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CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

1.1 Background

Medical image (medical image) has a very important information content. This makes the
image of medicine generally has a large size. A large medical image poses problems with the storage
and delivery of medical images, ie the need for large data storage media as well as long delivery
times. This results in the emergence of the need for image compression without reducing the
information stored in the image (lossless).

However, lossless compression has not solved the problem at hand, so lossless data
compression is required but has the flexibility to eliminate unimportant information and can not be
seen by our sense of sight (lossy). For image delivery to be more efficient with better quality, digital
image processing needs to be done on the image, so image compression not only reduces file size
and bandwidth, but also allows the extraction to perform other image processing processes further.

JPEG 2000 compression enables lossless and lossy compression so that it can be
implemented for medical image compression. JPEG-2000 compression is developed by ITU
(International Telecommunication Union) and ISO (International Organization of Standardization).
JPEG-2000 has some features that really help the process of medical image processing. Among the
existing JPEG-2000 features, RoI (Region of Interest) allows users to select an area on the
compression image so that the image quality in the RoI region increases. However, JPEG-2000
compression for large images requires a good computer specification. By using computing with the
usual specs, the image compression process takes a long time. So it takes a distributed system to
perform JPEG 2000 compression. Grid computing is the use of multiple computer resources
connected by an Internet network for computing that requires a large resource.

By using grid computing, the process of computing is massively done by utilizing unused
CPU resources (CPU cycles / storage media) from many computers. Gross computing is the
development of distributed computing. Gridcomputing example is Kazzaa, peer to peer application
for file sharing. While the example of distributedcomputing is DNS management (Domain Name
System).

Grid computing for digital image processing (PCD) is being developed by Imaging and
Image Processing Research Group (I2PRG), ITB. The embedded grid computing design is illustrated
in Figure 1.1. In the grid computing for digital image processing, there are clusters that function to
perform the process in a distributed manner. The storage of the grid computing database is located in
the manager. Manager deploys data for processing on each cluster. Each of these clusters is
composed of several computer servers. The computing server can connect via internet, LAN, WAN,
or PSTN networks. After completion of a computation, computational data is sent to a cluster that
decodes. The decoded results are sent to the client for later merged.

1.2 Purpose of writing

The purpose of making this paper is to better understand about medical image (medical image) along
with the tools used in doing medical image.

1.3 Writing Method

In doing the work of this paper I look for information relating to the medical image (medical image)
and the tools used, I use the method of writing by studying this medical image from various media,
books and internet.

1.4 Systematics Writing

In the preparation of this paper consists of chapters according to the sequence of discussion, which
consists of:

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

Contains description Background problem, Purpose writing, Writing method, and Systematics
Writing.

CHAPTER II: CONTENTS

Discuss about the definition of medical image

CHAPTER III CLOSING

Contains the conclusions of the description and discussion in this paper.


CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

2.1 Understanding of medical image

Medical imaging is a technique and process used to create an image of the human body (or
parts and functions thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to disclose, diagnose
or examine disease) or medical science (including the normal study of anatomy and physiology ). As
a discipline and in a broad sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology (in a
broader sense) medicine, nuclear, ilmuradiological investigation, endoscopy, (medical)
Thermography, medical photography and microscopy (eg for human pathological investigations).
and recording techniques that are not primarily designed to produce images, such as
electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electrocardiography (EKG) etc.,
but which produce data that are vulnerable to be represented as maps (ie those containing position
information), can be seen as a form of medical imaging.

Medical image (medical image) has a very important information content. it makes the
image of medicine generally has a large size. Large medical images cause problems in the storage
and delivery of medical images, namely the need for large data storage media and long delivery time.
this results in the emergence of the need for image compression without reducing the information
stored in the image (lossless).

However, lossless compression has not solved the problem at hand, so lossless data
compression is required but has the flexibility to eliminate unimportant information and can not be
seen by our sense of sight (lossy). For image delivery to be more efficient with better quality, digital
image processing needs to be done on the image, so image compression not only reduces file size
and bandwidth, but also allows the extraction to perform other image processing process further.

Imaging Technology

2.2 Electron microscope

The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high
resolving forces due to the use of electrons as a source of illumination, magnifying at levels up to
2,000,000 times. Electron microscopy is used in anatomical pathology to identify organelles in cells.
Its usefulness has been greatly reduced byimmunhistochemistry but is still irreplaceable for the
diagnosis of kidney disease, the identification of immotile cilia syndrome and many other tasks.
2.3.Radiographic

Two forms of radiographic images are being used in medical imaging; projection
radiography and fluoroscopy, with both useful for intraoperative catheters and guidance. The 2D
technique is still widely used despite the advent of 3D tomography due to its low cost, high
resolution, and dependent application, lower radiation dose. This imaging modality uses a variety of
x-ray beams for image acquisition and is the first imaging technique available in modern medicine.
There are 2 forms of radiographic:

Real-time fluoroscopy produces an image of the body's internal structure in the same way for
radiography, but uses constant x-ray input, at a lower dose rate. Contrast media, such as barium,
iodine, and air are used to visualize internal organs as they work. Fluoroscopy is also used in an
image-guided procedure when the feed is constant during the required procedure. The receptor image
is required to convert the radiation into an image after it has passed through a certain area. The initial
fluorescing is the screen, which gives way to an Image Amplifier (IA) which is a large vacuum tube
that has a receiver coated with cesium iodide, and a mirror at the tip. Finally the mirror is replaced
with a TV camera.

