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Hans H.

0rberg

LINGVA
LATINA
PER SE ILLVSTRATA

Latine Disco
Student’s Manual
LINGVA LATINA
PER SE ILLVSTRATA

Pars I:
Familia Romana (978-1-58510-201-3); hard cover (978-1 -58510-238-5)
Latine Disco: Studenl's Manual (978-1-58510-050-7}
Grammatica Latina (978-1-58510-223-5)
Exercitia Latina I (978-1 -58510-212-9)
Latín-English Vocabulary (978-1-58510-049-1)
Lingva Latina: Familia Romana CD-ROM for PC (87-90696-08-5)
Exercitia Latina I CD-ROM for PC (978-87-90696-10-8)

Pars II:
Roma Aeterna (978-1-58510-233-4); hardcover(978-I-58510-3I4-0)
Exercitia Latina II (978-1-58510-067-5)
Indices (87-997016-9-3)
Inslructions for Part II (978-1-58510-055-2)
Latin-English Vocabulary (978-1-58510-052-1)
U ngva Latina: Roma Actcrna CD-ROM For PC (87-90696-09-3)
Exercitia Latina II CD-ROM for PC (978-87-90696-12-2)

Ancillaries;
CD-ROM for Mac. contains Familia Romana, Roma Aeterna, Exercitia Latina 1 & II (978-87-90696-13-9)
Caesaris; Commentarii De Bello Gallico (87-90696-06-9)
Colloqvia Persotiavvm (978-1-58510-156-6)
Menaeclimi ex Plavti Comoedia (1-585 J0-051-X)
P. Vergiüi Maronis: Aeneis, Libros I et IV (978-87-90696-17-7)
Pettonivs: Cena Trimalchionis (87-90696-04-2)
Plavtus: Amphitryo (87-997016-7-7)
Sallustius & Cicero: Catilina (87-90696-11-5)
Sermones Romani (97-90696-07-7)

For College Students:


Lingva Latina: A College Companion (978-1-58510- I9I-7)

F o r f u rth e r in fo rm a tio n o n th e c o m p le te s e rie s a n d n e w tilles,


y is it w w w .p u llin s .c o m .

Copyright © 2005 Hans 0rberg

ISBN 978-1-58510-050-7
ISBN 10: 1-58510-050-1

DislributedbyFocusPublisliing/RPullinsCompany, PO Box 369, Ncwbmyporl.


MA 01950 (www.pullins.com) with permission of Domus Latina. All riglils
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0908S
CONTENTS
In tro d u c tio n ..................... P -3
In stru ctio n s
C h a p te r 1 .......................... ..................... 9
C h a p te r 2 .......................... ..................... 11
C h a p te r 3 .......................... ..................... 12
C h a p te r 4 .......................... ..................... 14
C h a p te r 5 .......................... ..................... 15
C h apter 6 .......................... ..................... 16
C h apter 7 .......................... ..................... 17
C h a p te r 8 .......................... ..................... 18
C h a p te r 9 .......................... ..................... 19
C h a p te r 1 0 ........................ ..................... 20
C h a p te r 1 1 ........................ ..................... 21
C h a p te r 1 2 ........................ ..................... 22
C h a p te r 1 3 ........................ ..................... 23
C h a p te r 1 4 ....................... ..................... 25
C h a p te r 1 5 ........................ ..................... 26
C h a p te r 1 6 .............................................. 27
C h a p te r 1 7 ........................ ..................... 28
C h a p te r 1 8 ........................ ..................... 29
C h a p te r 1 9 .............................................. 30
C h a p te r 2 0 ....................... ..................... 31
C h a p te r 2 1 ....................... ...................... 32
C h a p te r 2 2 ....................... ..................... 34
C h a p te r 2 3 ....................... ..................... 35
C h a p te r 2 4 ........................ ..................... 36
C h a p te r 2 5 ........................ ..................... 37
C h a p te r 2 6 ........................ ..................... 38
C h a p te r 2 7 ....................... ..................... 39
C h a p te r 2 8 .......... .................................. 40
C h a p te r 2 9 ........................ ..................... 41
C h a p te r 3 0 .............................................. 42
C h a p te r 3 1 ........................ ..................... 43
C h a p te r 3 2 ........................ ..................... 44
C h a p te r 3 3 ........................ ..................... 45
C h a p te r 3 4 ........................ ..................... 46
C h a p te r 3 5 ........................ ..................... 48
I n d e x ................................. ....................... 49
HANS H. ØRBERG

LINGVA LATINA
PER SE ILLVSTRATA
PARS I
FAMILIA ROMANA

LATINE DISCO I
(Aprendo Latín)
MANUAL DEL ALUMNO (Cap. I-XXXV)

Edición española a cargo de


Emilio Canales Muñoz y
Antonio González Amador

CULTURA CLÁSICA
MMVI
L IN G V A L A T I N A P E R S E IL L V S T R A T A
PARS I: FAMILIA ROMANA

INTRODUCCIÓN

LINGVA LATINA, la lengua latina.


La lengua latina, lingua Latīna, era la lengua de los latinos (Latīnī), el latín, la lengua del
Latium
los habitantes del Lacio (Latium), región de la Italia central que
incluía la ciudad de Roma (Rōma), que según la tradición fue fundada
por Rómulo (Rōmulus) en el año 753 antes de Cristo. En los siglos
siguientes, Roma extendió su dominio, imperium Rōmānum, a toda la lengua del Imperio
Italia, y desde allí al Mediterráneo occidental y oriental. En el siglo romano
segundo después de Cristo el emperador de Roma gobernaba la mayor
parte de Europa, el norte de África, el Próximo Oriente y el Oriente
Medio. En las provincias de Europa del Oeste, Hispānia, Gallia,
Britannia, Germānia (sur de Alemania) y en los Balcanes, por
ejemplo en Dacia (Rumanía), la lengua latina se difundió
rápidamente. En Grecia y en las provincias del Este, el griego
conservó su posición dominante, de tal modo que los hombres de la
antigūedad clásica poseían dos lenguas universales, el griego y el
latín.
Después de la caída del Imperio romano de Occidente, el latín
desapareció como lengua hablada en algunas de las provincias
periféricas, por ejemplo Bretaña y África; en las otras provincias el
latín hablado dio lugar a las lenguas romances (o románicas): español las lenguas romances
o castellano, catalán, gallego y portugués en la Península Ibérica y, en
el resto de Europa, francés, provenzal, italiano, sardo, rético y rumano.
Hoy día el latín no es la lengua materna de nadie. Por eso se le llama
lengua “muerta”. Sin embargo, el término resulta impropio. Durante
siglos el latín fue una lengua viva en el amplio Imperio romano del
mismo modo que el español lo es hoy en el mundo de habla española.
Y esta lengua “muerta” conoció allí tal vitalidad que durante la Edad
Media siguió siendo sin rival la lengua de las clases cultas de Europa. la lengua cultural de
Hasta el siglo XVIII el latín conservó su supremacía como medio de Europa
comunicación universitario. Hasta en nuestros días el latín sobrevive
como lengua de la Iglesia Católica Romana y la mayoría de los
términos científicos aún siguen estando en latín.
A consecuencia de ese papel del latín como lengua de cultura
internacional, las lenguas nacionales europeas se han enriquecido con
una enorme cantidad de palabras latinas. Aparte de las lenguas
romances, en las que las palabras no latinas son una excepción, el
inglés es, con diferencia, la lengua que ha asimilado el mayor número palabras latinas en las
lenguas modernas
de palabras latinas. De hecho, más de la mitad del vocabulario inglés
viene, directa o indirectamente, del latín.

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Ortografía y Pronunciación
el alfabeto latino El alfabeto latino consta de 23 letras: A B C D E F G H I K L M N O
P Q R S T V X Y Z (casi nunca se usaba la K; la Y y la Z se
empleaban sólo en las palabras griegas). Las letras minúsculas son un
J, U no se usan (hasta desarrollo ulterior de esas mayúsculas. Los caracteres J, U y W no
el siglo XVI) existían: I y V representaban tanto las vocales i y u como las
consonantes j y v (pronunciadas en un principio como la y de ‘yo’ y la
u de ‘luego’). A partir del siglo XVI se estableció la distinción entre I
i y J j y entre U u y V v. En nuestros libros latinos no usamos J j, pero
distinguimos V v y U u, excepto en los títulos escritos con
IVLIVS = IULIUS mayúsculas: CAPITVLVM, IVLIVS.
Es posible establecer con gran exactitud la pronunciación antigua del
latín, gracias a los principales testimonios siguientes:
(1) La ortografía latina, sobre todo en sus variaciones de la norma.
(2) La pronunciación de las lenguas romances que dan testimonio del
último desarrollo del latín hablado.
(3) Los datos sobre la pronunciación transmitidos por los gramáticos y
demás autores latinos.
(4) La transcripción de las palabras latinas que se introdujeron en otras
lenguas.
la pronunciación Apoyándonos en estas fuentes podemos establecer las principales
clásica
reglas de la pronunciación del latín en el período clásico (siglo I a.C.):

Vocales
vocales Se establecía claramente la distinción, en la lengua hablada pero no en
breves: a e i o u y la escrita, entre vocales largas y vocales breves. En el curso LINGVA
largas: ā ē ī ō ū y LATINA todas las vocales largas llevan una pequeña raya superpuesta:
ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, y, de modo que la ausencia de esa raya muestra que la
vocal es breve: a, e, i, o, u, y. El español ya no distingue entre los dos
tipos de vocales.
Vocales breves Vocales largas
a como en ac, amat ā como en dā, ālā
e como en et, bene ē como en mē, sēsē
i como en in, nimis ī como en hīc, bīnī
o como en post, modo ō como en dō, dōnō
u como en num, sumus ū como en tū, ūsū
y como en Syria (= u francesa en ÿ como en Lydia (= u francesa en
‘lune’, ū alemán en ‘dūnn’) ‘pur’, ū alemán en ‘grūn’)
Diptongos
diptongos Un diptongo es la combinación de dos vocales en una sola sílaba. En
ae oe au (eu) época clásica había tres diptongos: ae, oe, au, y, en ocasiones, eu:
p.ej. ae como en Graecia, paene;

6
oe como en foedus, poena;
au como en aut, nauta;
eu como en Eurōpa, heu, heus, neu, seu (pero las desinencias -us, -um,
-unt constituyen sílabas separadas después de la e: de|us, me|us,
e|um, e|unt, aure|us).
Consonantes
b como en español: bibit, ab. (Pero bs y bt como ps y pt: absunt, consonantes
obtulit). bcdfghklmnpqr
stxz
c tenía siempre el sonido velar [k] que tiene la c española en ‘carta’, i v (u)
incluso ante las vocales e o i: canis, centum, circum, nec.
ch, ph, th como k, p, t seguidos de una aspiración: pulcher,
amphitheātrum.
d como en español: dē, dedit, ad.
f como en español: forum, flūmen.
g tenía siempre el sonido velar [g] que tiene la g española en ‘pagar’,
incluso ante la e y la i: ego, gallus, gemma, agit.
h sonido ligeramente aspirado (tendiendo a desaparecer): hīc, homō,
nihil.
l como en español: lūna, gladius, male, vel.
m como en español: mē, domus, tam. (En las terminaciones -am, -em,
-um, la m tiende a desaparecer).
n como en español: nōn, ūnus; antes de c, g, q como en ‘banco’:
incola, longus, quīnque. (Antes de la s, tiende a desaparecer: mēnsa,
īnsula.)
p como en español: pēs, populus, prope.
ph: como la p española seguida de una aspiración: ver ch.
qu como cu en ‘cual’, ‘cuestión’, ‘cuota’: quis, aqua, equus.
r como en español: rēs, ōra, arbor, cūr.
s como en español: sē, rosa, is.
t como en español: tē, ita, et.
th como la t española seguida de una aspiración: ver ch.
v es la grafía que representa a la u cuando ésta tiene valor
consonántico antes de vocal; se pronunciaba como la w inglesa: vōs,
vīvus, silva.
x como en español (= cs): ex, saxum.
z como en inglés y francés en ‘zone’: zōna.
i consonantica como en español y en ‘yo’, antes de vocal a comienzo
de palabra (o precedida por un prefijo) y entre vocales: iam, iānua,
iubēre, adiectīvum, (con)iungere, (in)iūstus, eius.
u consonantica como en español en ‘lengua’, ‘suave’, en la
combinación ngu antes de vocal y a veces en la combinación su
antes de ā y ē: lingua, sanguis, suādēre, suāvis, cōnsuētūdō.
Las consonantes geminadas tenían un sonido más marcado y más consonantes dobles
prolongado que las simples (la ll se pronunciaba como l-l): puella,
annus, nummus, oppidum, littera, ecce. (La i consonántica entre
vocales se pronunciaba como doble: eius como eiius, maior como
maiior, escrito māior en LINGVA LATINA).

7
La pronunciación latina post-clásica
la pronunciación La pronunciación clásica del latín descrita arriba era la de los medios
post-clásica
cultos de Roma en el primer siglo a.C. Sin embargo, la pronunciación
sufrió cambios considerables a lo largo del período imperial (siglos I a V
d.C.). Vemos aquí los cambios más notables:
(1) Los diptongos ae y oe se simplificaron en una e larga;
(2) v tomó el sonido de la v francesa como en ‘vivant’ (la v
experimentó un fenómeno de asimilación con la b, denominado
‘betacismo’, ejemplo: berus = verus);
(3) ph se pronunció f; ch y th como la c [k] y t sin aspiracion;
(4) ti seguida de una vocal tuvo el sonido silbante tsi (salvo después de
s, x, t);
(5) la distinción entre las sílabas largas y breves fue desvaneciéndose
dado que cualquier vocal breve al final de una sílaba acentuada se
alargó, mientras las vocales largas de las sílabas no acentuadas se
abreviaron.
(6) Finalmente, en el siglo V d.C., la pronunciación de c y de g se
modificó delante de las vocales palatales e, i, y, ae, oe: c se pronunció
como ch en español (fuera de Italia ts), y g, tanto como la i
consonantica, se pronunció como en italiano ‘giro’ o en inglés ‘gin’).
la pronunciación Los principales datos de esta pronunciación del latín post-clásico
Italiana o Eclesiástica sobreviven en la pronunciación del latín todavía usado en Italia. La
pronunciación ‘italiana’ del latín sigue siendo ampliamente usada por
la Iglesia Católica Romana y en el canto litúrgico.
División en sílabas
división en sílabas La división en sílabas se hace casi como en español:
(1) Una consonante simple forma una sílaba con la vocal que sigue:
do-mi-nus, o-cu-lus, cu-bi-cu-lum, pe-te-re.
(2) Si una vocal está seguida de dos o varias consonantes, la última
consonante pertenece a la sílaba siguiente: Sep-tem-ber, tem-pes-tās,
pis-cis, con-iūnc-tus. Excepción: b, d, g, p, t, c y f no se separan de
una siguiente r o l (salvo a veces en la poesía): li-brī, pa-tri-a, cas-tra,
in-te-gra, tem-plum.
Nota: los grupos de digrafía ch, ph, th, y qu cuentan como
consonantes simples y no se separan: pul-cher, am-phi-the-ā-trum,
a-li-quis; y x, que representa dos consonantes (cs), no se separa de la
vocal precedente: sax-um, dīx-it. Los compuestos deben separarse
según los componentes: ad-est, ab-est, trāns-it.

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Acentuación
En las palabras de dos sílabas el acento tónico está siempre en la acentuación
primera sílaba: ubi, multī, valē, erant, leō.
En las palabras de más de dos sílabas hay dos posibilidades: el acento dos posibilidades:
recae sobre la penúltima sílaba o sobre la antepenúltima. acento sobre
(1) la penúltima, o
(2) la antepenúltima
La regla básica es la siguiente:
La penúltima está acentuada excepto si acaba en una vocal breve: en
este caso es la antepenúltima la que está acentuada.
Por consiguiente, para determinar el acento de una palabra latina, hay ¡observa la penúltima!
que observar la penúltima sílaba:
La penúltima está acentuada si termina
(a) en una vocal larga o un diptongo (ā ē ī ō ū y ae oe au eu): Latīna,
vidēre, amīca, ōrātor, Rōmānus, persōna, amoena;
(b) en una consonante: secunda, vīgintī, lībertās, columna, magister.
Si la penúltima termina
(c) en una vocal breve (a e i o u y), el acento recae sobre la sílaba
precedente, la antepenúltima: īnsula, fēmina, oppidum, patria,
improbus, dīvidere, interrogat, ōceanus, persequī, cerebrum.

9
LINGVA LATINA, el curso de latín
LINGVA LATINA El curso de latín LINGVA LATINA PER SE ILLVSTRATA (‘La
PER SE ILLVSTRATA
I. FAMILIA ROMANA
lengua latina ilustrada por sí misma’) se compone de dos partes, PARS
I y II, con un índice común, INDICES. La primera parte, FAMILIA
ROMANA, es el curso elemental. Los 35 capítulos constituyen una
serie de escenas y episodios de la vida de una familia romana del siglo
segundo después de Cristo. El libro está escrito totalmente en latín,
pero desde el principio hasta el fin el texto está graduado de manera
que cada frase sea inteligible por sí misma, per sē, porque la signi-
ficación de todas las palabras nuevas y la función de las formas
gramaticales se deducen sin equívoco del contexto, o, si es necesario,
de las ilustraciones o de las notas marginales usando el vocabulario
ya aprendido. Así no se necesita consultar un léxico, analizar o
traducir para entender el significado. Tanto el vocabulario como la
gramática se aprenden por la observación de gran número de ejemplos
ilustrativos que forman parte de la coherencia del texto.
las ilustraciones Las ilustraciones sirven no sólo para explicar las palabras que
designan las cosas concretas, sino también para ilustrar unos
incidentes y situaciones. Los dibujos siguen escrupulosamente
modelos antiguos: las prendas de vestir, las casas, el mobiliario, etc.
han sido reproducidos según los datos que nos proporcionan los
testimonios arqueológicos.
notas marginales En las notas marginales se utilizan los siguientes signos:
signos: (1) el signo de igualdad [=], entre sinónimos, palabras que tienen más
[=] ‘lo mismo que’ o menos la misma significación: -que = et;
[↔] ‘lo contrario de’
[:] ‘es decir’, ‘aquí’ (2) el signo de oposición [↔], entre antónimos, palabras que tienen
[<] ‘derivado de’
significaciones contrarias: sine ↔ cum;
(3) el signo dos puntos [:], para dar la significación de una palabra en
un contexto dado: eam : Iūliam;
(4) el signo de derivación [<], para mostrar de qué palabra ya
conocida está derivada una nueva palabra: amor < amāre.
El texto de cada capítulo está dividido en dos o tres lecciones
lēctiōnēs: I, II, III (lēctiōnēs), señaladas por las cifras romanas I, II, III en el margen, y
GRAMMATICA LATINA seguido de una sección gramatical, GRAMMATICA LATINA. En esta
sección gramatical
sección, se recapitulan nuevos temas gramaticales introducidos en
el texto principal y se ilustran mediante ejemplos ordenados
sistemáticamente con terminos gramaticales latinos. Una tabla de las
flexiones, TABVLA DECLINATIONVM, se halla en las páginas 307−311.
Se ha publicado aparte una MORFOLOGÍA LATINA más detallada.
ejercicios (PENSA) Los tres ejercicios, PENSVM A, B y C, al final de cada capítulo tienen
como fin asegurar la asimilación de la gramática y del vocabulario y la
PENSVM A: desinencias comprensión del texto. El PENSVM A es un ejercicio gramatical en el
PENSVM B: palabras que debes añadir a las diferentes palabras las desinencias adecuadas.
PENSVM C: frases
En el PENSVM B se trata de llenar los huecos con las palabras nuevas

10
que han sido introducidas en el capítulo (en el margen, junto al
ejercicio, encontrarás una lista de dichas palabras). El PENSVM C
consiste en una serie de preguntas sobre el contenido del texto a las
que has de contestar con breves frases latinas.
En la progresión de tu lectura, de vez en cuando encontrarás unas
palabras cuyo sentido puedes haber olvidado. Tales palabras pueden
consultarse en la lista alfabética del INDEX VOCABVLORVM al final del INDEX VOCABVLORVM
volumen. Encontrarás allí la palabra acompañada de una referencia
precisa al capítulo (cifras en negrilla) y a la línea del capítulo donde la
palabra aparece por primera vez. La referencia a más de un lugar
significa que la misma palabra aparece con varios significados. La
mayoría de las ocasiones te bastará con volver a leer el pasaje en que
se encuentra dicha palabra para refrescarte la memoria.
De igual modo, el INDEX GRAMMATICVS (páginas 326−327) remite a la INDEX GRAMMATICVS
presentación de las formas gramaticales. La lista de FORMAE MVTATAE
(‘Formas cambiadas’, pág. 328) remite a la forma primitiva de la
palabra cuando un cambio del radical lo requiere.
Los alumnos que tengan dudas sobre su capacidad de determinar
el sentido preciso de cada palabra nueva pueden consultar el
Vocabulario latín-español. Pero este vocabulario no es más que un Vocabulario latín-
medio de control. Al alumno atento no le hará falta. español

Hay cuatro suplementos del curso elemental de latín: suplementos:


(1) LATINE DISCO I, el presente Manual del Alumno. LATINE DISCO I

(2) EXERCITIA LATINA I, un conjunto detallado de ejercicios EXERCITIA LATINA I


adicionales para cada una de las 133 lēctiōnēs de FAMILIA ROMANA.
(3) COLLOQVIA PERSONARVM, una colección de textos complemen- COLLOQVIA
PERSONARVM
tarios, en forma de diálogos.
(4) MORFOLOGÍA LATINA & VOCABULARIO LATÍN-ESPAÑOL, un MORFOLOGÍA LATINA
& VOCABULARIO
resumen en español de todos los aspectos morfológicos tratados en
FAMILIA ROMANA, junto con un Vocabulario en el que se incluyen
todos los términos que aparecen en FAMILIA ROMANA y en
COLLOQUIA PERSONARUM.

11
LINGVA LATINA II : ROMA AETERNA
LINGVA LATINA La segunda parte de LINGVA LATINA, que lleva por subtítulo ROMA
PER SE ILLVSTRATA AETERNA (‘Roma eterna’), es el curso de perfeccionamiento, que
II. ROMA AETERNA
puede estudiarse a continuación de FAMILIA ROMANA. La temática
fundamental del libro es la historia romana tal como nos la cuentan los
propios romanos, es decir, Virgilio, Ovidio, Tito Livio, Salustio,
Nepote, Cicerón, etc. Como en la primera parte, cada capítulo está
seguido de tres PENSA, que sirven para recapitular y ampliar los
conocimientos gramaticales, aprender nuevas palabras y practicar las
reglas de derivación.
INDICES El volumen INDICES comprende una lista cronológica de cónsules y
dictadores romanos y de sus triunfos, Fāstī cōnsulārēs y Fāstī
triumphālēs, un índice de nombres, Index nominum, con breves
explicaciones en latín, y un léxico, Index vocabulorum, que reúne
todas las palabras que se encuentran en las dos partes. Hay también un
EXERCITIA LATINA II volumen de EXERCITIA LATINA II para la Parte II.
LATINE DISCO II: El Manual del alumno para la Parte II, ROMA AETERNA, se ha
Manual de la Parte II publicado en otro volumen, LATINE DISCO II.
Después de terminar la Parte I de LINGVA LATINA, los estudiantes
ediciones: pueden continuar también con la lectura de unas ediciones didácticas
Sermōnēs Rōmānī de autores latinos: SERMŌNĒS RŌMĀNĪ (una colección de textos de
Plauto: Amphitryō varios autores), la comedia AMPHITRYŌ de Plauto y DĒ BELLŌ
César: Dē bellō Gallicō GALLICŌ de César. Estas ediciones, compendiadas pero sin
adaptación, están provistas de notas al margen, que explican todas las
palabras no localizadas en la Parte I. Los alumnos que hayan llegado al
capítulo XLVII de ROMA AETERNA pueden leer una edición similar
Petronio: Cēna Trimal- ilustrada de la CĒNA TRIMALCHIŌNIS, hilarante relato de Petronio
chiōnis
en torno a la cena ofrecida por Trimalción a sus amigos. Por último,
los estudiantes que hayan completado ROMA AETERNA podrán
Catilīna: Salustio & abordar la lectura de CATILĪNA, que incluye una selección
Cicerón de capítulos de la obra de Salustio, De Catilinae Coniuratione,
completados con los discursos In Catilinam I y III de Cicerón, junto
con la semblanza del conspirador que el propio Cicerón recoge en su
Pro Caelio Oratio.

Instrucciones Las siguientes páginas del Manual del alumno proporcionan


información sobre las nociones claves que se pueden observar en cada
capítulo de FAMILIA ROMANA. Sería provechoso prescindir de la
lectura de esas instrucciones hasta que no hayas leído dicho capítulo,
pues el texto en latín está pensado para enseñarte a hacer tus propias
observaciones linguísticas. Las explicaciones dadas en las instruc-
ciones están destinadas a atraer tu atención sobre hechos ya asimilados
y a formular unas reglas de gramática que has visto ilustradas por
muchos ejemplos a lo largo del texto. Las instrucciones te enseñan
también la terminología gramatical internacional, que está derivada
del latín.

12
LINGVA LATINA PER SE ILLVSTRATA
PARS I : FAMILIA ROMANA

INSTRUCCIONES

CAPÍTULO 1
En el primer capítulo, te hacemos volver unos 2.000 años atrás en el el Imperio romano
pasado, a la época en que el Imperio romano estaba en el apogeo de su
poder, extendiéndose desde el océano Atlántico hasta el mar Caspio y
desde Escocia hasta el Sáhara. Te proporcionamos algunos datos
geográficos como plano de fondo de las escenas de la vida en la Roma
antigua que siguen a continuación.
En el mapa del Imperio romano que figura en la página previa al
comienzo del primer capítulo, encontrarás todos los nombres
geográficos que aparecen en el capítulo. Tras identificar los nombres
de Rōma, Italia, Eurōpa, Graecia etc. entenderás lo que se dice de la
situación de la ciudad de Rōma en la primera frase: Rōma in Italiā est,
y lo que se dice de Italia y Graecia en las dos siguientes: Italia in
Eurōpā est. Graecia in Eurōpā est. Es lo que se repite de nuevo en
una sola frase: Italia et Graecia in Eurōpā sunt. El significado de et et (‘...’)
debería quedar perfectamente claro, pero te puedes plantear ¿por qué
aparece ahora sunt en lugar de est? En caso contrario, mira en el
margen, y lee también las dos frases siguientes. ¿Has descubierto
cuándo se usa est y cuándo se usa sunt? Si es así, has aprendido la
primera regla de gramática. Irás aprendiendo el conjunto de la gramática
latina de este modo, es decir, deduciendo las reglas gramaticales a partir
de tu propia observación del texto.
¿Has notado también la ligera diferencia entre Italia e Italiā, y qué Italia
tipo de palabra ocasiona la -ā larga? Esto está indicado en la primera in Italiā
nota marginal. Otro aspecto a resaltar: est y sunt se encuentran al final
de la frase, pero verás que no siempre es así; Rōma est in Italiā es
perfectamente correcto: el orden de las palabras es menos rígido en orden de las palabras
latín que en español. libre

¿Es realmente posible, te preguntarás, entenderlo todo con sólo leer el


texto? Ciertamente, siempre que concentres tu atención sobre el
sentido y el contenido de lo que lees. Basta con saber dónde está
Aegyptus para entender la expresión Aegyptus in Eurōpā nōn est,
Aegyptus in Āfricā est (lín. 5). No puede haber duda en cuanto al
sentido de nōn (llamado negación). Pero a menudo una frase no se la negación nōn
entiende más que relaciónandola con otras frases. En la frase Hispānia (‘.......’)
quoque in Eurōpā est (lín. 2-3), no entenderás quoque hasta que leas
en el contexto: Italia et Graecia in Eurōpā sunt. Hispānia quoque in quoque (‘..................’)
Eurōpā est. (Las dos frases precedentes hubieran podido ser: Italia in
Eurōpā est. Graecia quoque in Eurōpā est). Si te queda todavía alguna
duda, continúa leyendo hasta que el término vuelva a aparecer: Syria
nōn est in Eurōpā, sed in Asiā. Arabia quoque in Asiā est (lín. 7).

13
Ahora entenderás seguramente quoque y, al mismo tiempo, has
sed (‘............’) aprendido la palabra sed casi sin darte cuenta.
En el párrafo siguiente se hacen algunas preguntas y cada una de ellas
está seguida por una respuesta. Muchas veces es necesario leer la
respuesta antes de estar perfectamente seguro del sentido de la
-ne... ? (pregunta) pregunta. La primera pregunta es: Estne Gallia in Eurōpā? El -ne
enclítico, unido a est, indica que la frase es una pregunta (nuestro
signo de interrogación [?] era desconocido por los antiguos romanos).
La respuesta es: Gallia in Eurōpā est. La pregunta siguiente Estne
Rōma in Galliā? tiene una respuesta negativa: Rōma in Galliā nōn est.
(El latín no tiene palabras aisladas para ‘sí’ o ‘no’; la frase –o parte de
ubi (‘.............’) la frase– debe ser repetida con o sin nōn.) En la pregunta Ubi est
Rōma? la palabra ubi sólo se comprende cuando tienes la respuesta:
Rōma est in Italiā.
Después de dar un breve repaso a la ubicación de las principales
provincias romanas, se te habla de diversos lugares: Rhēnus y Nīlus,
Corsica y Sardinia, Tūsculum y Brundisium. Encontrarás estos
nombres en el mapa, y el texto te dirá lo que representan. Si te quedan
fluvius (‘.........’) dudas en cuanto al sentido de las palabras fluvius, īnsula y oppidum,
īnsula (‘..........’)
oppidum (‘...............’) vuelve a mirar la ilustración que encabeza el capítulo.

singular plural Observa que estas palabras aparecen bajo dos formas distintas: Nīlus,
fluvius fluviī en solitario, es llamado fluvius, pero Nīlus y Rhēnus juntos son
īnsula īnsulae llamados fluviī. Verás una alternancia análoga entre las formas īnsula
oppidum oppida e īnsulae, oppidum y oppida. En la sección GRAMMATICA LATINA
aprenderás que las formas fluvius, īnsula y oppidum se denominan
singulāris, mientras que fluviī, īnsulae y oppida se denominan
plūrālis, en español singular y plural.
Conforme avances en tu lectura, verás que Nīlus es citado no sólo
magnus (‘...............’) como fluvius sino como fluvius magnus, a diferencia de Tiberis, que es
parvus (‘...............’)
descrito como fluvius parvus. Del mismo modo, Sicilia es citada como
sing. fluvius magnus īnsula magna al contrario de Melita (la actual Malta), que es llamada
īnsula magna
oppidum īnsula parva. En el margen magnus y parvus se representan como
magnum contrarios (signo [↔] ‘lo contrario de’); esto te ayudará a entender el
plur. fluviī magnī sentido de las palabras, pero observa los cambios de desinencia. Se
īnsulae magnae
oppida magna ven más ejemplos cuando Brundisium es llamada oppidum magnum y
Tūsculum oppidum parvum, y cuando las mismas palabras aparecen en
plural: fluviī magnī, īnsulae magnae, oppida magna.
Las palabras que presentan esta variación entre las desinencias -us, -a,
sustantivos:
fluvius, īnsula,
-um en singular e -ī, -ae, -a en plural se llaman adjetivos (lat.
oppidum, etc. adiectīvum, ‘palabra añadida’) porque se añaden a un sustantivo al que
califican. Otros sustantivos en este capítulo: prōvincia, imperium,
numerus, littera, vocābulum, exemplum. Los adjetivos son, además
adjetivos: de magnus -a -um y parvus -a -um, otros como Graecus -a -um,
magnus -a -um Rōmānus -a -um, Latīnus -a -um, prīmus -a -um y, en plural, multī
parvus -a -um
multī -ae -a -ae -a y paucī -ae -a. Las desinencias de los adjetivos dependen de los
etc. sustantivos a los que califican.

