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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

Control Valves
GP 15-09-01

Scope
1) [I] This Global Practice (GP) covers the design and inspection of all types of valves used for control,
both throttling and on-off services. Gate valves are specifically excluded.
2) [I] Diaphragm and piston actuators, positioners, and ancillaries for control valves are covered by this
GP. Motor actuators are covered by GP 15-09-02.
3) [I] Slide valves are not covered by this standard.
4) [I] An asterisk (*) indicates that a decision by the Owner's Engineer or Purchaser is required, that
additional information is to be furnished by the Owner's Engineer, or that information for Owner's
Engineer approval is to be supplied by Vendor or Purchaser.

Refining/Chemicals, Downstream
For ExxonMobil Use Only Version 2.0.0
Imperial Oil

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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

Table of Contents

1. Required References ............................................................................................ 4


1.1. Global Practices–ExxonMobil Engineering Practices ................................... 4
1.2. API–American Petroleum Institute ................................................................ 4
1.3. ASME–American Society of Mechanical Engineers ..................................... 4
1.4. CFR–U.S. Code of Federal Regulations....................................................... 4
1.5. FCI–Fluid Controls Institute, Inc. .................................................................. 4
1.6. ISA–Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society.............................. 4
1.7. MSS–Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry......................................................................................................... 4
2. Additional Requirements ...................................................................................... 5
2.1. Global Practices–ExxonMobil Engineering Practices ................................... 5
2.2. ASTM–American Society for Testing and Materials ..................................... 5
3. Accessibility and Precautions ............................................................................. 5
3.1. Accessibility .................................................................................................. 5
3.2. Precautions .................................................................................................. 5
4. Materials................................................................................................................. 6

5. Valve Design .......................................................................................................... 7


5.1. General......................................................................................................... 7
5.2. Characteristics .............................................................................................. 9
5.3. Sizing ............................................................................................................ 9
5.4. Additional Requirements ............................................................................ 10
5.5. Self-Acting Regulating Valves .................................................................... 10
5.6. Environmental Protection ........................................................................... 11
5.7. High Performance Control Valves .............................................................. 11
6. Actuators, Positioners, and Valve Ancillaries .................................................. 12
6.1. Actuators .................................................................................................... 12
6.2. Stem and Shaft Linkages ........................................................................... 13
6.3. Handwheels ................................................................................................ 13
6.4. Positioners .................................................................................................. 13
6.5. Transducers ............................................................................................... 13
6.6. Air Locks..................................................................................................... 14
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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

6.7. Volume Boosters/Quick Exhaust Vents ...................................................... 14


6.8. Limit Switches............................................................................................. 14
7. Inspection and Testing ....................................................................................... 15

8. Identification ........................................................................................................ 15

9. Documentation .................................................................................................... 16

Record of Change ....................................................................................................... 17

Attachment: Purpose Codes Definitions.................................................................. 19

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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

1. Required References
[I] This Section lists Practices and Standards that are generically referenced and assumed to be a part of
this document. Unless otherwise specified herein, use the latest edition.

1.1. Global Practices–ExxonMobil Engineering Practices


GP 16-01-01 Area Classification and Related Electrical Design for Flammable
Liquids, Gases or Vapors

1.2. API–American Petroleum Institute


API STD 609 Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged, Lug- and Wafer-Type

1.3. ASME–American Society of Mechanical Engineers


ASME B16.34 Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End

1.4. CFR–U.S. Code of Federal Regulations


40 CFR 61-V National Emission Standard for Equipment Leaks (Fugitive Emission
Sources)

1.5. FCI–Fluid Controls Institute, Inc.


FCI 70-2 Control Valve Seat Leakage

1.6. ISA–Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society


ISA 75.01.01 Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves
ISA 75.17 Control Valve Aerodynamic Noise Prediction

1.7. MSS–Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and


Fittings Industry
MSS SP-25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Unions

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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

2. Additional Requirements
* [I] The following Practices and Standards shall be used with this GP as specified by the Owner's
Engineer.

