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Performance Improvement of Coherent Optical Communication System by PMD Compensation

Dinu A G, S Prasad and N Vijayakumar Department of Electronics and Communication, College of Engineering Trivandrum.

Abstract— Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) is a severe source of signal degradation in high bit rate coherent optical communication systems. PMD will cause Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) in the received signal. There are several methods to reduce the effect of PMD in optical fibers. A new approach to compensate PMD by combining Jones Matrix Eigen analysis and phase/polarization diversity technique to improve the performance of coherent optical system is described. This shows significant decrease in PMD value.

Keywords-Polarization Mode Dispersion, Polarization Diversity Technique, Jones Matrix Eigen Analysis, Compensation.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) remains a challenge in high-speed optical fiber telecommunication systems. The demand for high-speed optical transmission is increasing day by day. This will cause some form of degradation effect in the data. PMD is one of the most important impairment affecting high data rate transmission system. PMD arises from the random birefringence in optical fibers due to the imperfect symmetry in the fiber core. The polarization modes propagate at different speeds according to a slow and fast axis induced by the birefringence of the fiber. The time delay between polarization states is the Differential Group Delay (DGD) which arises due to the birefringence of the optical fiber. Birefringence is the variation of effective index of refraction with respect to the polarization state of the input light. However, in order to make coherent communication practical, we must resolve two inherent major issues which have been hindering the advancement of coherent detection in the past two decades- phase synchronization issue and polarization synchronization issue. PMD compensation does not mean the complete cancellation of PMD [1]. It only implies the reduction of PMD value. In this paper we describe an approach to compensate PMD by combining Jones Matrix Eigen analysis and phase/polarization diversity technique to

improve the performance of Coherent optical communication systems. The paper is organized as follows. In Section II, Jones Matrix Modeling of PMD is described. In Section III phase/ polarization hybrid technique is described. In Section IV, PMD compensation technique is explained by combing above two. Simulation results are shown in Section V. Finally, the paper is concluded in Section VI.

II. PMD MODELING BY JONES MATRIX FORMALISM

In single mode fibers, due to the birefringence of the material, the propagation mode is polarized into two orthogonal pair of polarization modes. These axes are also called Principle State of Polarization (PSP). Due to this, there is a difference in the refractive index value between two PSP, which means that there is a fast PSP and slow PSP. This creates a variation in the propagation speed of the orthogonal pair of polarization modes of the light, presenting a different time arrival at the receiver side. This time difference is the Differential Group Delay (DGD). Optical fiber with PMD can be modeled using Jones Matrix formalism [2]. DGD induced in the fiber can be calculated from this Jones matrix modeling. Temperature variation is the main driver for evolution of PMD variables. In Jones matrix modeling of PMD, the fiber is described as a random concatenation of N fiber segments one with fixed length h _{n} . Describe a 100 km long single mode fiber as a concatenation of N=100 fiber segments with mean length 1km, each one having a given initial birefringence b _{n} (0). The Jones matrix T(ω,t) describing the fiber at time t and optical frequency, can be calculated by N successive products of two matrices.

1

where, B _{n} (ω,t) represents the birefringence matrix, R _{n} (α) is the rotator matrix and h _{n} is the length of the optical fiber. The DGD for a single wavelength can be calculated from the determinant of the matrix ∂T/∂ω [2]. The birefringence matrix gives the variation of the birefringence in the optical fiber. The temporal evolution of the fiber was simulated by stepwise linear variation of the birefringence b _{n} (t), the step δ _{n} for each segment being chosen at random within a limited birefringence range.

b _{n} (t) =

b _{n} (0) + δ _{n} .t

where b _{n} (0) is the initial birefringence. The mean of DGD gives the PMD value.

III. PHASE/POLARIZATION DIVERSITY COHERENT TECHNIQUE:

Coherent detection differs from direct detection in that the incoming signal is mixed with local oscillator (L.O) of near- identical wavelength. The main part of phase/polarization diversity technique is phase diverse hybrid. The function of a phase diverse hybrid (Fig.1) is to combine the signal and LO in two paths going to separate photo detectors, where the LO has a π/2 phase shift in one path compared to the other [3]. The information from the two photo detectors delivers the in phase and quadrature parts of the optical signal. The components of 90 ^{0} hybrid are interconnected with a conventional (not polarization preserving) single mode fiber. In polarization diversity hybrid the LO path is adjusted to produce equal LO powers at the outputs, it does not have to be readjusted as the signal polarization varies in time. The polarization controller on the signal path is not needed and can be omitted. The two fiber optic polarization analyzers are orthogonal to each other and are adjusted to produce equal LO powers at the outputs.