14
La pregunta Num Crēta oppidum est? (lín. 49) exige la respuesta pregunta: num…?
negativa Crēta oppidum nōn est. Num es una partícula interrogativa, respuesta: … nōn …
igual que -ne, pero una pregunta introducida por num implica una
respuesta negativa. La pregunta siguiente es Quid est Crēta? Aquí quid? (‘………’)
también sólo la respuesta Crēta īnsula est hace perfectamente claro el
sentido de la pregunta.
Hemos visto una desinencia -a transformada en -ā después de in.
Vemos ahora que in provoca también el cambio de -um en -ō: in imperium Rōmānum
imperiō Rōmānō; in vocābulō; in capitulō prīmō (lín. 58, 72, 73). in imperiō Rōmānō
Estas formas en -ā y -ō se estudiarán en el cap. 5.
Como signo numérico para mīlle, ‘mil’, los romanos tomaron la letra
griega Φ (ph) que se transformó en CIЭ (lín. 64) y más tarde se cambió CIЭ = M = mīlle (1000)
en M bajo la influencia de MILLE.
El latín es una lengua concisa. Puede a menudo decir en pocas palabras
lo que exige un número mayor de palabras en otras lenguas. Una de
las razones de esto es que el latín posee menos partículas (palabras
invariables) que la mayor parte de las lenguas modernas: así no
encontrarás nada que corresponda con los artículos del español ‘un’ y
‘el’ como en ‘un río’, ‘el río’, etc.

CAPÍTULO 2
Te presentamos ahora a la gente sobre cuya vida cotidiana vas a leer. la familia romana
La ilustración los muestra vestidos con sus más hermosas prendas,
excepto las personas que están relegadas al margen –está claro que
éstas no tienen el mismo status o rango social que el resto de la
familia. Asegúrate de memorizar sus nombres, ya que pronto estarás
tan familiarizado con estas personas que te sentirás como un amigo
que viene a visitar a una verdadera familia romana de hace 2.000 años.
¡Y lo más extraordinario es que puedes entender su idioma!
Observa que los nombres de esas personas terminan unas veces en -us hombres: -us
y otras en -a, pero nunca en -um. Verás que la desinencia -us mujeres: -a
caracteriza a las personas de sexo masculino (Iūlius, Mārcus, Quīntus,
Dāvus, Mēdus) y la desinencia -a a las personas de sexo femenino
(Aemilia, Iūlia, Syra, Dēlia). Esto se aplica también a los sustantivos
que designan a personas. Los sustantivos que se refieren a los hombres
terminan generalmente en -us: fīlius, dominus, servus (pero -us se
omite en algunos sustantivos en -r, p. ej. vir, puer), mientras que los
sustantivos que designan a mujeres terminan en -a (fēmina, puella,
filia, domina, ancilla); pero una persona nunca es designada por un
sustantivo en -um. Por consiguiente, se dice que los sustantivos
terminados en -um, p. ej. oppidum, vocābulum, imperium, son neutros
(lat. neutrum, ‘ni el uno ni el otro’, es decir ni masculino ni femenino), 3 géneros:
mientras que la mayoría de las sustantivos en -us son masculinos (lat. masculino (m.): -us
masculīnum) y la mayoría de las sustantivos en -a son femeninos (lat. femenino (f.): -a
neutro (n.): -um
fēminīnum, de fēmina). Pero, como términos gramaticales, ‘masculino’

15
y ‘femenino’ no están reservados a los seres vivos: las palabras fluvius,
numerus, liber son gramaticalmente masculinas, mientras que īnsula,
littera, familia son femeninas. La designación gramatical, en
consecuencia, no es la de ‘sexo’ sino de género (lat. genus). Las
abreviaciones usadas para los tres géneros son m, f y n.
El término familia se refiere a toda la gente de la casa, incluyendo a
todos los esclavos, servī y ancillae, que pertenecen al cabeza de
familia como su propiedad. Iūlius es el padre, pater, de Mārcus,
Quīntus y Iūlia, y el amo, dominus, de Mēdus, Dāvus, Syra, Dēlia, etc.
genitivo: Para expresar estas relaciones se necesita el genitivo (lat. genetīvus),
m./n. f. forma del sustantivo que termina en -ī o -ae en singular: Iūlius est
sing. -ī -ae pater Mārcī et Quīntī et Iūliae; en plural encuentras las desinencias
plur. -ōrum -ārum
-ōrum y -ārum: Iūlius est dominus multōrum servōrum et multārum
ancillārum. Así pues, las terminaciones del genitivo son -ae y -ārum en
femenino e -ī y -ōrum en masculino y en neutro (ver lín. 56, 87).
conjunciones Las partículas como et y sed se denominan conjunciones (lat.
coniūnctiōnēs, de con-iungere, ‘juntar’) porque sirven para unir
palabras o frases. En lugar de et encuentras a menudo la conjunción
...-que = et ... enclítica -que unida al final de la segunda palabra: Dēlia Mēdusque
sustituye a Dēlia et Mēdus y fīliī fīliaeque sustituye a fīliī et fīliae (lín.
9, 22).
m. f. n. Entre las palabras nuevas en el cap. 2 se encuentran los interrogativos
quis? quae? quid? quis y quae, que se emplean para preguntar sobre las personas (esp.
gen. cuius? ‘¿quién?’): Quis est Mārcus? y Quae est Iūlia? (lín. 15, 17), es decir,
el masculino quis (plural quī), el femenino quae y el neutro quid,
como ya viste en el cap. 1 (esp. ‘¿qué?’). El genitivo del interrogativo
es cuius (esp. ‘¿de quién?’): Cuius servus est Dāvus? Dāvus servus
Iūliī est (lín. 35).
La partícula interrogativa invariable quot sirve para preguntar sobre el
número: Quot līberī sunt in familiā? In familiā sunt trēs līberī. Quot
quot? 1, 2, 3...
fīliī et quot fīliae? Duo fīliī et ūna fīlia. Quot servī? Centum servī.
m. f. n.
ūnus ūna ūnum
Como la mayoría de los numerales centum es invariable; pero ūnus tiene
duo duae duo las desinencias -us -a -um, el femenino de duo es duae (duae filiae) y el
trēs trēs tria neutro de trēs es tria (tria oppida).
El número puede también indicarse con el sustantivo numerus
combinado con el genitivo plural: Numerus līberōrum est trēs.
Numerus servōrum est centum (lín. 43-44). Dado que centum ha de
magnus numerus -ōrum considerarse como un magnus numerus, las frases siguientes se
= multī -ī / multa -a entienden fácilmente: Numerus servōrum est magnus e In familiā
magnus numerus -ārum magnus numerus servōrum est; parece evidente que magnus numerus
= multae -ae
servōrum equivale a multī servī. Del mismo modo, parvus numerus
līberōrum tiene la misma significación que paucī līberī. Encontrarás
además las expresiones magnus numerus oppidōrum y fluviōrum (lín.
56-57) que significan multa oppida y multī fluviī.

16
Del continente africano los romanos no conocían más que la región
norte, donde se encuentra un único gran río, el Nilo: In Āfricā ūnus
fluvius magnus est: Nīlus (lín. 58). Y continúa: Cēterī fluviī Āfricae cēterī -ae -a
parvī sunt. El adjetivo cēterī -ae -a (‘los demás’) aparece varias veces;
así es como la enumeración de los 3 primeros capitula (de los 35 que
componen el libro) concluye con cētera (lín. 86; hubiéramos podido
tener et cētera, expresión latina que abreviamos en ‘etc.’).
La siguiente regla se aplica en latín a las enumeraciones: (1) se coloca enumeración:
et entre cada uno de los términos: Mārcus et Quīntus et Iūlia; (2) no se (1) A et B et C
emplea ninguna conjunción: Mārcus, Quīntus, Iūlia; o bien (3) se (2) A, B, C
(3) A, B C-que
añade -que al último término: Mārcus, Quīntus Iūliaque.
El diálogo del final del capítulo muestra que, en lugar del genitivo,
los adjetivos posesivos meus -a -um y tuus -a -um remiten adjetivos posesivos
respectivamente a la persona que está hablando y a la persona a la que
uno está hablando (como en español ‘mi’ y ‘tu’).
En la página 16 encuentras la palabra ecce (ilustrada con una flecha en ecce: →
el margen). Se usa cuando se designa algo o cuando se atrae la
atención sobre algo, aquí sobre la ilustración de los dos libros.
Observa la forma de un libro antiguo: un rollo de papiro cuyo texto
está escrito en columnas, y la palabra latina para tal rollo: liber (otro sing. plur.
sustantivo masculino en -r sin -us), plural librī. liber librī

CAPÍTULO 3
Ahora que conoces a la familia, vas a observar algunas de sus
actividades. Empezamos con los niños, que hacían en aquella época
cosas muy similares a los de hoy. No nos sorprende, por tanto, saber
que los hijos de Iulius y Aemilia no pueden pasar mucho tiempo
juntos sin discutir. Aquí, la pequeña Iulia es la primera en salir
malparada por molestar a su hermano mayor. La paz no se restable-
cerá hasta que lleguen la madre y el padre.
Varias de las nuevas palabras de este capítulo son verbos. Un verbo verbos:
(lat. verbum) es una palabra que expresa una acción o un estado: que -at: cantat, pulsat,
plōrat, vocat,
alguien haga algo o que algo exista o se produzca. El primer verbo interrogat, verberat
latino que encuentras es cantat en la primera frase: Iūlia cantat. Los -et: rīdet,videt,
respondet
otros verbos son pulsat, plōrat, rīdet, videt, vocat, venit, interrogat, -it: venit, audit, dormit
respondet, dormit, audit, verberat. Todos terminan en -t (como est,
que también es un verbo) y la mayoría de las ocasiones aparecen al
final de la frase.
En la frase Iūlia cantat, la primera palabra designa a la persona que
realiza la acción. Otras frases del mismo tipo son: Iūlia plōrat;
Mārcus rīdet; Aemilia venit; pater dormit (lín. 9, 10, 21, 37). Pero no
siempre es tan simple. Fíjate por ejemplo en la frase ilustrada por el
pequeño dibujo en el margen: Mārcus Iūliam pulsat. Aquí, nos dicen Mārcus Iūliam pulsat
no sólo quién realiza la acción sino también a quien se dirige dicha
acción. Vemos el mismo esquema en las frases siguientes, también

17
Quīntus Mārcum videt ilustradas por imágenes: Quīntus Mārcum videt; Quīntus Mārcum
Iūlia Aemiliam vocat pulsat; Mārcus Quīntum pulsat; Iūlia Aemiliam vocat (lín. 11−16).
Como ves, el nombre de la persona que realiza la acción, llamada
sujeto: -us, -a sujeto del verbo, posee una de las desinencias ya bien conocidas -us y
objeto: -um, -am
-a, mientras que el nombre de la persona a quien se dirige dicha
acción, el objeto, toma la desinencia -um o -am. Dicho de otro modo:
Iūlia se transforma en Iūliam cuando nos dicen que Marcus la golpea,
así como Mārcus se vuelve Mārcum cuando él es la víctima. En
circunstancias semejantes puella se transforma en puellam, y puer en
puerum, y los adjetivos calificativos toman la misma desinencia: Puer
parvam puellam pulsat; Iūlius puerum improbum verberat.
sujeto objeto verbo Así, con la ayuda de las desinencias, distinguimos en latín el sujeto del
Mārcus Iūliam pulsat verbo y su objeto. Las formas en -us y en -a que caracterizan al sujeto,
m. f. se llaman nominativo (lat. nōminātīvus), y las formas en -um y en -am,
nominativo -us -a
que designan al objeto, se llaman acusativo (lat. accūsātīvus). Los
acusativo -um -am
verbos como pulsat, videt, vocat, que se usan con un objeto en
verbos transitivos e acusativo, se llaman transitivos, y los verbos sin objeto, p. ej. rīdet,
intransitivos
plōrat, dormit, son verbos intransitivos.
En lugar de los acusativos en -am y -um encuentras a veces eam y
eam : Iūliam eum, p. ej. Iūlia plōrat quia Mārcus eam pulsat, y Cūr Iūlius Quīntum
eum : Quīntum
nōn audit? Iūlius eum nōn audit, quia dormit (lín. 27, 43; los dos
puntos [:] en la nota marginal eam : Iūliam significan que aquí eam
se ha colocado en lugar de Iūliam). Una palabra de este tipo que se
emplea en lugar de un nombre propio o un sustantivo, se llama
pronombre pronombre (lat. prōnōmen, de prō ‘en lugar de’ y nōmen ‘nombre’ o
m. f. ‘sustantivo’). Correspondiendo a eum y a eam el pronombre mē se
ac. eum eam emplea cuando una persona (hombre o mujer) habla de sí misma, y tē

tē se emplea para la persona a quien uno habla (como en español ‘me’ y
‘te’): Aemilia: “Quis mē vocat?” Quīntus: “Iūlia tē vocat” (lín. 24-25).
pregunta: cūr ...? La partícula interrogativa cūr se emplea para preguntar la causa. Una
respuesta: ... quia ... pregunta introducida por cūr requiere una respuesta con la conjunción
causal quia (esp. ‘porque’): Cūr Iūlia plōrat? Iūlia plōrat quia Mārcus
eam pulsat; Cūr Mārcus Iūliam pulsat? Quia Iūlia cantat (lín. 26-
27, 30-31).
Cuando la identidad del sujeto es conocida, porque el contexto
muestra quién es, no es necesario repetirlo o reemplazarlo por un
pronombre en la frase siguiente: “Ubi est Iūlius? Cūr nōn venit?” (lín.
36); Iūlius eum nōn audit, quia dormit (lín. 43); “Cūr māter Mārcum
verberat?” “Mārcum verberat, quia puer improbus est” (lín. 58; en
español tampoco repetimos el sujeto en tal caso).
ne-que = ‘et nōn’ (‘sed Las conjunciones et y sed no se combinan con una negación; en lugar
nōn’) de ‘et nōn’ y de ‘sed nōn’ se emplea la conjunción neque, es decir
-que unida a la negación original ne (= nōn): Iūlius dormit neque
Quīntum audit. Iūlius venit, neque Aemilia eum videt (en español ‘y...
no’, ‘pero... no’).

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IN T R O D U C T IO N

LINGVA LATINA, the Latía Language


The Latin language, lingua Latina, was the language o f the Latíni, the in- Latín, the language of
habitants o f ¡Mtnun, a región o f central Italy, ittcluding the cily o f Rome Latiwn
(Roma), which according to tradition had been fbunded by Rómulus in 753
b .c . In tiie fnllowing centuries the dominión o f Rome, imperium Rdmánum, the language of the
spread o ver the whole o f Italy, and from there ovcr the W estern and Eastern Román Empim
MediterTanean. By the 2nd centnry a .d . the Román emperor ruled most of
Europe, Nortli Africa, aud the Near and Middle East. In the Western Euro-
pean proviDces, Hispánia, Gallia, Britamia, GermSnia (Southern Germany),
and in the Balkans, e.g. in Dácia (Romanía), the Latin language spread
rapidly. la Greece and in the Eastern provinces G reek maintaioed its
dominaut position, so that the ancients had two w orld languages, Greek aud
Latin.

After the fall o f the Western Empire Latin was supplanted as a spoken
language in some o f the border provinces, e.g. Britain and Africa; in the
other provinces spoken Latin developed into the Romance languages, e.g. (be Romance languages
Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian.

Today Latin is nobody’s mother tongue. That is why it is called a "dead’ the cultura) language of
Europe
language. However, this is rather a misleading term. For centuries Latin was
ju st as much a ¡iving language in the vast Román empire as Euglish is today
in the English-speaking world. And chis ‘dead’ language had such vitality
that throughout the Middle Ages it remained unchallenged as the common
language o f the educated classes o f Europe. Up to the 18th century Latin re-
laiaed its leadership as the médium o f internatioual scholarship. In our own
day the classical language survives iu the Román Catholic Church, and most
scientitic terms are still Latín.

As a result o f the position o f Latin as the internatioual cultural language, the


national European languages have been enriched with iaige numbers of
Latin words. Apart from the Romance languages, where non-Latin words are
exceptions, English is the language which has absorbed by ía r th e greatest Latín words in English
num ber o f Latin words. Indeed m ore tlian half o f the English vocabulary is
directly or indirectly derived from Latin,

3
Orthography and Pronunciation
the Latín alphabet The Latín alphabet had 23 letters: A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X
Y Z (K was hardly used, Y and Z only in Greek words). The small letters are
J.Unot used (until a later development o f these capital letters. The characters J, U and W were
the 16th century) unknown: J and V denoted the vowels i and u as w ellas the consonants j and v
(pronounced like English y and w). N ot until the 16th century was the distiuc-
tion between the characters 1 i and J j and between V v and 11 u observed. !n
our Latín books we do not use J j . but we distinguish the consonants V v
froro the vowels U u, cxcept in tilles that are written in capital letters, e.g.
iv u v s = nn.ius CAPITVLVM, IVLIVS.
It is possible to determíne, with a hígh degree o f accuracy, bow the Latín
words were pronounced in ancient times. The main types o f evidence are the
following:
(1) L3tin orthography, especially variations fomi the norm.
(2) The pronunciation o f the Romance languages, which rcprcsent the later
development o f spoken Latín.
(3) Statements about the pronunciation found in the writings o f ancient Latin
grammarians and other authors.
(4) The representaron o f Latin words in other languages.
O n the basis o f such sources o f Information we can lay down the main rules
the Classical govem ing the pronunciation of Latin in the Classical period (the first century
pronunciation B.c.) as follows:

Vowels
vowels: A clear distinction was m ade in pronunciation, but not in writing, between
short: a e i o u y long and short vowels. In L ingva Latina every long vowel is marked wifti a
long: á é i ó ú y
macron [“]•’ 'L 1 ó, ü, y ; coDsequently the absence o f a macron shows that
the vowel is short: a, e, i, o, u, y.
Short vowels Long vowels
a as the first a in ‘a h a ’: ama! a as in " f n l h e r ató, pañis
e as in ‘let’tef, bene i as in Scottísh ‘lute’ (uo díphthoug!): oté
i as in ‘frt: in, nimia f as ee in ‘feet’: ¡tic, lib eñ
o as in ‘hot’jposr, modo o as in Scottísh ‘go’ (no diphthong!): pono
u as in *fulT: man, sumus ü as in ‘fool’: una, tü
y as Freüch u in ‘l«ne’: Syria y as French u in 'p « r‘: Lydia

Diphihongs
diphihongs: A diphthong is a combination o f two vowels in one syHable. The Latin
ae oe aa cu ui diphihongs are: ae, oe, au, en, ni.
ae as ie in ‘d¡V: Graecia, laelus, paene.
oe as oi in ‘boíl’: foedus, poena.
au as ou in ‘loud’; aut, nauta.
eu as e+u combined into one syllable: Europa, heu, heus, neu, sen. (Bul lite
endings -us. -um, -uní forra sepárate syllables afler e: de\vs, iimlua, v\u»i,
e\unt, aure\na.)
ui in vui. hule, cuins, huius as u+r combined into one syllable.

4
Consonante
¿ a s m English: bibit, ab. (B u tb s and bi a sp s andp t: ahsunt, obtulil). consonants:
c always hard as in ‘c a f (= k, without aspiration): canis, centum, circus, nec. h c d f g h k l m u p q r
ch.ph, th as k, p, rw ith aspiration:pulcher, ampliilheatnim. s tx z
i v (u)
d as in English: de, dedit, ad.
f as in English: jbrum .flüm en.
g as in English ‘g et’ (never as in ‘gem ’): gallus, genima, agit.
gn as ngn in ‘willingness’: signum, pugna, magnas
h as in English [tending to disappear]: htc, homo, nihii.
I as in English: lima, gladius, mole, ve/.
m as in English: ¡ni, domus, tam. [In the unstressed endings -am, -em, -um it
tended to disappear ]
u as in English: non, únus; before c, g, q as in ‘ink’: incala, longos, quinqué.
[Before s it tended to disappear: mensa, ínsula.)
p as in English (without aspiration): pés, populas, prope.
ph as Englishp with aspiration: see above under ch.
qu as English qu in ‘guick’: quis, aqua, equus
r rolled (as in Scottish and in Italian and Spanish): res, ora, arbor, cür.
s as in English ‘gas’ (never voiced as in ‘hay’): si, rosa, is.
t as in English (without aspiration): ti, ita, et.
th as English t with aspiration: see above under ch.
v as English w; vos, vivus.
x as in English (= es): ex, saxum.
z as English z in ‘ro ñ e’: zona
i consonant, as English y i n ‘y e í\ before a vowel at the beginning o fa w o rd (or
preceded by a prefix) and between vowels: ¡am, iubire, con-iungere, eius.
u consonant, as English w, in the combinación ngu before a vowel and some-
times in the combination su before 5 and i : lingua, sanguis, suádére,
suovis, cSnsuetúdS.
Double consonants w ere held longer than single consonants (as in 'thim /ess‘. double consonants
‘roorwnaíe1, ‘rattail'): Ule, avrtus, nutnnnts, térra, ecce, Huera, oppidum.
[The i consonant between vowels was pronounced double: eius as eiius,
maior as maiior, in L in o v a L a t i n a written mñior.)

Late Latín pronunciation


The Classical Latín pronunciation described above was that o f educated Late Latín pronunciation
Romans in the first century b .c . In imperial times (lst-5 th centuries a . d .)
llie pronunciation o f Latín underwent considerable cbanges. The most
conspicuous are the following:
(1) The dipthongs ae and oe were simplified into lotig é (an opea vowel).
(2) v wns pronounced like English v.
(3 ) p h was pronounced like f . th like t, and ch like c (= k),
(4) ti before a vowel becarae tsi (except after s, t, x ).
(5) The distinction between long and short vowels was obscured, as short
vowels at the end o f a stressed syllable became long (open vowels), and
long vowels in unstressed syHables became short.
(6) Finally (in the 5th century) the pronunciation o f c and g changed befóte
the front vowels e. i, y, ae, oe: c carne to be pronounced like English ch iu
‘cAin’ (jo . however, like sh) and g (and i consonant) like English g in ‘gin’
or j in ‘j a m ’. Outside o f Italy c in this position was pronounced te.

5
thc hallan orEcclesias- The main features o f this Late Latin pronunciation survive in the pronuncia­
tical pronunciation tion o f Latín still used in Itaty. This Ttalian’ pronunciation o f Lalin is widely
used m the Román Cathoiic Church and in church singing.
The Classical Latin pronunciation is now generally taught in British and
American schools; b u t this dates cmly &om the beginning o f the 20th
century. Before then m ost English-speaking people pronounced Latin words
the tradnkma! English as i f they were English. Tbis traditional Engüsh pronunciation o f Latin is
pronunciaron still alive: it is used in the English forms o f Latin ñames {Plautus, Cicero,
Scipio, Caesar, Augustas, etc.) and in a great many L atin words and phrases
in current use in English (e.g. radias, médium, arca, status quo, et celera, ad
injinitum, bona fide, vice versa, etc.).

Syliable división
divitíian ínto syHables Words are divided into syllables in Latin according to the following simple
rules:
(1) A single consonant goes with the following vowel: do-mi-nus, o-cti-lus,
cu-bi-cn-ltnn, pe-te-re.
(2) When two or more consonants follow a vowel, the last consonant is
carried over to the next syliable: Sep-tem-ber, tem pes tas, pis-cis. con-iúnc-
tus. Exception: b, d, g, p, t, c and / are not separated from a following r o r l
(except sometíales in poetry): li-bñ, sa-cra, pu-ni-u, cus-tm, tem-plum in-
te-gra, ce-re-bntm.
Note: The digrapbs ch, ph, th and qu count as single consonants and are not
separated: puí-cher, am-phi-the-á-trum, a-h-quis; and x, as representing two
consonants (es), is not separated ■from the preceding vowel: sax-um, dix-it.
Compounds should be divided into components: ad-est, ab-est, trüns-it.

Accentuation
ac ce m ov stress In words o f tw o syllables the accent (stress) is always on the first syliable:
'ubi, ‘mu!ti. ‘vale, ’erant, ‘leo.
two possibilities: In words o f more than tw o syllables there are two possibilities: the accent
(1) the penultimate, or falls on (1) the last syliable but one, the penuliimate, or (2) the last syliable
(2) the antepenúltimos
but two, the antepenuítimate. The basic rule is this:

The penultimate is accented unless it ends in a short vowel, in which case the
antepenuítimate ís accented.___________________________________________

look at the penúltimas Accordingly, to determine the positíon o f the accent in a Latín word, look at
(last but one) syliable) the penultimate (the last but one syliable):
The penultimate is accented when it ends
(a) in a long vowel o r diphthong: La'tina, vi'dere, a 'mica. Ró’mdnus. d'rütor,
per'sóna, a 'moena: or
ib) in a consonant: se1cunda, vi'ginti, ¡¡'bertas, co'lumna. ma'gister.
I f it ends (c) in a short vowel, the penultimate is uitacceuictl and tho acocili
falls on the preceding syliable, lüe antepemUimtite:'¡usul<i,‘l¿tn¡uu.'¡udrut,
‘oppidum. 'imnrabus. dí'videre, in'terrogal, tVeeuuus. 'iwscttui. Uvrrhriun.

6
U N C V A L A T IN A , the L atín course
The Latín course LINGVA LATINA PER SE 1LLVSTRATA (‘The Latiu language LINGVA LATINA
illustrated by itse lf) consistí o f tw o parts, PAJRS I and II. The first part, PER SE 1LLVSTRATA
FAMILIA ROMANA, is the fundamental course. The 35 chapteis form a I. FAMILIA ROMANA
sequence o f scenes and incidents from the life o f a Román family in the 2nd
century a .d . The book is written cntireiy in Latín, but from beginning to end
the text is so graded thaj every sentence is inteliigible p e r se, because the
meaning or function o f all new words and forms is m ade clear by the con-
text, or, if necessary, by pictures or marginal notes using vocabulary akeady
leamed. Thus there is no need to look up words, to analyze, or to transíate in
order to understand the meaning. Vocabulary and grammar are leamed by
the observaron o f a large number o f illustrative examples which are part o f
the coherent text.
The pictures are used n ot only to exptain words deuoting material things, but p ic tu re s
siso to ¡Ilústrate bappenings and situations. In making the pictures ancient
models have been followed scrupulousiy: dothing, buildings, fumiture etc.
are reproduced as we know thern to have been from archaeoloeical finds. In
this way much o f the information given in the text about the conditions
under which the ancient Roroans lived is illustrated.
In the marginal notes the following signs are used: m arg in al n o te s
(1) sign o f equation [=] between synonyms, words with the same meaning, sig n s:
e.g. -que = el; [= ] ‘th e s a m e a s ’
(2) sign o f opposition [*-»] between antonyms, words o f opposite meanings, [«-»] ‘th e o p p o site o f
e.g. .tiñe*-* cum; (:] ‘t h a t i s ’, ‘h e te ; ’
(3) colon [:] to show the meaning o f a word in a given context, e.g. eam : [< ] ‘d e riv e d f ro m '

lüiiam;
(4) sign o f derivation [<] to show from wliat known word a new word is
derived, e.g. amor < amare.
The text o f each chapter is divided into two or three lessons (lectión&s, ISctiSnes: 1, II, S I
marked by Román numeráis 1, II, III in the margin) and followed by a section
on grammar, GRAMMATICA LATINA. In this section new graramatical
points introduced in the main text are recapilulated and illustrated by syste-
matically arranged examples with the Latín grammatical terms. A survey of
inflectíons, TABVLA DECLD4ATIONVM, is found on pages 307-311. A more
detailed moiphology is published separately (see p. 8).
The tliree exercises, PENSVM A, B and C, at the end o f eacb chapter serve to e x e rc ise s:
sccure the learning o f grammar and vocabulary and the understanding o f the PENSVM a : w o rd s
text. P e n s v m A is a grammatical exercise, where the missing endings are to PENSVMB: e n d in g s
PENSVM c: se n te n c e s
be fílled in. Tu PENSVM B you are supposcd to fill the blanks with new words
introduced in the chapter (there is a list o f the new words in tire margin).
PENSVM Cconsists ofquesticns to be answered with sbort l.atin sentences.
As you progress with your reading, you will come across some words whose
meaning you have forgotten. Such words should be looked up in the alpha-
betical word-list INDEX VOCABVLORVM at the end o f the book. Here you INDEX VOCABVLORVM
w ill fmd a precise reference to the chapter (in bold figures) and the line of
the chapter where the words occur for the ñrst time. A reference to more
than one place means that the same word occurs in more than one sense. In
most cases the reading o f the sentence in which the word appears is enotigh
to help you tecali the meaning. T he INDEX GRAMMATICVS on pages 326-
327 refere to the presentation o f the grammatical forms.

7
Students who have doubts about their own ability to arrive at the exact
I.atm-Engiish nieaning of every new word can gei a Latin-English Vocabulary I. But ibis
Vocabulary [ vocabulary ís intended solely as a key to chcck the meaning o f words - the
eareful studeut will not need it at all.
supplements: The fundamental course has threc supplements:
GRAMMATICA l a t in a , (1) GRAMMATICA LATINA, a Latín morphology.
C0LL0QV1A PERSONA- (2) COLLOQVIA PERSONARVM, a collection o f supplementaiy texts, mostly
RVM dialogue.
EXERCITIA LATINA I (3 ) EXERCITIA J.ATINA 1, an extensivo collection o f additional exercises for
each o f the 133 lectióné.r in FAMII.IA ROMANA.