2.1. Global Practices–ExxonMobil Engineering Practices


GP 03-12-01 Valve Selection
GP 15-07-02 Protective Systems
GP 15-09-02 Electric Motor Operators for Valves
GP 18-03-04 Pressure Casting Quality and Inspection
GP 18-10-01 Additional Requirements for Materials

2.2. ASTM–American Society for Testing and Materials


ASTM A 320/A 320M Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting
Materials for Low-Temperature Service

3. Accessibility and Precautions


3.1. Accessibility
1) All control valves shall be installed so that the valve and associated accessories and indicators are
readily accessible to maintenance and readable from normal personnel access paths. Control valves
may be mounted above grade if a platform for access is provided.

3.2. Precautions
1) Control valves shall be so located that topworks, accessories, or other applicable components are not
in close proximity to high-temperature sources. The actuator and accessories shall have a minimum
clearance of 24 in. (600 mm) from surfaces exceeding 500°F (260°C). Where this clearance is not
available, thermal shielding shall be used.
2) Control valves shall be removed form the piping system during flushing and hydrotesting after initial
installation.
3) All electrical equipment and circuits for instrumentation and controls shall be designed, furnished,
and certified to meet the electrical area classification in which they are to be installed. All electrical
instrumentation shall be suitable for the applicable electrical area classification, as defined by the
requirements of GP 16-01-01.

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4. Materials
1) * [S], [R] Body Class and materials shall meet or exceed the line piping classification and materials
requirements.
2) * [R] Low alloy valve casting in hydrogen service and austenitic stainless steel valve castings in high-
pressure service shall meet the requirements of GP 18-03-04.
3) [R] Impact requirements for valves in low-temperature service shall meet the requirements of GP 18-
10-01.
4) [R] Trim materials shall be per the Manufacturer's standard for the specified service conditions,
except as modified below:
a) Exposure to wet H 2 S service. Trim material shall be limited to stainless steel type S30400 (304)
or S31600 (316) and Hardfacing Alloy 6.
b) Nitrided valve components should be avoided where sulfidation due to H 2 S is a concern due to
experience with fouling and sticking of control valves. Stellite-lined internals should be
satisfactory where surface hardening is required.
c) Hardened trim, such as hardened stainless steel [S44004 (440C) or S17400 (17-4PH)], are
required for the following severe services:
i) Steam pressure reduction where the pressure drop may exceed 100 psi (700 kPa).
ii) Condensate from boiler where the pressure drop may exceed 100 psi (700 kPa).
iii) Where more than 3 percent of the inlet fluid by weight may vaporize in the valve together
with a pressure drop exceeding 150 psi (1000 kPa).
iv) Any pressure reduction greater than 250 psi (1700 kPa).
v) For fluids containing solids, and services above 600°F (315°C), unless higher grade materials
are required for process conditions.
vi) * Unless otherwise approved by Owner's Engineer, tungsten carbide trim shall be used for the
oil and water level control streams from the first stage crude oil production separation and
from test separators.
d) * For other severe services such as catalyst slurry service and all others that are not listed above,
the trim material shall be approved by the Owner's Engineer.
5) [R] Austenitic stainless steel, Monel, and nickel alloy valves shall have trim, bolting, and stem of the
same nominal chemistry as the body except when Alloy 6 trim has been specified. Where Alloy 6 is
specified, all surfaces shall be covered with a minimum thickness of 0.05 in. (1.3 mm) and a
maximum of 0.08 in. (2 mm). If undercutting of Alloy 6 covered surfaces is anticipated, then
centrifugally cast solid Alloy 6 shall be used instead of overlay methods.
6) [S] Control valve packing glands shall meet the following criteria:
a) Control valve packing glands shall be the bolted type. Exceptions may be made, with approval,
for sizes NPS 2 and smaller used in low-pressure service.
b) Packing follower and packing gland bolts shall be Grade B8M (as reflected in ASTM A 320/A
320M) stainless steel when installed in condensing (sweating conditions) or cold [less than 32°F
(0°C)] environments.

