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Science USTET EXAM REVIEWER

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BIOLOGY

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including
their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological
mechanisms, development and evolution.

 Biological classification is the process by which scientists group living


organisms. Organisms are classified based on how similar they are. It uses
taxonomic ranks.

Organisms are classified according to a system of seven ranks:


1. Kingdom
2. Phylum
3. Class
4. Order
5. Family
6. Genus
7. Species
“KiPhyClaOrFaGeSpe”

 Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological


organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped
together into taxa and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of
a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus
creating a taxonomic hierarchy

 Photosynthesis, process by which green plants and certain other


organisms use the energy of light to convert carbon dioxide
and water into the simple sugar glucose. In so doing, photosynthesis
provides the basic energy source for virtually all organisms.

Sunlight +carbon dioxide and water + chlorophyll = glucose & carbon dioxide &
water
 Bacteria are prokaryotes, which consist of a single cell with a simple
internal structure. It thrives in diverse environments. They can live within
soil, in the ocean and inside the human gut.

Humans' relationship with bacteria is complex. Sometimes they lend a helping


hand, by curdling milk into yogurt, or helping with our digestion. At other times
they are destructive, causing diseases like pneumonia and MRSA.

 Cell biology is a field of science that studies cells including their


physiology, their structure, and their life cycle.

Fundamentals of cell biology include the processes of mitosis and meiosis.


The Nucleus and Mitochondria are the two major parts of the cell. The nucleus
contains the DNA (genetic material) of the cells and this is very important. It is
also where ribosomes are created.

 Genetics is the study of genes and hereditary.


The discoverer of genetics is Gregor Mendel, a late 19th-century scientist.

 Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either


through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or
organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

Sexual reproduction just means combining genetic material from two


parents. Asexual reproduction produces offspring genetically identical to the
one parent.

 Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that


examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse
fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology,
anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural
influences.

The main systems of the human body are:


1. Circulatory system:
1. Circulates blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins,
delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells and carrying
their waste products away.
2. Equalizes temperature in the body.
2. Digestive system:
1. Mechanical and chemical processes that provide nutrients via
the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines.
2. Eliminates waste from the body.
3. Endocrine system:
1. Provides chemical communications within the body using hormones.
4. Integumentary system/ Exocrine system:
1. Skin, hair, nails, sweat and other exocrine glands.
5. Lymphatic system / Immune system:
1. The system comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a
clear fluid called lymph.
2. Defends the body against pathogenic viruses that may endanger the
body.
6. Muscular system:
1. Enables the body to move using muscles.
7. Nervous system:
1. Collects and processes information from the senses via nerves and
the brain and tells the muscles to contract to cause physical actions.
8. Renal system / Urinary system/ Excretory system:
1. The system where the kidneys filter blood.
9. Reproductive system:
1. The sex organs required for the production of offspring.
10. Respiratory system:
1. The lungs and the trachea that bring air into and out of the body.
11. Skeletal system:
1. Bones supporting the body and its organs.

The biological levels of organization of living things arranged from the simplest
to most complex are: organelle – cells – tissues – organs - organ systems –
organisms – populations – communities – ecosystem - and biosphere.
“OCTO^3PCEB”
CHEMISTRY

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of


atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their
composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo
during a reaction with other compounds

 The periodic table of elements, usually shortened to just the periodic


table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their
atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties,
whose structure shows periodic trends.

Want to memorize the periodic table of elements?


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 A mixture is a mateiral made up of two or more different substances which


are mixed.

It can be solutions, suspensions and colloids.


Mixtures can be either be homogenous or heterogeneous.

 A compound is a substance formed when two or more chemical elements


are chemically bonded together. In mixtures, the substances present are
not chemically bonded together.

The type of bonds holding elements together in a compound can vary: two
common types are covalent bonds and ionic bonds.
 A solution is a special type of homogeneous composed of two or more
substances.

In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known


as a solvent.

 Phase diagram is a graphical representation of the physical states of a


substance under different conditions of temperature and pressure.