LINGVA LATINA II: ROMA AETERNA


LINGVA LATINA Part II o f LINGVA LATINA, with the subtitle ROMA AETERNA ("Etemal
PER SE ILLVSTRATA Rom e’), is the advanced course. It can be studied imraediately after Part I, but
n . ROMA AETERNA it malees much heavier demanda on the student. The main subject ís Román
histoiy as told by ihe Romans themselves, i.e. authors like Vergil, Ovid, Livy.
Sallust, Coinelius Nepos, Cicero, and others. As in Part I each chapter is
followed by three pensa , which serve to recapitúlate and extend grammatical
knowledge, rebesrse new words, and practice the tules o f derivation.
INDICES The índices volum e belonging to this part conlains lists o f Román consuls
and their triumphs (FASTI CONSVLARES & TRlVMPllALES), a ñame índex
(TNDEX NOMINVM) with short explanations in Latín, and an índex o f all the
EXERCITIA LATINA II words used in boih parts o f the course. There is also a volume o f EXERCITIA
Lal.-Engl. Vocabulaiy II LATINA 11for Part II, and a Lalin-English Vocabulary I I covei ing both parts.
A fter finishing Part I o f LINGVA LATINA you can also go on to read the
follovv-up editions: follow-up editions o f Latín authors: (1) Sermones Rómóiñ, an aDthology o f
Sermones RómSi i¡ classical texts, (2) Plautus: Amphitryó, and (3) Caesar: D ébelld Gallicó. These
Plaulus: Amphitryó abridged but otherwise unadapted editions are provided with marginal notes
Caesar: Dé helio GaUicñ explaining all words not found in Part I. (4) A similar illustrated edition o f
Petrónius: Ciña Trimaí-
chiónis Petrónius: Cena Trimalchiónis, can be read by students who are halfway
CatüTna. Sallust* Cicero through Part II. (5) Catilina, an edition o f most o f Sallust’s Dé comürátióne
Catilmae and Cieero’s speeches In Catilinant I and III. is annotated so as to be
wíthin the reaed o f students who have finished Part II.

U N G VA LATINA on CD
LINGVA LATINA 0 0 C D LINGVA LATINA Parts I and II are available on CD-ROMs with the complete
text, audio-recordings, and Interactive editions o f the Pensa. The CD Lañne
audio contains a recording o f chapters I-X o f FAMILIA ROMANA in the
restored classical prommeiation o f Latin.

Instrnctons The following Instniciiofis provide Information on key points to be noted in


each chapter o f Part L It is advisable to put o ff reading these instructions till
you have read the chapter in question, for the Latin text is designed to train
you to m a te your own linguistic observations. The explanations given in the
instructions are raeant to cali your attention to faets that you have alrcndy
ascertained and to fonnulate rules o f grammar that you hüve sccil Íllnslríilod
by numerous examples in the text. The instructions also tendí yon llic iiiicr-
national grammatical terminology, which is derived fruni 1,alin.
Instructions for Part II aro publislied iu a sepárate volume: LATINE DISCO 11.
L I N G V A L A T IN A P E R SF. I L L V S T R A T A
P A R S I: F A M I L I A R O M A N A

IN S T R U C T IO N S
Chapter 1
In the first chapter we take you almost 2000 ycars back mto tlie past, to the the Román Empire
time whcn the Román Empire was at the height o f its power, extending from
the Atlantic Ocean to the Caspian Sea and from Scotland to the Sahara. We
give you a few geographical facts as background for the sketches from life in
ancient Rome which follow.
On the m ap o f the Román Empire facing the first page you will find alJ the
geographical ñames occurring in the chapter. After locating the ñames Roma,
Italia, Europa, Graecia, etc., you will understand wliat is said about the
situation o f the city o f Roma in the first sentence: Roma in Italia est, and
about Italia and Graecia in the next lwo: Italia in Europa est. Graecia in
Europa est. This is said once more in a single sentence: Italia et Graecia in
Europa sinu. The meaning oi'dí should be quite clear, but can you tell why it «<('... ’)
is now sunt insiead o f est? I f not, look in tire margin, and read the next two
sentences as well. Have you discovered when it is est and when sunt? If so,
you have leamed the first rule o f grammar. You w ill gradually leam tiñe
w hole of Latin grammar in this way - that is, by working out grammatical
rules from your own observation o fth e text.
D id you also notice the slighl differeDCc bctween Italia and Italia, and what Italia
little word produces the long -á? This is pointed out in the first marginal ¡2 i Italia
note. - Another thing w o nh noticing: est and sunt come at the end o f the
sentence; but you will see that it is not always so, Roma est in Italia is also
coirect: the word urder is less rigid in Latin than in English. flexible word order
Is it rcally possibte, you may ask, to understand everything by just reading
the text? It certainiy is, provided that you concéntrate your atteniion on the
roeaning and contení o f w hat you are reading. It is sufficient to know where
A egiptux is, lo understand the statements Aegyptus in Europa nón est,
Aegyptus in África est (1. 5). Theve can be no doubt about the meaning of
non (a so-ca!led neeation). B ut oñen a sentence is understood only when the negación nón
seen togetber with other sentences. In the sentence Hispánia quoque in C.....’)
Europa est (U. 2-3) you will not understand quoque Until you read in
context: Italia et Graecia in Europa sunt. Híspanla auoaue in Europa est. quoque (‘.......‘)
(The two preceding sentences might have becn: Italia in Europa est.
Graecia auoaue in Europa est.) If you are still in doubt, just go on reading
till the word recura: Syria non est in Europa, sed in Asia. Arabia quoque in
Asia est (1. 7). Now you will certainiy understand quoque - and in the
meantime you have leamed the word sed alm ost without noticing it. sed (‘.....’)
In the n ext paragraph a tiumber of questions are asked, and each question is
followed by an answer. It is ofleu necessary to read the answer before you
can be quite sure o fth e meaning o fth e question. The first queslion is: Estne
Gallia in Europa? The -ne atrached to est m aiks the sentence as a question •ne...? (queslion)
(our question m ark [?] was unknown to the ancient Romans). The answer is
Gallia in Europa est. The next question Estne Roma in Gañía? is answered
íd the negative: Roma in Gallia non est. (Latin has no single word for ‘yes’
or ’n o \ the sentence - or part o f it - m ust be repeated with or without non).

9
ubi (‘. ') In the question Ubi est Roma? the word ubi is inteUigibie ouly when yon get
the answer: Roma est iu Italia.
A fter the short survey o f the location o f the principal Román provinces, you
are told about various iocaliiies: R hinus and Nilus, Corsica and Sardinia,
Tüscuhun and Bnmdisium. You will find these ñames on the map, and the
fluvius (‘ .......... *) text will tell you what they represent. I f you are still in doubt about the
ínsula C.......... ’) meaning o f the words fluvius, ínsula and oppidum, tura back to the picture
oppidum (‘..........*) heading the chapter.
s in g u la r plural Note that these words occur in two different forms: Nilus alone is called
fluvius fluvii fluvius, but Nilus and R hinus together are called flu v ii In similar circum-
ínsula ínsulas
oppidum oppida stances you w ill notice the use o f the forms ínsula and insuiae, and oppidum
and oppida. In the section GRAMMAT1CA latina you Icara that the forms
fluvius. ínsula and oppidum are called singularis, while fluvii, insuiae and
oppida are called plürális - in English singular and plural.
muguus (‘......') As you read on you will see that Nilus is referred ío not only as fluvius, but
parvu! (‘..........’) as flu vius maenus. unlike Tiberis, which is described as fluvius parvas. In
the same way Sicilia is referred to as ínsula m a m a as opposed lo M eliia (the
sin g . fluvius. magnus
ínsula magng m odem Malta), which is called ínsula parva. In the margin magnus and
oppidum maenum parvus are represented as opposites (sign [ o ] , ‘Ihe opposite o f ) ; this will
p lu r. jiuvi¡jnagnl help you to undei stand the meaning o f the words, but note the changing
ínsulgg magnae endings. Further examples are seen when Brundisium is called oppidum
oppida utagn¿
maenum and Tüsculum oppidum parvum, and when the same words occur in
the plural: flu v ii maguí, ínsulas magnae, oppida magna.
n o u n s (su b s ta n tiv e s -!: A word which shows this variation between the endings -us, -a, -um in the
fluvius, Insula, oppidum, singular and -i, -ae, -a in the plural is called an adiective (Latín adiectívum,
etc.
a d je c tiv e s : 'added word’) because it is added to a noun (substantive), which it qualifíes.
magnus -a -uin Other nouns occurring in this chapter are provincia, ¡mperium, ntimerus, lo­
parvus -a -uin tera, vocábulum. Adjectives are, besides magnus -a -mn and parvas -a -um,
mullí -ae -a e.g. Graecus -a -um, Románus -a -um, Latinas -a -mn, primas -a -um, and in
etc.
the plural muid -ae -a and paucí -ae -a. The endings o f the adjectives depend
on the nouns that they quality.
question: num... ? The question Num Creta oppidum est? (1.49) must o f course be answered in
answer:... nóu tbe negative: Creta oppidum non est. Num is an ¡nterroaative (i.e. asking)
particle, like -ne, but a question beginning with num implies a negative
...quidV.......... ’) answer. The next question is Quid est Creta? Here, again, only the answer,
Creta ínsula est, makes the m eaning o f the question quite plain.
imperium Rumanum We have seen a final -a modifted to -a after in: in Italia, in Europa, in Africa.
in impelió Romanó We now see that in also makes -um change to -o: in imperio Romanó; in vrn-ñ-
bui¿; in capituló primo (11. 58, 72, 73). These forms in -5 and -ó are dealt wiih
in cap. 5.
As a numérica] sign for ’a thousand’. nii/le, the Roraans tooktheQ reek letter
CIC= M= mflfe(1000) <l>(ph), which was rendered cíe a n d later changed into m under the influence
o f M1LLE.
Latin is a eoncise language. It can often express in a few words what de-
mands several words in other lauguages. One o f the reasons is that Latin has
fewer particles (small uninflected words) than most m odem languages; thus
you w ill fmd nothing conesponding to the English arricies ‘a ’ and ‘the’ as in
‘ariv er’, ‘theriver’, etc.

10
Chapter 2
W e now introduce you to the people whose daily Uves you are going to read th e R o m á n fam ily
about. The picture shows tbem dressed in their besf clothes, except Ibr the
four who are reiegated to the margin - clearly lliey are not on the same level
as the rest o f the family. Be sure to remenjber the ñames, for you w ill soou
become so well acquainted with these persons that you will almost feel like a
friend visiting a real Román family 2000 years ago. And the remarkable
thing about it is that you can understand their language!
Note that the ñames o f these people end in either -us or -a, none of tbem end males: -us
iu -um. You will see that the ending -us is characteristic o f m ale persons f a n a le s : -a
flülius. Marcas. Quñi/us, Dávus, M edusi and -a o f female peisons (Aemilia,
lülia, Syra, Delta) This also applies to nouns that denote persons. Nouns
referring to males generaily end in - jas: fiiu¿. dominus, servus {but -us is
dropped in some nouns in -r, e.g. vir, puer), while noírns denoting females
end m ostly in -a (fimina, puella, filia, domina, ancilla); but no persons are
denoted by words ending in -um, We say therefore that nouns ending in -um, genders:
e.g. oopidum. vocábuhtm. imperium. are neuter (Latín neutrum, ‘neilher', i.e. masculine ftn.l: -us
neither masculine ñor feminíne), w hile most words in - jas are masculine feminine (f.): -a
neuter (o.): -um
(Latín mascullnum), and m ost words in -a are femipine (Latín Jemininum,
from fim in a ). B ut as grammatical terms 'm asculine’ and ‘feminine’ are not
restricted to livíng beings: the words fin ia s , numeras, titulas, líber are
urammatieally masculine, while ínsula, Huera, provincia, fam ilia are
feminine. The grammatical tem í, therefore, is not *sex’, but eender (Latín
genus). T he abbreviations used for the thiee genders are m, f and «.
The word fam ilia refere to the wbole housebold, including all the slaves,
serví and ancillae, who belong to the head o f the family as his property.
Ifilius is the father, pater, o f Marcas, QuTntus and lülia, and the master, do­
minas, o f M idas, Dávus, Syra, Delia, etc. To expresa these relationships we
need the genitive (I,atin genetivus), a fom i o f the noun ending in - f or -ae in genitive:
the singular: lülius est p a ter M árci et QufntT et Iüliae: in the plural you find mJn. f.
sing. -f -ae
the long endings -órum and -árum: lülius est dominas multórum servdrum et plur. -órum -áritiu
multárum ancillárum. So the genitive endings are -ae and -árum in the femi-
uioe, and -T and -árum in the masculine - and in the neuter (see 11. 56, 87). In
the section grammatica latina you find examples o f all these fonns. (Eng-
lisli has the e n d in g -so r ‘o f : ‘Julia ’sm o th er’ or ‘them other o /Ju lia’,)
Particles like et and sed are called coniunctions (Latín coniünctiónés, from c o n iu n c tio n s
con-iungere, ‘jo in ’) because ihey join words and sentences. Instead o f et you
often find the conjunction -que attached after the second word: Delta Medus- ...-que - et...
aue stands for Délia et M édus and fin fiia e q u e for f i l í e tfiia e (II. 9 and 22).
Among the new words in cap. 2 are the interrogative words quis and quae, m. f. n.
which are used to ask questions about persons (English ‘w ho’): Ouis est quis? quae? quid?
gen. cuius?
M árcus? and Quae est lülia? i.e. masculine quis (plural quí), feminine quae
- and neuter quid, as you have seen in cap. 1 (English ‘what’). The genitive
o f the interrogative for all genders is cuius (English ‘whose’): Ciáus servus
est Dávus? Dávus servus Jülií est (1. 35).
The invariable interrogative particle quot asks questions about number: Ouot quot? I. 2, 3 .
liben $unt in fam ilia? In fam ilia láHTsunt tres líberJ. Q u o tfílii el auot fíliae? m. f. n.
D úo f i l i i et á m filia. Ouot seivi...? ... ceniitm serví (II. 37-39). Like most ünus úna iinum
numeráis centuin is invariable; but ünus has the familiar endings - m í -a -um, dita duae dúo
tres tres tria
the feminine o f dúo is dutu? {June jiltae), and the neuter o f tres is tria (tria
oppida).

11
magnas numerus -orum The number cau also be indicated by the aoun numerus combinad with the
= mullí -F/mttha -a genitive plural: Numerus ¡Iberóiw n est tres. Numerus servórum esI centum
maguía numerus —árum (11. 43-44). As centum m us: be said to be m agm a numerus, tbe followmg sen-
= mullae -ae
tences are easily understood: Numerus servórum est m agm a and ¡u fam ilia
magnus numerus servórum est. It appears that magmis numerus servórum is
equivalen! to m ulti serví. In the same way paivus numerus líberóntm has the
same meaning as pauci liberí. Besides you will find the expressions magnas
numeras oppidórum and fluviórum meauing multa oppida and m uíñfluvii.
The Romans only knew the DOrthem part o f Ihe continent o f Africa, where
there is only one big river, the Nile: In Africa ünus fluvius magnus est: Nílus
c íie r í -i¡e -a (1. 5S). It goes on: C iten Jluvii Áfricae p a rv í sunt. The adjective célen -ae
-a, ‘the o ther(s)\ recurs seveial times, thus ths enumeration o f the first three
o f the 35 capitula (1. 86) is concluded with celera (it might have been el
celera, the LatiD expressioa which gives us the abbreviation ‘etc.’).
en u m e ra tio n : The following rule applies to enumerations in Latín: (1) el put between all
(1 )A e íB e tc iteras: M areta et Quínlus e£ lülia; or (2) no coujunction used at all: Marcas,
Í2) A. B, C
(3) A, 8 C-que Quínlus, lidia; or (3) -que added to the last item: M areta, Quínlus ¡úliaque.
The conversador at the end o f the chapter shows that instead o f the genitivo
meus-a -um the adjectives meus -a -um and tuus -a -um are used to refer to what belongs
luus -a -um to the person speaking Or the pevson spoken to respectively (like Euglish
‘m y’ and ‘yo u r).
ecce. On page 16 yon come across the word ecce (illustrated with an arrow ¡n the
inargin). It is used when you point to or cali attention to something, in this
case to tbe picture o f the two books. Notioe the forra o f an ancient book: a
sin g . piu r. scroll with the text written in colunias, and the Latín word ío t such a scrol!:
líber libn líber (another masculine noun in -er without -us), plural libri.

C hapter 3
Now that you have been introducid to tbe family, you are going to watch
sorae o f Iheir doings. We begiu with the children - they werc very much tbe
same in ancient times as they are today. So we are not surprised to leam that
Julius and Aerailia’s children cannot always get od together. iiere little Julia
is the first to suffer, because she is aunoying her big brother. Peace is not
resloredunttl M othcr and Fatlier step iu.
verbs: Several of the new words in this chapter are verbs. A verb (Latín verbum) is
-ut. cania!, pulsa!, plórat a word that expresses an action or a State: that someone does something or
-el. ridel.vii/el, responde! that something exists or takes place. The first Latín verb you come across is
-it; venti, audll, darmit
cantal in the opening semence: lülia cantal. Otlier verbs are pulsat, plórat,
ridet, videt, vncat, xenit, etc. They all end in -t - like est, which is also a vertí -
and mostly come a t the end o f the sentence.
The first o f the two words in the sentence Lilia cantal denotes the person
who p erfo ras the actiou. Other sentences o f the same kind are: lidia plórat;
M areta rídet; Aemilia venit; pater dormit (11. 9, 10, 21, 37). But it is not
always as simple as this. Take for instance the sentence that is illustrated by
MSirtq IBUam nuísai the little drawing in the margin: Mürcns lüiiam pulsat (]. 8). Haré we are
told not only who perfomis the action, but also who the action is aimed at.
Tlie same pattern is seen in the following sentences, also illustrated by
Quínlus Márcum videt pictures: Quínlus Márcum videt: Quínlus Márcum pulsat; Mñrcus Qulntuin
¡úliaA eim liam vocal pulsat; lidia Aemiliam vocal.

12
As you see, the ñame o f the person wbo perfomis the action, the so-calied 1. -w t -a
subiect o f the verb, has one o f the well-knowu endings -us and -a, whereas 2. -um -am
the ñame o f the person toward whom the action is directed. the obiect. takes
the ending -nin or -am. In other words: lülia is cbanged to lüliam w hen we
are told that Marcus hits her, just as M árcus becomes Márcum when he is
the victim. lo similar circumstances puella cbanges to /mellam. and puer to
pnerum. and qualifying adjectives get the same ending: Márcus parvam
puel/am pulsat: Iülius puerum improbinn verberat.
Thus with the heip o f ttie endings we distingüish in Latín between the snb- s u b ic c t o b ie c t \ e r b
iect and the obiect o f tlie verb. The forras in -us and -a, which characterize M árcus ¡üliam p u lsa t
m. f.
the subject, are called nominative (Latín nómiiultfvus), and the fonos in -um n o m in a tiv e : -us -a
and -am, which denote the objcct, are called accusativc (Latín acciisátivtis). a c c u s a tiv e : -um -am
Verbs like pulsat, videt, vocal, which are used w ith an objcct in the acensa-
tive, are called transitive. and verbs witbout an object, e.g.pldrat, venit, dor- tra n s itiv e & in tra n sitiv o
mit, are intiansitive verbs. v e rb s

Instead o f accusatives in -am and -um you sometimes fiad eam and eum, e.g. eam : lüliam
Iúlia pldrat guia M árcus eam pulsat and Cür Iülius Quintum non audit? lü- e u m : Quinhjm
lius eum non audit, quia dormil (11. 27, 43; the colon in the marginal note
eam : lüliam means that hete eam stands for lüliam). A word o f this kind,
which takes tbe place o f a ñame or noun, is called a pronoun (Latín pró- P io n o n n
ndmen, fro m p ro 'instead o f and ndmen ‘ñam e’ or ‘noun’). Corresponding in . f.
a c c. eum eatn
to eum and eam the pronoun mé is used when a person is speaking about me
him- or herselí, and té is used about the person spoken to (in Englísh ‘me’ té
and ‘you’); Aemilia: "Quis mg vocal? " Qufntus: "Iúlia té vocal" (II. 24-25).
The interrogative particle cür is used to ask about the cause (Latín causa). A question: cür...?
question imroduced by cür calis for an answer with the causal coniunction answer:... quia.
guia (English 'because’): Cür lülia pldrat? Iúlia plora/, guia Márcus eam
pulsat. Cür Márcus ¡ültam pulsat? Quia lülia cantal (II. 26-27,30-31).
W hen the identity o f the subject is known. because the context shows w ho it s u b je c t itn p lie d
is, it need not be repeated (or replaced by a pronoun) in a following senteuce:
"Ubi est Iülius? Cür non venit? ” (1. 36); Iülius eum non audit, quia dormil
(1. 43); "Cür müter Márcum verberat? “ "Márcum verberat. quia p uer im-
orobus est" (1. 58). (In English we use the pronoims ‘h e ’ and ‘she’.)
The coujunctions et and sed are not combined with a uegation; instead o f el
non and sed non the conjunction ñeque (ne-gite) is used, i.e. -que attached to ne-que = et non (sed
the original negation ne (= non): Iülius dorm il ñeque Quintum audit. Iülius non)
venit, ñeque Aemilia eum videt (in English ‘and not’, ‘but not’).
In the sentence Puer qw parvam puellam pulsat improbus est (I. 63) quT is re la tiv e p ro n o u n
th e relaiive pronoun, which refers to puer. A t the eod o f the chapter (p. 23) p ucrauT...
puella qnae...
you fuid sentences with botfa the interrogative and the relative pronoun, e. g.
in te iro g a tiv e p ro n o u n
Quis est puer g u i ridet? In the feminine the tw o pronouns are identical: n o in . quis
Ouae est puella auae pldrat? (the relative quae refers to puella). The inter­ a c c, quem
rogative pronoun quis is qtiem in the accusative: Ouem vocal Quínius?
relative pronoun
Quintas Ifdium vocat. As a relative pronoun quem is used in the masculine m. f. n.
ao d quam in the feminitie: Puer auem Aemilia verberat est Márcus. Puella notn. quT quae qwxi
auam M árcus pulsat est lülia. The exampies show that qul and quem (m.) a c c. quem quam quod
icfer to a masculine noun, and quae and quam (f.) to a feminine noun. In
cap. 4 (I. 75) you will m eet quod. which refers to a neuter noun: baculum,
quod in mensa est.

13
Chapter 4
W e now leave the children for a whiie and tura to the grown-ups. There is a
worried look on Julius’s face; it tum s out that a suni o f money is missing.
Who is the thief? The problem is not solved until the end o f the chapter, of
course - and by then the culprit has already decamped! Later (in cap. 6 and
S) you will ñnd out where he is hiding and what he does with the money.
But right now you must set to work to discover who is the thief.
nominative -us In addressing a m an in Latin the nominative in -us is replaced by a special
vocative -e form, the vocative (Latin vocativos, from vocal), ending m -e Medus calis
Davus crying: “D ave!" (1, 25) and when Davus greets his master he says:
"Salvé, dom ine!"and Julius answers: “Salvé, serve!" (11. 34-35).
imnerativc The form o f the verb used to give orders is called the imperativa (Latin im ­
vaca! vidé! veni!pone! perativas, from imperat). The Latin imperative consists o f the shortest form
o f the verb, without any ending, the so-called stem . e.g. vocal tacé! veni! or
a short -e is added w hen th e stem ends in a consonan!, as in pone! (the stem
is pon-). Examples: 11. 2 4 ,2 7 ,3 7 ,6 0 , etc.
the verbal stcm The stem o f a Latin verb ends in one o f the long vowels -á, -é, -I. or in a
S , -é, -f, coris. consonan!. The verbs are therefoTe divided into four classes, so-called con-
coniunations iueations:
1. á -s te m s ; vocá- ls t coniugation: a-verbs, with stems ending in -a: vocá-, cantó-, pulsa-.
2 . o s c e m s ; vidg-
2ndconíugation: é-verbs. with stems ending in -i: tacé-, vidé-, habé-.
3 . co n s.-ste m s: pon-
4 . 7-stem s. vení- 3rd coniugation: consonaut-verbs, with stems ending in a consonant: pon-,
súm-, discéd-.
4th coniugation: f-verbs, with stems ending in -i: ven[-, audi-, dormí-,
iruperative m¿icatn^ To these stems the different verba! endings are added (a vertical stroke [|] is
1. vocá voca\t
herc used to mark the divisiou between stem and ending). When -/ is added
2. vidé vlde\l
the last vowel o f the stem becoroes short: voca\t, vide\t, venftt, and in the
3. ¿><5n|e pón\it
4. audt audi\t consonant-verbs a short -i- is inserted before the -t: pón\it, süm\{t, discéd]ú.
This verbal form is called the indicativo (Latin ¡ndicátmts, ‘statiog’, ‘de-
ciaring’).
pronoun In the second o f the two sentences Médns Mscédit, quia ¡specitaiam dominf
nom. is habet (1. 77) the nominative M edus is replaced by the pronoun is, which is
acc. eum the nominative corresponding to the accusative eian (English ‘h e’ and ‘lúxu’).
gen. cías
B ut the nominative o f this pronoun is only used when it carnes a certain
emphasis (herc Medus is contrasted with Davus). W hen the subjecl is not
emphasÍ2 ed, the verb is used with no pronoun, e.g. Médns nón respondet,
quia aben (]. 85; in Engiish we cannot do without the pronoun.)
¡litis •a -um/eius: The genitivo o f is is eius (cf. English ‘his’): In sacculó eius (: Ifdii) est pecu­
lüliux servurn suum vocal nia (1. 1). However, referring to something that b e lo D g s to the subject o f the
Servas e¡us abes!
sentence, the adjective suiis -a -um is used instead o f eius. Compare the two
examples: Davus sacculum suum in mensa pónit and lam sacculus eius in
ménsá est (II. 61-62). (In English the word ‘ow n’ is sometimes added to
make the meaning plain: ‘his/ her own’).
sacados A fter in not only -um but also -us becomes -ó: Sacculus JñliT non parvas est.
in sacculó In sacculó eins est pecunia (I. 3). This form will be treated in cap. 5.
possessive pronouns The adjectives meus -a -um, tuus -a -um andsuus-a -tnn are called possessive
meus. huís, siius pronouns. The possesive pronouns serve to replace the genitive.

14
Chaptcr 5
We have made the acquainlance o f w hat is evidcntly a prosperous Román the Román villa
faraily, to jndge from the splendid villa in which they live. The plan on page
33 and the pictures o f various parís o f the house will glve you an impression
o f the layout o f this typical Román villa. Characteristic features are the
atrium with its openjng in the ro o f and pool for rainwater, and the peristyle,
the inner courtyard lined with rows o f columns.
The first new grammatical poiot to be ieamed is the accusative plural. Corre- accasative sing. & plur.
sponding to the accusative singular in -um and -arn, which was introduced in ir». f. n.
sing. •tan -ant -um
cap. 3, yon uow find plural forms ending in -ós and -as respectively: the plur. -ós -ós -a
plural filii becomes filies when it is the object o f the verb: ¡ülius duQs filias
haber, similarly jília e chauges to filia s (see 11. 3-4). The accusative o f
masculino and feminine nouns always eods in -m in the singular and in - j in
the plural. Neuter nouns have the same ending in the accusative as in the
nominative (sing. -ton, plur. -a).
Secondly, you will see that the particles ab, cum, ex, in and sbte cause the preoositions
following nouns to take the ending -5 (m./n.) or -á (f.) and in the plural -is: ab, cum, ex, in, sine
ex hortó, ab Aemiliá, ijt atrio, aun liberis, sine rosis. Such prefixed words + -ól-ái-ls
are called arepositions (Latín praepositiónes, ‘placing íd front’). You have
already seen examples o fth e preposition in: in Italia, in imperio Romanó, in
sacculó. The forms in -ó, -d and -is are called ablativc (Latin ablatrvus). The sing, -ó -á
plur. •£»-
prepositíons ab, cum, ex, in, sine are said to ‘take’ the ablativo.
New forms o f the pronoun is are now introduced: feminine ea, neuter id; pronoun is ea id
plural if (= ei), cae, ea. In the accusative and ablative this pronoun shows the sing. m. f. n.
nom. is ea id
same endings as the noun it represents; retnembering the accusatives eum acc. eum eam id
and eam you will identify fonns like eó, ea (abl. sing.), eos, eos (acc. plur.) gen. eius eius eius
and ils (= eis, abl. plur.). The genitive plural is eórum. eárum (thus for abL eó eS eó
plur.
dominas servórum you find dominus eórum). but the genitive singular has a nom. ¡i eae ea
special form eius, which is the same for all three genders: you have already acc. eos eos ea
had saccuhts eius (: /ü//í), now you find ndsus eius (: Syrae. 1. 18). (These gen. eórum eárum eórum
abl. its iTs ils
genitives correspond to the English possessive pronouns *his/her/its/their\)
Lastly, you ieam plural forms o f verbs: (I) wheD the subject is in the plural im p e ra tiv e & in d ic a tiv e
or more than one person, the verb ends, not in -i only, but in -nt (cf. est and sing. plur.
sunt)‘. M árcus et Quintas lüliam vocant. Pueri ñdent; and (2) when two or 1. imp. vaca vocñ\te
ina. voca\t voca\nt
more people are ordered to do something, üie plural form o f the imperative 2. irap. vlde \idS\re
ending in -te is used: M aree et Quinte! itliiiwt vocSie! Tácete, pueril Audite! ind. vide\t vtde\m
In the consonant-verbs (3rd conjugation) a short vowel is inserted befóte 3. imp. pdn\e pónlve
ind. pón\\t pónjunt
these plural endiogs: -i- before -te and beforc -nt: Discédite, pueril Pueri 4. imp. oiii/f iuidl\te
discédunt. Even in the í-verbs (4th conjugation) -u- is inserted before -nt: ind. a u fit audi\ü/tt
P ueri venirnt.
Julia’s rem ark "p u eñ m e rident" (l. 70) shows that ridet, which isusually an ridet + acc.
intransitive verb, can take an object in the sense ’laugh a t': pueri lüliam rident.
The consonant-verb agit agunt denotes actiou in general: Quid agit Márcus?
Quid agunt pueri? (English ‘do’). The imperative o f this verb is ofien put
before another imperative to emphasize the command, e.g. A ge! vertí, serve! age! agite! -1- Lrtp.
Agite! veníte, serví!

