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Dumbbell (6 points) The heat contained in the bridge must be comparable with the 2) Circular part of the trajectory is a quarter of the full circle,
1) During the rst collision, we can neglect the eect of the heat, which ows through it during one half-period (if it is much so t = πR/2v.
spring, because during the collision time, the balls almost don't smaller, the stationary linear prole will develop very soon). So, 3) Let O be the centre of the circular orbit of the electron and B

move, hence the spring doesn't deform. Two absolutely elastic AcρSL ≈ AκS/(Lω ); hence,  the intersection point of the trajectory with the region bound-
ary. The polygon COBO is rhomb, because all the sides are
identic balls exchange velocity during a central collision. So, the

ω ≈ κ/cρL . 2

rst ball will remain at rest, and the second one will obtain the
equal to R. So, the line BO is vertical (because O C is vertical

velocity v. So, the velocity of the centre of mass of the dumbbell 3. Tractor and BO is parallel to it). Hence, the inclination angle of the
is v/2. (6 points)
electron is
2) After the impact, the dumbbell will oscillate in the sys-
′ π a
α = ∠CO B = ∠AOB + ∠AOC = − arcsin .
tem √of reference of its centre of mass with circular frequency 2 R
ω = 2k/m (balls oscillate so that the middlepoint of the spring 5. Ball (9 points)

is at rest; twice shorter spring has a twice larger stiness).

Due to the energy conservation law, the only way for the
fourth ball to acquire the velocity v is such that all the other
balls remain at a complete rest after the interaction. Therefore,
before the impact of the third and fourth balls, the third ball must
have velocity v (and the second ball must be at rest). This is the
opposite phase of the moment, when the dumbbell started its
motion. Hence, the travel time t of the dumbbell must be a half-
integer multiple of the period T = 2π√m/2k. For that phase
of oscillation, the spring is, again, undeformed, i.e. the travel We lay one of the rulers horizontally on the table. Then, we put
distance of the centre of mass is also L. So, 2L/v = T (n + ), 1
the ball on that ruler, and the other ruler laying on the ball. With
hence ( )
1 √

nger, we keep one end of the second ruler in contact with the
L = πv n + m/2k. rst ruler and nd the closest stable position of the ball (resulting
1) Let us draw from an arbitrary point B on the road a line par-
in the largest inclination angle of the second ruler), see Figure.
2. Microcalorimeter (9 points)
allel to the direction of the wind, and let it intersect the smoke Now, we consider the torque balance (for the ball) with respect to
1) Every bridge has thermal resistance L/κS ; so, the overall res-
trail at point C . Then, the smoke emitted by the tractor at B because and
the ball ruler touching point B. Gravity force has no torque,
istance is R = L/4κS. has travelled the distance |BC| = ut, where u is the wind speed. vector of the applied
it is to the centre of the ball O. So, the resultant
2) The power dissipation P results in an heat ux through the
bridges, Φ = ∆T /R, and in the change of the heat contained in Tractor itself has travelled the distance |AB| = v t. So, we can torque, i.e. it has to goandthrough
friction reaction forces at C must have also zero
B . At the threshold of sliding, the
the microcalorimeter, Q̇ = C Ṫ = C∆Ṫ (here, dot denotes the measure the distances |AB| and |BC from the gure and calcu- angle between this vector and the

late surface normal CO is arctan µ.

time derivative). So, |BC| So, µ = tan ∠BCO = tan ∠OAB = |OB|/|AB| = R/|AB|. The
radius of the ball R ≈ 40 mm can be measured by rolling the ball
18 mm
u=v = 30 km/h ≈ 13 km/h.
Now, we can search the√ solution as ∆T = A cos(ωt + ϕ), and 2) If the second tractor (at the right-hand-side) had started some- on the ruler by angle 2π. The distance |AB| can be measured
P cos(ωt) = C∆Ṫ + ∆T /R.
0 42 mm

denote ψ = arcsin(Cω/ √C ω + R ). Then, −2 what earlier, the two tractors had been at the crossroad simul- directly using the ruler. Several measurements are needed, to
taneously. Now, the tractors would be at the same distance from nd the critical position of the ball more accurately.
2 2

P cos(ωt) = A C ω + R √cos(ωt + ϕ − ψ).

the crossroad, i.e. for the current position of the second tractor We have used one ruler as the basis, because if the surface has
2 2 −2

So, we must have ϕ = ψ( and A = P / C√ω + R , i.e.)


