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# LINEAR INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT AM MODULATOR

1. Introduction
In this experiment we examine the operation of the XR-2206 monolithic function
generator as an AM DSBFC modulator. See the data sheet for information on the XR-
2206.

2. Materials Required

Equipment
1 - protoboard
1 - Dual dc power supply (+l2 Vdc and 0 to +6 Vdc)
1 - audio signal generator (0 to 20 kHz)
1 - standard oscilloscope (10 MHz)
1 - assortment of test leads and hookup wire

Parts List

## 1 - XR-2206 function generator 1 - 1 k-Ohm variable resistor

3 - 4.7 k-Ohm resistors 2 - 0.001 F capacitors
2 - 10 k-Ohm resistor 2 - 1 F capacitors
1 - 47 k-Ohm resistor 2 - 10 F capacitor

3. Pre-lab
Print the XR-2206 data sheet and bring it with you to the lab session. In the Principles of
Operation section of the data sheet, find and record the equation for the theoretical
frequency of operation, f0.

## 4. Circuit 1 - Output Amplitude versus DC Input Control Voltage

In this section, we examine the output amplitude-versus-input Voltage characteristics of
the XR-2206 by applying a DC control Voltage to its modulator. The schematic diagram
for the function generator circuit used in this section is shown in Figure 1.

Procedure
1. Construct the function generator circuit shown in Figure 1. Set the DC control
Voltage VC to 0 Vdc.
2. Adjust R2 until a sine wave with minimum distortion is observed at Vout; then
measure its frequency and amplitude
3. Calculate the VCO free-running frequency from the formula in the XR-2206 data
sheet, and compare this to the frequency you measured in step 2.
4. Increase the amplitude of the control Voltage in 0.5-Volt steps for values from 0 to +6
Vdc, and measure the amplitude of the sine wave observed at Vout for each value of
control Voltage.
5. Using Excel, graph the output amplitude-versus-control Voltage for the control
Voltages using the data obtained in step 5. On the same graph, plot the theoretical
relation shown in Figure 6 in the XR-2206 data sheet.
LAB 3 – LINEAR INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT AM MODULATOR

R2 1 K

+12 V dc
4 16 15 14 13
1 F 0.001 F
VCC 2 Vout
+1
VC
1 Multiplier/
Sine Shaper 4.7 K
Mult.
5
10 K 3
VCO
11 +12 V dc
C1 6
0.001 F 47 K
Current XR-2206 4.7 K
9 Switches
DC Bypass GND
Voltage 7 8 10 12 4.7 K
1 F 10 F
R1
10 K

## 5. Circuit 2 – Amplitude-modulated Double-sideband Full-carrier

(AM DSBFC) Modulator
In this section we use the XR-2206 to generate an AM DSBFC waveform by applying a
signal to the XR-2206 modulator that contains both a dc and an ac component. The
schematic diagram for the linear integrated-circuit AM DSBFC modulator is shown in
Figure 2. The function generator circuit of the XR-2206 provides the carrier, and an
external audio signal generator provides the modulating signal.
IMPORTANT – Do not disassemble this circuit when you complete the lab; you will use
it again for Lab 5.

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LAB 3 – LINEAR INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT AM MODULATOR

R2 1 K

+12 V dc
4 16 15 14 13
1 F 0.001 F
VCC 2 Vout
+1
VC
1 Multiplier/
Sine Shaper 4.7 K
10 F Mult.
5
3
10 K VCO
6 11 +12 V dc
C1
0.001 47 K
Signal Current XR-2206 4.7 K
F
Gen. 9 Switches
Bypass GND
DC 7 8 10 12 4.7 K
Voltage 1 F 10 F
R1
10 K

## Figure 2. AM Modulator Using the XR-2206 Function Generator.

Procedure
1. Construct the function generator circuit shown in Figure 2. (Note that the only added
component is the 10- F capacitor that connects to the function generator.)
2. Set the amplitude of the control Voltage VC to 0 V.
3. Set the amplitude of the audio signal generator output Voltage to 0 V.
4. Check that the function generator free-running frequency has not changed.
5. Check that the R2 is still adjusted to produce a sine wave with minimum distortion is
at Vout.
6. Increase the control Voltage to +4 V dc.
7. Set the output of the signal generator output Voltage to 3 VP-P at 1 kHz.
8. Adjust the amplitude of the audio signal generator output Voltage until an AM
envelope with 100% modulation is observed at Vout.
9. Sketch the waveform envelope observed in step 8, indicating its amplitude and
frequency.

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LAB 3 – LINEAR INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT AM MODULATOR

10. Set the amplitude of the audio signal generator output Voltage to 1.5 VP-P and
determine the percent modulation of the output envelope using the following formula.

Vmax Vmin
Percent AM modulation 100
Vmax Vmin
where Vmax = maximum peak-to-peak envelope amplitude, Volts
Vmin = minimum peak-to-peak envelope amplitude, Volts
(This is most easily done by using the oscilloscope cursors to find the peak-to-peak
Voltages at the modulation maximum and at the modulation minimum.)
11. Make the necessary connections between the AM modulator and the oscilloscope to
display a trapezoidal pattern, and record this pattern, indicating the Voltages on it that
you need to compute the per cent modulation.
12. Vary the amplitude and frequency of the audio signal generator output Voltage and
note what effect varying them has on the trapezoidal pattern.

6. Discussion Questions
1. Does adjusting the sine wave for minimum distortion affect the VCO frequency?
2. In Figure 2, for a fixed function generator amplitude, which components affect the
per cent modulation?