15
Chapter 6
R o m n n roflds Road C o m m u n i c a ti o n s were highly developed in t h e ancient Román wotld.
The different parts o f the Román Empire were connected by an excellent
network o f highways. On the m ap on page 40 you see the m ost impoitant
Román roads in Italy, among thcm the famous Via Appia, running south-
ward from Rome and contmumg all the way to Brundisium.
Running almost parallel to the Via Appia is the Via Latina, whích passes the
towu o f Tusculnm m entioned in tlae first chapter. Julius’s villa stands in the
neighborhood o f this town, so that anyone going from there to Rome must
foüow the Via Latina. Therefore ít is not suiprising to find Medus walking
along this road. You will soon discover what it is tbat attracts hiña to the city.
prep. + acc.: In cap. 5 you met some common prenositions that take the ablative. M ost other
ad, ante, apud, circum. prepositions take the accusative. e.g. ad. ante, apiul, circum, inier, per, post,
ínter, per, post, prope prope, wbich are now introduced. A d indicates niotion tg a place - it is the
opposite o f ab (followed by the ablative!) which indicates motion away from
qud? a¿i + acc. a place. The corresponding interrogative partióles are quó and unde: Quó ii
unde? ab + abl. m u s ? A d viilam it. Unde venit? A b oppido, - Instead o f ab we often find
ab + vowel &. h- Ilie shorteued form á before a consonant, but Dever before a vowel or h-: 5
a/ab+ cons. (exccpt h-) villa, á dominó, qbancilla, ab oppido.
quó? Tüscuhtm Motion to or from a town mentioned by ñame is expressed by the Dame of
Rórnarn the town in the accusative or ablative respectively withont a nreposition. In
unde? Tusado Latin therefore we speak o f traveling Rómá-Brundisium, or, if going in the
Rñiná
opposite direction, Brundisió-Rdmatn. It is the fundamental function o f the
ablative (wiUb or without a preposition) to denote ‘place from which’. In this
ablative of separalion function it is called ablative o f separation (gbjátivus raeaus ‘taking away’).
To indícate where somethmg o r somebody is, the preposition in followed by
the ablative is m ost often used: ¡a Italia, in oppido, in hartó. The examples
ubi? Tüscidi Cornelias Tüsailt habitat and Medus Rómoe est show, however, that in is no
Rómac more used with ñames o f towns thau a d and ab; instead the ñame takes the
ending - f or -ae according as tlie nomínative ends in -um/-us or -a. This
locative (= genilive) fomi, which here coincides with the genitive, is called locative (Latin loca­
-ae tivas, from ¡ocus. ‘place’). Examples: 1L 4 7 ,5 9 , 77,85.
Marcas liiliampulsat = The Latin sentence Marcas lüliam pulsgt can be tumed into Iülia puisátur ti
Iülia puisátur S Marcó M arco (as in Eogiish ‘M uráis hits Julia' and ‘Julia is hit by M arcus’). The
active passive action is the same, but in the second sentence, where the verb ends in -tur,
1. wca\t vaca\tur tlie active person, who performs the action, steps into the background, while
voca\nt vocti\ntur
2. vide\t vide\tur the passive person, the ‘sufferer’, comes to the front: she appears no longer
vide\nt vidc\niur as object in the accusative flíiliam). bul as subject in the oominalive (Iülia),
J. pñn\i¡ p6n\\mr and the ñame o f the person by whom tbe action is performed, th e aeent. is in
pón\mi púndmtur the ablative preceded by ab or á (ñ Marco). O n page 44 you fiad several
4. audi\t audí\iur
audi\unt audi\wiiur examples o f the two constnictions, vvhich are called active and passive re­
spectively (Latin activutn aaápassivum). In the sentence M edus ijd ia m amai
et ab ea amátur (11. 78-79) the two constructions are combined.
In the passive, as we have seen, the personal agent is expressed by ab/a and
the ablative. W hen no person is involved, the ablative is used without ab/á,
Ct>ivS¡ti£ ec/nó rehilar = e.g. Comélius eqiui vehitur; Lidia verbis M ed í délectátur. The simple ab­
cquus C oniélium vehti lative here indícales rneans or cause. This is very common both in passive
and active sentences: liilins leetteü vehitur. Dominas servían báculo,
verberal. Serví sáceos umerts portan!. M edus vid Latina Rómarn ambulat.
ablative of msimrnent or This use o f the ablative is called ablative o f instrument (Latín abl&tTvus
ablative o fmeatis instrúmentT) or ablative o f means.

16
Chapter 7
W hen Father comes back from town. be usually brings something wilb him
for the famify. So in this chapter you fm d out vvhat there ¡s in the two sacks
that Syras and Leander have been carrying.
W hen we are told that Julius gives something to a m em ber o f the faraily, the daiive
ñame o f this person ends in -ó (Marco, Quintó, Syrg, Leandro) or in -ae (Ae- m./n. f.
miliae. lüfíae, Syrae, Déliae). This form, ending in -ó in the masculine (and sing. -ó -ae
plur. -ó
neuter) and in -ae in the feminine, is called dative (Latín dativas, from dar,
‘gives’). Examples: lítlius Márcó/Jilió suo málutn dat (11. 45-47); lülius Ac-
miiige ósatlum dat (1. 63). Instcad o f lülius Syr¿ et Leandro mala dat we
fm d lülius sen-is mala dat, and in the senlence lülius ancillts mala dat Syra
and Delia are referred to. lo the plural the dative ends in -& like the ablative.
The dative o f the pronoun is ea id is ei in the singular and Os (or ets) in the pronoun ts ea id
plural: lülius e i (: Ouintd/lüliae) iná/iim dat. lülius iis (: servLs/anctllis) mala dative: sing. el, plur. iis
dat. The forms are the same for all three genders. The dative (sing.) o f the interrog. & reí. pronoun
iiiteiTOgative and relatíve pronoun is cui: Qui lülius malum dat? Puer/puella dative sing. cui
cui lülius málum datestjilim/jUiu eius (see 11. i 01-104).
Tlte examples Paella sé in speculo videt et sé interrogat (ll. 8-9) show that the the reflexive pronoun
pronoun se (acc.) is used when referring to the subject in the same sentence; se (acc.)
sé is called the reflexive pronoun (English ‘húnself/herself/themselves’).
Compare the sentences lülius in villa est and lülius in villam intrat. In the in - abl./acc.
íirst sentece in takes the ablative (villa), as we have seen so often; in the ubi?jnvIUü
J uó? in vilhiin
second it ¡s followed by the accusative (villam). The examples show that in
takes the accusative when there is motion into a place, Therefore we rcad:
Sv/a in cubicuhmi intrat. an d shesays: “Ven!in hortum. lü lia !" (1L 14, 17).
A question introduced with num calis for a negative answer; therefore Julia ctuestion: answen
asks: "Num nasas meusJoedus est? ” (L 20). The opposite effect is obtained by norme... est? ..t. est
iwnne: when Syra asks "Nónne formosus est násus meus? ” (1. 26) she certain- num... est? .. non est
ly expeets the answer to be ‘yes’. Nevertheless Julia says: “Immó foedus est!"
The word immó serves to stress a denial (English ‘no’, ‘od the contrary’).
The imperative o f est is es! (¡.e. the stem without ao ending; plural este!y <w|/: imp. es!es\te!
"Tergé oculós! Es_ taeia!" (1. 23). - The greeting Salvé! expresses a wish for
good health. It was understood as an imperative, so it has a plural form in -te: sing. salvé!
“Sálvete, j t i i i ! " (I, 31). plur. salvé\ie!
Note the repetition o f the conjunctions et and ñeque (11. 50, 57): et Miírcus et el. . el
Quintas mala habent and Servñ iea u e mala ñeque pira babear (English ‘both ñeque.. ñeque
... and’ and ‘neither... ñor’). Instead o f et- - et we often fínd non sólum... sed non solum... sed ctwin
etiam: non sólum mola, sed et'nvn pira (I. 56).
Referring to things cióse to him, Julius says e.g. Me saccus and hoc malum, hic haec hoc
and Julia says haec rosa of the rose that she is holding (1L 43, 90, 85). H e
demonstrative pronoun hic hace hoc (Englsh 'th is') is ireated in cap. 8. - Hic
saccus plenas málórum est (1. 43): note the eenitive after plénus ('tiill of...’). plénus + gen.
Compound verbs have often prepositions as their first element, like od-est compounds with
and qh-est. In this chapter you fjnd in-est, ad-venit, ad-it, ex-it, íd the next prepositions.
ad-, a b e x -, in-
qb-it. Often the same preposition is put befóte a noun in the same sentence:
Q uid im s t in saccis? lülius a d villam advenit. lülia e cubículo exit.
The last example shows th e shorter form i o f the preposition ex The same ex + vowel & h-
rule applies to the use o f ex and é as to ab and a: before vowels and h- only i/ex + cons. (except h-)
ex and ah are used; é and c¡ are only used before consonants, never before
vow els or h-. Examples with ex and é: é/ex villa, but only ex nfriñ. exhorto.

17
Chapter 8
In the ancieut world people did their shopping over open coutiters liniug the
strccts. Passers-by couid simply stand on the sidewalk in front of a shop and
buy what they vvanted. We can be sure that the shopkeepers, with Mediterra-
nean cloqucnce, gave their customers every encourageroent.
ponouns: in this chapter we pay particular attention to som e impoitant pronouns: the
interrogative pronoun interrogative pronoun quis quae quid, the relative pronoun qul quae quod,
quis? quae? quid? and the demonstrative pronouns is ea id, ¡tic haec hoc and Ule illa illud. O f
relative prolioun the last two hic haec hoc refers to something that is here (hic), i.e. near the
...quT ...quae ...t/tiad
speaker, while Ule illa illud refers to something that is further away from the
demonsirativtf pronouns speaker (Engiish ‘this’ and ‘that’). These demonstrative pronouns are mostly
is ea id
hic haec hoc used as adjectives qualiiying nouns: hic vir, haec Jentina. hoc oppidum and
Ule -a -lid ¡He vir, illa Jemina, illud oppidum. O f hic haec hoc the invariable stem is just
h-, cf. the plural h i hae, kos hás, hórum hárum, his, but in the singular {and
in the neuter plural noraVacc.) a -c is added (see the survey on p. 61).
The forras of the other pronouns are shown in systematically arranged ex-
amples in th e section grammatica LATINA. Here not only tile-a -ud, but also
is ea id is used as an adjective: is servus, ea ancilla, id ornamentum (Engiish
interrogative pronoun ‘that’). The interrogative pronoun is also used before nouns as an adjective:
subst.: quis? q u i servus? quae ancilla? auod oppidum? Note that in the masculine and
quid?
adj.: qui/quis ...us? neuter the adjectival forms used before nouns are q u i and quod respectively,
quod.um ? while quis and quid are used alone (however, quis is also used before a non»
in questions ofidentity: quis servus? M idus). - When the relative pronoun is
qui... - is/ifquf... used without an anteccdent to refer to, as in Q ui tabernam habet, tabernárius
quae. . -■ ea/cac quae.... est and Q ui magnam pecdniam habent ornamenta emunt (U. 3, 16),adem on-
strative pronoun may beunderstood: is qui.., iiqui... (cf. 11. 14, 35,101)
¡lie -d -vd Like Ule -a -ud raost pronouns have the endings -ius in the genitive and -f in
geti. -tus the dative iu all three genders (but the i is short or consonantal in eius, cuius,
dat. -i
huius, cut, huic). The neuter ending -ud is also found ín alius -a -ud (1. 33).
sing. plui. The verbs accipit and aspicit havc plural foims in -iunt: accipiunt, asaiciunt.
¡nd. accipií acciniunt and imperatives in -e -¡te: accipe! accipite! and aspice! aspicile! They seem
aspicit aspicium
¡mp. accipe acápite to follow a pattem which is ncithcr that of the consonant-vcrbs ñor that of
aspice aspicite the f-verbs. This is because the stem o f these verbs ends in a short i; accipi-
aspici-; but this i appears only before an ending beginning with a vowel,
such as -unt: accipiunt, aspiciunt; otherwise these verbs behave like con-
sonant-verbs and are regarded as belonging to the 3rd conjugation.
tantus- tam magnus ínstead o f tam magnas and quam magnus the adjectives tantus and quantus
quantus= quam magnus, (11 64,72) are used, and tantus quantus stands for tam magnus quam: Pretwnt
quam
iiltus ánuli tantum est quantum huius (L 75). - Quam is used in exclamations:
"Ó, auam pulchra sunt illa ornamenta!" (L 42).
Note the ablative o f ínstrument (without preposilioos): fém inae órname» lis
delectantur (1. 12); gemmts e t m argañtis ánutisque órnantur (1. 24); Lydia
tabernam A lbini dígito monsirat (1. 43, i.e. ‘poinls lo’). With the verbs emii,
véndit and cónstat (verbs o f buying and selling, etc.) the price is in the abla­
oblativas pretil tive, so-called ablativos pretil (‘ablative o f p n ce’). Exainples: Hic ditulus
centum nwnm¡¿ cónstat (1. 59): Albinas... M ido anulum véndit séstertiTsnóná-
ginlá (II. 116-117).
In the last example Médó is dative with véndit. The dative now occurs also
with ostendit(]\. 46. 52,58, 83) and mñnstral (I. 130). Being transitive these
direct objecl: accusative verbs have an objecl in the accusative, which is often called the direct obiect
indireci object: dative to distiiiguish it from the dative, which is called the indirect obiect.
18
Chapter 9
By studying the landscape abave tlie chapter you vvill learn a grcat many cases:
new Latín nouns. In the words campus, h a ba, rivus, ambra, silva, cuchan nom., acc., gen., dar.,
abl.
you see the familiar endings -tu, -a, -um; but the remaining words, collis,
pastor, canis, móns, sol, etc., have quite different endings. not only iu the lst declension
nominative, but also in the otlier cases face., gen., dat., abl.): in the singular non», -a, gen. -ae
they have the ending -em in the aecusative, -is in the genitive, -fin tire 2nd declension
dalive, and -e in die abiative; in the plural they have -es in the nominative noni. -us/-um, gen.
and aecusative, -mn or -ivtn in the genitive, and -¡bus in the dative and abla- 3rd declension
tive. Examples o f all these eudings are shown with the noun3 ovis and pastor sing. plur.
nom. -/-(i)s -es
(II. 3 -7 .1 i —18j. Words d eclinedfi.e. infleeted) in this w ay are said to be- acc. -e¡n -es
long to the 3rd declension (Latín declinado tenia), whereas the Ist declen- gen. -is -(i)um
sion (dSclinátió prima) comprises words in -a, like jemintt, aud the 2nd de­ dat. -f -ibus
clension (declinado secunJa) words in -as (-er) and -um, like servus (líber) abl. -e -¡bus
and oouidum.
In the nominative singular 3rd declension nouns have either no ending (e.g.
pastor, sol, arbor) or -is (e.g. ovis, canis. pañis, collis), -es (e.g. nubes), or
just -s: this -s causes changes in the stem, e.g. the loss o f t in móns and déns
< mon[\s, deut\s, gen. mont\is, dent\is. The nouns with no ending in the nomi­ consonant-síems:
native are consonant-stems. the uouns in -is (or -s) were originally f-stems. gen. plur. -um
í-stems:
but the endings have come to agree with lite cousonant-stems (only in the gen. plur. -htm
genitive plural in -¿um the i appears clearly).
The 3rd declension nouns in this chapter are masculine or feminine, but the
endings being the same for the two genders you cannot determine die gender
o f such nouns un til they are cotnbined with adjectives o f the ls t and 2nd de-
clensions (like magnas -a -um): the combinations pastorfessvs, p a n a s collis,
magnas móns and ovis alba, magua vallis, multas arbarés show that pastor,
collis and móns are masculine and that ovis, vallis and arbor are feminine. In
the margin and in the vocabulaiy gender is indicated by in, f and n.
In the otíammatica latina section you will find examples o f these three
declensions. Take advantage o f this oppoitunity to review the case-forros of
irísala ( l s t declension), servus and verhnm (2nd declension), and then study
the uew 3rd declension (examples: pastor and ovis).
The verb in die sentence Oves herbam edunt (1. 9) is a consonaut-verb, as sing. ést
shown by the plural ending -uní; but the singular is irregular: Pastar panera plUT. edunt
ést (only in Late Latin does the “regular” form edil appear). Also note the clúcit:
short imperative düc! (1. 65, without -e) o f the consonant-verb düc[il ditc\un¡. imp. dúcl düc\\te!
The temporal coniunction dum expresses simiikaneousness (English ’while'):
Diuu pastor in herbó dormit, ovis ¡tigra... abit (1. 39). Afrer exspectat it
comes to mean ‘until’: Ovis cónsistit et cxspeclat dutn lupus venir (1. 69).
New prepositions are suprd, which takes the aecusative, and sub. which takes snprñ + acc.
the ablative (when motion is implied sub takes the aecusative). sub + abl. (acc.)
The demonstrative pronoun ipse is used for emphasis like English ‘hituself ipse -a -um
/h erself/itself: Ubi est lupus ipse? (1. 55). Tt is dedined like Ule apart from
the neuter in -um (not -tul): ipse -a -um.
W hen a d and in enter into compounds with currif and ponit they change to assiinilation:
oc- and im-: ac-currit, im-pónit. Such a change, which makes one consonant ad-c... > ac-c...
iu-p.. > ¡m-p...
like or similar to anotlier (m is a labial consonant like p). is called assimila-
tion ffrom Latín similis, 'sim ilar', ‘like’).

19
Chapter 10
3 rd d s c le n s io n mJ f . In tliis chapter several new 3rd declensíon nouns are introduced. Soroe o f
leo /eon\¡sai. them Jiave peculiar forms in the nominative singular: íd leo an -n is dropped:
humó homín\ism. gen. león\is. In homo this is combined with a vowel change: gen. homin\is.
iv.iv vóais f. Tbe -í ending produces the spelling -x for -es in w x : gen. vocjis, and the loss
pésped[is m,
o f d in pés: gen. pedáis. From now on the nominative and gemtive o f new
nouns w ill be found in the margin. - Homo combined with the negation né
némó < ni+ homS forms the pronoun némó (< n« + homo, ‘nobody’).
3rd declensíon n. You also m eet the first neuter nouns o f the 3rd declensíon: jhlm en, mare,
JhjmenJl0mm\is
mar\c niar\is animal, which in the plural (nom./acc.) end in -a: fltimina, m aña. animSlia,
animal ainmaU is Tbe declensíon o f these nouns will be taken up in the next chapter
conjunctions: ln Cum avis volat, alae moventur (1.15) cum is a temporal conjunction (English
cum, temporal *when’; cf. II. 16, 51, 87). And in Hominés ambuláre possunt, quod pedes
tiuoil, causal (= quid) habent (i. 24) quod is a causal conjunction (= quia; cf. U. 90, 128).
sma-pot-est The verb potest, which first appears in the sentence Canis volare non poiest
phlT.pOS-SIMT (1. 21), denotes ability (English ‘is able to’, ‘can’). It is a compound with esl:
pot-est; the first element pot- (meaning ‘able’) is changed before s by as-
síinilation to pos-: Hominés ambuláre p o s s u n t (1.23).
infinitiva: -re Volare and ambuláre are the first examples o f the basic verb form which is
called the infinitive (Latín infinitivas) and ends in -re. In á-, é- and f-veibs
(Ist, 2nd and 4th conjugations) this ending is added direedy to the stem:
volá\re, vide\re, aucO\re. In consonant-verbs (3rd conjugation) a short e is
ioserted before the ending: pón\ere. From now on the infuiitive will be the
form o f new verbs shown in the margin, so that you can aíways tell which of
the four conjugations the verb belongs to: 1. -áre; 2. -ere; 3. -ere; 4. -iré.
infinitive The sentence Hominés déos vidére non possuni becomes in the passive: D el
active passive ab hominibus vidérí nón possunt. V ideñ is the passive infuiitive conespond-
vocal te vocá\r?
vidi[re vidé\ri ing to tbe active vidére. In the passive, á-, é- and f-verbs have the ending - ñ
poniere pón\i in the infinitive, e.g. vldéj a audi[ri, num erá\ri (11. 39, 45). but consonant-
audfre audi\ri verbs have only -i] e.g, em\i: Sinepecunia cibus enündnpotest (I. 62).
sing. vuh In this chapter the infinitive oceurs as object o f potest possunt, of vult volunt,
plur. volunt the verb that denotes will (Iütia cum pueris lüdere vult. ñeque ii cum puellá
ladere volunt. 11.75-76), and o f the verb audet audent, which denotes courage
impersonal: (aves canere non audent. 1. 88). It occurs also as subject o f the impersonal
HiCessc est (+ dal.) expression necesse est; hete the person for whom it is necessary to do sorae-
thing is in the dative ídative o f interest): spiráre necesse est h om ini(1. 58).
The object o f verbs o f perception, like vidére and audire, can be combined
with an infinitive to express wbat someone is seen or heard to be doing
(active infinitive) or what is being done to someone (passive infinitive):
F u en puellam canere audiunt (1. 80); AetniHa filiu m suum á lülió partan
videt (l. \26); Aemilia Qimitijin ü Itllió in iec/ópdniaspicit (l. 131).
The origina] ending o f the infinitive was -se; but an intervocalác -s-, i.e. an -s-
amare (< ama[se) between vowels, was changed lo -r-, so -se became -re after a vowel. Only in
the inñnitives esse (to est sunt) and ésse (to ést edunt) was the ending -se kept,
infiniiive -se: because it was added directly to the stems es- and ed-: esjse and (with assimi-
es\se
ésj.te (< cd\sc) luiioti ds >ss) és\se. Examples: QuTspirat mortuus esse nón potest (1. 109);
Esse quoque homininecesse est (L 59); némógemmás ésse potest (I. 64, where
you also fxnd the passive infinitive edi o f esse: Gemntae edinón possunl).
abláiiws moiíi Besídes means and cause the simple ablative can also denote manner (oblati­
vas modij, e.g. magna vóce clámat (L 112); 'leo' diclinátur hoc modo...

20
Chapter 11
The arl o f healing was nalurally far more primitive in the ancient world than
it is today, although not all the doctor? o f amiqiiity were so incompetent as
the zealous physician w ho treats poor Quintáis.
Araong the ñames o f parts of the body there are a number o f neuter nouns o f 3rd decl. neuter
the 3rd declension, e.g. os, crüs, Corpus, peclus, cor, iecur. Like all neuters sing. plur.
nom. -a
ihese nouns have the same fomi in the nominative and accusative, with the acc. - -a
plural ending in -a. In the other cases they have the well-known endings of gen. -is -um
the 3rd declension. Note tliat a final -s is changed mto r when endings are úat. -i -¡bus
added: ós ór\is, crüs ctiir\is, corpas corpor\is, peclus pector\is (in the last abl. -e -¡bus
lwo, and in iecur iecor] is, the precediog voweí is changed from u to o).
Irregular fornis are capul capit\is and corcord\is; viscer\a -um is only used plural (nouL/acc., gen.)
in the plural. These nouns are alí consonant-stems, Iikefiüm en and in cons.-steins: -a, -um
the plural they have -a (nom./acc.j and -mu (gen.). Examples o f /-stems are i-stems: -ia, -ium
«tarje mar\is and animal -ál\is. which in the plural have -ia (nom./acc.) and abl. aing
-ium (gen.) and in the abíative singular -i. The complete declension pattems, cons.-stems: -e
¿-stems: -r
or paradigma. are sho w n o n p ag e 83.
In sentences like lülius puerum vider and lülius puerum audit we have seen accusative & infinitive
that 3n infinitive may be added to the accusative puerum to describe what (acc. + inf.) with
(1) vidére, audire, sen tíre
the boy is doing or what is liappening to him, e.g. lülius puerum vocore (2) iubére
audit and lülius puerum perterriium esse videt. Such an accusative and in- (3) dicere
finitive (Latín accüsatrvus cura infinitivo), where the accusative is Iogically (4) putáre
the subject of the infinitive (‘subject accusative’)» is used in Latín not only (5) gaudére
(6) necesse est
with verbs o f perceiving, like vidére, audire and sentiré, but with m any other
M.: "Pueriiunint”
verbs, e.g. iubére (dominus servum venire iubet), and with dicere and putáre M. ‘ouerum dormiré’
(and other verbs o f saying and thinking) to report a person's w ords or dicit
thoughls as an índirect statement. Thus the doctor's words "Fuer dormit ” “..." = divect speech
are rendered by Aemilia: Medicas 'puerum dorm iré’ dicit (II. 63-64, single '...’ = índirect speech
(reponed speech)
quotalion martes ‘...’ denote reported or índirect speech): and the terrible
thought that strikes Syra when she sees the unconscious Quintus is reported
in this way: Syra eum mortmtm esseputat (l. 108). The accusative and infuii-
tive (acc. + inf.) is atso found with gaudére (and with other verbs expressing
moodV Syra Quíntum vivere gaudet (I. 118, = Syra gaudet quod Quintus
vivit), and with necesse est (and other impersonal expressions): Necesse est
puerum aegrum dormiré (1. 128), (In English índirect statement is generally
expressed by a clause beginuing with ‘that’: ‘says/thinks/believes that...’).
The conjunction atque (< ad-que, ‘and... too’) has the same function as e¡ atque (< ad-que) = el
and -que; before consonants, but not before voweU o r h-, the shortened form ac (+ cons.) - atque
ac is often found (see cap. 12, 1. 59). In this chapter (1. 541 you m eet the
shortened form nec oíñ eq u e; it is used before consonants as well as vowels. nec - ñeque
Like ah the preposition de expresses motion ‘from ’ (mostly ‘down from ’) dé prep.+ abl. (1)
and takes the abíative: déarhore, d é bracchió (II. 53, 99).
The abiatives ped e and capite in N ec modo pede, sed etiant capite a egerest abíative of respect:
(I. 55, cf. 11. 131-132) specifíes the application of the tetra aeger. It is called pedg aeger
abíative o f respect. as it answers the question ‘in w hat respect?*
The infinitive o f potes! possunt is posse, as appears from the acc. + inf. stating ind. potes! possunt
A em ilia's low opinión o f the doctor’s competence: Aemilia non puta! medi- inf. posse
cum puerum aegrum sanare posse (11. 134-135).
Speaking o fh e r and Julius's son Aemilia says íilius noster fi. 131); in cap. 12 possessive pronoutis
you w ill fmd several examples o f the oossessive nionouns noster -tra -trum noster-tra -trum
vesler -tra -trum
and vesler -tra -trian referring to more than one owner (English ‘our’, ‘your’).
21
Chapter 12
The military played an important part in the Román world. Ahove ibis chapter
you find a picture o f a miles Rdmáims. The word ‘military’ is derived from
miles, whose stem ends in -l: gen. mílit\is (so also pedes -it\is and eques -t'| tis).
Here you read about the equipment o f a Román soldier and the layout o f a
Román army camp: castra. This noun is neuter plural: accordingly you read
castra sunt. vállunt castrarían, in casirts (11.93,94,101) thougb only one camp
plurale tantum: is nieant- Like liberi -divin. viscera -mu and arma -ñrum the noun castra -órttm
castra -oium n. pl.
is a so-calledplüráíe tantiwi (‘plural only’, cf. ‘bnrracks’. ‘enlrails', 'avms'}.
possessive dative In the sentence M arcó úna soror est (I. 6) M arcó is dative. This could also
+ esse be expressed M árcus ünam sorórem habet; but úna soror is nominalive, and
the dative M arcó tells us ‘to wliom' or ‘for w hom ’ there is a sister. Sucb a
possessive dative with esse is used (o express to whom something belongs;
cf. Quod nónum estpatrT? E inóm en est Lücius Iülius Balbus (11.9-10).
Román ñames: Iülius is a familv ñame: male members o f this family are called Iülius and
praenSmen female members Iülia. Besides the family ñame in -ius Román raen have a
mimen
evgnómen first or personal ñame, praenómen (see the list in the margin o f p. 86), and a
súmame, cognómen, which is common to a branch o f the family. The cog-
nómen is often descriptive o f the founder o f the family, e.g. Longus, Pulcher,
Crassus; Paulus means ‘small’ and Balbus ‘stammering’.
4th deelension The noun exercitus here represents the 4tb deelension (déclináiió quártá).
sing. plur. A ll the forros are shown in 11. 80- 89: in the singular the accusative has -ion,
nom. -US ■ür the genitive -üs, the dative -a/, and the ablative -a; in the plural the nomina-
«ICC. -um •üs
gen. -üs -uum tive and accusative end in -üs, the genitive in -uum, the dative and ablative in
dat. •uf •ibas -ibus. 4th deelension nouns are regularly masculine, e.g. arcas, equitótus,
abi. -H -¡bus exercitus, inipetus, metas, passus, versas; manus is femínine (duae mamls).
This deelension does not comprise nearly so many words as the first three.
imperare, pariré + dat. In the sentences Dux exercitui imperat and Exeivitus d u c is u ó p á re t (1. 82)
exercitui and d u el are datjves. This shows that the verbs imperare and
p á re te take the dative (persons whom you command and whom you obey
are in the dative). You will soon find more verbs that take the dative.
3rd decL adjectives AU the adjectives leam ed so far, e.g. alb\us -a -um, follow the ls t and 2nd
sing. mJí. n. declensions: the lst in the femínine (alb\aj and the2nd in the masculine and
noin. -is -e
acc. -em -e neuter (alb\us. alb\um) — a few, like niger -gr\a -gr\um, have -er, not -os, in
gen. -is the nom. sing. m., thus aeger, pu kh er, ruber and noster, vester (cf. nouns
dntyabl. -I like líber -br\i, culler -tr\i). Now you m eet adjectives o f the 3rd deelension.
plur. namely brevis, gravis, ¡evis. Cristis, fortis; tennis already appeared in cap. 10.
nom^acc. -es -¡a
gen. -ium Tn the masculine and feminine they are declined like ovis, except that in the
dal./abl. -thus ablative they take - i (not -e); in the neuter they are declined like more (i.e. in
the nom./acc. they have -e in the singular and -to in the plural). So in the
comnarative nominative singular w e have gladius brevis, hasta brevis and pilum breve.
sing. m./f. n.
nom -ior -ius A comparison like Via Latina non tam tonga est quam via Appia can also be
tice. -lórem -tus expressed: Via Appia longior est quam via Latina. Longior is a conparative
gen. -ióris
dat. -ion (comparátñ’us, from comparare, ‘compare’). The comparative ends in -ior
abl. -ióre in tlie masculine and feminine and in -ius in the neuter (gladius/hasta loneior.
plur. pilum lonsius) and follows the 3rd deelension: geu. -ior\is, plur. nottL/acc.
nom/acc. ó -una -¿(Jrjéi (m./f.) and -iór\a (n.); abl. sing. -e (not -i): -iúr\e. Examplcs: II. 53,58-
gen. -wmm 50, 127,130,134-135, and in the section grammatica latina II. 200-225.
dat^abl. -iorihu.i
The gemtives in Provincia est pars imperi[ Rómñni, ut membrum pars corpa-
partitive aenitive rís est (11. 64-65) indícate the whole o f which a part (pars part\is f.) is taken.
It is called partitive «icnitive. Cf. the genitive in magnas nunterus militum.
22
The common Román linear measures w erepés, ‘íb o t’ (29.6 cm ), andpassus 5 pedes = 1passus
= 5 pedes (1.48 ni); mille passüs (4th decl), a ‘Roraan m ile’ o f t .48 km, is a
Hule less than an English mile. The plural o f mille is mitin -itim n., e.g. dúo milia + gen. plur.
milla (2000), which is folíowed by a partitive genitive: dito milia passuum:
se.: milia mílitum. Long distantes were given in milia passuum (‘Román
miles’, ‘m ile’ is derived frotii milia). The accusative is used to indícate
exlent (‘how long?’ ‘how high?’), e.g. Gladius dúos pedes, longus est
Besides consonant-stems (lik epdn\ere, süm\ere, dic\ere) the 3rd conjugatíon
comprises some verbs wbosc stems cnd in sbort u or i. The inflection o f u- verbal u- and ¡'-stems
stems, e.g.flu\ere!axd metu\ere, does not differ from that o f consonant-stems.
In the /-stems i changes into e before r, e.g. in the infinitive: cape\re, iace\re,
fuge\re. stem capí-, iaci-.fugi-, and in final position: cape! iace! fu g e! (im­
perativo); so /-stems, too, largely agree with consonant-stems, but they are
characierized by having i before vowel endings, e.g. -unt: capj\unt, iaci\uni,
fig i\w it (cf. accipiunt and aspiciunt in cap. 8. inf. accipere, aspicere).
In the verb fer\re (1. 55) the infinitive ending -re is added directly to the con- \oLfer\re
sonant-stem fer-, so are the endings -t and -tur: fer\t, fe t\tu r (11. 34, 57, plur. ind. fer\i fer Wil
fer\unt, fer\imtur) and the imperative has no -e; fe r ! {p\as.fer\te!). C f.theshort fer\tur fer unlur
imp. fer! fer te!
imperatives es! o f esse (plur. es\te!) and díte! o f dücere (plur. düc\ite!). Two
more 3rd conjugation verbs, Jlcere and /acere, have no -e in the imperative imp. tliddür/fac! fer!
singular: d iclfa c! (plur. d h\¡te!faci\ie! -fu c e re is an /-stem: faci\uni).