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c) The packing gland bolt torque specified by the valve Manufacturer shall be included as part of the
valve specification sheet information.
d) Valve stuffing box arrangements shall use anti-extrusion rings to minimize extrusion, which
causes loss of packing material, and shall use a minimum amount of packing to reduce effects of
thermal expansion.
e) Valve stem shall be retained in a centrally aligned position via a bushing system.
f) The recommended packing for general service with moderate packing box temperatures to 450°F
(230°C) is TFE V-ring. Alternative packing material such as graphite may be used.
g) Asbestos packing is prohibited.
h) Temperatures above 450°F (230°C) require graphite compounds. The recommended
configuration is braided graphite rings top and bottom, with flexible graphite [minimum
uncompressed density 1360 kg/m3 (85 lb/ft3)] between them. When flexible graphite is used
alone, sealing washers are recommended for each end of the packing box to prevent excess
packing material extrusion. An alternative is to use bonnet extensions to lower the packing
temperature levels, allowing low emissions, and to lower friction packing at higher temperatures.
i) Bonnets shall be tapped for the addition of lubricators and steel isolating valves for all control
valves with packing other than TFE and Graphoil or for all control valves with extended stems in
hot service.
7) * [S] Process-wetted gaskets shall be suitable for the line service classification.
8) [R] Tubing downstream of instrument air filters shall be stainless steel with stainless steel
compression fittings.
9) [R] Valve actuator springs shall be carbon steel with factory-applied, rust-resistant coating. For
corrosive atmospheres, alloy springs shall be considered.

5. Valve Design
5.1. General
1) * [I] The selection of valve types and sizes, body and trim materials shall be approved by the Owner's
Engineer.
2) Control valve designs used in Protective System service shall meet additional requirements as
specified in GP 15-07-02.
3) * [R] The pressure-temperature rating, dimensions, tolerances, materials, nondestructive examination
requirements, testing and marking for cast, forged, fabricated steel flanged, threaded, and buttwelding
end valves shall be per ASME B16.34. Additional requirements for specific valves are listed below:
a) Flanged-end and flangeless valves shall match the line serve classification rating.
b) Threaded end valves shall have a minimum Class 600 rating.
c) Butterfly valves shall match the line service classification rating.
4) * [S] The use of flangeless or lug-type control valves shall be restricted as follows:

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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

a) Flangeless (water) or lug-type valves shall not be used where the design temperature is above
600°F (315°C).
b) Flangeless (wafer) valves shall not be used where the design temperature is below 600°F (315°C)
and the service conditions meet the "dangerous" criteria defined below:
i) Toxic materials such as phenol, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine
ii) Highly corrosive materials such as acids, caustic, and similar materials
iii) Flammable materials (including light hydrocarbons lighter than 68 degrees API)
iv) Boiler feedwater and steam, in systems requiring ANSI Class 300 and higher flange ratings
v) Oxygen in concentrations greater than 35 percent
c) For design temperatures above 400°F (205°C), body material shall have the same nominal
coefficient of thermal expansion as the bolting material and adjacent flanges.
5) * [S], [O] Control valves shall meet the following seat leakage criteria:
a) Metal-to-metal seating with Class IV leaking rating is expected for most applications, especially
for fluids containing abrasive particles or with design temperatures above 450°F (230°C).
Leakage class lower than Class IV requires Owner's Engineer approval.
b) Control valves used in tight shutoff and gas compressor recycle service shall be single-seated.
c) For tight shutoff, leakage class shall be at least Class V or as specified by the Owner's Engineer.
d) Composition (soft) seats for shutoff valves may be used when better than Class V tight shutoff is
desired and when the seats conform to the pressure, temperature, and chemical limitations of the
process. Where required to be fire safe, composition seated valves shall be fire tested to GP 03-
12-01.
e) Worst-case process conditions shall be considered for control valve leakage class selection.
f) Actuator type and size shall be selected to provide adequate seat loads for the selected leakage
class on a conservative basis (10 percent above the minimum calculated thrust per inch of port
circumference). The primary criteria for meeting tight shutoff/low leakage requirements shall be
proper trim design configuration and materials.
g) Single-seated control valves with springless top works and double-acting pistons may be used,
with approval, for tight shutoff and where extra power is required to overcome unbalanced forces
caused by process operating pressure and shut-off pressure. Facilities shall be provided to ensure
the fail safe action of the valve.
6) * [R] Noise calculations per ISA 75.17 shall be provided for each control valve. A calculated sound
pressure level greater than 85 dBA shall require application of noise attenuation methods. These
methods shall maximize the noise attenuation within the valve body (to reduce possibility of valve
damage) by the design of the trim before consideration is given to the use of insulation, increased
wall thickness, diffusers, silencers, or other inline devices. Proposed noise reduction methods shall
be approved by the Owner's Engineer.
7) [O], [R] Control valves in plugging services (e.g., liquid sulfur) shall be steam jacketed where steam
tracing would not provide enough heat to prevent plugging.
8) [S], [R] Shafts of rotary actuated valves shall be sized for pressure drop equal to maximum upstream
design pressure.
a) The shaft shall be designed with a blowout prevention/protection feature to retain the shaft in the
event of a shaft failure.

