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DATE:DEC 11, 2018 PAGE 1 OF 4

A. FUSELAGE LOADS- During the various phases of flight and movement on the ground, the
fuselage will experience a wide range of loads from a number of sources. The loads will vary in
size, and often in direction, either or both of which may cause problems with /arigue, which will
be dealt with in detail in Chapter Five. Many loads can occur in combination with others, and the
designers must make sure that they have found the worst combination that might occur during
the life of the aircraft. They must also satisfy themselves (and the authorities) that the design is
capable of supporting these loads with an appropriate margin of safety.

A.1 BENDING LOADS- during straight-and-level-flights, the fuaelage is suppported by the

wings, with anothet force form the tail that is normally downwards. For cannard aircraft, the
foreplanes will always produce an upward force. The weight of the fuselage structures and
payload will cause the fuselage to bend downward from its support at the wing, putting the top
tension and the bottom in compression. In manuevering flight, the load on the fuselage will
usually be greater than for straight-and-level-flight. Depending on the manuever flown. During
negative g manoeuvres (pitching nose down), and during loadi2nd and taxing, some of the loads
are reversed, so the structures must be designed to withstand this load reversal. In particular the
landing loads may be significant with a large undercarraige load applied close to the centre of the
fuselage and high interia loads from the nose and tail. The forces caused by the nose-wheel
touching down may also ve high during a heavy landing.

The bending loads on the fuselage will obviously be higher when the weight is distributed towards
the nose and tail, and when the aircraft is heavily laden. In this case, particular attention must be
paid to how the payload is distributed in the fuselage. Fuselage mountef engine also create extra
loads on the fuselagr. Situating the engines on the wing removes the load from the fuselage,
although of course this is at the expense of higher loads on the wings. Since wing mounted
engine are normally mounted close to the undercarraige, though, where strength is already high,
the weight penalty will generally will be less.

A. 2 PRESSURE LOADS- passenger and freighter aircraft are usually pressurized through most
of the fuselage. The pressurization varies with altitude, and is partially controlled by the crew, but
sitting inside an aircraft cruising at 9760 m (32000 ft) passengers would be breathing air at
pressure equivalent to an altitude of about 2440m (8000ft). Without any physical exertion,
breathing would not be difficult.

The effect of cabin pressurization is to create loads that try to burst the fuselage. The skin itself
carries these loads putting it in tension. There is also a force stretching at the fuselage along its
length, which is pressure difference multiplies by the cross sectional area of the fuselage.

DATE: DEC 11, 2018 PAGE 2 OF 4

A.3 THRUST LOADS- with both fuselage and wing mounted, the thrust will produce longitudinal
force on the fuselage, to overcome the drag of the fuselage. Most engines are fitted with a thrust
reversal, for braking so the direction of the loads can be reversed the loads are transmitted to
thevstructures through the engine mount. If an engine fails, the thrust from that engine will be
lost, and the thrust from the opposite engine will try to yaw the aircraft. This will need a high
rudder forces to keep the aircraft flying straight. Creating yet more loads on the fuselage. If an
engine suffers break-up of a compressor or a turbine it may stop suddenly and even tear itself
free from its mountings. For external engines the mounting system may be carefully designed
(using shear pin for example) to limit these loads, allowing the engines to break free rather tha
cause serious damage to the fuselage (or wing) structure if very high occur.

A. 4 PAYLOAD ON FLOORS- The floor of the fuselage acts as a beam, carrying the weight and
inertia loads of the passengers, seats, galleys, payload, etc., depending on the type of aircraft and
its use. In passenger aircraft, although the total weight being carried by the floor may not be
particularly high, very high localised loads can occur, especially from small-heeled shoes. Inside
the baggage hold of most aircraft, there is a flat floor so that the contents of the hold do not rest
directly on the skin. Again, this floor can be subjected to very high local loads when heavy, rigid
packages are being loaded, because they can be allowed to fall onto a corner. So the floors of the
aircraft need not only to be strong and stiff enough to withstand the overall loads, but need a
strong upper surface to withstand high local stresses. The floor is often of composite construction,
and in baggage compartments aluminium alloy deck plates or a sandwich of balsa between
fibreglass or alloy skins may be used, to provide good resistance to impact damage.

B. WING LOADS- A wing produces lift by creating unequal pressures on its top and bottom
surfaces. The difference in pressure, when multiplied by the area over which it acts, produces the
lift force that allows the aircraft to fly. The distributed lift load creates a shear force and a bending
moment, both of which are at.