Chapter 13
Today w e still use tbe Román calendar, as it was reform ed by Julius Caesar th e R o m á n c a le n d a r
in 46 B.C., with twelve months and 365 days (366 in leap years). Before this
refonn, oniy four months - March, May, July and October - had 31 days.
while February had 28, and the other months only 29. This made a total of
355 days. It was therefore necessary at intervals lo put in an extra month!
The noun diés, gen. d iii, here represents the 5th declension (Latín déclmatío 5lh declension
quinta). The complete paradigm is shown on page 101. 5th declension nouns sing. plur.
ñora, -is -is
have stems in é, which is kept before all endings (but sbortened in -em). The ace. -em -is
number o f these nouns is veiy small; m ost o f them have -íes in the nomina- gen -H/-ei -¿ruin
tive, like diés, meridiés, fa ciis, glaciés: a few have a consonant before -es dal. -éii-ei -ibtts
(and shoit e in gen./dat. sing. -ei), e.g. the common word res, gen. reí abl. -§ -ibus
(‘thing’, "matter'), which turas up in the next chapter. The nouns o fth is de­
clension are feminine except diés (and meri-diés) which is masculine (in meñ-dli< medi-dii
special senses and in Late Latín it is feminine). (medió dii)
You have now leamed all flve declensions. The classificatlon is based on the lst decl.: a-stems
(original) final stem-vowel; gen. -ae
ls t declension: a-stem s, e.g. ala, gen. sing. -ae 2nddecl.: o-stems
gen. -f
2nd declension: o-stems, e.g. equus, ñvuut < equq\s, wt¿m , gen. sing. -i(<-oi) 3rd decl.: consb'-siems
3rd declension: consonant-stems and ¿-stems, e.g. s o l ov/l.v, gen. sing. -is gen. -is
4th declension: u-stems, e.g. lacias, gen. sing. -jis 4th decl.: u-stems
gen. -üs
5th declension: e-stems, e.g. dié\s, r#|í, gen. sing. -éi, -ei. 5th decl.: e-steins
The neuter uoun mane is indeclinable (11. 36,37; cf. cap, 1 4 ,1.55). gen. ■i!/-:'
The ñames o f the months are adjectives: m insis lanuárius, etc., but they are
oñen used alone witlioul ménsis. A prüis and September, Ocióber, November.
Decemher are 3rd declension adjectives, so they have ablative in -i: (mease)
A p rftl Septemhn, OctobrT, etc. Note: nom. m. -ber (without -is), gen. -bt\is.

23
cuestión; aoswen To express ‘time w hen’ (lie ablativo (ablativos temporis) is used: ménsc
‘when7’ ab!. D ecem brí UIq tempore, hór¿ primó, nterüfie, hieme. ‘Time how lono'
“howlong?' acc.
(duration) is expressed by Ihe accusative: rendan annó¿ vivere (I. i 1).
yedintJj; O f the Latió numeráis youknow the cardinals 1-10 (m us, dan... decem) and
¡unís, dúo, tres... the ordinals Ist—4th: prlmus, secundas, teriius. quartus. In numbering the
ordinal»: months the first twelve ovdinals are needed: prlmus... duodecimus (II. 2-6).
primus, secundas,
teriius.. The ordinals are combincd with pars to forra fraciions; tercia pars, >/4
guaría pars, l/i quinta p a rs etc., but */2 dimidía pars (II. 33-34).
In the oldest Román calendar March was the first month o f the year. This ex-
plains the ñames September, Octóber, November and December (< septem,
ocio, novent, decem). The fifth month in thc oíd calendar was called Quintilis
(< quintas), but añer the death o f Julius Caesar it was named iiilius in raemory
o f hira. Id the year 8 b .c . the following month. which untii then had beca
called SexiTlis (< sextas), was given tbe ñame o f the Román emperor^u^uríur.
presen! tense: est sitnt The forms eral eranl are used instead o f est runfw hen the past is concemed.
past tense: eraterant Compare thc sentences: tempore antiguo Martius ménsis prim us eral. Tune
(— illd tempore) September ménsis séptimas eral (It. 19-20) and Muñe (= hac
tempore) ménsis prim us est /anuarios (1. 22). Eral eranl is called the past
tense or prcteñte. while est surtí is the nresent tense (‘tense’ comes from
Latin tempus). The past tense ofo th er verbs comes later (from cap. 19).
In the example FehruSrius brevior est quom ¡anuarias a coinparison is tnade
between the two months: brevior is the comnarative o f brevis. lo ihe sen-
tence Februárius ménsis anni brevísim a s est (1. 30) February is compared
with all the other months o f ihe year, none o f which is as sbort as Februaty:
suporlative brevissimus is the sunerlative (Latin superlátñvs) o f brevis.
e o in n a ria o n (d eg re e s) Y ou bave now leamed the tltree degrees o f comoarison:
1. p os.: -us-a -ttmf-is -o 1. Positive: -us -a -ton, -is -e, e.g. longus -a -utn, brevis -e.
2. corap.:-«»•'/«»-fr>r|w
3. sup.: -is3¡m\us-a -mu
2. Comparative ( ’liigher degree’): -ior -ius, e.g. longior -ius.
3. Sunerlative (‘highest degree’): -issinwx -a -um, e.g. ionglssimus -a - 11111.
March all Three days in each montfa had special ñames: kaiendae the Ist, idus thc 13th,
May thc and nónae the 5th (the9th day beforeidos: inclusive reckoning): but in March,
July other
Oct. months May, July and October (ihe four months that originally had 31 days) idus was
1st kaiendae the 15ih and nónae consequently tbe 7lb. T o these ñames, which are feminine
5lh nónae plurals (idus -uum 4th decL), the ñam es o f the months are added as adjec-
7tii rtónae tives. Thus January Ist is kaiendae lánuáriae. January 5íh nónae lánuáriae.
13th TJñs
and January 13th idus lánuáriae. Dates are given in the ablálivus temporis,
] 5íh idus
e.g. kalendfe. lánucirifs ‘on January Ist’ and idibus M áriiis ‘on March 15lh\
Other dates were indícated b y stating tho number o f days before the folíow-
ing kaiendae, nónae or idus. April 2 Ist (Rome’s birthday) is the 1 1th day be­
fore kaiendae M áiae (inclusive reckoning!), it sliould iherefore be dios tln-
decimos ante kulendüs. Máiás, but ante being illogically pul first it becatue
a. d. m unte dtem ante diem ündcciinum kalendá* Afáigs (sbortened a. d. XI í'tal. Mái.).
nom,+ inf.+ dicitur Note the passive dicitur with an infmitive: ¡úna 'nova' esse dicitur (I. 52,
r.om. + ,nf.. ‘is said t o b e ..’; cf. (homines) lünam ‘novam ' esse dianit: acc.+
inf.). GLsewhere dicitur = nómiiuitur (‘is called’, e.g. II. 5 8 ,6 4 ,6 9 ,7 2 ,7 7 ...).
ind. vult volwit T he inftutiive o f vult volunt has the irregular form velle, as appears lrom the
Lnf. VeUt acc. ~ inf. in Aemilia puertnn dormit e velle putat (1. 140). The conjunction
vel is originally the imperativo o f velle; it implies a free choice between two
ihe conjunctions ve! and expressions o r possibifities: XII m énsis v£¿ CCCiXV d iis; ceutum anni vel
itul saecuhm ; hora sexta yel meridiés (11. 7, 9, 43) - as distinct from aut. which
is put between mutually exclusive alternatives: XXVIII autX X IX diis (I. 28).
24
Chapter 14
A t dawii Marcas is roused frcrn his mom ing slumbers by Davus, w ho also
sees lo it that he washes properly befare putting on his tutuca and toga, Ihe
clothes that were the m ark o ffreeborn Román roen and boys.
Among Ihe uew words in this chapter you should pay particular attention to cuestión.
uter, neuter, alter and uterque. These pronouns are used only when t\yo per- uter utra utrum?
A-neanB?
sons or things are concemed. Uter utra utrum is The interrogative pronoun an sw er:
used when there are only two alternatives ( ‘which o f the tw o?’), e.g. Uter neuter -tixi -trum:
puer, Márcusne an Quintos? (the conjunction an, Dot aut, is put between the nec A necB
tw o in question). The answer may be: alter -era -enim:
aut A aut B
(1) neuter-tra -trian (‘neilher’), e.g. neuter puer, nec M arcusnec Quintas; uter- utra- utrum-que:
(2) alter -era -erum (‘one’/ ’the other’), e.g. alter puer, autM . autQ .; eiA etB
(3) uter- utra- utrum-que (‘each o í the tw o'), e.g. uterqve puer, etM . etQ .
Where English prefers ‘both’ followed by the plural (*both boys’), Latin has
the singular uterque. Even if there are tw o subjects separated by ñeque... uterque sing.
ñeque, aut... aut or et... et the verb is in the singular, as in et caput &t pés ei
dolgt (11. 3-4) and nec caput nec pés dolet (1. 66). T he general rule is that two
or m ore subjects take a verb in the plural i f they denote oersons. but i f the
subjects are things the verb agrees with thenearestsubject, as in p és et caput
e l dolet (1. 64), - Note hete the dative et, w hich is called dative o f ¡nterest dative of interest
(datfvus commodi): it denotes the person concemed, benefited or harmed; cf.
the senlence M ullís barbarts magna cotporis pars mida est (I. 77).
m7n. f.
The ablative of dúo duae dúo is: masculine and neuter duobus ( i duñbus noin. dúo duae
pueris; in duóbns cubiailís) and feminine duábus ( i dtwhus fenestrls). abl. dudbtis duábus
On page 104 a new forra, o f the verb is iatroduced, the so-called participle participle
(Latin participium) ending in -(¿Jas: puer dorm íais = puer qui dormit, puer m./t. n.
nom ■ns -ns
vigilóos = puer qut vigilat. The participle is a 3rd declension adiective: acc. ■ntem -ns
vigildus, gen. -an¿[is, dormiéns, gen. -ent\is (-ns also neuter nom./acc. s¡ng.: gen. •mis
caput doláis), but itk eep s verbal functions. e. g. itm a y take an object in the dai. -nti
accusative: Dávus cubiculum intráns interrogat... (1. 25). This form, being abl. -nle/-nti
plur.
part verb and part adjective, was called participium (< pars partís). As a verb noirPacc. -ules -ntia
forro the participle usually has -e in the ablative singular, e. g. Párenles a gen- -Utitllll
lililí intrantg salütantur (1. 91) - only when used as a puré adjective has it -r. dat7abl. -ntibus
The datives corresponding to the aecusatives me. té are mihi, tibí: "Affer mihi acc. mé té
a i / u a m . and ‘ Da mihi tunicam...!" says Quintos (11.43,71); whenM arcus dat. mihi ttbi
says: "Mihi quoque caput d o let!” he is told by Davus: "Tibí nec caput nec abl. mé té
p é s dolet! “ (11. 65-66, dative o f interest, cf. 11. 64, 86, 103). The ablative of
these pronouns is identical with the accusative: mé, té. The pveposition cum mé-cum
is suffixed to these forms: mé-cum, té-cum; similarly sé-cuín: Dávus... eum te-cum
sécum veníre iubct: "Veni mécum! ” (11. 86-87); "Médits técum iré non p o tcst" sé-cuni
(I. 117, cf. 11.108,120. 128).
The verb inquit, "(lie/slie) says’, is insened aiier one or m ore words o f direct inquit "....
speech: "Hora prima est" inquit Davus. "Surge é le d o !" (1. 40); Servas
M arcó aquam afferi et "Ecce aqua " inauit (1. 44). It is a defective verb: only
inquit iiujiiiaiit and a few other forms o f the indicative occur.
The opposite o f niillus is oimiis -e {‘every’, 4alT), which m ore often appeais anuiis <rSnüthis
in the plural omnes -ia (see 11. 1 1 5, 119). Used without a noun the plural omnes *-*néinü
omnia <-» nihil
omnés (‘everybody’) is the opposite of ném ó Cnobody') and the neuter
plural omnia (‘cvcrything’) is the opposite o f nihil (‘uothing’).

25
Cbapter 15
Román schools R om e had no public school sysiem. Parents who could afford it sent iheir
young children to aa elemenlary school, iüdtts. It was run as a prívate enter-
prise by a indi magisier, who taught the cbildren reading, writing and arith-
metic. We now follow M arcus to school. His teacher tries his best to raain-
tain discipline, but he has somc difQculty in keeping theseboys in hand.
Ist personti.) From tlie coaversation between Ifae teacher and his pupils you leam that the
2»d person (2.1 verbs have different endings according as one speaks aboul oneself ( Ist
3id personé . \ person), adrcsses another person (2nd person). or speaks about someone clse
personal endíngs (3rd person). When Tifus says: "Marcus ineum librum habel", the teacher asks
sing. plur. Marcus: “Quid (= cür) tü librum T iñ habés?" and he answers: "Eso eius
1. -ó -mus librum habed, quod js meum malum habet” (11. 85—88). ll appears from this
2 . -s -lis that in the singular the ls t person o f the verb ends in -ó (habe[o), the 2nd in
3. ■! -nt (-uri/J
-s (habé\s), and the 3rd, as you know, i n- / (habe\t). In the plural the ls t per-
’ rcl coniugatien
sing. plur. son ends in -mus, the 2nd in -lis, the 3rd in -///. Addressing Sextus and Titus
1. -ó -imus Marcus says: "Vos iámtam nonpulsátis. cuín ad iüdum venitis" (1L 51-52) and
2. -is -ilis tliey answer: "Nos iánuam pulsamos, cuín ad Iüdum venimos" (L 55). So
3. -i/ -uní puisa\imis, veni\mus is the lst person plural, and pulsá\tis, venijíis the 2nd
person plural. The examples on page 112 (11. 45-58) and in the section
gra MMatica Latina show how tbese personal endin es are added to the
various stems in the present tense. Note that 3 is dropped, and é and z
shortened, before -ó: puls\d, habe\ó, veni\ó (stem spulsa-, habe-, vera-) and
that in consonant-stems a short i is inserted before -s, -mus and -lis just as
before dtc\is, dic\¡mus, d ic flis (stem dic-). Under the 3rd conjugation the
verb faceré is included as an cxample o f a verb whose stem ends in a short i,
Jáci\ 5Jaei\\xnt which appears before the endings -ó and -uní: faci\ o, faci\ unt. Other verbs of
this kind are accipere, aspicere, capere, fugere, ¡acere, incipere, parere.
personal pronouns The verbs iu the above examples are preceded by personal nronouns in the
nominative nominative: ego, tu ( ls t and 2nd pers. sing.) and iros, vos ( ls í and 2nd pers.
sing. pfur.
1. ego nóx plur.). But these prODOuns are only used when tlie snbject is emphasized;
2. tü vós normally the personal ending is sufficíent to show which person is meant,
as in the teacher’s queslion to Titus: "Cür librum non habés? " and Titus’s
answer: "Librum non habed, quod..." (11. 38-39). Tire accusative o f ego and
tü is m é and le, but nós and vos are the same in the accusative: "Quid nos
p o sse ssiv é nro n o u n s
Sing. plu r.
verberas, magisier?" " Vos verberó, quod...” ( ll 119-120). - The missing
1. meas nosiu genitive o f the personal pronouns is replaced by the possessive pronouns:
2. futís vesier meus, lúas (lst and 2nd pers. sing.), noster, vester ( ls t and 2ndpers. plur.).
esse silig. p ia r. The verb esse is irregular. Correspondingtotbe3rd person cst aadsunl the lst
1. sum stimus person is sum and sumus, the 2nd es and estis: “Cür tü sólus es, Sexie?" "Ego
2. e s eslis
3. esi sunt só lu ssum. auod..." (11. 20-21): "Ubi estis, pueri? " "In lüdó sumus " íll. 113-
posse 114). The verb posse and other compounds o f esse show the same irregular
1. pos-sum pos-sum us
2. po t-es pot-es¡h forms: pos-sum. pot-es, pos-sumus. oot-estis (vot- > pos- before s).
3 . p ot-ast p os-sunl
Quintus's words: "(Ego) aeger su m " are reported by Marcus: Quintas dicit
Q.: "(Ego) aegersum" ‘sé aegrum esse’ (1. 82). When reporting in acc. + inf. (indirect speech) what
Q. 'sSaegrumtisst?' a person says in tire lst person, the subject accusative is the reflexíve sé.
dicit
Cf. Davus... eumsécum venire iubet: "Ven!m écum !" (cap, 14,1. 87).
a c c. o f e \c la in a tio n The accusative is used in cxclamations lite the tcacher’s "Ó, discípulos im-
probQg...!" (I. 23). In exclamations addressed to persons present the vocative
is used: "ó iinprobuliscipuli!” (1.101; in the plural voc. = nom.).
impersonal verb: The verb licel (‘it is allowed’, 'one may’) is impersonal. i.e. only found in the
licei (+ dat.) 3rd person singular. It is often combined with a dative: miki licel (T m ay’).

26
Chapter 16
When sailing on the high seas the Román sailor had to set bis conree by the
sun ¡n tlie daytime and by the slars at night. So east and west are named in
Latín after the rising and the setling sun, oriéis and occidéns, and the word
for ‘ntidday’, merldies, also means ‘south’, while the word fot 'n o n h ' is tlie
ñame o f the constellalion septentriones (septem triónes), ‘the seven plovv-
o x e n \ i.e. ‘the Greal B ear’.
M any o f the new words in lilis chapter are found only in the passive (infiui- d e c o n e n t v e rb s
trve -ri, -f, 3rd person -tur, -ntiir), e.g. laetdn, verérí seguí, opperirí These p a s siv e fo rra:
inf. -ri, •f
verbs have no active form (apart from foims nol found in the passive, like Jrd pers.: -«ir. -n tiir
the participle in -/« ) and are called deponent verbs {verba deponen tía), i.e. a c tiv e m ea n in g ;
verbs which May down’ the active foim (Latin deponer*, May down"). in mean- laclan = ¡¡ñutiere
ing tliey confomi to active verbs; they are said to be oassive in fonn. bul verérí ~ tim b e
S g fetlf = exíre
active in meanim*: laclan — gaudere; opperirí - exspectáre; nauta Neptü- o p p erirí— exspectáre
mim verelnr = timet; ventó secundó naves é portü ivred iimtur - exeunt.
In the last example (11. 38-39) the ablative ventó secundó tells us underw hat a b la tiv e a b s o lu te : ’iinder
circumstances the ships put out (‘with a fair w ind’, ‘when the wind is íavor- w h a t c irc u m sta n c e s’
able’). The ablatives in L 36 have a similar function: Noutae nee nutrí túrbido n o u n + a d jectiv e
nec m orí tranquillo návigáre volunt; cf. plénís vélís (1L 39-40), and fenestrá
apenó and pedibus nüdis (cap. 14,1115, 85). Tbis use o f the ablative, which
m ay often be transiated with an English temporal clause, is called abiative
absolute (Latín ablativos absoltVus. ‘set free’, because it is grammatically
independent o f the rest o f the sentence). It ofleu occurs with a participle: n o u n + p a rticip le
Solé oriente návis é p o rtü égreditur muhis hominibus soectantihus (II. 64-65;
‘when the sun is rising’, 'at sunrise’ ... ‘while many people are looking o n’).
Even two nouns can form an ablative absolute: Só¡¿ ducs. nivem gobernó n o u n + no u n
(1. 94; ‘the sun being my guide’, ‘with the sun as a guide’).
Tlie chapter begins: Italia Ínter dim ¡noria interest, tiuñmm alterum...'mare paitii ive genitive
Superuui... appellátur; quorum (= ex quibus) is the nartitive eenitive o f the
relative pronoun, c f nenió eñiwn (= ex iís, cap. 17,1. 12). Quantity terms like multum, punlum
multum and pauium are often followed by a partitive genitive to express Mhat + p a rtitiv e gen.
o f which’ títere is a large or small quantity, e.g. paulum/innlnim aquae (IL 8-9,
117), paulmn ciln n ec multum pecítniae (11. 61-62), pauium témpora (1. 108
margin). Cf. the partitive genitive with (imagnus/parvus) numeras and milia.
The ablative o f multum and pauium serves to strengthen or weaken a com- m ulló -ivr -tus
paralive: Naris pauló leviorfit, sinmi vero Jlúctüs multo ahivres jíu n t (11. 123- p a u ló ante
post
124). This ablative is used with ante and p o st (as adverbs) to State tlic time
difference: paulo ante; pau ló post (U. 91,148): cf. the ablative iu annópost;
decem anuís post/ante (cap. 19, II. 83,86,123): it is called ablative ofdifferenee. a b la tiv e o f dilTerence
The ablative (locative) o f locas may be used without in to denote location:
eólacdQ , 16) - ijteo la có . Ju the expression locó m m ere (I. 140) the ablative a b la tiv e o f sep aratio n :
without a preposilion denotes motiou ‘from ’ (-¿ lo có ): ablative o f separaliort. h ’iñ m o vé re

The noun puppis -is (f.) is a puré j'-stem, which has -im in the accusative and ñ o ra , puppis
-i"in the ablative singular (¡rutead o f -em and -e: see 11. 41, 67). Very few i- a c c. pupptm
stems are declined in this way, e.g. the river ñame Tiheris -is m. (11.7.9). a b l. puppl

1st declension nouns (iu -a -ae) are feminine, except for a few which denote n a u ta -a e m .
m ale persons and are therefore mascuüne, e.g. minia: nauta Romanas,
ItTegular verb foims are the ls t person eó o f Tre (l. 72; cf. ¿unt) and the l|u V ijr}. e\unt
infinitivo fi\c n (3rd persoa/Í[l_/i1iwí), This verb functions as the passive o f fi\cn f>\t, fí\wii
Jacere (scc cap. IS); in conneclion with an adjective it comes to mean
‘becom e’: mare tranquillum fít (1, 95); Jlúctüs multó altiñrés fíunr (1. 124).
27
Chapter 17
R o m á n co in s To teach his pupiis arithmetic the teacher bas Tecourse to coins. The current
as assis m. Román coins were the a s (assis m .), ccpper, the séstertius, brass, the déná-
séstertius (H S) = 4 assés rius, silver - and the aureus, gold (cap. 22, i. 108). The valué o f 1 séstertius
dénórius - 4 séslertií
aureus = 25 dénarií was 4 assés, o f 1 dénárius 4 sistertii, ard o f 1 aureus 25 dénárii. Until 217
b .c . the sés-tertius was a small silver coin worth 2'A assés, henee the abbrevi-
sémis -issis m. (sés-) ation 1TS (S = sémis '/2), which became HS; thechange to 4 assés was due to
= ';í ai a fall in the copper valué o f the as (originally l ‘pound', 327 g, o f copper).
card in als: To be able to couni up to a hundred you m ust leam the múltiples o f ten.
30-90 -gima With the excéptico o f 10 decem and 20 vTgintí they alí end in -gima: 30 trt-
gintá, 40 quadrágintá, 50 quinquáginta, etc. The numbers in between are
formed by combining múltiples o f ten and smaller numbers witb or without
et, e.g. 21 vigintíünus o r ünus etvíginti, 22 \TgintT dúo or dúo el vTgiuti, etc.
1 1 - Í 7 -decim The cardinals 11-17 end in -decim, a weakened form o f decem: 11 ün-decim,
18/19: duo-Jún-dé-XX 12 duo-decim, 13 tré-deám up to 17 sepien-decim; but 18 is duo-dé-vtginti
2 8 /2 9 : diu)-/ün-dS-XXX and 19 ün-dé-viginti ('two-fiom-twenty’ and ‘one-from-tweoty’); in the same
38 /39: duo-Jvn-dé-XL way 28 is duo-di-tñgintñ and 29 ún-dé-trigintá. Thus the íast two numbers
etc.
before each múltiple o f ten are expressed by subtracting 2 aDd 1 respectively
from the múltiple o f ten in question.
M ost Latin cardinals are indeclinable - like quot, tbe interrogative which asks
the number (‘how m any?’), and tot, the demonstrative which refers to lite
number (‘so maDy’). O f the cardinals 1-100 only -a -um, du\o -ae •o
and ír\és ¡r\ia are declined. You have m et m ost forms o f these numbers (the
genitiva, ün\íus, du\órum -á n m -ñrum and tr\ium, is introduced in cap. 19).
200,300,600: -een?|r Múltiples o f 100 cenlum o íd in -cerní (200, 300, 600) or -gen ti (400, 500,
400,500,700,800, 700, 800, 900) and are declined like adjectives o f the lst/2nci declension:
900: -getu\i
200 du-cent\T-ae -a, 300 tre-cent\ i -ae -a, 400 i¡uudrin-gen¡\i -ae -a, etc.
ordinals: The o r d in a l s are a d je c t iv e s o f the lst/2nd declension; from tíre múltiples o f
20th-90th, lOOth- ten, 2 0-90, and of o D e h u D d r e d , 100-1000, they are formed with the suíftx
1000th:-t7í¡';»|'« -ésim\as -a -um: 20th vicésimas, 30th tricésimas, 40th quadrúgésimus. 50th
quinquügüsiuuts, etc., and lOOth centésimas, 200th ducentésimas, 300th tre-
centésimtis, etc. up to lOOOth mtUésimus. A survey is givenon page 308.
p a ssiv e The active scntence M agister Márcam nón iaudat, sed reprehenda beconies
p e rso n a l e n d in g s in the passive M árcus á magisiní non ktudátur, sed ivprehenditur. Marcus
sin g . plu r. now asks his teacher: "Cür ego semper á té reprehender, nwnquam laudor? "
I . -tu- -m ar
2 -ris -tniní
and tlie teacher answers: "Tú ñ me nón laudáris. ijuia uumquam récté re­
3. -tur -nlur spondes. Semper právé respondes, ergó reprehenderis!” (11. 63-68). Laud\qr,
3 rd c o n ju g a ro n reprehend\or and laudá\ris. reprehend\eris are the passive forms o f the lst
sin g . plu r. and 2nd persons singular; in the plural the ls t person is iaudábmtr. repre-
1. -or -i mur
hend\¡nwr (Sexlus says about him self aud Titus: "Nos á magistró laudámur.
2. -eris -iiu inl
3. -itur -unltir non reprehendimur") aDd the 2nd person laudá\mini. reprehenefiimim. The
examples in the section g r a m m a t i c a l a t i n a show how the passive personal
endines -or, -mur (lst pers.), -ris, -minT (2nd pers.) and -tur, -ntur (3rd pers.)
are added to the various verbal stems. In consonant-stems -i- is inserted
before -mur and -minT (merg\imur, merg\m ini), -e- before -ris (merg\eris),
and -u- before -ntur (merg\unUtr; so also in -í-stems: audi\witur).
docéred- d o u b le ¡ice. Note the two accusatives with docére: M agisterpuerós números docet (I. 2).
The fonns recle, právé, stulté. aequé are fonned from the adjectives rectas,
pravas, stullus, aequus; this fonnation will be dealt with in the next chapter.
d a \ie: steta d a - The stem o f the verb da\re ends in a short a: da\nuts, da\tis, da\tur, da\te!
etc., except in dá! da\s and rfíllns (before ns alí vowels are lengthened),

28
Chapter 18
In the Classical period Latin speUing gave a fairly reliable representaron of L a tin orth o jrrap h y
the pronunciaron. In some cases, however, letters continued to be written
where they were no longer pronounced in colloquial Latin. e.g. h-, -m in ilie
unstressed endings -am, -em, -um and n before s. Ait indication of tliis is the
occurcence o f “misspellings” in ancient inscriptions written bypeople with-
out literary education, e.g. ora fov horam , septe for septem and meses for
menses . In his short exercise Marcus makes several enors of this kind.

The deruonstrative pronoun ídem eadem idem (‘tlie same*, cf. ‘idéntica!'! is a ídem < is-dem
compound, the first eleroent o f which is the pronoun is ea id; the additiou of eundem < eum-dem
eundem < eam-dem
the suffix -dan causes the change o f is-dem to ídem and euui-dem, eom-dem
to eundem, eandem (by assimilation, n being a dental cousonanl like d, cf.
septendecim and septentriones). The pronoun quis-que quoe-qne qnod-que.
(‘each’) is declined like the interrogative pronoun with the addition o f -que.
Adiectives in -er, e.g. pulcher andpiger, forra superlatives in -enim \us -a -um. adj -er, sup. -errim\us
(istead o f -issimus). In this chapter you find pulchenim \us and pigerrim\us
(II. 73, 84), in the next (II. 98, 128) miserrim\us a n d pauperrim\us from miser
andpauper. The superlative o ffacilis is faciílim \us (1. 102). facíais, sup. -iUim\its
In the sentence puer stultus esl, stultus is an adjective qualifying the doud
puer (it answers the question avñlis esi puer?). Id the sentence puer stulté
agit the word stu ltébelongs to the verb agit w hich it qualifies (question: quó~
modo agit puer?); SUch a Word is called an ailverb (Latin adverbium, from ad adverb
verbum). Similarly, in the sentence miles fortis est qut fortiterpugnat, fo rtis is
an adjective (qualifying miles) and fortiter an adverb (qualifying pugnat). adjective adverb
•US -a -um -e
Adiectives o f i e lst/2nd declension, e.g. -a -um, réct\us -a -um, pul­ -is -e -iter
cher -chr\a -chr\um, foim adverbs in -S: stulté, récte, pulchré (bene and male
are irregular formations ñora, bonus and malus). 3rd declension adjectives,
e.g. fo rt\is -e, brev\is -e, turp\is -e, forra adverbs in -iter: fortiter. breviter.
¡urpiter. Examples: Pulchré et récté scribis; Nec sólutn právé et turpiter. sed
etiam nimis leviter scribis: M aeister breviter respondet (11. 69,105-106,134).
Somc adverbs, e.g. certé, modify a whole phrase, like Certé pulcherrimae
sunt liiterue Sexti (l. 73). Others may belong to an adjective, like aeque in the
teacher’s remarle to the twoboys: “Litterae vestrae aeoué foedae sunt“ ( 1. 78).
The teacher goes on: "Tu, Tite, ñeque pulchríus ñeque foedius scribis quam adverb
Afárcus ", and Tilus retorts: "Ai certé réctius scribo quam M arcus." The ex­ comparative: -ius
superlative: -issime
amples show th e comparative of the adverb ending in -ius: pulchríus. foedius. -(err)imé
réclius (i.e. the n eu tero fth e com parativeofthe adjective u se d as an adverb).
The teacher tben exiiorts: "Compara té cutrt Sexto, qut réctissime et pul-
cherrim éscnbiL " The superlative o f the adverb ending in -issime (-errimé) is
fonned regularly from the superlative o f the adjective,
Numeral adverbs are formed with -iés: quinquiés 5x, sexiés 6x, sepiles 7x, numeral adverbs: -¡es f ']
etc.; only the first four have special forms; sem el Ix, bis 2x, ter 3x, quater 4x, (question: quotiés?)
From quot and tot are formed quotiés and toliés (see 1L 118-126,133,134).
The verb facere has no passive fnrm, but f i e n functions as the passive o f active: facere
facere: Vócaüs est Hilera quae p e r s é svllabam facere dotest... Sine vócáli facu.faciunt
passive: fieri
syllabo fie n non potes! (11. 23-25). Compounds o f fa cere ending in -jicere, fu . fiunt
e.g. cf-Jicere. are used in the passive: stilus ex ferro ejjicitur (=jit).
The conjunction cuín may s m e to introduce □ sudden occurrence. as in this
example: Titus sic incipit: "Magister! Morcas bis... " —cuín M ar cus stilum in
partew coip o n s eias mollissimam premit! (11 128-129).