Projectional radiography, better known as x-ray, is often used to determine the type and
extent of fractures and to detect pathological changes in the lungs. By using radio-opaque contrast
media, such as barium, they can also be used to visualize the structure of the stomach and intestines -
this can help diagnose ulcers or some types of colon cancer.

2.4.Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

A magnetic resonance imaging instrument (MRI scanner), or "nuclear magnetic resonance


(NMR)" scanner as originally known, uses powerful magnets to polarize and generate nuclear
hydrogen (single proton) in water molecules in human tissue, resulting in detected spatial signal
encoded, generating body image. MRI uses three electromagnetic fields: a very powerful (in order of
the unit teslas) static polarization of the magnetic field of the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, called a
static field; The weaker ones change with time (in order of 1 kHz) field (s) for spatial encoding,
called the gradient plane (s); and a low-frequency radio (RF) field for manipulating the hydrogen
nuclei to produce a measured signal, which is collected through an RF antenna.

Like CT, traditional MRI creates a thin two-dimensional image of a "piece" of the body and
is therefore considered a tomographic imaging technique. Modern MRI tools are capable of
producing images in the form of 3D blocks, which can be considered as generalizations of single
pieces, tomography, concepts. Unlike CT, MRI does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and is
therefore unrelated to the same health hazards. For example, since MRI has only been in use since
the early 1980s, there is no known long-term effect of strong static exposure (this is the subject of
some debate; see 'Safety' in MRI) and therefore there is no limit to the number of scans which an
individual can wear, in contrast to X-rays and CT. However, there are well-identified health risks
associated with tissue warming from exposure to the RF field and presence of devices embedded in
the body, such as the speed of the maker. This risk is strictly controlled as part of the instrument
design and protocol scanning used.

Because CT and MRI are highly sensitive to different tissue traits, the appearance of the
images obtained with the two techniques is quite different. In CT, X-rays must be blocked by some
form of solid tissue to create an image, so the image quality when looking at soft tissue will be poor.
In MRI, while every nucleus with a clean spin can be used, the protons of the hydrogen atom remain
the most widely used, especially in clinical, because it is so ubiquitous and returns a large signal.
This nucleus, which is present in water molecules, allows excellent soft tissue to be achieved by MRI
contrast.

2.5.Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine diagnostics includes both imaging and treatment of diseases, and may also
be referred to as drug or molecular molecules of imaging & therapy [1]. Nuclear medicine uses
certain isotope properties and energetic particles emitted from radioactive material to diagnose or
treat various pathologies. Unlike the typical concept of radiological anatomy, nuclear medicine
allows the assessment of physiology. This function of medical evaluation-based approach has useful
applications in many branches of science, particularly oncology, neurology, and heart. Here are two
examples:

Gamma cameras are used in nuclear medicine to detect areas of biological activity that may
be related to disease. Relatively short lived isotope, as 123 I was given to the patient. Isotopes are
often preferentially biologically active absorbed by tissues in the body, and can be used to identify
tumors or fracture points. The image is obtained after the collimated photon is detected by the crystal
which gives the signal from the light, which in turn is amplified and converted into the counting data.
The gamma camera can have the number of detector variables being the head with the two most
common configurations. 2D planar images can be obtained from the body or some time-capture
images can be combined into a dynamic cine sequence of a physiological process over time. A 3D
tomography technique known as SPECT uses gamma camera data from a variety of projections and
can be reconstructed in various fields. A dual head detector gamma camera is combined with a CT
scanner, which provides functional SPECT data localization, called a SPECT / CT camera, and has
demonstrated utility in advancing the field of molecular imaging.
Positron emission tomography (PET) uses accidental detection of functional process images.
Short-lived positron emitting isotopes, such as 18 F, are incorporated with organic substances such
as glucose, creating F18-fluorodeoxyglucose, which can be used as a marker of metabolic utilization.
Images of distribution activities throughout the body can show rapidly growing tissues, such as
tumors, metastases, or infections. PET images can be seen in comparison with computed tomography
scans to determine correlated anatomy. Modern combines PET scanners with CT, or even MRI, to
optimize the reconstruction images involved with positron imaging. This is done on the same
equipment without physically moving the patient down from the vehicle.
CHAPTER III

COVER

3.1 Conclusions

With the medical imaging paper (medical image), then we can more easily learn about the
medical image and know the understanding and the tools used in the medical image.

But the development of the age of the possibility of development in the tools used, than it is
easier to know the development of ikita can find more information through the internet or in other
media.

Perhaps this paper can only be the basis of learning to know or know more deeply about the
medical image.bagi layman is very difficult to understand it it is advisable to find a companion who
knows more about what is a medical image.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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