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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

b) As a minimum, butterfly valve disk attachment shall be done by double pinning to a solid shaft.
c) Butterfly valves in slurry service or in liquid service with entrained solids shall be mounted with
the valve shaft in the horizontal position. For other services, the mounting position shall be as per
valve Vendor recommendation.
d) The shear safety factor shall be 2:1 at maximum shutoff pressure across the valve. The limiting
value shall be taken at the weakest point, such as pins or keyways.
e) Butterfly valve shaft retention thrust collars for blowout protection shall be fitted to valve shaft
ends opposite to the actuator and open to atmosphere if the valve does not meet API STD 609,
Paragraph 2.5.1: "The shaft shall be designed so that if failure of the shaft-to-disc connection or
internal failure of the shaft occurs, no portion of the shaft can be ejected from the valve as a result
of internal pressure."
f) Ball or any rotary valve stem retention shall not depend on the packing gland. A shouldered stem
with bottom entry is normally expected.
9) [O] Radiating fins or extension pieces shall be provided if specified fluid design temperature is above
450°F (230°C) or below 32°F (0°C), unless specifically designed bonnet or packing does not require
them. Warming spools in conjunction with extension bonnets may be required for cryogenic service.
10) [E] Valve packing shall meet local fugitive emissions regulations and worker exposure requirements.
Special environmental packing systems shall be provided for environmental emission control
applications, keeping process emission levels within the EPA standards defined in the National
Emission Standard for Equipment Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources). Refer to EPA document 40
CFR 61-V, which is applicable in the United States.

5.2. Characteristics
1) [O] Two-way control valves shall have equal percentage characteristics, except as indicated below:
a) Valves used in pairs, as three-way valves, including rotary actuated valves such as ball or
butterfly types, shall have linear characteristics. Where characterized positioners are used to meet
this requirement, valve Manufacturer shall perform calibration for the required characterization.
b) Gas compressor recycle control valves shall have linear characteristics.
c) Valves in pressure reducing service shall have linear characteristics.
d) Valves in level control service shall have linear characteristics.

5.3. Sizing
1) [O] Control valve sizing for valves with equal percentage characteristics shall comply with the
following criteria:
a) Valve size shall be the smallest one that meets the requirement that its flow coefficient (Cv) is
equal to or greater than 125 percent of the Cv calculated from the maximum specified flow rate
and conditions, taking into account the effect of piping configuration such as changes in line size.
b) Control valve size shall be selected so that at the minimum specified flow rate and corresponding
pressure drop, the required lift shall not be less than 15 percent of full travel. Proposals to use
control valves at a lower lift shall be approved by the Owner's Engineer.
c) In normal valve sizing calculations where pressure conditions for valves have already been fixed
and where it cannot positively be determined by inspection that cavitation or flashing will not
occur, the choked flow equation shall be used. Refer to ISA 75.01.01.