A typical phase diagram has pressure on the y-axis and temperature on the x-
axis. As we cross the lines or curves on the phase diagram, a phase
change occurs.
Want to understand more?
https://chem.libretexts.org/Textbook_Maps/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistr
y_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistr
y)/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/States_of_Matter/Phase_Transitions/Phase_D
iagrams

 A mineral may be defined as any naturally occurring inorganic solid that


has a definite chemical composition (that can vary only within specified
limits) and possesses a crystalline structure. The study of minerals is
known as mineralogy, which dates back to prehistory.

 A nucleotide is an organic molecule made up of a nucleotide base, a five-


carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and at least one phosphate group.
Nucleotides make up the basic units of DNA and RNA molecules.

Names of Nucleotides: The five bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine,
and uracil, which have the symbols A, G, C, T, and U, respectively.
Want to understand more? https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-
nucleotide-605433

 We look at five states of matter on the site. Solids, liquids, gases,


plasmas, and Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) are different states of
matter that have different physical properties.

Solid
A solid is a state of matter characterized by particles arranged such that their
shape and volume are relatively stable. The constituents of a solid tend to be
packed together much closer than the particles in a gas or liquid.

Liquid
The particles in a liquid are free to flow, so while a liquid has a definite volume, it
does not have a definite shape.
Liquids consists of atoms or molecules that are connected by intermolecular
bonds.

Gas
A gas is defined as a state of matter consisting of particles that have neither a
defined volume nor defined shape.
Gases have their own unique behavior depending on a variety of variables, such
as temperature, pressure, and volume.

Plasma
A plasma is a hot ionized gas consisting of approximately equal numbers of
positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons.
Plasma is created by adding energy to a gas

Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC)


A Bose–Einstein condensate is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled
to temperatures very close to absolute zero (-273.15°C).

 A measurement is a collection of quantitative or numerical data that


describes a property of an object or event. A measurement is made by
comparing a quantity with a standard unit.
Want to know more? https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-measurement-
605880

EARTH SCIENCE
 A mineral is a solid, inorganic, naturally-formed substance that has a
crystalline structure and specific chemical composition.
Our definition says that minerals are inorganic, which means that they do not
consist of tissues from living things. So, that means that wood is not a mineral.

 A rock is a solid, inorganic, naturally-formed substance without a particular


atomic structure or chemical composition. It's probably easier to just
remember that rocks are made up of two or more minerals.

Examples of rocks include granite, limestone, marble, pumice, obsidian,


sandstone, shale and slate. Each of these rocks consists of several different
minerals, which are mixed up inside the rock through a variety of geologic
processes.
Want to know more? https://study.com/academy/lesson/rocks-and-minerals-
definitions-and-differences.html

 Earth’s interior can be divided into three main layers: the core,
the mantle and the crust. Each of these layers can be further divided into
two parts: the inner and outer core, the upper and lower mantle and the
continental and oceanic crust.

Want to know more? https://study.com/academy/lesson/composition-of-earths-


internal-layers-crust-mantle-and-core.html

 A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water,


generally on a planet's surface. The term most often refers to oceans, seas,
and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or
more rarely, puddles.

Oceans are the ultimate bodies of water on Earth.


The smallest body of water is the brook, a natural stream of water that is found
aboveground and is often called a creek as well.

 An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving


components such as air, water, and mineral soil. Life forms in ecosystems
compete with one another to become the most successful at reproducing
and surviving in a given niche, or environment.
2 Main Components of an Ecosystem
Abiotic and Biotic

Abiotic components of an ecosystem consist of the nonorganic aspects of the


environment that determine what life forms can thrive. Examples of abiotic
components are temperature, average humidity, topography and natural
disturbances.

The biotic components of an ecosystem are the life forms that inhabit it. The life
forms of an ecosystem aid in the transfer and cycle of energy. Producers such as
plants produce their own energy without consuming other life forms; plants gain
their energy from conducting photosynthesis via sunlight.