Fig 1: Block diagram of phase/polarization hybrid

The four outputs of the polarization hybrid is the sum of the signal and LO fields, as follows [4]

2

where,

E _{s} (t) is the complex envelope containing the

information encoded on the optical signal, ω _{s} is the angular frequency of the optical carrier, and is the slowly varying phase arising from the phase noise of the carrier. E _{L}_{O} is a constant given to local oscillator;

and are the angular frequency and phase of LO.

From the above equations we can calculate the Jones Vector which constitutes a complete description of the optical signal, from which any signal parameter can be derived.

Where

L _{1}

and

L _{2}

are

the

corresponding

Jones

Vectors. From Jones vector form Jones Matrix.

where, D is the Jones Matrix and ɸ is the relative

phase difference.

IV. PMD COMPENSATION

PMD is particularly difficult to manage or compensate. PMD is stochastic in nature, compensating the impact of PMD does not imply the complete cancellation of the effect, but only the reduction of the PMD effect [1]. Here the PMD compensation is done in Coherent optical communication system. State of polarization in coherent receiver is obtained from phase/polarization diversity hybrid. In this method PMD is modeled using Jones Matrix formulation and DGD is

plotted with respect to time. Mean of DGD gives PMD value and its unit is ps/√km. It is in time domain, convert it into frequency domain [5]. From the phase/polarization diversity hybrid we get a Jones vector from each pair. From Jones Vector find Jones Matrix, convert it into Caley/Klein form and find the corresponding DGD value and then convert to frequency domain [6]. Convolve the above two results. The resultant result shows a significant decrease in the PMD value and hence Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) is reduced to a great extend in high speed communication systems.

V. SIMULATIONS and RESULTS

The simulation is carried out in Matlab 2009b simulation tool. Differential Group Delay is evaluated using Jones Matrix formulation in section II and is shown in Fig 2. As the length of optical fiber increases, the DGD also increases in a linear fashion as shown in Fig 3. Jones Matrix for Phase/Polarization Hybrid is calculated and corresponding DGD is plotted in Fig 4. PMD comparison is shown in Fig 5. Eye diagram for PMD uncompensated and PMD compensated was simulated and is shown in Fig 6. It is explained in section IV. It shows significant decrement in PMD value. PMD compensation means reducing the PMD value of the optical fiber. BER probability curve was plotted and is shown in Fig 7.

Fig 2: Differential Group Delay vs. Time

3

Fig 3: Differential Group Delay vs. Length

Fig 4: Polarization Hybrid DGD vs. Time

Fig 5: PMD Compensation by proposed technique.

Fig 6: Eye Diagram of the Received signal.

Fig 7: BER Probability Curve

VI.

CONCLUSION

We have simulated PMD by Jones Matrix formulation. Phase/Polarization hybrid block is used in coherent receiver section and Jones matrix is derived. It is independent of state of polarization. By combining the above two, a new technique to compensate PMD is described. The result shows a significant decrease in the PMD value from 0.7241 ps/√km to 0.2123 ps/√km. From Eye Diagram and Probability Error Curve, it is evident that performance of coherent optical communication system is improved by PMD compensation in high bit rate.

REFERENCES

[1] L. S. Yan, S. X. Yao, M. C. Hauer and A. E. Willner. “Practical Solutions to Polarization Mode Dispersion Emulation and Compensation”. J. Lightw. Technol. Vol. 24, No: 11, pp. 3992-4005, Nov. 2006. [2] J. F. Macedo and J. P. von der Weid. “Time Domain PMD Simulations in Optical Fibers and Emulators”. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. Vol. 14. June 2004. [3] M. G. Taylor. “Coherent Detection Method Using DSP for Demodulation of Signal and Subsequent Equalization of Propagation Impairments”. PTL. Vol. 16. No: 2, Feb. 2004. [4] Leonid. G and Kazovsky, Senior Member, IEEE. “Phase and Polarization Diversity Coherent Optical Techniques”. J. Lightw. Technol. Vol. 7. No: 2. Feb. 1989. [5] H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson and J. P. Gordon, IEEE member. “Emulation and Inversion of Polarization Mode Dispersion”. J. Lightw. Technol. Vol. 21. No: 2, Feb. 2003. [6] A. Bononi and A. Vannucci, “Statistics of the Jones matrix of fibers affected by polarization mode dispersion,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, pp. 675–677, 2001.

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