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2) * [O] Conventional butterfly and eccentric plug valves shall be sized for maximum angle opening of
60 degrees. Proposals to use angles greater than 60 degrees shall be submitted for approval by the
Owner's Engineer. When sized for 60 degrees, the installed travel should be restricted to 60 degrees
by actuator or travel stop and the input calibrated for 100 percent at 60 degrees.
3) [I] For heat exchanger service, three-way valves or two-way valves used in pairs as three-way valves
(including rotary actuated valves such as ball or butterfly types) shall be sized in accordance with the
following:
a) For globe and characterized v-port skirt design type three-way valves, the exchanger port shall be
sized to pass the maximum design flow with a fouled exchanger and zero flow through the bypass
port.
b) For two-way valves in three-way service, the following sizes shall apply:
i) The exchanger valve shall be sized to pass the maximum design flow with a fouled exchanger
and zero flow through the bypass valve.
ii) The bypass valve shall be sized to pass the maximum design flow with zero flow through the
exchanger valve subject to the limitation that the bypass valve shall be no smaller than one
size below the exchanger valve.
c) The 125 percent factor referred to in Section 5.3 (Item 1a) shall not be used in sizing three-way
valves or two-way valves in three-way service.
4) * [I] Control valve sizing shall be in accordance with ISA 75.01.01. For conditions outside the scope
of the ISA standard (such as two-phase mixtures of hydrocarbons), refer to the Owner's Engineer.
5) [R] Minimum body size shall be 1 in. NPS (25 mm) except for self-acting regulating valves. Dual
parallel strainers installed upstream of the control valve shall be used for valves that employ less than
0.125 in. (3 mm) orifice opening sizes.
6) [I] Body sizes of 11/ 4 in., 21/ 2 in., and 5 in. NPS (32 mm, 65 mm, and 125 mm) shall not be used.

5.4. Additional Requirements


1) [S], [R] Valve plug assemblies, excluding the stem, whether single or double, shall be machined all in
one piece from bar stock or from castings. Sectional construction or hollow plugs are not permitted.
2) [M] Flanged end connections are preferred for all valves. Flange rating, facing, and finish shall be
specified.
3) [I] Threaded end valves shall be
a) Limited to body sizes 1 in. NPS (25 mm) or smaller
b) Furnished with internally tapered threads
4) * [I] Welded end valves shall be specified by the Owner's Engineer.

5.5. Self-Acting Regulating Valves


1) * [C] Self-acting regulating valves may be used in noncritical service. The valves may also be used
in come critical services, such as major machinery lube oil systems. The following restrictions and
additions apply:
a) Where control no better than 10 percent is acceptable.

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b) Use of self-actuated pressure regulators for upstream pressure greater than 687 kPa (100 psi)
requires approval.
c) Pilot-operated regulators or local pneumatic controllers, rather than self-actuated pressure
regulators, shall be used where a control accuracy better than 10 percent is required. Yoke
mounted pilots require approval.
d) The controlled output signal shall be indicated on the pilot.
2) [S] Actuators for self-acting regulating valves shall be capable of withstanding the maximum
upstream design pressure.
3) Nitrogen blanketing or inert gas blanketing systems shall be implemented with proprietary blanketing
regulator systems. Such applications shall be detailed in an application-specific specification or data
sheet.

5.6. Environmental Protection


[O], [R] Valves shall meet all environmental requirements. Mounting brackets and accessory hardware
shall be suitable for use in the environment in which the valve is to be installed. Brackets and hardware
in harsh (corrosive, marine, or tropical) environments shall be stainless steel or epoxy painted. Cadmium
coated or electroplated bolts or hardware shall not be used.

5.7. High Performance Control Valves


1) High performance control valves are those whose performance directly and significantly impacts
plant or unit operation. It is expected that less than 3 percent of all control valves will fall into this
category. There are two criteria to be considered:
a) Reliability Performance Criteria—Severe service conditions are those which impact the valve's
reliability. Severe service conditions include the following:
i) Cavitation or flashing
ii) High pressure drop, where the pressure drop exceeds the critical pressure
iii) High piping vibration
iv) Erosion, such as solids in the fluid, liquid particles in gas stream, and stream
v) High valve outlet velocity (liquids > 5 m/sec; gas/steam > 0.3 mach)
b) Process Performance Criteria—High performance operating conditions are those that impact the
valve's process performance. These operating conditions include the following:
i) High rangeability (> 100:1)
ii) Quick step response (> 4 in. travel/sec or full stroke in less than 2 seconds in either direction.
iii) Very low or zero overshoot (< 1%)
iv) Very low hysteresis (< 1%)
v) Controllability (≤ 0.5% in both directions)
vi) High sound pressure level (> 90 dBA)
vii) Very low or zero packing leakage requirement
viii) Tight shutoff Class V or VI
ix) High duty cycle (> 10 cycles/hr)

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2) These high performance valves deserve special attention during the engineering, procurement,
installation, and maintenance process. The following are examples:
a) These valves should be handled separately engineered products, as opposed to off-the-shelf
products.
b) Special attention should be paid to the accuracy of process data in the sizing and selection of
these valves. This includes noise prediction and valve characteristic selection.
c) These valves should be identified as high performance valves early in the project schedule and
should retain that designation throughout the life of the valve.