29
Chapter 19
Undisturbed by their noisy children Julius and Aemilia are walking up and
down in the beautiful peristyle, which is adoraed with statues o f gods and
goddesses.
Aniong the ñames o f the gods noticc the ñame o f the suprcme god luppiter
luppiter ¡ov\is (“ Zeus)
lov\is; the stein is lav- (meaning ‘sky’), and Ibe long nomioative form is due
to the addition o f pater weakened to -piter. The Román gods were ideutiñed
lünó -ónix (= Hera) wilh the Greek, e.g. luppiter with Zeus, his wife lim ó -dais with Mera, Venus
Venus -ens (-AphrodFié) -eris, the goddess o f love, with Aphrodité, and her son Cupido •inis (‘desire’)
Cupido -inis (= Ei os) with Eras.
irregular comparisoo: luppiter has the honoriftc tifie O píim ts Máximas, which is the superlative of
magtms máior máximas bomts and magnas. The comparison o f these adjectives and their opposites
parvus minor mínimas malus and parvas is quite irregular: see II. 13-16, 2 5 -3 0 , 36-37. So is the
boims melior cpti/mi ; comparison o f multl: comp. plftrés, sup. plürim í (II. 52, 54).
maltes péíor pessimus
mullí plüris plürímS The superlative is often linked with a partítive genitive. Julius calis his wife
uptimam omnium (etninárum (1. 30). Venus is described as pidcherrima
Superlative + pnrtitive
g e n ilive
onuiium deárum (1. 21) and Rorne as urbs máxima et pulcherrima tótius
imperiTRóináni (11.57-58). W ithout such a genitive the superlative often de­
notes a verv hieh degree (so-called nhsolute superlative): Julius and Aemilia
absolute superlative address one another as mea óptima uxor! and «ir optime vir! (II. 90,94), and
Julius, who sent flores puicketrimós to Aemilia (1. 78), calis his foimer rival
vir pessimus (l. 110; cf. 11. 107, 128, 129).
ñeque iillus(‘and no...’) As you know, et is not placed before non; nor is it placed before niillus:
instead of ‘et nñilus' we fínd ñeque iülus (see 11. 14, 24, 27). The pronoun
nüUwt. Cdlus, tolas, sólus, tll!\us-a -utn (‘any’) is declined like nüll\us; genitive -Fas and daíive-t in the
ünus: gen. -Fus, dat. -f singular; tdt\us, sól\us aud ün\ us are declined in the sam ew ay (see 11. 32,58).
genitive ofdescription: How oíd are the children? Márcus oció a m o s habet; Quintas est puer septetn
puer septum annórum annórum (I. 33). Such a genitive, which serves to describe the quality o f a
notin, is called ‘genitive o f description’ (Latin genetivus quálitatis). O f
young Julius we are told: aduléscens viglnti duoruin annórum erat (I. 40).
The last example has erat, not est, because this was teu years ago (he is no
longer aduléscens). Thus, by taking you back iu time we teach you the verb
fomt used when things o f the past are described. Compare the two sentences
N unc Iulius Aemiliam amat and Tune lülitts Aemiliam amábat. The form
past tense or preterite amá\bat is the past tense or preterite (Latin tempus praeteritum) o f the verb
present and past tense amá\re. as distinct from ama\t, which is the present tense (Latin tempus prae-
sétir). The preterite or past tense occuning in this chapter denotes a past state
o f things or an action. going on (not completed) or repeated; this preterite is
called the imperfect (Latinpraeteiitum inmerfectutn. ‘uucompleted past’).
imp e rto In the 3rd person ibe imperfect ends in -ba\t in the singular and -ba\nt in the
active plural; the consonant- and f-stems have -iba\ t and -éba\nt: lülitts el Aemilia
sin g. 1. •(S)ba m
2 . -(e)bá s Romae habitábant: lidias COtFdié episiulás ad Aemiliam scríbfb a t; lütius
3. -{e)ba t mate dormiébat. During the couple's talk o f their early love the Ist and 2nd
plur. 1. -(éihá mus persons are tumed to account, as when Julius says: “tune ego té amábatn. tü
2. -(¿Iba tu m i non amabas.. . ” (1. 98); "Ñeque episiulás, quás cotidié tibí scríbébam,
3 . -(¿)ba\nt
p a ssive leséb ñ s" (11. 101-102). The plural forms eud in -mus and -rú preceded by -bá-
sin g. 1. -(i)ba\r or -iba-, e.g. (nós) amábámus. (vos) amábaos (see 11. 124-127).
2. -(é)bá\ns The imperfect is formed by inserting -bá- (1 st and 2nd conjugations) or -ébá-
3 . -(üjbá\ntr
plur. 1. -(é)bS\ntur (3rd and 4th conjugations) between the stetn and tbe personal endings: in the
2. -(é)ba minF active -m, -mas ( Is t pers.), -s, -lis (2nd pers.) and -t, -nt (3rd pevs.); and in
3 . -(ü)ba níur the passive -r, -mur (Ist pers.), -ris, -minl (2nd pers.) and -tur, -ntur (3rd
30
pers.). Note that the 1st pcrson ends ¡n -m and -r (not -ó and -or) and that á
is shortened befóte -m, -r, -t, -nt and -ntur (a»wü¡¿>a|w, amá\ba\r, etc.). In the
grammatica LATINA secticra you will find examples o f all the fomis.

You have aiready met the 3rd person o f the ¡mperfect o f the irregular verb imperfect of esse
esse: era\t, era\nt (cap. 13). Now you leam the ls t and 2nd peisons: era]m, sing. plur.
era\mus and era\s, erá\tis. Compounds o f esse, e.g. ab-esse, show the same 1. era\nm era mus
1. era s erü tis
fonns: ab-era\m, ub-era\s, etc., and so doesposse: pot-eru\m, pot-erñ\s, etc. 3. era i era nt
The n o u t domas -üs is a 4th declension fetninine, but it has some 2nd dc- domas -üs f., abl. S
clension endings: ablative singular dom ó (in magna domó), and in the plural pl. acc. -oí, gai. -orum
accusative domos and genitive do m ó n m (or domuwnY The fortn dom í (cap.
15,1. 81) is locative; for th is form and acc. domum and abl. domó used as ad-
verbs without a preposition, see the next chapter.
In cap. 4 you leamed that 2nd declension words in -us have a special fon» personal llames in -ius
used w ben addressing a person, the vocative. ending in -e, e.g, domine. and /íh'wá: voc.
W hen Aemilia addresses her husbacd by ñame site uses the vocative IiHT: ' Ó meas: VOC. mi
and site adds "m i opiime vir!" (II. 93-94). The vocative o f personal
ñames in -tus, e.g. Julias, Cornelias, Lucias, ends in -f (a contraction o f -re):
lü il Cornelr, Lucí, and the vocative o f meas is m[. Eveu filias lias -i in the
vocative: Julius says " 0 to bis son (cap. 21, l. 30).
The ending -ós in máter familiQS and p a ter fam ilias (11. 17, 38) is an oíd
genitive ending o f the 1st declension (= -ae).

Chapter 20
A happy event is in store for our Román family. This gives the paients occa-
sion for thoughts about the future, which in tum gives you a chance to get
acquainted with the futtire tense (Latín tempus fu tü n u n ) o f Latín verbs.
The first regular verbs to appear in the future tense are 5- and e-stems ( ls t future
and 2nd conjugations) with the endings -bit and -bunt in the 3rd person, e.g. 1st & 2nd conjugations
active passive
kabé\bil, habé\bunt: amñ\bit, am6\bunt (11. 22-27). But when you come to sing. \.-b\ó -b or
consonant- and F-stems (3rd and 4tli conjugations) you find the fúture endings 2.-b\'is -b tris
-et, -ent, e.g. dícjef, pónlent and dormi¡e¿ dormilent (11. 32, 44— 45). The 3. -fóf -b \ntr
corresponding passive endings are -bitttr, -buntur and -étur, -entur (ll. 28-29, plur. 1. -¿jimws -b imar
2 .-¿litis b imini
36). You also find examples o f the future o f esse: 3rd pers. sing. erit, plur. 3.-é|u»t -b\txtth¡r
erunt (U, 21 .2 3 ; even in compounds, e.g. 1. 31 p vt-erito ip o sse).
3rd & 4tli conjugations
The ls t and 2nd pcrsons o f the future are put to use in the parents’ conversa- active passive
tion. Y ou will find the endings ( I) -¿<5, -bimus and -bis, -bilis added to á- and sing. 1,-dfi» -a\r
2. -élj -éjns
e-stems, e.g. amá\bd, habü\bó, etc., and (2) -am, -¿¡mus and -es -étis added to 3. -e\i -e\mr
consonant- and F-stems, e.g. discéd\am. d¡scéd[és, dormilam. dormÍ\e¡mts, etc. plur, I , -¿¡jntM -c\miir
The passive endings are 11) -bor, -bimur; -heris, -bimini; (2) -ar, -émur; -m í, 2. -4 lis -éjmint
•émiid. Ihe future o f esse: lst person eró, erimas; 2nd person cris, eritis. 3, -elní -e| ntur
esse
The future is formed by the insertion between the stem and personal ending of sing. plur.
(1) -b- in the ista n d 2 n d conjugations, e.g. amá\b\ó, kabé¡b\ó; before the con- 1. eró erimits
sonants in the endings -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt, -ris, -tur, -minl, -ntur a short vowel 2. eris eritis
is inserted, mosdy -i- (amá\b$s, amá\bj\i. amd\bi\mus, etc.), but -u- before -nt, 3. erit erunt
-ntur (amá[bu\nt, amá\b¡£,ntur) and -e- before -ris (ama[b^ris); even ¡\re has
-b- in the future tense: (ab-, ad-, ex-, red-)i b\ó, í]¿>rjs, ¡1¿>| ir, etc. (U. 131-132).
(2) -é- (but ls t pers. sing. -a-) in the 3rd and 4tli conjugations, e.g. dic\á\m,
dic\é\s, etc.; audi\a\m, mtdi\e\s, etc. (-€- is shortened before -í, -nt, -ntur:
dic[e t, dic\¿nt, dic\e^ntur).

31
presen! of valle You already kiiow the 3rd person present o f the irregular verb r elle: vult,
sing. plur. volmii. The Ist and 2od persons are: voló, volttmus and vis, vullis respeclive-
1. voló voluntas ly (11, 55, 56, 64, 73). The negation non is not placed before voló, volumus,
2. vis vullis
3. vull volniit volunt and velle; instead we find ihe fonns nóló, nóluimts, luVtini and nolis
(11. 17, 55,141,157). which are eontracted from n¿ + voló etc, The imperative
noli, nóliie isused with an infinitive to express a prohibí (ion (‘don’t...!’), e.g.
"N oliabire! ” (1. 69); "nólTte me '¡iiliolam 'vocáre!" (I. 160).
domum acc. (‘home’) The accusative and ablative o f domas, domum and domó, are used without a
domó abl. (‘Corrí home’) preposition to express molion to or from one’s lióme, e.g. domum revertí and
domi loe. f'ai home’)
domo abire (see 11. 123, 137): the fonn dom i e.g. dom i ¡nanére (l. 127) is
locative (‘at hom e’). Cf. the rule applytng to the ñames o f towus: Tüscuium,
Tüsculó, TüsculT. Domó, like Tásenlo, is the ablative o f separation; so is the
carere + abl. ablative with carere (‘be without’, ‘lack’), e.g. cibó carire (1. 6; cf. sirte +
abl.: sirte cibó esse).
nomyacc. nos vos The personal pronouns nos and vos become nóbis and vóbis in the ablative
dat./abl. nóbis vóbis and dative: á vóbis, 5 nóbis (II. 130,136; dative: cap. 21,11. 91, 109).

Chapter 21
The chapter opens with M arcus coming home from school. He seems to be
in a bad way; he is w et and dirty, and bis nose is bleeding. Whatever can
have happened on his w ay borne? This is wbat you find out reading the
chapter. You are reading M arcus’s versión o f the story, and whether it is true
or not, you can use it to leam the verb forms Ihat are used wben you talk
about an eveut that has taken place.
First o f all you find the form ambuíavit o f the verb ambuláre ¡n the explana­
r o n given for the wet clothes: Marcus p er imbrem ambulávit (1. 7). This tense
is called the perfect in Latin ¡empus praeteritum verfectum. 'past com-
perfect &. imperfect pleted’, as dislinct from the imperfect tense or praeteritum imoerfectum.
‘past not corapleted’. The difference is that the imperfect, as we know, de­
scribes a state o f affairs or an ongoing or repeated (habitual) action in the
past, while the perfect tense tells about what once happened and is uow
fínished. Compare the two preterites in the sentences: Iülia can tabal.. Tutu
Marcus eam pulsávit! The perfect often occurs in connection with the present
tense, when the present result o f a past action is described (‘the present per-
fect’), e.g. lam Iülia plórat, quia M arcus eam pulsávit (English ‘has hit’).
perfect T he plural o f ambuI5v\it and pulsáv\it is ambuláv\érunt and pulsáv\iruur:
personal endings P u erip er imbrem ambulávérunt: Marcus etT ilu s Sextum pulsávérunt (1. 13).
srng. plur. The 3rd person perfect ends in -it in (he singular and -érunt in the plural.
1. -7 -imtis
2. •isii -islis You find the same personal endings in the perfect fonns !<j « í | íí and ia a i|-
3. - íj -érunt érunt o f ¡acére (1120,21) and audiv\it and audiv\érunt d aadire (11.23, 26).
The endings o f the lst and 2nd persons, too, are different from the ones you
know from the other tenses, as appears from this conversation between fetber
and son (11. 40-43); Marcus: "...ego ilhtm pulsávij" liilius: "Tibie solas iinuin
p nlsávisti? " Marcus: "Ego ct Tifus eum pnlsávimus. " hiláis: "Ouid? Vós dúo
únum piilsóvijtis? " As yon see, the lst person has the endings -i, -imus
(pn¡süv\i, pti!sür\iniiis) and the 2nd -isti, -istis (pulsáv\isli, pulsáv\isti$) in the
singular and plural respecíively. The paiallei fonns o f lacere are iacu\i,
i,ictt\imus (lst pers.) and iacu\isti, iacu\istis (2nd pers.), and o f audtre:
íiudTv\T, audiv\imus (lst pers.) and audh>\isti, audlv\istis (2nd pers.).

32
As shown by the examples, the personal endings o f the perfect are noi added present perfect
directly to the verba] stems pulsa-, iacé- and audi-, bul lo the expanded or stem stem
changed stems ptilsá\--. iacu- and audTv-, The consonant-stems undergo even 1. pulsá- pulsóv-
2. iiicc- iuai-
greater changes ¡n ihe perfect tense: thus the perfect of scribere is scrips\ii and 3. scrib- scríps-
oídíc\cre dix\¡l (]|. i 13, J24), the stems being changed to scnps- and dix- This 4. audi- audiv-
speclal fonn oí'tlie verbal steni, lo wliich are added the personal endings of the
perfect, is called the perfect stem. whereas the basic stem o f lite verb is called
its nresem stem.
Froni present stems ending in íi or í (Ist and 4th conjugations) perfect stems
are regularly formed by the addition o f v, e.g, pulsó-: pulsüv-, uiuli-: audtv-,
aud frorn presenl stems in -é (2nd conjugation) by changing e lo u: iacé-:
iacu-, Tire perfect siem o f 3rd conjugaliou verbs (with present stems ending in
a consonant) is formed in various ways, e.g. by adding s to the presenl stem, In scnps- < scribs-
ser Ib-: scnps- voiced b changes to voiceless /?, in dTc-: dix- only the spelling dlx- < dics-
changes (r = es). The verb esse has ¡i sepárate perfect stem fu -: fu\i, fu\is(T, peif. stem of ene: fu-
J'u\it, etc. (see 11. 83-86, 105, 106).
In cap. 11 the doctor’s remark "Puer dormil" was reponed: Medicas ’p uerum
dorm iré' dicit, i.e. in the accusative and infinitive (acc. -i- íuf.). Dormi\ t is the
presenl tense and the corresponding infinitive clonn¡\re is called the present prexeiu infinitive: -re
infinitive (Latin injinitivuspraesen/is). In this chapter Julius says: "Alarais
dnvm lvii" and this remark is rendered in tlie acc. + ¡nf: liiíius ‘A/árcum
dortnlvisse' dicil (1. 97). Dormiv\it is the perfect teuse and the corresponding perfect infinitive: -isse
infinitive donniv\isse is C2lled lite perfect infinitive (Latin Tnfiniiivus per-
fectfy, it is formed by the- addition o f -isse to the perfect siem. Other examples
are mtrax\isse, iatv\isse, fu\isse: Iiilius ’M árcum intrüvisse‘ dicil. a! nóti dicit
’eum... humi iacuisse Alarais dicit sé honumpuerum fuisse' (í!.73-74, 85).
The sentence Sextus Miircum pulsávit becomes A larais <i Sexto púlsalas est
in the passive (1. 11). The form pulsátus -a -mu, an adjeclivs o f the lst/2nd
declension, is called the perfect participle (Latin pariicipium p eifeai). This perfect participle
-f| us -a -um
participle is regularly formed by adding i to the present siem, follov.ed by
the various adjeclive endings -us -a -mn etc., e.g. lm/dat_\us -a -mu, uud7t\us -a perfect passive
1. -f|íí.r-ij SU171
-um, scripi\us -a -um (Itere, loo, change frora b to p). In combination with 2. CS
the present o f esse (simr, es, est, etc.) the perfect participle is used to form 3. . mn esi
the passive of the perfect. as in the above example; the ending o f the paiti- l. -r\i-m sumas
cipíe theil agrees with the subject, e.g. lidia ti M drcü púlsala est; pueri calis
lüudáfí suiit; fitrerae (i Sexto scrTptae snnt. When combined with the in- 3. „.-a sunt
finitive esse the perfect participle forms the perfect infinitive passive. e.g. perf. inf. passive
laudúium esse: Márcus 'sé a niagistió laudatum esse' dicil (in the acc. + inf. ÍauJet\ um esse
- f |« J -a -um -um Ie sse
the participle agrees with the subject accusative, cf. Aemilia... lit/erds á -í -ae -os -Os I
M arcó scriptás esse crédit, 1. 122). The perfect participle is also used as an
attributive adjective: p u er ¡andidas (= puer qui lauda/us est). U is passive in
meaning, as opposed lo the present participle in -us, which is active.
The nouns cornil -Os and genü -üs are 4th declension nemers (acc. = nom., 4tl i declension neuter
piar, -a: conii/a, gemía). Sce the paradigm in the margin of page 164. loniit -Os, pl. -na -iih m
Ali-qais -ipiid is an indefínite oronoun. which is used about an undelctmined in d e f i n i t a p r o n o un
person orth in g (11. 65, 91; English ’someone ', ‘somelhing’). ali-ijuis ítñ-quid
The neuter plural o f adjectives and pronouns is often used as a noun (sub-
staniiv ely) in a general sense. e.g. mulla (1. 90. ‘a great deal’). omnia (L 95,
‘everything’), ¡mee íl. 123. ‘this'), etc. (= etcétera).
With the verb crédere the person whom you trust or whose words you be- craicrc + dative
lieve is pul in the dative: "Mihi créde!" (I. 119: cf. II. 140, 146).

33
Chapler 22
The picture over the chapter represems an ancient mosaic found inside the
front door o f a house in Pompen. The picture and the waraing inscription
Cavé conem! are evidence o f the way the Romans tried to safeguard their
houses against itunidcrs. F.very house was guarded by a doorkccpcr (ostia-
rías or iñnitor), who had often a watchdog to help hiin.
So it is n ol easy for a stianger to be admitted to Julius’s villa. First he must
wake the doorkeeper and then he has to coavince him that bis intentions are
not hostile. In this chapter the letter-carrier (tabellarías) tries lo do Ibis with
the words: "Ego non ventó viiiam oppugnátum sicut hosíis, nec pecüniam
postulátum venia" (U. 33-34). Oppugnátum and postulátum are the first
lst supine: -tum examples o f a verb form called supine (Latin supinan), whicli is found with
verba o f motion, e.g. iré and venire, to express purpose. Other examp les are
salülátimi venire, doim itjm iré, ambulátum exire, lavátum iré (see II. 49-54).
Before the messenger reveáis his intricate ñame Tlépotemus, he says: "Nómen
meunt non estjacile dictü ”(1. 43) and the doorkeeper, who has trouble catching
the ñame, says: "Vóx tua difficilis est auditü" (1. 46). The forms dictü and
2nd suouie: -ni audiñi are called the second supine - as distinct from The forms in -tum. the
first supine. The 2nd supine is a rare fonn used to quaüfy ceitain adjectives,
particularly facilis and difficilis; the above example, where the subject is
vóx, could be paraphiased like this: Difficiie est vocem iuam audire.
The supine endings -um and -ü are added to a modified stem-form. the so-
the supine stem called supine stem. which is also used to form the perfect participle - a n d the
future participle, as you leam in the next chapter. The supine stem is regularly
formed by the addition o f t to the present stem, e.g. salütá-rsalüiát-; audi-:
audit-; dic-: dict-; in e-stems § is changed to i, e.g. ferré-; letrii-: and there
are severa! other írregularities, especially in 3rd conjugaiion verbs, where
the addition o f / m ay cause changes by assimilation, e.g. \cnb-; w ¡ ¡u- (p is
voiceless like f), d aud-: claus- (dt > tt >ss >s).
verbal slenis When you know the three verbal stems, (1) the present stem . (2) the perfect
1. the present stem [-] stem. and (3) the supine stem. you can derive all forms of the verb ftom
2. the perfect stem [-1 thein. Consequently, to be afole to coniueate (i.e. inflect) a Latín verb it is
3. the supine siena
sufíicient to know three forms, or ‘principal parts*. in which these stems are
arfncinnl Parts contained. M ost usefiil are the three infínitives:
1. pres. iní'. 1. The present infinitive active, e.g. scrib\ere
2. perf. tnf. act. 2. The perfect infinitive active, e.g.
3. perf. itif. pass.
3. The perfect infinitive passive, e.g. script\um esse
These are the forms o f irregular verbs that w illb e giren in the tnargin when-
ever needed (the 3rd form will be without esse, or missing if the verb has no
passive, e.g. posse poniisse; o f iiregular deponent verbs you will ñ n d the
passive present and perfect infínitives. e.g. toqui locütum esse). The fomis
show various stem rnutations. e.g. vowel lengthening (emere émisse Smpntm;
vettire venisse); loss o f n and m (scindere sd d isse scissum, rumpere rüpisse
ruptum); reduplicaron (doubling) o f syllnbles ¡n tfae perfect (pellere pepu-
lisse pulsum); occasionally an unchanged perfect stem (solvere solvisse
symbols: solutum). To leam such írregularities a new exercise is now introduced in
[~] perfeci stem pensvm A, where the missing perfect and supine stems are to be inseTled in
[*] supine slem the verbs listed. - Symbols used: [-] for perfect stem and for supine stem.
ejuis' quid indef prnn. In lite sentence S i auis viiiam intráre vult.. (L 7) the pronoun quis is not
after si &. num inteirogative, but indeñoite (= aliquis); the question Num anís hic est? (1L 27-
28) does not ask ‘w ho’ is diere, but whether ‘anyone’ is there, ju sta s quid in

34
tlie quesúon Num quid tecum fers? (I. 105) means ‘anything' or ‘sotnething’. si qtlis/quid...
After s i and num üie pronoun t/tiis quid is indefinite (= aliquis aiiquid). num quis/quid..?
The demonstrative pronoun iste -a -m i (declined lite ¡lie -a -ud) refers to demonsiraiivc pron.
something connected with the person addressed (2»d person): Tlepolenms iste -a -ud
says iste eonis about the doorkeeper’s dog (I. 86, ‘that dog o f yours’) and
talking about Tlepolemus’s cloak the doorkeeper says istud nallimn (1. 103).
Compare the sentences hinitóre dormieute. canis vigilana iánuam cüstódit ablative absolute +
(1. 23) and Cañe wneto, tabellarías intral (1. 119). lanitóre dortu lente is the (l)pres. part. (act.)0
/2)perf. part. (pass.)
ablative absolute with the presen! participle. which expresses wliat is hap-
pening now, i.c. at tlie same time (= dum iánilor d o r m i r . ‘while...’). Caite
viñeta is tlie ablative absolute with the nerfect participle. which expresses
what has been done (= postquam canis viñetas esl..., ‘after...’).

Cbapter 23
You wil! remember that at the end o f cap. 18 the angry schoolmaster wrote a
letter to M arcus’s father. In tliis chapter you find out what is in that letter.
The reproduction heading the chapter shows the kind o f handwriting the
ancient Romans used. Compare this with the text on page 180, and you will
have no difficulty in deciphering the script.
Julius lias to answer the letter. So after putting Morcus in his place, he says,
"lani episiuiam seríptiiru.i snm ’ (1. 125). He couid have said, "iam epistu-
lam set ibam " using the ordinary future tense scnbatn, for scn p tñ ivs snm is
merely au extended fomi o f the future which serves to express what some-
one intends to do or is on the point of doing; it is composcd o f the present of fiiture participle
esse and scnprñrus, which is the future participle (Latin participhm fuiürí) -a -um
o f sendere. Tliis participle is formed by adding *ür\us -a -um to the supine
stem, e.g. pugnát\ür\us, páritjürjus, dnniut\iir\us from pugnare, párére, dor­
miré. You see tliese participles utilized when Marcus promises to tum over a
new leaf (H. 85-87). The future participle o f esse is fniiir\us, a form you fitüi\us -a -um
know already from the expression tempus fu tú n m .
Julius’s remark “Episiuiam scñptürus sum ” is rendered in acc. + itif.: lülw s
dicil 'sé episiuiam scriotürum esse. ' Scriptünun esse is the future infinitive future iníinitive
(Tii/uñnviis futüri), which is composed o f tlie future participle and esse. tíür\nm/-ain/-ós/-ás/-a
Other examples are fu ü in m t esse, párinírum esse, puguátñntm esse, dormi- esse
lürmn esse: see the repon o f M arcus’s promises 11. 90-92.
When Julius gets up to go, Aeniilia stispects tnischief and asks. “Márcumne
verberátum is? “ (11. 113-114) using the supine with iré to express purpose.
Her misgivings couid be expressed in the acc. + inf.: Aemilia iüliton Márcum
verberátum iré putai, but to avoid the ambiguity o f two accusatives the pas-
sive form is preferred: Aemilia Márcum ü ¡filió verberátum iriputat (1. 114),
The combination verberátum iri, i.e. the supine + the passive infmitive in of
iré, fuuctions as future iníinitive passive. Other examples are: Ego eum nec future infmitive passive
inütátinn esse nec pasrhác mütá/um ir i credo (i. 118), and: Dic e i 'respón- sum Iri (supine + iri)
siitu meum eras ¿i M arcó tráditum ir i' (I. 133).
When Marcus has been caught cheating, his father says, "Norme te nudet hoc impersonal wrb ¡mdet
Jécisse?" (1. 79). The impersonal verb pudet tells that a teelmg of shame af- + acc. {&. infyyeni
feets one; the persoD affected is in the nccusalive, e.g. me pudet (= mihi
pudor est. 'I feei asliamed’). The cause o f the feeling o f shame can be ex­
pressed by an iníinitive, as above, or by a genitive, e.g. Puerum pudet faeli
stti (1. 82).
35
irregular vcrbs Irregular verbs: with vow d lengthening: legere légisse léctum; fugere Jügisse;
with vowel change:/acere Jecisse; with different stem s:/erre tulisse titilan.
with reduplieation: daré dedtsse (cap. 24. 1. 96); h á-dere and per-dere are
compounds o í daré, wliicb explains theperfect trá-didisse and per-didisse.
iré The present paiticiple o f iré looks regular enough: í | ó ií , but tlie declension
pres. pait. iéis emú\ ¡s is irregular: acc. eunt\em, gen. ¿unt\is, ele. So also compounds, e.g. red-ire,
pavt. red-i¿ns -eunt\is. Examples in II. 106-107.

Chapter 24
From his sickbed Quintus calis Syra and asks her to tell him what has been
going on while he has been lying alone and felt left out o f things. Syra readily
gives him all the details o f M arcus’s retum home and what had gone before.
pluperfeci Through tbis report you learn the tense called oluoerfect (Latin tempuspliis-
active quamperfecium). It is used to express that an action comes before some point
sing. plur. in the past. Le. that something had taken place. The first examples are ambu-
1. ~era\m ~e>a mus
2. -erá s -erá lis ¡áv\erat, iacuferat, puls&t|a í eral a n d pugnáv.erant (II. 66-68): M árcus nón
3. -era\t ~era nt modo ¡imidus erat, quod p e r imbrem ombutirverat. sed etiam sórdidas dique
passive cruentus, quod hum i iacuerat et á Sexto pulsátus erat. P ueri enim in vió
1. sus sa era», puznáverant.
2. eras
3. ... mun erat In the active the pluperfect is formed by the insertion o f -erá- (shortened
1. s i sae crámus -era-) between the perfect stem and the personal endings: lst person -ern\m,
2. erátis ~erá\mus, 2nd ~erá\s, ~erá\lis, 3rd ~era¡t ~era\nt. In the passive the plupcr-
3. . sa erant
fect is composed of tbe perfect participle and the imperfect o f esse (eram,
eras, erat, etc.), e.g. Marcas á Sexto oulsátus erat = Sextus Márcum pulsá-
verat. In the grammatica latina section you fmd examples o f all the fonns
o f the four conjugations and o f esse {fu\era\m,fu\era\s, fu\era\ t, etc.).
accj'abi. dal. O f the reflexive pronoun the form sé is accusative and ablative, the dative is
1. me mihi sibi (cf. tibí, mihi): Puer 'pedem s ib idolére' ait: "V aldém ihidoletpés'YL 24).
2. le Ubi
3. sé sibi Deponent verbs like cdnári and menliri are always nassive ín form (except
reflexive for the present and ftiture participles: conáns, cónátürus and mentiens, men-
tftürus)', examples o f these verbs in the present are: Quintus surgere cónátur
deponent verbs and Marcas mentftur. and in the perfect: Quintus surgere cónálus esl and
perfect Marcas mentitus est (“has tried’, ‘has lied’). The perfect participles o f the
verbs pati, loqui, veréri and fa té r i are passus, locítius, veritus and fassus, as
appears from the examples: tergi dolores passus est: saepe d é ed locüius est:
Tabellarías... canem veritus est: Marcas... ‘sé mentitum esse' fassus est
(11. 47, 60, 88, 101). The last sentence shows an example o f the perfect
iofinitive: mentitum esse. - The imperative o f deponent verbs ending in -re,
e.g. “Cónsólárgmi, Syra!" (1. 40, cf. II. 2 8 ,4 1 ,4 4 ), is trealed incap. 25.
abl. ofcoinparison The conjunction quam (‘than’) is used in comparisons afterthe comparativo,
e.g. M árcus pigrior est quam Quintus. Instead o f using quam it is posstble
to put the second term in the ablative: Márcus pigrior est Quintó. Examples
o f this ablative o f comnarison; 11.30,77, 9 0 ,1 08,116,117.
nósce>-e ‘get to know' "Quómodo Médus... puetiam Rdmánam nóseere potuil? " asks Quintus; Syra
lloviese ‘know' answers: "Nesció quómodo, sed certó sció euw aliquam Jeimnam nóvisse"
(11. 5 7 —60). The perfect m h isse o f nóscere (“get to know ’) has present
forcé: ‘be acquainted with’, ’knovv’. Cf. Cairis té nó\ñt. ignórut illum (1. 94).
adverbs in -ó N ote the adverbs súbito, cenó, prim ó (11. 12,59,100) which, like postremo
and rdró, have the ending -ó (primó, ‘at first’. cf. primum, adv. ‘first’).