C , |OC| = |AO| = v t (this is how we nd the point C ). Its smaller coecient of friction than the ruler, the sliding starts at
2 2 −2

smoke trail can be found as a line, parallel to its smoke trail at the point B, hence we are not able to obtain the required result.
P cos ωt + arcsin(Cω/ C ω + R ) 2 2 −2 0
T =T + √ .
its actual position B. Such a meeting of the tractors would have 6. Rectier

3) The amplitude of the oscillations is A = √ ; it been resulted

C ω +R 2 2

must be as sensitive with respect to the small changes of C , i.e. now in positionin Dthe, with
crossing of the smoke trails. which would be 1) Since none of the DC current through the load can come from
(8 points)
C 2 ω 2 +R−2

OD = ut. So, we nd

dA/dC must be maximal by modulus. dA/dC = P (C ω + 2 2
the capacitor, all must come through the diode. Hence, the aver-
Cω ; if we denote x = (Cω) , we need to minimize the age current through the diode is also I = 2 mA, and the average
0 |OD| 27 mm
−2 −3/2 2 2 u=v = 30 km/h ≈ 21 km/h.
following function of :
R )
power dissipation is obtained by multiplying it with the diode
|AO| 39 mm
[ ]
ln (dC/dA) = 3 ln(x + R ) − ln x + ln C.
2 −2 4. Magnetic eld (6 points) voltage u = 1 V: P = 2 mW.
Upon taking derivative and putting it equal to 0, we obtain 1) Since the radius of the cyclotron orbit is equal to the radius 2) If the diode is open, Uload(t) = U cos(ωt) − u. If the di-
3x = x + R , from where x = R √ /2, i.e. of the region R, the trajectory is given by the curve DABE in ode is closed [i.e. U cos(ωt) < Uload(t) + u], the capacitor dis-
−2 −2

the Figure (AB is a circle fragment). charges through the load. However, the relative change of the
ω = 1/ 2CR.
voltage of the capacitor has to be small (otherwise ∆I/I would We can integrate these equations over time (bearing in mind that 10. Glass plate (10 points)
not be small). The respective load voltage as a function of time initial velocity is zero):
is sketched in the Figure. So, we can use the above written −1
Kircho's law with Uload(t) ≈ IR, hence U = IR + u = 21 V.
mẋ = −eE ω sin ωt,
mẏ = eE ω (1 − cos ωt). −1

Now, we can integrate once more, bearing in mind that the initial

coordinates are zero:

x= (cos ωt − 1),
mω 2
There are two possible setups. First,
we consider the interference of the
eE0 eE0
y= cos ωt + t.

The change of the voltage of the capacitor during the discharge So, the electron performs circular motion in the system of ref-
mω 2 ωm
beams, reected from the upper and
cycle can be estimated as ∆U = ∆Q/C , where the capacitor's erence, moving with velocity (parallel to the y-axis) u = . eE0
lower surfaces of the glass plate, see
charge drop ∆Q = It, and t is the discharge time. Since the dis- The radius of the orbit is R = . In the laboratory system,
Figure, upper drawing. Second, we
charge cycle occupies almost all the period (see Figure), we can this is a cycloid (the curve drawn by a point on the edge of
ω2 m
direct the beam on the edge of the
use t ≈ 1/ν . Further, ∆I/I = ∆U/U = ∆Q/CU = ∆Q/CIR = a rolling disk); the distance between the neighbouring loops is plate. As a result, on the screen, there
∆ = 2πu/ω = 2πR. will be almost the same diraction
1/CRν . Hence, C ≥ 100/Rν = 200 µF.
4) Initially, the capacitor is empty, so that the charge owing pattern, as from a single slit (lower
through the capacitor during the rst cycle is Q = CIR. Hence, 9. Asteroid (7 points)
drawing in the Figure).
the average power P = Quν = CIRuν = 200 mW. 1) The longer semiaxis is a = (r + r ) = (α + β)R. So, the
1 1
In the rst case, we need to calculate the optical path dif-
full energy of the asteroid at the Earth's location is ference, see Figure. ∆l = 2(n|CD| − |AB|) = 2(nd/ cos β −
1 2 1 2 2

