis A lie. See Fig. 6-30.
The surface must lie between two coaxial (b) a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes
boundaries 0.02 apart having an included angle of parallel to a datum plane or axis, within which the
15'; the axis of the boundaries are coaxial with the axis of the considered feature must lie. See Fig. 6-3 l.
datumaxis A. The diameter of the surface must
also be within the stated limits of size.
(c) a cylindrical tolerance zone parallel to one or
more datum planes or a datum axis, withinwhich
FIG. 6-24 PROFILETOLERANCING OF ACONICAL the axis of the feature must lie. See Figs. 6-32 and
FEATURE,DATUM RELATED 6-33.
(d) a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines
parallel to a datum plane or axis, within which the
line element of the surface must lie. See Fig. 6-45.
ance is equal to the amount of such departure. See 6.6.4 Perpendicularity. Perpendicularity is the
Figs. 6-41 and 6-42. condition of a surface, center plane, or axis at a right
angle to a datum plane or axis.
6.6.1.3 Tangent Plane. Where it is desired to
control a feature surface established by the con- 6.6.4.1 Perpendicularity Tolerance. A per-
tacting points of that surface, the tangent plane sym- pendicularity tolerance specifies one of the
bol is added in the feature control frame after the following:
stated tolerance. See Fig. 6-43. (a) a tolerance zone defined by two parallelplanes
perpendicular to a datum plane or axis, within which
6.6.2 Angularity. Angularity is the condition of the surface or center plane of the considered feature
a surface, center plane, or axis at a specified angle must lie. See Figs. 6-34 through 6-36.
(other than 90") from a datum plane or axis. (b) a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes
6.6.2.1 Angularity Tolerance. An angularity perpendicular to a datum axis, within which the axis
tolerance specifies one of the following: of the considered feature must lie. See Fig. 6-37.
(a) a tolerance zone defined by twoparallel planes (c) a cylindrical tolerance zone perpendicular to a
at the specified basic angle from one or more datum datum plane, within which the axis of the considered
planes or a datum axis, within which the surface or feature must lie. See Figs. 6-38 through 6-42.
center plane of the considered feature must lie. See ( d ) a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines
Fig. 6-27. perpendicular to a datum plane or axis, within which
(b) a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes the line element of the surface must lie. See Fig.
at the specified basic angle from one or more datum 6-44.
175
Reproduced by IHS under license with ASME License provided by I.H.S. Germany
For Internal Use Only
DIMENSIONING
ASME Y14.5M-1994 AND TOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING

I 6.5.9.1.1
MEANS THIS
0.8 wide tolerance

0.1 wide tolerance

--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The feature shall be located within a larger boundary (0.8) relative


to the primary datum A, secondary datum B, and tertiary datum C.
Once the feature is located within the larger boundary (0.8) its size
shall be controlled relative to the basic feature defining dimensions
and to the primary datum A within the smaller boundary (0.1).
I

FIG. 6-25 COMPOSITEPROFILETOLERANCINGOF AN


IRREGULARSURFACE

176

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y l 1 4 * 5 M 74 D 0759670 0547bl12 5 4 7 D

ND DIMENSIONING Y14.5M-1994

THIS ON THE DRAWING

P I 6.5.9.1.1
MEANS THIS r 0.8
tolerance
wide zone
--`````,``````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Datum
plane C

h Datum plane B
Datum
plane A
III I Al I
The feature shall be located within a larger boundary (0.8) relative
to the primary datum A, secondary datum B, and tertiary datum C.
Once the feature is located within the larger boundary (0.8) its size
shall be controlled relative to the basic feature defining dimensions
and to the primary datum A for perpendicularity and secondary
datum B for parallelism within the smaller boundary (0.2).
I
FIG. 6-26 COMPOSITE PROFILETOLERANCING OF A
FEATURE

177

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For Internal Use Only
ASME Y L 4 - 5 M 9 4 0759b70 0549bL3 Y83

ASME Y14.5M-1994 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

THIS ON THE DRAWING

THIS ON THE DRAWING


P L 0.2 A

I 6.6.2.1
MEANS THIS
d O . 2 wide tolerance zone

Possible orientation
MEANS THIS of the feature axis

2-4-
0.4 wide tolerance zone
/

Datum plane A

The surface must lie between two parallel plar


L Datum plane A

lie between two parallel planes


\\

Regardless of feature size, the feature axis must


0.2 apart which are
inclined 60' to datum plane A. The feature axis
must be within the specified tolerance of location.
apart which are inclined at 30' to datum plane
The surface must be within the specified limits Note: This control applies only to the view on
size. See figure 2-14. which it is specified.

FIG. 6-27 SPECIFYINGANGULARITY FOR A PLANE FIG. 6-28 SPECIFYINGANGULARITY FOR AN AXIS
SURFACE (FEATURE RFS)