6. Actuators, Positioners, and Valve Ancillaries


* [I] Valve ancillaries such as limit switches, positioners, and relays, shall be furnished mounted on the
control valve, unless specified otherwise.

6.1. Actuators
1) * [S] Position on actuating medium failure or control signal failure shall be specified. When piston
actuators are used, positive failure action shall be provided, such as an external volume tank and trip
system to achieve the desired failure position.
2) [I] Either pneumatic diaphragm or piston type actuators shall normally be used to operate the control
valve, with diaphragm actuators generally preferred.
3) * [O] Piston type actuators applied in harsh (marine or tropical) environments shall be configured to
minimize the ingress of air from the local atmosphere. A tubing, filter, and check valve configuration
shall be used to assure the air entering the actuator is primarily from the instrument air supply.
4) * [O] Actuators shall be sized to achieve all of the following:
a) To prevent instability of the valve plug or vane over its full travel, based on a pressure drop equal
to the maximum upstream design pressure or if used in vacuum service, designed for 30 in. Hg
(101 kPa) vacuum on the outlet side.
b) To overcome frictional requirement of the stuffing box packing selected.
c) To ensure shutoff against maximum line design pressure.
d) Valves without positioners operated by controllers that inherently have their output clamped at 4
mA and 20 mA shall have actuators sized and adjusted for full travel and full seating force for
this range.
5) [I] Actuators shall not exceed travel limits. In the opening direction, a stop shall be engaged before
the valve plug reaches its travel limit. The stop shall be designed to absorb any force transmitted to it.
In the closing direction, the valve plug shall seat before the actuator reaches its travel limit.
6) * [M] Actuator assembly shall be installed such that the actuator is vertically above the valve body.
Proposals for other installation orientations shall require Owner's Engineer approval.

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6.2. Stem and Shaft Linkages


1) [R] The valve stem, when threaded to the valve plug, shall be pinned.
2) [M] Rotary valves (such as butterfly, ball) shall have shaft keyways or splined shafts that allow the
action of the valve actuator to be changed. In addition, rotary actuators shall not use cams, gears, or
sliding linkage in their construction or connection to the control valve.
3) [R] Shaft thrust bearings shall be provided for rotary actuated valves in cryogenic service, preferably
installed inboard on the opposite end of the shaft from the actuator.

6.3. Handwheels
1) * [M] When specified, handwheels, or hydraulic hand jacks where approved, shall be mounted and
designed to operate in the following manner:
a) For globe valves, handwheels shall be mounted on the yoke, arranged so that the valve stem can
be jacked in either direction.
b) Neutral position shall be clearly indicated.
c) Handwheel operation shall not add friction to the actuator.
d) Clutch/linkage mechanisms for handwheels on rotary valves shall be designed such that valve
position does not change when engaging the handwheel.
e) Handwheels shall not be used as travel limit stops.
2) [O] Handwheels shall be easily operable from normal personnel access paths or platforms.
Handwheels shall face the operator access area, and the shaft center shall be 1 m to 1.5 m (3 ft to 5 ft)
above the elevation of the access area. When valve actuator configurations or piping layouts preclude
this arrangement, a supplemental platform will be required.

6.4. Positioners
1) * [O] Valve positioners are required on all control valves, unless waived by the Owner's Engineer.
The only exception is on-off control service.
2) [S] Valve positioners shall be direct acting.
3) [R] Where one controller output adjusts more than one actuator (e.g., louvers and variable pitch fans),
positioners, boosters, or transducers shall be installed at each actuator. Isolation valves shall be
provided for each actuator. Alternatively, each actuator may be driven by its own output card
assigned and characterized by the controller.
4) [R] On new valves where a positioner is required, a smart valve positioner (SVP) shall be applied
instead of an electropneumatic (I/P) transducer plus pneumatic positioner or an integral electronic
positioner. Wherever possible, an SVP directly coupled to the valve shall be installed.
5) [R] A smart valve positioner is required on both new and existing High Performance Valves.