36
Chapter 25
In this and the next chapter you read some well-knowu Greek mylhs. These
thrilling stoiies have fascinated readcrs through the ages, aud innumerable
poets and artista have drawn inspiration from the narrative art o f the Greeks.
The place-ñames mentioned in the story can be found on the map o f Greece.
Among the ñames o f towns note the piural forras Athenae and Delphi; accu- Athenae -arum f p|.
sative Athéngs. Dclphós, ablative Athénis, D elp h i. These tw o cases, as you Delphi -drum m pl.
know, serve to express motion to and from the town: Theseus goes Athénis
iu Crétam and later ¿ Creta Athéngs. But the ablative of plural town ñames
is also used as a locative. so that Athénis can also mean in urbe Athénis: Athénis loe. (“ abl.)
Theseus A lhena vñ-ebat (1. 52). The rule about the use o f the accusative, abla­
tive and locative {= genitive/ablative) o f ñames o f towns also applies to the
Dames o f small islánds, e.g. Naxus: acc. Naxum = ad insulam Naxum, abl.
N axó = ab/ex ínsula Naxó; loe. NñxT = in ínsula Naxó (U. 99, 100, 132).
- A new ñame can be presented with nomine (‘by ñame’, abl. o f respect), e.g.
parva ínsula nomine Nnxus: mónscrum honibile, nomine Minótaurus (1. 26).
The imperative of deponent verbs euds in -re in the singular and in -m ini in deponent verbs
the plural (cons.-slems -ere and -m ini). You have already seen examples of imperative
sijig. -re
-re in cap. 24 (e.g. 1. 28: ‘'¡Muere, pedes meós, Syra!") and in this chapter plur. -m ini
Theseus says to Ariadne: "O pperirem é!" and "Et tu sequere me! Pmñciscere
mécum A lhénás!" (11.75,95), and to bis countvymen: "Laetaminí. civés meii
lutuém inisladium mewn cruentum! Sequim in ime a d p o rtu m l” (¡1. 92*93).
Transitive verbs like tim ire and amare are generally used with an object in
the accusative, e.g. mortem timire, patriam amare. The nouns derived from
these verbs, timor and amor, can be combincd with a genilive to denote what
is the object o f the fear or love, e.g. timor mortis and amor patrige (11. 77, 86).
Such a genitive is called an obiective genitive. Other examples are timor obieciive genitive
muttstrónm, expugnado tirb¡s, ne.t M ihótauri and cupiditds pecunias (11. 22,
46, S8. 122), The nouns expugnado and nex being derived from the verbs
expugnare and necáre, while atpiditas is derived from the verb cupere
through the adjective cupidos (=• cupiéns), which can itself be combined
with an objective genitive, e.g. cupidus pecunias (= quipecüniqm cupit, cf. cupidus + gen.
1. 46). Even a present paiticiple like amáns can take an objective genitive amans + gen
when used as an adjective, e.g. amñns patrige (= q u i patriam amat, I. 51).
- The verb obliviscitakes a genitive as object: oblñ íscere illñts viril (1. 126. cf. oblivisci + gen.
1.128). Whcn the object is a thing the accusative is also possible (1L 118,130).
You have seen several examples o f the accusative and infinitive with the
verb /libére: an active infinitive, as in pater filium lacere iubet, expresses
what a person is to do, while a passive infinitive, like düci in q u ieu m ... in
labyrinthum d ü ci iussit (I. 59) expresses what is to be done to a person ace. +■inf. pass.
(‘ordered him to he. taken into the labyrinth'; cf. cap. 26,11. 7-8). Like iubire with iubire
the verb velle can take the acc. + inf.: X¿ hic m aniré voló (‘I want you to...’) acc. + inf. with vede
and Quam jabulam m i Ubi narrare uüy? (U. 2—4).
The perfect participle o f deponent verbs can be used with the subject o f the
sentones to express wliat a person has/had done or did: haec locüta Ariadna...
(1. 74, ‘liaving said/after saying this...’); Theseus Jllum Ariadnae secütus...
(H. 84-85, ‘following.,.’); A eseus arbitrólas... (I. 137, ‘who believed...').
A Telative pronoun after a period functions as a demonstralive pronoun refer-
ring to a word in the preceding sentence, e.g. Theseus... Athénis vivébai. Oní
nítper Athénás venerat (11. 52, = Is...; cf. U. 34, 61, 142).
The forros návigandwn and fugiendum (11.94,97) will be taken up in cap. 26. ad + -ndurn: cap. 26

37
Chapter 26
The story o f the hoy Icarus, who soared up to the scorching sun only to be
plungecl into the sea as the sun m elted the wax that fastcned his wings. has
always becn admired as a beautiful poetic pícture o f the penalty for arro-
gance and rashness. Syra. too. uses the story to w am Quintus to be careful.
In the expression p a rá tu s a d pugnara the accusative o f the noun, pugnara, is
used after ad. I f the noun is repiaced by the coiresponding verb, the infmMve
p u g n a r e is not used, but the form p u g n a n d u m : p a r á tu s ad p u g n a n d u m . This
fotm, characterized by -mí- added to the present stem, is a kind of verbal noun
gerund called gerund (Latín gerundium , cf. the ¿nglish ‘-ing’-form), The gerund is a
acc. -ndwn
gen. -ndi 2nd declension neuter, but the norninative is missing: the accusative ends in
abl. -ndó -ndum (pugna\nd\um), the genitive in -n d i (pugna\nd\í), the dative and abla-
tive in -n d ó (pugna\nd\ó). In cousonant- and f-stems (3rd and 4tb conjuga-
tions) a short e is inserted before -nd-; a dviv\end{um , a d audi\end\um .
In this chnpter you find several examples o f the gerund in the diffferent cases
(except the dative, which is rarely used). The accusative is only found after
ad, e.g. ad nárrandum (1. 10). The genitive occilrs with nouns, e.g, fin a n
nárrandi fácere (1. 13; = finem nárrátiónisf); cónsiliumfugietidT(1. 56, = con-
silium fugae); haud difficilis esí ars volandT (1.72); tempus dormien d i ext
(I. 122, = tempus esí dormiré); or as objective genitive with the adjectives
cupidos and studiósus: cupidos audiendi, studiósus volandi (11.18, 43; cf.
-iiilicausá 1.108); with the ablative causa the genitive o f the gerund denotes cause or pur-
pose: non sólum délcctandi causó, sed etiam m onendi causa nárrálur fábula
(11. 134-135). The ablative o f the gerund is found after in and dé: in volando
(l. 80); dé amando (1.154); or alone as the ablative o f means or cause: p u e ri
scribere discun t scríbendo: fessus suin ambulando (L 24: cf. 11. 129, 130).
adjectives Some ad jectives have -er in the masculine nom. sing. without the usual end-
m. f. n. ings -ns and -is, e.g. niger -gr\a -gr\um and (with -e- retained) miser -er\a
-er -(e)r\u -(e)r\um
-er -(e)r\is -fe)r\e -erjum, líber -erja -eríum, and celen -er\is -er\e (in other adjectives o f the 3rd
declension -e- is dropped. e.g. acer ácr\is dcr|e,‘keen’, cf. December -6/jis).
Such 3rd declension adjectives have three diffórcnt forms in the norninative
mJfJn. singular - whereas those in -ns and *.v, líke pnidéns and audax, have only
-ns, gen. -m\is
-x, gen. -c\Li one: vir/Jemina/consilium prüdens/nudax (gen. príident\is, audác\is). Adjec­
tives in -er have -errimus in the superlative, e.g. celerrimus. Irregular super-
latives are summus and Tnftmus (11. 77, 79) from super(us) -era -em m and
mfer(us) -era -em m (comparative superior and inferior).
déróerfis, acc. -a The noun á é r (3rd decl. m., gen. üer\is) is borrowed from the Greek and
(= -ent) keeps its Greek ending -a in the acc. sing. a e t\a (1. 22. = aer\em ).
ñeque ulitis -o -um Like ñ iiu s -a -um the pronoun quis-quam quid-i/nam (‘anyone’, ‘anything’) is
ñeque quisquam used in a ncgative conlext, so that e t is not placed befóte nérnó, nüiil. ñeque
riegue quidquam quisquam (!. 26. ‘and no one'), nec quidquam (cap. 27, I. 106, ‘and nothing’);
ñeque tunquam
similarly e l is avoided before num quain by using ñeque um quam (cap. 23,
1. 26, ‘and never’:). Q uidquam is changed by assiniilation to quicquam.
f.v|/ó es\tóle (ímp.) Instead o f the short ímperative es! e s\iei o f esse the longer form in -tó -tote
is often preferTed: es[td! es\tó te! In other verbs this so-called future impera-
tive is not vety common (it will be treated in cap. 33).
vidéri Vidéri, the passive of vidére, is used (with nom.+ jnf.) in llie sense o f ‘seem
(+ dal.) (to be)’, e.g. Tnsulae h a u d p a rva e sun!, quamquaiu o arvae esse videniur fl. 94).
In litis fundion a dative is often added, e.g. M é lo s furnia... non tam p a rva e st
q uam tib í vid étu r (1. 95, - quarn tü pu ta s; cf. 11. 96-97, 125); p u e r... sib i
vidétur... vo la re (L 144, -s é v o la r e p u ta t) .

38
Cbaptcr 27
Julius is the owner o f a large estáte in the Alban Hills, móns Albánus, near
Tusculum and tbe Alban Lake, ¡acus Albánus. Th<‘ tucning o f the farm is left
to tenant-farmers, colóni. Julius follows their work with great interesl when
he is in residence in bis Alban villa. Here we m eet hira walking in his fields
and vincyards, quesliouing his m en ahout the quality o f the crops.
In addition to ruany new words, you team important new verb forms in this
chapter. Compare the sentences S e m a tacet et audií and Dominus imperat present
2nd, 3rd & 4th conj.
ut sen-as taceat et audiat. The first sentence tells us w hat the slave actually active passive
does. In the second sentence w e are told only w hat his niaster wanls him to sg. . -a m r
do; this is expressed by the verb forms tace\at and audi\al wfaich are called 2. -á7s ris
subiunctive (in Latín comüncfivus) - in contrast lo. tace\t and <7wrí*¡£ which 3. -a11 tur
pl. 1..-Í' mus mar
are called indicative (in Latín ¡ndicáfívus). Taceai and audiat are the nresent 2. -&i tis mini
subiunctive (in Latín coniüncthms praesentis) o f ¡acére and audire. 3. -ar n t ntur
lst conj.
The present subjunctive is formed by inserting -ü- between the present stem sg. 1. -e -e¡)
and the personal endings (short -o- before -»>, -t. -ut, -r, -atar). Tliis makes 2. -é s -él rts
the following endings in the active: lst person -«|m, -á\nuts, 2ud -á\s, -<J| tis, 3. -e t -é\ tur
3rd -a\t, -a\nt, and in the passive: lst person -a\r, -5\mur, 2nd -fl|n's, -ñ|/KÍm‘ pl. 1. -i mus -i\mur
2. -31tis -é| mini
3rd -<¿¡tur, -a\ntur. However, diese endings are fotuid only in the 2nd, 3rd 3. -t nt -el ntur
and 4th conjugations. Verbs o f the lst conjugation, the a-stems. which have esse
-3- in tlie present indicative, have -é- (shortened -<?-) before the personal sing plur.
endings in the present subjunctive: in the active: ls t person -e\m, -e¡mus. 2nd 1. si\m si\mta
2. rílj siltis
-é\s, -é\tis, 3rd -e\t -e\nt, and in the passive: l s t person -e\r, -é\mur, 2nd - 3. sit sihtl
é|ris, -é\mini, 3rd -é|Tur -c\ntur. In the section grammatica latina you will
find exainpies o f verbs with all these endings and o f the irregular present
subjunctive of esse: lst p ersonsim, símus, 2nd¿Ts, sitís, 3 rd íií, sint.
W hile the indicative is used to express that something does actually happen,
the subjunctive expresses a desire or effort that something shall happen. Such
an indirect command can be conveyed by verbs like imperare, postulare, indirect command
orare, curare, laborare, monére, efficere, /acere, cavire. These verba postu- or i'cquesl
landí et cürandf are ofien followed by object clauses introduced by ut, ov. if verba postulandi et
cürandi; ut/né +■subj.
they are negative. by u¿ (or ut ne) and the subjunctive. Examples will be found
in the account of Julius’s dealíngs with his men, e.g. Dominus imperat ut
colónos accédat (1. 7S1; vos moneó ut industrié in vineis labóritis (l. 125-126);
Pastó) is ojjtcium est curare n é oves aberrent néve sihain petant (l. 139-140).
As appears from tlie last example the second of two negative clauses is intro­
duced by né-ve, i.e. n é with the attached coujunction -ve. which has the same
valué as ve!. The negation n é is also used in né... quídam (II. 55, 86,‘not even’).
When discussing the use o f the fanners’ tools (Tnstrümentum), the ablative o f
instrument is needed: Frümentum fa lc e metUur. Quó instrumentó serit agrí­
co la i Q uiserit millo instrumentó ñtitur (11. 18-20). Tliis and tire following ex­
amples (Q uiarat arátró ütitur...) show that K/f(‘use’) takes the ablative. üti + abl.
Instead o f the regular plural loci o f ¿ocus you find the neuter forra loca Incas -i m., pl. hci/locct
-órum (1. 30) which is usual in the concrete sense (‘places’, ‘región’). -órum mJa,
The prepositions prue and p ro take the ablative; the basic meaning o f both is prue, pro + abl.
‘before’. from which other meanings are derived (prae 11.63, $3,p ro 11.71, 72).
- A b s for ab is found only before te: abs té (l. 80, - á té). - Note the ablative abs té— á t i
o f seoaration (without ab) with pellere (ut té agris meis pellant, I. 89) and
urohibére (Noli nié officiv meó prohibiré! L 174).
The shephcrd runs afterhis sheep auam ceierrim é notes! (1.177): guam +super- quwn + sup. (potest)
lative (potest) denotes thehighest possible degree: ‘as quickly as possible’. ('as... as possible’)

39
Chapter 28
In Ibis chapter and (he next yon liear more about Medus and Lydia. When the
violent storm dies down. their sliip sails on over the opea sea. Lydia shows
Medus the little book that she has brought with her and reads aloud from it,
and in this way you become acquainted with the oldest Latin translation o f the
Biihiimrtivy New Testament, used by St. Jerome in the 4th ceutury in his Latiu versión of
imperfect
active the Bible (the so-called Vulgate, Valgáta, the ‘popula-’ versión).
sing. 1.-(e)re\ui Besides new examples o f the present subjunctive after verba postulandí et
1. -(e)r¿ s
3. -te)re i cürandt in the present tense, you now find the imperfect subjunctive after the
plur. 1. -(e)ré mus same verbs in the past tense: Jesús non síihwt ja ciib a t u t c a e d viderent. surdí
2. -(elré tis audírent. m úlf loauerentur. sed etiain verbis efficiibat ut m ortal sum erent et
3. -(¿)re ut
passive ambuiárent (11. 34-37). The imperfect subjunctive is formed by ¡nseiting -ré-,
sing. ]. -(e)re r in consooant-stems -eré-, betwccn the present stem and the personal endings
2 . -(e)rérts (short i? before -m, -t, -nt, -r, -ntur), e.g. vid^re\m, vidé\ré\s, vidé¡re\l, etc., and
3. -(e)r¿ tur
plur. 1. ■(e)r¿ mitr surgíerejm, ,mrg\eri[s, surg\ere\t, etc. The imperfect subjunctive o f esse is
2 . -(e)ré mint esse\m, essis, esse\t, etc. Examples o f alJ the fonns o f the four conjugations
3. -(é)re ntar active and passive and o f esse are found in the section crammauca latina
esse
sing. plur. While the presen; subjunctive follows a main verb ia the present. the imper­
1. ene m ess&mus fect subjunctive is used after a main verb in the past tense (perfect, imperfect
2. esse s esse tis or pluperfect). Compare the sentences M agister m é monet ut tacearn et au-
3. míi? i esse ni
diam and M agister mé monéhat (/monuit/momterat) u t tacerem e t audirem.
pmpose/fmal clause: In the exam plepraedonis... navespersequuntur, tu mercés etpecüniam rapi-
ut/né + subjunctive ant naurdsque occídant (11. 132—134) the H/-cIause with tbe present subjunc-
(finolis -e<Jtnis, ‘end\
‘purpose’) tives rapiant and occídant expresses the puipose. o f the pursuiL Here again, tire
subjundive denotes an action that is only intended, not actually accomplished.
Other purpose clauses (final clauses), with the imperfect subjunctive because
the main verb is in the past tense, arethese: Petrus ambulóbat super aquam, ijt
venírei a d lésum (I. 103) and é villa fig i, ut verbera vitárem atque ut amicam
meam vidérem aesem per cum eá essem (II. 162-163). In English purpose is
expressed by an infudtive preceded by ‘to’ or ‘in order to’.
result/consecutive clause: N um quis lam stultus est u¿ ista v ir a esse credgj? (11. 90-91) is an example
ut + subjunctive o f another type o f «t-clause with the subjunctive, a so-called result clause or
(consecütñnu -a -um
< conseguí) consecutive clause (ut... crid a t tells the consequence o f anyone being so
slupid); cf. ita ... y¿Iuppiter réx caelf esset (I. 87). More examples in cap. 29.
M ost Latin wí-clauses with the subjunctive correspond to English ‘th a f-
coitiparative clause: clauses. But don’t forget that ut is also a comparative conjunction (English
ut + indicnilvc ‘Iike’ or ‘as’); in this function u t is followed by the indicative, e,g. uf tempes­
tas mare tranquillum turbavit... (11. 8-9) and utspérd (1. 149).
verba dícendi el sentí• Note the differonce between (1) verba dícendí et sentiendí, which are com-
endi + acc.+ inf. bined with the acc. + inf., and (2) verba postulandí et ciirandí, which take an
verba postulandí et cü- «/-clause in the subjunctive. Some verbs can have both functions, e.g. per­
rendí + ut/né+ subj.
suadiré in these two examples: rttiki nema persuádibit hominem super mare
ambuláre posse (11. 110-111), and Medus mihi persitásit ut s i a m venirein
(11. 174-175: English ‘convince’ and ‘persuade’). In both senses persuadiré
takes the dative (Idee oboedíre, impenderé, serviré, and prddesse, nociré).
reflexive .se', sihi, muís in In the last example note secum and compare: Dávus... eum secum veníre iubel
indirect command (cap. 1 4 ,1. 87 = eí imperal ut secum venial)', Pastor... domimtn oral n i s i ver­
b era (cap. 27, 1. 158); Medus.. eam... rogat ut aliquid sibi legal (1. 57);
[laíms] lisian rngdvit u t fili.am suain mortuam suscitarei (1. 65-66). In ut/ne-
clauses expressing an indirect coramand the reflexive pronouns si, sibi, suus
refer to the subject o f the main verb, i.e. the person ordering, requesting, etc.
40
Chapter 29
The Román merchanl, who is ruined because his goods had lo be thrown
overboard during the storm to keep the ship afloat, carrnot fully share the joy
o f the others at being saved He cxclaims "Hcu, me miserum!" (acc. in excla-
mation) and asks in despair: "Quid faciam? Quid spérem? Quomoclo uxórem
el liberos olam?" (ll. 22-24); "quomodo vh'dmus sinepecunia? ” (1.5 1). In this
kind o f deliberative question, when you ask iiresolutcly what to do, the veib deliberative question:
is in the subjunctive. A deliberative question can also be tbe object o f a verb, quid faciam?
e.g. interrogare, nescTre, or dubitare: Vir ita perturbólas est ut sé interrogel,
titi-uM in mure salía! an in nove remaneat (11. 57-59); M édus rubéns nescit
quid respondeát (cap. 28,1. 184). But in such indirect questions the verb isin subjunctive in indirect
the subjunctive even when the direct question would have the indícative. In questions
cap. 28 (L 187) Lydia asked: "ndnne tua erat isla pecunia?" now sbe says,
"Modo té viterrogcrvi tuane esset vecünia” Ul. 127-128). The king’s question
to the sailors is rendered: rex eos ¡nterrogávit 'num scTrent ubi esset ArTón et
quid faceret? ’ (11, 105-106). Cf. á u b itó m m haec fabula vera £¡t (11. 116-117).
Aíler the conjunction cum the verb is in the ¡ndicative in clauses describiug cum (iteráihum)
something ibat h i p e a s usually or repeatedly, e.g. Semper gaudeo, cum dé + indícative
liberTs mels cogitó (1. 47) and «7 munquam m i suhitábds, cum me vidébás (cap.
19,1. 100). Cum in this function is called ‘cum ’ iterStivum (from iterare, ‘re-
peal’). When the cww-clause indicates what once took place at the same time cum + subjunctive
as sometbiog else, ús verb is mosily in the únperfect subjunctive. The stories
a b o u t^ m n and Pofycratés contain several a m - d m s c s o fth is kind, e.g. Cum
Anón... ex Italia in Graeciam ndvieüret magnásque dividas sécum habiret...
(11. 78-80); cum iam vitam déspérárel. id ünum órávit... (11. 88-89); Cum haec
fa lsa nárrdrent. A n ó n repente... appándt (1. 110); Ánuhtm abiécit, cum sis é
nimis féU wm esse ccnséret (11. 156-157, c f 1. 171). The examplcs show that
cum introduces both temporal and causal clauses (in Etiglish ‘w hen’ and ‘as’);
the latter can also have the verb in the present subjunctive, e.g. Gubemátor,
cum onmés attentós videat, hanc fabulom nárrat... (1. 76).
Several of the «¡-clauses with the subjunctive in this chapter are result clauses result clauses:
(preceded by tam, tantas, ita): 11 58, 67, 68, 71, 86-87, 159-160. The example !«.... ut non...
piscem cépit qui tam tortuosas erat ut piscator eum non vénderet (U. 167-168)
shows that a result clause has the negation non, unlike purpose clauses, which purpose clauses:
have n é (= ut n i), e.g. n£ strepitü cantum eius turbar a n (1. 73). ut..„ ni-
In order to indícate how rnuch you valué something genitives like m aguí
p a ñ í plüris, minorjs can be added to aestimáre (or facere in the same sense). genitive of valué:
Examples: MercStórés mercés suas ma&ti aestimant, vitam nautárum narvT maguí, parvt
plúrit, minólis
aestimant (11. &-l);"Nónne ¡iberos plitris aestimas quam mercés istás?" 0- 27),
- With acensare the charge is in the genitive: Lydia pergit eum Jiirti accüsáre
(1. 137). - A partitive genitive may qualify a pronoun, e.g. aliquidpecülii, nihil accüsare + gen.
/««/f til. 135, 157). The partitive genitive of nos, vos is nostrum, vestrum: nenió pronoun + partitive
nosirum/vestrum (11. 39,43). - Note nóbTs-cum, vübTs-cum (II. 40, 57) wilh Ibe genitive
preposition cum atlached as in m i-, té-, sé-cum (cf. quó-cuni: cap. 33, 1.154).
M any verbs are fonned with orefixes. mostly prepositions. Examples ¡n this prefíxes: ab/a-, ad-, con-,
chapter: di-terrére, á-mitíerc, in-vídére, per-mittere, per-movére, sub-ire, ex- dé-, exjé-, in-.per-.piv-.
re-, sub-, etc.
pónere, re-dñeere {re- means ‘back’ or ‘agaín’). Prefíxes cause a sliort a or e in /acere > -ficerc
the verbal stem to be changed to i. Thus from /a cere is formed af-, con-, cf-, capere > -apere
per-ficere, from cujiere ac-, in-, re-afere, from rapere i-, sur-ripere, from rapere > -riperc
salire > siit're
saltre dé-silire, ixom fatéri cón-fitérí, from ten ere abs-, con-, re-tinére, from lenSre > -tiñere
prem ere im-primere. Similarly lacere becomes -iicere, but the spelling ii is premere > -primare
avoided by writing -icere, e.g. ab-, ad-, é-, pró-lcera (pronouiice [-yikerc]). iacciv > -icere
41
Chapter 30
In this and the following chapter you read about a dinuer-party in the bome
o f Julius and Aemilia. The guests are good friends o f the family. The dinner
begins at Ihe early hour o f four o 'd o c k in the afternoon (hora decima), the
normal time for the principal meal of the Romans. W e hear about the
arrangement o f a typical Román diníng-room, the triclinium. where the
guests reclined on coliches. Sach a dioing-roora was not designed for large
parties, for not m ore than three guests could líe on each o f the three couches
grouped around the little table.
distributiva numeráis Note that for the purpose o f indicating how many guests are reclining on
1 singuli -ae -a each couch, Latin does not use the usual numeráis ftnus, dúo, tres, but the
2 bini
3 temí numbers singulí, bini, terni: In sihgalis lectis aul sineulí m/t bini aut terni
4 qiuuernt convívae accubare soteru (II. 74-75). These distributive numeráis, which are
5 quiñi adjectives o f the lst/2nd declension, are used wheo the sam enum ber appljes
6 séni to more than one person or thing, e.g. bis bina (2x2) sunt quattuar; bis terna
10 ítem
(2x3) su nt sex. In vocábulis ‘m ea ' et ’tua ’ sunt ternae lilterae et binae sylla-
bae. Distributive numeráis all end in -a jf -ae -a, except singuí\i-ae -a. More
examples will b e found in cap. 33.
hortatorv subjunctíve When at last the servant annotmces that dinner is ready, Julius says: "Tricli-
-émus! -ámusl nium intrémusl ” (1. 87) and at table he raises his glass with the words: “Ergo
bibñmusl " (1. 120). The forras intrémus and bibdmus are the present sub-
junctive (Ist pers. plur.) o f intráre and bibere; accordingly they denote an
action that is merely intended, in this case an exbortation (Tet's...'). In the
next chapter you wíU find further examples o f this hortatorv subjunctive
(Latín hortarí, ‘exhort’).
fulure perfect To indícate that an action w ill not b e completed till soroe point in the future,
active the future perfect is used (Latin Jutürum perfectum). The fírst examples of
sing. plur.
].~er\o ~er¡\mus this new tense are naraverit and ó m averint: Cénábtmus ciun primum cocus
2. ~eri\tis cénam naraverit et se rv í tricllnium ernáverint (11. 82-84). In the active the
3. ~eri\f -eri\nt future perfect consists o f the perfect stem with the following endings: Ist
passive person ~er\ó ~eri\mus, 2nd ~eri\s ~er¡{lis, 3rd ~eri\t ~eri\nt. The passive is
*US asa eró composed o f the perfect particíple and the future o f esse (eró, eris, erit, etc.),
eris
...astlm erit e.g. Brevi cena parata^ et triclinium órnátum erit (11. 84-85; cf. 1. 14). This
«ae eritmis tense is especially common in conditional clauses (beginning with sf...) in
eritis cases where som e future action must be completed before something else
eivnt can take place, e.g. Discípulos ¡audábitur, s i magistró páruerit. Further
examples o f this use w ill be found in the section gramwatica latina ,
fruí + abl. Like HITlisum esse (sec I. 38) the deponent v e rb e ra r (‘delight in’, ‘enjoy')
takes the ablativo: otiófruor (1. 23, cf. 11.35 and 59)
adj. -dns-éns 3rd declension adjectives in -ns, e.g. prüdéns -enr|ís, díligéns -ent\¡s, páticas
adv. -anter -enter -entis, cónstans -ant\is, form adverbs in -nter (contraction o f -ntiter): prü-
d enter. dilieenter. patienter. cónstanter. Examples: "diligenter curó ut colón!
agros meós bene colant “ ... "Prüdenter fa cis..." ( l l 33-35); "Patienter e.\-
spectü, dum servílectós sterm m t" (1. 82; cf. cap. 3 3 ,1. 120: cónstanter).
sitís -is f., acc. -un, abl. -f A puré /-stem is sitís -is f.: acc. -im (sitimpati, 1. 55), abl. -f (sitiperire, 1. 57).
vas vóf|/j n., plur. Viril a - The noun vas rajj/.v n. follows the 3rd declension in the singular, but the
-órimt 2nd declension in the plural: vas|a -órum (1. 98: ex vási¿ aureis).
Wine was not often drunk undtluted (merum), it was customaxy to mix one’s
wine with water. The Latín expression is vinum a q m ('cuín oquá) m iscire or
aquam vinó (dat.) m iscire (see 11. 115, 132). Cf. cibum sale aspergeré or
sitian d b ñ (dat.) aspergeré (see 11. 109,111).
42
Cbapter 31
As (he wtne flows the cottversation among the guests proceeds m ore freely.
The rocín echoes witli discussions, stories and the latest gossip. Orontes out-
does the others in talkativeness, and ends up by raising his glass crying:
"VTvatJbrlissimus quisque! Vívant o nm is feminae am andae!" (1. 172).
Note that here the present subjunctive forms vrvai and vívant are used to ex-
press a w ish. So also valeat and pereat in the tw o verses that Orontes recites
befare he goes under the table (i. 196; pcr-eai is the present subjunctive of
p er-iré). I b is use o f the subjunctive is called ootative (Latín optañvus from o p ta tiv a s u b ju n c tiv e
optaré). It is closely related to tbe hortatorv subjunctive. which is found nol h o r ta lo tv su b ju n ctiv e
only in the ls t person plural (e.g. "Gaudeamus arque amémus!" 1. 173), but
also in tbe 3rd person, as in this exhortaban by Orontes: "Quisquís jem inds
amal, pdculum iollql et bibqt mécum! ” (II, 176-177).
Orontes’s vivo/ and vivant apply first to fortissim us quisque (i.e. ‘everyone
according as be is the bravest’, ‘all the bravest m en') and then to omnés f l -
mbiae amandae. This is an example o f a verb form called gerundive (Latín gerundive
gerundh'um) which is formed like the gerund by adding -nd- o r -end- to the -(e)nd\us -<i -um
present stem; but the gerundive is an adiective o f the lst/2nd declension
(ama\nd\us ■a -um < amaré) and serves to express what is to be done to a
person or thing. Thus a channing woman niay be described as fim in a
amando, a hardworking pupil as dücipulus inudandus (< laudaré), and a
good boók as líber legendas (< legeré). M ost frequently the gerundive is
used with some form o f the verb esse, as ¡n these examples: Patev qui
infantem suum exposuit ipsa necandits esl (11. 132-133); Ule senm s non
p tm iendus. sed poiitis laudandus fuit (U. 161-162); Nunc merum bibendum
est! (1. 177). It is also possible lo say simply bibendum est! without adding
what ¡s to be drunk; in the same way we find expressions like tacendum est,
dormíendum est, which State in general térras w hat is to be done (see 1. 178).
With the gerundive, which is a passive form, the dative (not ab + abl.) is gerundive + dative
used to denote tbe agent. i.e. the person by whotn the action is to be (agent)
performed: Quidquid dominas imperavit servó faciendum e s t( I. 159-160).
We have seen relative pronouns without an antecedent, e.g. c¡uT spirat v ñ u s
est; m iod M ar cus dicii verum non est. w here one m ight have expected is
qui..., id quod... The meaning can be generalized by using the indefiníte
relative pronouns quis-quis and quid-quid ( ‘whoever’ and ‘whatever’), e.g. quis-quis ‘whoever’
Quisquís am at valeat! (1. 196); Daba tibí quidauid optáveris (I. 29). (Quid- quid-quid ‘whatever’
quid is often changed to quicquid by assimilation.)
Tlie defecti ve verb ódisse ( ‘to hate’) has no present stem, but the perfect has ód\isse amare
present forcé: odí (‘I hate') is the opposite o f amó; the tw o verbs are con- dd\í <-» amo
od\eram amSbam
trasted in Serví dominum dStneiitem am ant. sevérum ddérunt (L 94). Cf. ódjeró <-r oiiiábtS
ndvisse. perfect o f ndscere ( ‘get to know ’), m eaning ‘know’: nov[, ‘lk n o w ’.
The preposition edram (‘in the presence o f , ‘before’) takes the ablative: córam prep. + abl.
LÓram exercitñ (I. 122). So does si/per when used instead o f d é in the seose super prep. + abl. = dé
‘about’, ‘concem ing’: s^p er Chrístiánis (1. 147, cf. 1. 200).
The verb audére is deponen! in the perfect tense: ausum esse (1. 169: austts semideponem verbs
est), but not in the present. Conversely, revertí is deponent in lite preseut audére ausum esse
revertí revertisse
tense, but not in the perfect: revertisse. Siich verbs are called sem ideponent
The inscription on page 259 is a srafllto (‘scratching’ in Italian) which a
lovesick youth has scratched on a wall in Pompen. It w ill help you to
decipher the characters when you know that the inscription contains the two
verses quoted by Orontes (11. 196-197, only the first syllable is raissiug).
43
Chapter 32
The fear o f pirales gives rise to a long discussion on board the ship. Medus
tells the story of the eircumstances in which he was sent to prison and sold
as a slave. This story mollifies Lydia, so when finally the danger is over, the
two are once m ore on the best o f terms.
perfect subjunctive During the discussion the merchant quotes two verses without giving íhe
active poei’s ñame. The helmsman does noi ask a direct question: "Q nipoeta isla
siag. plur.
1, -eri m - L'ii 11111.1 scripsit? ” with the verb in the indicative, but uses an indirect question with
2. -eri s —twif/j the subjunctive: "Nesció q uip o eta ¡sta scñose rit" (1. 106). Scrips\erit is the
3. ~eri 1 perfect subjunctive (Latin coniünctivus perfecií) o f scríbere. This tense is
lassive formed in the active by inserting -eri- between the perfect stem and the
*WS sin?
sis personal endings: Ist person -eri\m -eri\m us, 2nd -eri\s ~erí|«A', 3rd ~cn]¡
sil -eri\n t - i.e. the same endings as in the fu ture perfect except for the ls t
a i a¡ae símus person singular ~erim (where the future perfect has -eró). In the passive the
sitis perfect subjunctive is composed o f the perfect participle and the present
...*a sinl
subjunctive o f esse (sim. sis, sit, etc.): ¡ittius dubitat num Márcus a magix/ró
laudátussit (= num tnagister Murcian laudñverit).
The perfect subjunctive is used in indirect questjons concerning completed
actions, when the main verb is in the present tense, as in the above exaxnples
(cf. II. 84, 1 3 2 ,1 3 4 ,1 5 5 ,1 6 9 ,2 1 6 )- or in the (present) perfect (1. 82) or future
lié - eris! = no li -re! (U. 138-139). With n i the 2nd person o f this tense expresses a prohibition: né
na ~erit!>1— nOiiie -te! timverisI né timueritis! (11. 215,199, = nólilnólüe timére'.), cf. 11. 162,182,211.
utinam (ni) + subj. The negation n i is also used with an optaíive subjunctive, e.g. Utinam né
(optative) piratae m i... occidant! (1. 179-180). Utinam often introduces wisbes, e.g.
Utinam aliquandó liber patriam videqm! (I. 157, cf. 11. 182-183, 223). An
expression o f fear that something m ay happen implies a wish that it may not
tiniérenc + subj. happen; this is why verbs expressing fear, timére, metuere and veréri, are
follow edby n é + subjunctive, e.g. Timeó n i piratae m i occidant (cf. 11.212-
213; this ne-clause corresponds to an English ‘that’-clause).
obirvisci, remmisci Like oblivisci its opposite reminisci can take a genitive as object, e.g. eius
mcminisse + gen, temporis reminiscor (1. 155-156); so also memtnisse (1. 126), a defcctive verb
which, like odisse, has no present stem: the perfect form tuemini (‘I vemem-
ber’) is the opposite o f oblitus sum (‘I have forgotten’).
ah-quis •quid. -ijuvl. The prefix ali- serves to m ake interrogarive words indefmite. From quot? ¡s
-qnandó. ■qtuiiiluin made ali-quot, from quandd? ali-quandó, from quantum? aii-quantum, and
from quis? quid? aii-quis ali-quid. However, quis quid is used (without ali-)
sT/mtm/né quis/quid... as an indeflnite pronoun after s i and num (see cap. 22) and after né: Nihil
cuiqihim nárnivi dé eii ri, n é quis m i gioriósum existimare! (H. 135-136).
jU/accidit ul+ subj. The impersonal expressions f i t and accidit m ay be followed by an wí-clanse
with the subjunctive tclling what happens: r a r ó jit u¡ návis praedónum in
m ariInterno appareal (ll. 42-43); the i/í-clause is the subject offit.
ubiñtivus quáHtatis, The ablaiive in lama audacia sunt (I. 49) describes a quality and is called obla­
abl. o ídescrintion tivas auáiit&tis or ablative o f descrintiotncf. bono anim ó esse (cap. 29, IL 122-
123). - With liberare we tind the ablative o f separation: servitüte liberábantur
(1. 6). So also with opus esse: Quid opus estarmis? (I. 78; cf. 11. 118,195).
vis, acc.vi/fl, abl. ví The noun vis (‘strength’, ‘forcé', ‘violenee’) has only three forms in the
piur. vires -ium singular: nom. vis, acc. vim (1. 13), and abl. v i (1. 77). The plural vires -ium
means physical strength: nautae ómnibus virihus rémigant (1. 53, cf. 1. 66),
til imlia xistei tíum After milia the partitive genitive is used, e.g. dúo milia annórum. Here sis-
{- S ru m ) tertíus has the older short ending -um instead of Srum : decem milia sestertium
(1.9 l,c f . 1. 170).

