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Analyze Stability Analyze Capability

Processes that are "out of control" need to be When Cp, the process capability index, and Cpk,
SPC
stabilized before they can be improved using the the centering index, are over 1.0, the process is
problem-solving process. Special causes require
immediate cause-effect analysis to eliminate
variation.
capable, but most manufacturers require
Cp>1.33.
Capable
Simplified
Lower Upper
The following diagram will help you evaluate stability Spec
Limit
Spec
Limit Cp>1 How to Plug the Leaks
in any control chart. Unstable conditions can be any
of the following: Cpk>1 In Your Cash Flow!
Waste Rework Cpk
1.0
Sigma
3 SPC

Target 1.33
1.66
4
5 SIMPLIFIED
2σ 2.0 6

1σ Use the problem solving process to identify and


prevent the root causes of waste (usually below
-1σ the lower specification limit) and rework (usually
above the upper specification limit). The goal, is
-2σ
to reduce variation so that all of your points fit
-3σ within the specification limits, clustered around a
target.
Various trends are also considered unstable Time to Install (Before)
conditions. For a complete list see qimacros.com/ 8 LSL USL SPC Made Easy
qiwizard/stability.html. Any of these conditions 7
suggests that an unstable condition may exist.
Consider investigating the special cause of variation.
The QI Macros automatically identify these for you.
6
5
4
SPC Made Easy
3
Use the Ishikawa diagram to analyze potential root 2
causes.
1
0
Quick Reference Card
Once you've eliminated the special causes, you can
turn your attention to using the problem solving
For SPC Video
© 2008 Jay Arthur
process to reduce the common causes of variation:
11
Time to Install (After)
10 KnowWare® International, Inc. (dba Lifestar)
BEFORE Problem 9 LSL USL 2253 S. Oneida St., Ste 3D
Solving 8
7 Denver, CO 80224
AFTER 6
5 (888) 468-1537 or (303) 756-9144
4 (888) 468-1536 or (303) 753-9675 (fax)
3
2
1
$3.00 knowwareman@qimacros.com
0 www.qimacros.com
Sustain the Improvement Choosing The Right Chart
Sample Size QI Macros
Sample Data
Purpose: Stabilize and Sustain the Improvement
Constant
Defect Data np Chart defects/100
Key Tools
Count Defective Items?
Flowchart: Show the flow of work
X Defective? Varies
through a process including all Defective Yes/No
wrong orders/orders
activities, decisions, and p Chart
medication errors
measurement points. Attribute infections/patient days
Control Chart: Help analyze, (counted)
integer: 1,2 Constant
sustain, and monitor the current
c Chart injuries/month
levels of process stability and to Defects How many defects? Patient falls/month
identify key issues for problem People
solving or root cause analysis. Events
Histogram: Determine the capability Varies
(i.e., the level of performance the X X u Chart errors/orders
X
customers can consistently expect) components/assemblies
More than Count Number of Patient falls/days
of the process and the distribution of Defects Per Item
measurable data. one defect Services &
per item Rates
Manufacturing
Sustain The Improvement (Control) or Ratios?
1
length or weight per item
Cycle XmR time/project
FISH Step Activity Individuals
Individuals cost/project
Focus 1 Refine the process Time infections/1000 patient days
Define 2 Identify the critical to quality 2-5
Measure indicators (CTQs) Variable
(Measured) XbarR diameters, lengths
Improve 3 Implement the critical to quality decimal: 1.3 Sub groups tensile strength
resistance Samples used
Analyze indicators
Length Time Cost to analyze large
Improve
$ 6-25 runs of product
Height

Weight
Sustain 4 Check the process for stability and XbarS diameters, lengths
Control capability Sub groups tensile strength
resistance
Honor 5 Review, recognize, and refocus Variable
Manufacturing
Data
To learn more about SPC, consider our one To automate these charts, try the QI Macros QI Macros Control Chart Wizard
hour training video: www.qimacros.com/ for Excel. Download a FREE 30 day trial at The QI Macros can analyze your data and
spc-simplified-training-video.html www.qimacros.com/freestuff.html. select and run the right control chart for you.

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