7. Fire (6 points) d sin β sin α) = 2d(n/ cos β − sin α/n); we keep in mind that

sin β = sin α/n. We need to nd such a change in α,

E γM 1 γM
The smoke will rise until its density becomes equal to the density =− = v2 − .
which gives rise to the change of ∆l by λ (this corresponds
of the air at the same height. Since the molar masses and pres-
m 2a 2 R
Bearing in mind that v02 = γM , we can rewrite this as to a transition from one diraction minimum to another one):
sures of the smoke and air are equal, this implies also equal tem- R

= λ. Then, we can relate the measured quant-

peratures (pressures are equal, because otherwise, there would be v02
= v02 −
1 2 ∆α · d(∆l)

ity, the distance between the minima on the screen a = L∆α

no mechanical equilibrium). Temperature of the smoke will drop
v . dα
α+β 2
with increasing height due to adiabatic expansion. If we com- So, we obtain (where L is the path length |AB| + |BC|) to the plate thick-
bine the law of the adiabatic process pV = Const with the ideal √
ness. d(∆l) 2 −2
= 2d(sin α/ cos β − sin 2α/n) = 2d sin α(cos β −
2 cos α/n). So, Lλ = 2ad sin α(cos β − 2 cos α/n); hence,
2[1 − (α + β)−1 ] ≈ 34.5 km/h.
gas law (pV /T ) = Const, we obtain p /T = Const. Tak-
v = v0 dα

Tangential component can be found from the angular mo-


d = Lλ/2a sin α(cos β − 2 cos α/n). We can easily measure

γ γ−1 γ

ing a logarithm and dierential from this equation, we obtain 2)

mentum conservation law: v = v β, where the velocity at the

α and calculate β ; for n, we can use typical value n ≈ 1.4, or use

= 0, hence we can use approximate expression
perihelion can√be found analogously to v:
r p
(γ − 1) − γ
the Brewster angle α measurement to nd n = tan α . For the
dp dT

for the require temperature change

p T

( ) √
precise measurement of a, we count several, e.g. 10, inter-minima

20 K = ∆T = T
γ − 1 ∆p
. vp = v0 2

= v0

≈ 37.5 km/h. intervals, and divide the distance between the farthest minima by
We can use , where
γ p
is the air So,
β α+β α+β
∆p = ρgh ρ = pµ/RT ≈ 1.2 kg/m3
density. Also, we can substitute . So, √ In the second case, the angular distance between the minima
we obtain
γ = cp /cV = (cV + R)/cV 2α is given by ∆α = 2λ/d, so that a = 2Lλ/d and d = 2Lλ/a.
∆T =
R µgh
v =v β
Radial component √
≈ 24.4 km/h.
Numerically, the thickness was d ≈ 0.20 mm.
hence (
cV + R R
cV ) ∆T R
vr = v 2 − vt2 ≈ 24.4 km/h.
h= 1+ ≈ 2040 m. 3) The required components can be found by subtracting the
R µg
Earth's orbital velocity. Apparently u = v , and r r

8. Electron (5 points) ut = vt − v0 ≈ −5.6 km/h.

Let us write the Newton's II law for x- and y-components of the 4) When the asteroid approaches Earth's surface along the para-
electrons coordinates: bolic orbit, the energy due to the Earth gravity force gR is added
to its kinetic energy√in the Earth's system of reference:

mẍ = −eE ω cos ωt,


mÿ = eE0 sin ωt. w= u2t + u2r + 2gR0 ≈ 27.4 km/h