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# ECE 330

## POWER CIRCUITS AND ELECTROMECHANICS

LECTURE 11
TRANSFORMERS (1)

Acknowledgment-These handouts and lecture notes given in class are based on material from Prof. Peter
Sauer’s ECE 330 lecture notes. Some slides are taken from Ali Bazi’s presentations

Disclaimer- These handouts only provide highlights and should not be used to replace the course textbook.
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IDEAL TRANSFORMER
• The transformer transfers electrical energy from one
circuit to another through the changing magnetic field
that links both circuits.
• In the transmission, distribution, and utilization of
electrical energy, the transformer changes voltage
levels at a fixed frequency, such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz,
and the power to be handled can vary from a few
hundred watts to several hundred megawatts.
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IDEAL TRANSFORMER
In the communications field, the use of the transformer
is based on different considerations.
Some of the applications:
Impedance matching, DC isolation, and changing
voltage levels with power handling capacities of the
order of a few watts but with the capability of
operating satisfactorily over a very wide frequency
range.
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IDEAL TRANSFORMER
• An ideal transformer is assumed to have no losses,
stray capacitance, and leakage flux.
d (t )
v1 (t )  N1
dt i1(t)  i2(t)

d (t ) v1(t) v2(t)
v2 (t )  N 2 N1 N2
dt
v1 (t ) N1
  a i1(t) i2(t)
v2 (t ) N 2
+ +
v1(t)
• If the core has a reluctance 
v2(t)
- -
N 1i 1  N 2i 2    N1:N2

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IDEAL TRANSFORMER
• For an infinite core permeability:
N1i1  N 2i2  0
i1  N 2 1
  
i2 N1 a
i1 N 2 1
• If i1 (t ) or i2 (t ) is in the other direction:  
i2 N1 a
i1 N 2 1 v1 N 1
• Then,   and  a
i2 N1 a v2 N2

## • Also, v1i1  v2i2 .

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STORED ENERGY
• With self and mutual inductance, the energy stored
i1(t) i2(t)
can be shown to be: M
1 1 + +
W  L1i1  L2i22  Mi1i2
2
v1(t) v2(t)
2 2 - -
M M  L L
• But k  and k  1  1 2
then, N1:N2
L1 L2 LL 1 2

1
 
2
W L1 i1  L2 i2  (k  1) L1L2 i1i2 .
2
• In an ideal transformer, k =1, and the stored energy
is zero: i1  L2 v2 1
  
i2 L1 v1 a
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IMPEDANCE
• An impedance on one side can be reflected or
referred to the other side. i (t) i (t) 1 2
v2
R +
v1(t)
+
R
i2 v2(t)
- -
2
v1 N 2 v1  N 2  1 v1 N1:N2
R     2 i1(t)
i2 N1 i1  N1  a i1 +
v1(t) a2R
v1
  a2 R -
i1
• In phasor domain, and having a complex impedance:
V1
 a2 Z
I1
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IMPEDANCE MATCHING

## • We know that maximum power can be transferred to the

load if either (1) Z L = Z o* or (2) | Z L |=| Z o | . The magnitudes
of Z L and Z o can be made almost equal by interposing an
ideal transformer between the source and the load.
• Turns ratio is so selected that | Zo | ( N1 / N2 )2 | Z L | , which is
equal to the impedance looking into terminals 1 1’ .
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