 Fossils are the remains and traces of ancient organisms or it is the


preserved remains or traces of organisms (plants, animals, etc) that lived in
the distant past. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeleton, stone
imprints of animals or microbes and DNA remnants.

Paleontology is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation,


and evolutionary significance.

 Plate tectonics is the theory that the Earth’s crust is divided into 15 plates
which move in various directions. This plate motion causes them to
collide, pull apart, or scrape against each other. According to this theory,
the earth’s entire lithosphere is broken into numerous segments called
plates which move very slowly but constantly, and this movement is
called tectonics.

 The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time.


Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of
time, and climate is how the atmosphere "behaves" over relatively long
periods of time.

 A volcano is a rupture in the crust that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and
gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
 An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking
of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in
the Earth’s lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

Magnitude measures the energy released at the source of the earthquake.


Magnitude is determined from measurements on
seismographs. Intensity measures the strength of shaking produced by the
earthquake at a certain location.

PHYSICS

 Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that describes the
relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and
its motion in response to those forces.

First LAW of motion - “LAW of Inertia” states that An object at rest will stay at
rest, and an object in motion will tend to stay in motion unless it is acted upon by
an unbalanced force.

Second LAW of motion - “LAW of Acceleration” states that Force is equals to


mass times acceleration. ( F = m*a)

Third LAW of motion - “LAW of Action equal Reaction” states that For every
action there is an equal but opposite reaction.

 Force described intuitively as a push or a pull. Forces causes objects to


accelerate, add to the object's overall pressure, change direction, or
change shape.

A force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of
application in the direction of the force.

The strength of a force is measured in Newtons (N).


 Light and sound both travel in waves, caused by the vibrations.

Light travels as transverse waves and can travel through a vacuum. Sound
travels as longitudinal waves and needs to travel through a solid, liquid or gas: it
cannot travel through a vacuum. Light and sound can be reflected and
refracted, just like water waves.

As a rule sound travels slowest through gases, faster through liquids, and
fastest through solids. The speed of light as it travels through air and space is
much faster than that of sound; it travels at 300 million meters per second or
273,400 miles.

 Matter is the “stuff” of the universe — the atoms, molecules and ions that
make up all physical substances. Matter is anything that has mass and
takes up space. Energy is the capacity to cause change. Energy cannot be
created or destroyed; it can only be conserved and converted from one
form to another.

 Always remember that Electricity can make Magnets, and Magnets can
make Electricity.

 Measurement is a process of detecting an unknown physical quantity by


using standard quantity.

ASTRONOMY

 The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system of the Sun and the
objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly, including the
eight planets and the 1 dwarf planet.

 Other heavenly bodies: stars, asteroids, comets, black holes, etc.

Stars are giant spheres of superhot gas made up mostly of hydrogen and helium.
Stars get so hot by burning hydrogen into helium in a process called nuclear
fusion. This is what makes them so hot and bright. Our Sun is a star.
An asteroid is a large, irregularly shaped object in space that orbits our Sun. If
one of these giant rocks ends up on a collision course with Earth, we are in for big
trouble. An asteroid is like a comet. However, while comets are mostly made of
ice, asteroids are made up of rock or even metal.

A comet is a ball of mostly ice that moves around in outer space. Comets are
often described as "dirty snowballs".

A black hole is a region of space from which nothing, including light, can escape.
According to the general theory of relativity, it is the result of the curving of
spacetime caused by being composed of dense mass. Around a black hole there
is a position of no return, called the event horizon.

 The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit
portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth. The Moon has phases because
it orbits Earth, which causes the portion we see illuminated to change.

 A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth passes between the Moon and the
Sun, and the Earth's shadow obscures the moon or a portion of it.
Moon Earth Sun

 A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Earth and the
Sun, blocking all or a portion of the Sun. An eclipse can be total, partial, or
annular.
Earth Moon Sun

 Our Earth orbits the Sun in our Solar System. Our Sun is one star among
the billions in the Milky Way Galaxy. Our Milky Way Galaxy is one among
the billions of galaxies in our Universe.

Remember that
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and
liquids, including molten rock.

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