6.5. Transducers
1) [S] Electropneumatic (I-to-P or I/P) transducers shall be direct acting.
2) [C], [M] An air output gauge is required if the electropneumatic transducer is not connected to a
positioner.

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3) [R] Where two control valves with pneumatic positioners are used in three-way service, one common
electropneumatic transducer shall be used for both valves. Air supply to this transducer shall be the
same as the valve positioners. Where electropneumatic positioners are used, the split ranging shall be
performed in the control system.
4) [O], [R] Transducers shall not be mounted on valves in vibrating service such as high-pressure drop
service and flashing/cavitating service, or on valves in locations subject to vibration from associated
equipment or adjacent piping.
5) [O] Transducers shall have sufficient loading and venting capacity so as not to degrade the response
of the valve.

6.6. Air Locks


1) * [S], [R] If air locks are required, they shall be installed as close to the valve actuator as possible.
However, any trip/dump valves associated with protective systems shall be installed such that the
trip/dump valve moves to its failure state regardless of the air lock state of an associated control
valve. The air supply for the air lock shall be the same as for the valve positioner. The setpoint for
the air lock needs to be set at a value above the minimum pressure required by the actuator for the
application.
2) [M] Control valves with an air lock feature shall have a pressure gauge indicating actual diaphragm or
piston pressure after the air lock.

6.7. Volume Boosters/Quick Exhaust Vents


1) [O], [R] Volume booster relays may be used to improve the dynamic response of a control system if
the positioners are used that do not have the capacity to operate the control valve fast enough to meet
process needs.
2) [I], [O] The air supply system (piping and air filter) shall be capable of providing a sufficient quantity
of air for the desired stroking time.

6.8. Limit Switches


1) * [O], [R] Where required, positive valve movement (open/close) shall be indicated by using, as a
minimum, single pole double throw (SPDT) hermetically sealed position switches.
2) [O], [R] Magnetic, inductive, or capacitive type switches with valve position indication are preferred.
3) [O], [R] Limit switch and linkage devices used to detect valve stem position shall not have a dead
band exceeding the lesser of 10 percent of the valve travel or 0.125 in. (3 mm). Rotary valve limit
switch dead band shall not exceed 5.0 degrees rotation of the valve disk shaft.
4) [O], [R] Limit switch mounting brackets to valves shall be robust to prevent switch trip settings from
drifting.
5) [O], [R] All switch parts shall be protected from corrosion.

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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

7. Inspection and Testing


1) [O] Factory Acceptance Tests and Site Acceptance Tests are required for High Performance Valves.
2) [O] New High Performance Valves shall be furnished with a valve profile that documents its baseline
for future maintenance and troubleshooting.
3) [S] Test pressure for steel bodies shall be per ASME B16.34. For cast iron, brass, or bronze bodies,
test pressure shall be two times primary pressure rating.
4) * [O] Vendor shall supply documentation demonstrating that the valves meet the specified FCI 70-2
leakage Class V or above, where specified by the Owner's Engineer.
5) [R] For operational testing, all valves shall be completely assembled with the packing box fully
packed and torqued to the appropriate value for the valve. The valve stem may be lightly lubricated.
The user should consider witnessing the tests if the valve is judged to be critical. The following tests
shall be performed once the valves have been stroke sufficiently to produce repeatable results:
a) Valve stem position shall be measured while applying increasing and decreasing air signals
directly to the actuator without the positioner in service. Air signal shall be consistent with the
spring range of the actuator. Performance shall meet the following requirements:
i) Stem position error shall not exceed 5 percent of rated travel.
ii) * Hysteresis plus deadband shall not exceed 5 percent of rated travel for PTFE packing. For
graphite packing, this performance shall be specified and/or approved by the Owner's
Engineer.
b) Valve stem position shall be measured while applying increasing and decreasing control signals
to the positioner. Performance shall meet the following requirements:
i) Stem position error shall not exceed 1 percent of rated travel.
ii) Hysteresis plus deadband shall not exceed 1 percent of rated travel for all packing types.

8. Identification
1) [I] Valve body (and flanges where applicable) shall be marked in accordance with MSS SP-25.
2) [I] The fixed-open port for three-way valves shall be steel-stamped COMMON on the flange.
3) [I] Valves shall have the following identifying information on a nameplate fastened to the valve.
Adhesive fastening is not acceptable.
a) * Equipment identification number.
b) Manufacturer name, model, serial number, operating range, materials of parts exposed to process
fluid, size (body and inner valve), type of plug, and spring range.
c) Packing materials and lubricant. If not included on the nameplate, provision for a separate tag is
acceptable.

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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

9. Documentation
1) Manufacturers shall furnish the following documentation:
a) Completion of mechanical sections of a provided control valve spec sheet.
b) A detailed "assembly" drawing or description of parts traceable to the serial number.
c) Identify a parts list of replacement soft goods.
d) Provide PMI record, as required.

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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

Record of Change
Version 1.0.0 Date: 07/01
Location Action Description
Initial Publish.

Version 1.1.0 Date: 12/01


Section 1 Deletion References to Data Sheets removed.

Version 1.1.0 Date: 01/04


Global Practice version number and format updated to comply with new
process; however, original publish date remains, and no content was
modified.

Version 1.2.0 Date: 08/05


Section 1 Modification Reorganized subsections in alphabetical order.
Replaced ISA 75.01 with ISA 75.01.01.
Replaced ISA 75.03 with ISA 75.08.01.
Replaced ISA 75.04 with ISA 75.08.02.
Section 2 Modification Updated reference title.
Section 4.3 Modification Updated ISA mnemonics.

Version 2.0.0 Date: 12/05


Entire Modifications, The entire GP was reviewed. Significant changes include the following:
Standard Deletions, and
Additions • Removed unused references from Sections 1 and 2.
• Added rationale statements throughout the GP.
• Changed end connection requirement of 300# to being consistent
with the piping classification.
• Adopted several paragraphs from the Upstream GP 15-09-01,
including valve accessibility and precautions.
• Added new subsection on high performance control valves from
Best Practice on that subject.

• Clarified seat leakage paragraphs.


Upstream Upstream maintains Version 1.2.1 until review of Owner's update.
Only
Pipelines and Pipelines and Terminals maintains Version 1.2.1 until review of Owner's
Terminals update.
Only

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GP 15-09-01 Control Valves December 2005

Attachment: Purpose Codes Definitions


Code Description
C Assigned to paragraphs containing specifications whose primary purpose is reduced costs.
Reduced cost in this context refers to initial investment cost and does not include Life-Cycle
cost considerations. Life-Cycle cost considerations are captured under reliability,
maintainability, or operability purpose codes.
E Assigned to paragraphs containing specifications whose primary purpose is driven by
environmental considerations. Environmental considerations typically include specifications
intended to protect against emissions/leakage to the air, water, and/or soil. Deviations from the
specifications contained in such paragraphs require formal review and approval according to
local environmental policy.
I Assigned to paragraphs that provide only clarifying information such as Scope statements,
definitions of terms, etc.
M Assigned to paragraphs containing specifications whose primary purpose is to provide for
maintainability of equipment or systems. Maintainability provisions are those that facilitate the
performance of maintenance on equipment/systems either during downtimes or during on-
stream operations.
O Assigned to paragraphs containing specifications whose primary purpose is to assure
operability of equipment or systems. Operability is the ability of the equipment/system to
perform satisfactorily even though conditions are off-design, such as during start-ups, process
swings, subcomponent malfunction, etc.
R Assigned to paragraphs containing specifications whose primary purpose is to improve or
assure the reliability of equipment or systems. Reliability is a measure of the ability of
equipment/systems to operate without malfunction or failure between planned maintenance
interventions.
S Assigned to paragraphs containing specifications whose primary purpose is avoidance of
personnel or operational safety incidents. Any deviation from the specifications contained in
such designated paragraphs requires formal review and approval according to local safety
policy.
Personnel Safety: Refers to the avoidance of recordable personnel injuries; i.e., burns, cuts,
abrasions, inhalation, or exposure to dangerous substances, etc., that
could result in medical treatment, restricted work, lost-time incidents, or
fatalities.
Operational Refers to the prevention and control of process releases, fires, explosions,
Safety: etc.

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