44
Chapter 33
The chapter consis ts mainly o f a letter to Aemilia from her brother, who is in
G crm aniaonm ilitary Service. From this letter you leam m oremilitary taras.
You also leam (he last remaining Latín tense, the pluperfect subiunctive tiliirvM'fftcf fiiihh m otive
(Latín coniímctivus plusquamperfecti). 3t is formed in the active by inseríing active
sin g . plur.
-issé- (shortened -isse-) between the perfect stem and the personal endings: 1. 'isse\mus
ls l person -'issé\mus, 2nd 3rd ~isse\t -isse\nt. The 2, —¿«¿Js -¿'«él tis
passive is composed o f the perfect participle and the imperfect subjuucíive 3. ~i.ui.jl
o f esse (essem, essés, esset, etc.). The pluperfect subjunctive occurs in cum- p a ssiv e
t . XUS =# CSSVttl
clauses (wliere cum + pluperf. subj. = postquam + perf. ind.) and in indirect 2. essés
questions conceming completed action in the past, i.e. with the m ain verb in 3 . ...« i» / esset
the preterite (imperfect, perfect or pluperfect). Examples: O u í cum arma 1. * f aae essémus
cépissent et vállurn ascendissent (= postquam... Cépérunt/ascendérunt), primó 2. essétís
3. ...«o essenl
mimbantur quamobrem media nocte & seminó excitati essenl... Ego quoque
dubitáre coepentm num nSntius vérum dixisset... Cum complürés horas ita cum + p lu p erf. s u b j.=
p o stquam + p e rf. in d .
fortis.rímé ü nasiris... puenátum esset Al. 109-121). - Note that in the passive
an imransitive verb likc pugnare is impersonal, e.g. <7 Rómánts fortissim é
vusnütum est = RómánT fortissim épttenávérun! (cf. nüiUidium est. 1. 105).
Aem ilius’s love o f soldiering has cooled while he has been al the front. He
wishes he were in Rome: Utinam ego Rómae essem! (I. 67) using ontative sub-
iucctive: but in such an unrealistic wish that cannot be fulfllled the verb is Linperf. & p lu p e rf. su b j.
not in the present, but in the imperfect subiunctive: cf. Utinam hic umnis in u n re a lis tic w ish e s
a n d c o n d itio n s
Tiberis esset et haec castra essent Ronca! (11.70-71). The following senteuces
express a condición that can never be realized: S i Mercurios essem diasque
habirem .... in Italiam volare»/! (II. 73-75). Here, too, the imperfect sub­
junctive is used to express imreality; cf. II. 82-85, 93—95. l f such unrealistic
wishes or conditions concern the past, the pluperfect subiunctive is used, as
in Aemilius’s final remarles: Utinam pati'cm audivissem...! (1. 166) and 57 iam
tum hoc intelléxissem. cerlé patrem audivissem nec ad bellam profecías essem
(11. 181-182). More examples in 11. 163-164 and under grammaticalatina .
In the sentences nñUtan m iki otium est ad scñbendum and neglegéns sum in a d scñbendum
scribendó you see the serund in the aecusative after ad and in the ablative a d ep istu lis scríbendás
in scríbend¿
after in. Since the writing o f letters is meant, it is natural to add the word iti epistulis scribendis
epistula. The sentences then read: nüllum mihi ótium est ad epistuiás scriben- urs scríbendí
dás and neglegéns sum in epistulis scribendis. As you see. ad and in cause a rs epistuiárwnscríben-
both the following words to be put in the aecusative and ablative respective- dárvm (= ars epistuiás
scríbendí)
ly, so that the verb form agrees with epistuiás and epistulis. In the same way
cupidus, in the expression cupidos patriae videnciqe (1. 80), causes both the
following words to be in the genilive, and videndae agrees with patriae. In
this case, when the expression is not governed by a preposition, it is also
possible to say cupidus patriam videndi, so that cupidus only affeets the
genitive videndi a geaiud which has the aecusative patriam as its object. In
the adjectival forms scríbendás. scribendis, videndae etc. we liüve a special
applicatio» o f the eenm dive (so-called ‘gerundive attraction’). Examples: in
epistulis scribendis (1. 94); ad epistulam scribendam (11. 97-98); ad castra
défemleuda (I. 116); ad eñ£ perseuueiidós (1. 132, = u¡ eos persequerentur).
More distributive numeráis are introducid: 10 déni, 4 quatem i, 5 quiñi, 6 d istrib u tiv e nu m etá is
sé n í (11. 2-3). The distributive numeráis are used witb pluralia tantum. e.g. + p íu ra lia tan tu m :
1 im \i-a e -a
bina (21 castra: binae litterae (= duae epistuíae)\ but here 1 is üni-ae -a and
3 í r á |f - a c ; -a
3 trini -ae -a, e.g. ílnac liuerae ( - tina epistula), trinae lilterae ( - tres
ephudae), see 1. 9J.

45
Note tlie ablativo o f respect numeró in tlie expression hostia numeró superi­
ores (1. 144, 'in number’, ‘numerically’).
futiire imperative AenuUus ends liis letter with some requests (II. 187-189). Here he uses the
sing. plur. so-called fiuure imperative wi(h the endíng -tó (sing.), -lote (plur.) added to
1.2.4. -tó -tote
3. -i«3 -iiúic the present stetn, e.g. uürrá\ tó -tote; in consonant-stems -i- is Lnserted before
the ending, e.g. scrib\U5 -¡jóte (but es\tó, es\tóte from esse and fer\ió, J'er\tóte
from ferré).

Chapter 34
By now you have advanced so fai that you can begin to read Latín poelry. In
this chapter you ftnd poems by Catulhts (c. 86-54 b .c .). Ovid (Ovidios, 43
B .C .- 1 7 a .d .), and Martiai (Martiális, c. 4 0 - 1 0 4 a . d .). At the party Comelius
starts by quoting a iine fiom Ovid’s A rs amatoria, which makes Julius and
Comelius quote passages from a collection o f love poems, Amores, by the
same poet. Julius goes on to read aloud some short poems by Catullus and a
seleclion o f Martial’s wiüy and satirical epigrams (epigrammata).
When first reading the poems you vvill have to disregard the verse form and
tree word order concéntrate on llie contení. A major obstacle to undersianding is the free
word order, which often causes word groups to be separated. Here the in-
ílectional endirtgs will show you what words belong together; in some cases
you wili find marginal notes to help you, e.g. ui ipsae spectentur (1. 57),
nóbilium equorum (1. 62), am orquem fa c ü (l. 65), m eaepuellae díxl (l. 71);
besides some supplementary (implied) words are given in ilalics. However.
the important thing is to visualize the situation and enter into the poet’s ideas.
The comruents made on the poems will be useiul for this purpose
When you understand the meaning and content o f the poems, it is time for
you to study the structure o f the verses, the so-ca¡ied meter. This is explaiued
in tlie GRAMMA iíca LAi ina section. The following is a summary o fth e rules:
syllable quantity: The decisive factor in Latin verse structure is tbe length or ouantiry o fth e
a short syllable ends in syllables. Syllables ending in a short vowel (a, e, i, o, u, y ) are shoit and are
a short vowel
n lona syllable ends in to be pronounced twice as quickly as lorie syllables, i.e. syllables ending in a
( h a lona vowel long vowel (n. é, 1, ó, ü, y ), a diphthong (ae, oe, ait, eu, ui), or a consonant.
(21 a diphthone In other words: A syllable is short if it ends in a short vowel: all other
(3 )a consonan! svllables are lona. A long syllable is marked [— ] and a short syllable [-].
: any syllable that does
not end in a short vowel To detiue the m eta each verse (versus, ‘line’) is treated like one long word:
is lona (1) A consonant at the end o f a word is linked with a vowel (or A-) at the
symbols: bethnning of tbe next. In a word hke satis, therefore, the last syllable is short
iong syllable: — if the next word begins with a vowel or h-, e.g. in the combination satis est,
short syllable: -
where -s is linked with the following e in est; sa-ti-s‘~'est - whereas the
syllable tis is long in satis non est: sa-t¡s-nó-nr'est.
(2) A vowel (and -am. -em. -im. -tarii at the end o f a word is dropped before
a vowel (or h-\ beainning the next word. e.g atque oculós: atqu'oculós;
modo hüc: mod '¡ule; passerem absiulislis: passer 'abstulistis (in est and
the e is dropped, e.g. sola est: sola si; verwn est: verum ’st; bella es: bella ¿j.
elisión This is called elisión, the vowel is said to be elided (Latin i’-lidere, ‘eject’).
Each verse can be divided into a ceitain number of feet (Latin pedes) com-
mcuical feet: posed o f two or three syllables. The commonest feet are: the trochee (Latin
Cochee — -
iamb - — troehaeus), consisting o f onc long and one short syllable [— u]; the iamb
dactyl — uu (Latin iambits), one short and one long [ - —]; and the dactvl (Latin dactvlus).
spondee----- one long and two short syllables [— uu], The two short syllables o f the dactyl

46
are o fien replaced by one long syllable, making a foot consistiug o f two long
syllables [------- ] which is called a spondee (Latin spondéus).
The favorite verse with Latin poets is tbe hexameter. which consists o f six hwtaineler
feet, the first five o f which are dactyls or spondees - the flfth, howcvcr, is
always a dactyl - and the sixth a spondee (or trochee):
--- lu | — U j) ^ u j | ----™ -------
TUe hexameter often altemates with the slightly shorter pentameter. which
can be divided into two halves o f 214 feet, each cooforraing to the beginning
o f the hexameter (but therc are no spondees in the second half):
— wl — — II — ^ 'l — —
The pentameter never stands alone, but always comes after a hexameter (in hexameter + peína­
the text tbe pentameters are indented). Such a couplet, consisting o f a hexa­ m e te ^ elegiac
couplet
meter and a pentameter, is called an eleaiac couplet, because it was used in
elegies. i.e. poems expressing personal sentiments, mainly love poems.
Catullus frequently uses the hendecasvllable (Latin versas hendecasyllabus, licndecnsvllable
‘eleven-syllable verse’), which consists o f these eleven syllables:
uu ^ ^ U
It can be divided into a spondee, a dactyl, two trochees and a spondee (or
trochee). (Occasionally the first syllable is short.)
When Latín verse is read aloud, the rhytbro is marked by the regular altema-
tion o f long and short syllables. Two short syllables are equivalent in length
to one long, In modera F.uropean verse rhythm is marked by accent There-
iore modem readers o f Latin verse are apt to put a certain accent on the first
syllable o f each foot. This may belp you to get an idea o f the verse rhythm,
but do not forget that accent is o f secondary importance in Latin verse, the
important thing is the quantity o f the syllables.
The Román poets sometimes use the plural ( ‘poetic plural’) instead o f the poetic plural
singular, especially forms in -a from neuters in -um, when they are in need
o f short syllables, e,g. mea colla (L 75, for metan co/lutn) and post Jala (1.180,
fo rpo st fatum). Like other authots a Román poet m ay also use the 1st persou
plural (nos, nóbis, noster) about himself. You see this when Catullus calis
his frlend venaste noster (1. 152) and when Martial in his epigram on the re-
sponse o f the publíe to his books calis them ¡¡bellos nos ¡ros and concludes
with the words nunc cwwim i ¿msírap/ocert (11. 163, 166).
M artial, who him self writes poems in ininneós, says about the poet Cinna: in + acc. —contra
Versículos ¡n m e nárrátur scribere Cinna (1. 172). Here in + accusative has
‘hostile’ meaning (= contra, cf. the phrase im petim facere iji hoste¡¿). The
passive nárrátur, like dicitur (cap. 13,1. 52), is combined with the nom.+ inf.: nom.+ inf. +narrarte
Cinna, . . scribere nárráturidicitur - Cinnam... scribere nárrant/dicunt.
Besides imperare and parére you have met m any other verbs which take the verbs-t-dative
dative: crédere, nociré, oboedire, impendire, serviré, (per)svádére, invidére,
parcere, permitiere, appropinquáre, placére, (cón)Jidere, ignóscere, resislere,
minari, sludire, and several compounds with -csse: pród-esse. prae-esse, de-
esse (‘fail’) and acl-esse (‘stand by’, lie lp ’). In this chapter you find further
examples:Javére, nübere, plaudere (11. 40,126, 217). besides the impersonal
verb libe/, which - like licet - is usually combined with a dative: mlhi libe!
(1.35, ’itpleasesm e’, ‘Ifeel lik e '/Iw a n t’: cf. mihi licet. Tmay, íam allowed').
A double / (ti, ii) is apt to be contracted into oue long í, as you have seen in i < ii/ñ
the form d i for dii. W hen h disappears in mihi and nihil, w e get the con­ m i< mihi
tracted forms m i and n il (e.g. 11. 118 and 174). You also fínd sapisli for uil< nihil
47
•Isse/-usse < -ívissc sap u sti (1. 190) - the latter form being a conlraction o f sapm sii: the final v
-ásse < -[íw'üc o f the perfect stem tends to disappear, so that -ivisse becomes -iisse/-isse,
ndrat< ¡lúvai tii
-avispe -ásse (-¿¡visó -ái'ti: cap. 28,1. 106), novisse nósse and noverat nórat.
This form, the pluperfect o f nóscere, comes to mean ‘knew ’, e.g. Ovidios...
ingenitim mulierum taw bene nóverat quum ipsae mulierés (1. 55); suamque
nórat ipsam (: domiuam) tam bene quam puetia matrem (1. 93).

Chapter 35
N ow that you have woiked your way through all The deelensioiis and conju-
gations o f the Latín language, it is time to pause and take a comprehensive
look at the grammatical systern. To give you ao opportunity to do this we
preseat, in a slightly abbreviated form, a Latín grammar, the Ars grammatica
minor. writteo by the Román grammarian Donatas c. 350 a .d . This grammar
is based on the works o f earlier grammaríans. rearranged in the form o f
question and answer, so it gives us an idea o f the teaching melhods used in
antiquity - and much later, fbr the ‘D onat’ was a favourite schoolbook in
Europe throughout the M iddle Ages. Now it is up to you to show that you
have leamed enough to answer the questions on grammar put to school-
children in the Román Empire. Apart from omissions, marked [...], the text
o f Donatus is unaltered (onlv in the examples on page 303 some infrequenl
words have been replaced by others).
The Latín grammatical tenns are still in use. However, the oart o f sneech
nóm ina nouus and (pors órátumis) which the Román gramrnarians called nómina is now di-
adjectives vided into nouns (or substantives'] and adjectives. The tem í ¡am en adiec/T-
vum dates from antiquity, but it was not till medieval times that the temí
nómen substnntTvim was coincd (in English ‘noun substantive’ as opposed
to ‘noun adjeclive’). As a matter of fact, several o f the Latín grammatical
tenns are adjectives which are generally used ‘substantively’ with a noun
understood, e.g. (cásus) nómináüvvs, (numerus) pblrdiis, (modas) impera-
tlvus, (gradus) comparativas, (gemís) Jemininuni. Geuus is ‘gender’ in Eng­
geous commüne lish; Donatus counts four genders, because lie Uses the temí gem ís commune
about words that may be both masculine and feminine, e.g. sacerdós -ótis,
'priest/priestess’ (other examples: eréis, incola, injans, (estis, bós, cattis).
The hexameter q uotedby Donatus (1. 212) to ¡Ilústrate the use o f super with
the ablative, ís taken from the end o f the first book o f the ' Aencid' (Aenéis),
the famous poem in which Vergil ( Vergiüus) reccunts the adventures o f the
Trojan hero Aeneas (Aenéás) during his flight from Troy (Tróia). Driven by
a stomi to Africa he is received in Carthage (Cartílago) by Queen Didó, who
questions liim about tlie late o f the other Trojans. King Priam (Priamus) and
his son liector.

48
INDEX
(Numbeis refcr to pagesj
A I9;idein2y;isre}5 L proooun ¡3, ¡4,15, IS, 26
ni/315, 16, abs 39 deponentverbs: pres.27; iócative: -ae -i 16; -7?37; pudel 35
ablaiive: prep.+ a. 9, ¡0,15, perf. 36,37; imp. 37 domi 31,32; ed locó 27 purpose clause40,41
39,43; absoiute 27,35; diphtliong4 locus, priit. locd-ii 39 Q
descnption44; lustrumeo! diiectobject Í8;d. speeeh M i/tuim, quemas 18
i 6, iS, 39: manner20; 21; d. <iuesnoa41 aiasculioe 11,27 qiiain + sup. (potesi) 39
pnce 18: companson 36; distributivonumeráis 42.45 ineminisse (+ gea.) 44 -que 11
difference 27; Iocation27; domas 3); -lira -ó-¡ 31,32 tiiille 10,?m/i7;+gen. pi. 23, questtoos 9.10,11, 17; de-
raspecl 21557,45; separa- dao-ue-o 11,25, 28 27 übaative 41; indirect 4i
rioo 16,27,32,39,44; lime E mnlt5+ comprante1post 27 qmsJquTquae quicVquod 18
24; iid./iw + abl. 39,42 ecce 12 N quis quidindefioitepron.
accent 5 enumeratioo 12 ñames 22 aftersi, mm, né 34,44
accusative 13,15, pcep.+ a. et... el 17 ■lié.. 9 quis-quamquid-qnam 38
16, i 7; extern23;duration esse es! smit 9,17,24,26. ní+ subj. 39,4i, 44 quis-que quue- quod- 29
24; exclamaron 26,41; a. 31,33,35,38 negatton9.13.20,39.41.44 quis-quis quid-quid43
-Hn/. 21,33,35,37,40; isse esl ediinl 19,20 nenié 20 quod{- quia) 20
double a. 28 ev/¿ 17 neque/nec 13,21; n. ...n. quot li
active 16 F 17; n. üllm*/quisqijain... R
adjecrive 10,48; lst/2od femininell 30,38 rcduplication34,36
decl. ¡0,22;3cddecL22, /erre 23 neuter 25 leflexiveprononn Í7.26,
38; -er22,29,38 Jien 27, 29;píí uí..44 ocuter: 2uddeci. 11; 3td 36,40
adveró: -e -úer 29; -o 36: fructioos24 deci, 20,21; 4th decl. 33; relative pronouo 13,18
-nter42; compansoo 29, futute31: part.,inf.35 n. p!, multa, omina.. 33 resull clause40,41
nuiueial adverbs (■;)29 fumrepetfect 42 ootmnative 13; n>idf.24,47 s
age agire i S G nóme/num 17 .«17,26
ageot: a¿H-abl. 1ó; dal. 43 genderll,19,48 ooun, substantive, 10,48 seini-deponent'eibs 43
n/t-44; aliqtus -quidZs gemtive i i; description30; nó\'is\e 36,43, 48 singular 10,25
alter. neuter. Merque 25 objecrive 37; partitiva 12. mitins -a -um-Fus 30 sSlus -a -um -iiis 30
Mque/oc21 22,27,30,41,43; verbs+ g. man i0; nmn/nénne i 7 stem; verbal Í4, iS, 23,26.
asslmilalion 19,29,34 acensare41, ublivñcf37, numeral odverbs (x) 29 34;uotninal 19,2i,23,27
aurAel 24 leiiunisei, meininitseAA; numérala 10,11,24,28,42 subject 13
aesíimáie 41;pude! 36 O subjuuctvve39;pies.39; itn-
calendar 23, 24 geruud38,45 object 13.18 petf. 40; perf. 44; plupeif
cardioals 24,28 gerundive43; gJgerund45 objectivegen. 37 45
case 19 H ódisst 43 substantive, ooun, 10 ,48
causé, -lidie. ÍS htc/«i«-/iocl7,18 cunáis -e. omnes -u 25 superlative 24; •(eirjiinui
causall3,20.41 hortatorysubj. 42,43 opuitive subj. 43,44,45 29,38; adv. 29; abs. s. 30
clause: causal 13,41. relative I orábala 24,28 supine 34; s. stem34
13;; result 40,41; purpose ídemeadem ídem29 7 suus/eius 14,40
40; conditioaal 42,45 Ule a -ud 18 participle: prca. 25,33; perf. syllabte, long/short 46
colas 2S Humó 17 33.dep.37; fut.35 sylbbic división 6
compoxntive22; adv. 29 impetative 14, 15, 17,23; passivelo, 33 T
couipansoü 24,30 dep. 37: ful 38,46 pasrtense, prelerite, 24,30 mm, ranius 18
couipouuds 17,19.41 imperfeel 30,32; subj. 40 pauló +coaipJante/posl 27 tense24.30.31.32
conjugalioos 14 imperíecl/perfect 32 perfect32,33; subj. 44 tinte, ablyacc. 24
conjunción 11,13,19,20 impersonal verb 20, 26,35, pertect/imperfect 32 Unieren¿ * Subj.44
cousouant 5;c.-stem 14 44,45,47 perfectslem33.34 transitivoverbs 13
(vb.), 19.2i, 23 pt +abt. 10.15,+acc. 17.47 person 26; p. endings: act. Iréi- tria 1 1,28
cuín (coojunctióo) 4*ind. 20, indeclinable 11.23.23 26, perf. 32; pass. 28 U
29,4¡; + sub).41,45 iudefinite piooouns 33, 34- persona] prooonns 13,25, -um gen. pl.” -ónini 44
ciir.. quiti i3 35, 38.44; i. ral. 43 26,32; nié-ciun... 25 ñllits -a -wn -ius 30
D indicotive 14; i..'subj. 39 pluperfect 36; subj. 45 ibas -a -nm -ius 11. 28, 30
dure (sbort a) 28 indirect: i. commond39, 40; plural 10,15:poeilcp. 47 ulei', merque 25
dates 24 i. objeci ¡8; i. question plurale rannun 22.45 ut/ní-u subj. 39,40,41
dative 17,18; iuterest20,2S; 41; i. speech/statemem2) posinve 24 iui/i-ui* abl. 39,42
possessive 22; agent 43; iufiuitive: pres. 20, 33; perf. fXüse 20,21,26 V
vetbs+ d. 22,33.40,47 33; ful 35 possessivepionouns 12, ¡4, veliuut 24
deelensien: lst-2nd!0,19: interrogativepronoun 13.18 21,26 selle 20, 24, 32
3rd 19,20,2i;4th 22,33, intevoealic -s- > -r- 20,21 prefix 17,41 verb 12
5tb 23 tatransitive verbs IS.pass. preposinon Í5,16,i9,39,43 verse 46
defectiva verbs 25,43,44 (impere.)45 preseot tense 24,26,30; ut/én 38
deliberattve subj. 4) ipse -a -uní 19 subj. 39 vis vtin vT44
deinonstrativeprououns: is iré eó tumi 27.31, 36 present stem33,34 vocative; -e 14.-731
1S, 18; Aíc ule 17, 1t-Jpsc isea id 15.18 preteriré, past tense, 24.30 vowels 4

49
L i n g u a L a t i n a is a complete, universal series that allows students to read and
understand Latín immediately. AJI words and fbrms are made clear ¡n tbe context of
reading, illustrations, or marginal notes.
The series irself consists of a first year hook, Parí 1: Familia Romana eovering che
essenriais of Latín grammar and 1500 vocabulary words rhrough a scory o ía Latin
family in the 2nd Century A.D. llie second book, Parí //, Roma Adema, covcrs
Román History and the eity ofRome, ¡ncludinga prose versión ol VWgl ls AencidI-ÍV,
adapted textsfromLivy, andunadapted textsfrom Livy, Aultis(¡ellilis, Nepos, Sallust,
Cicero and Horace. Further Information can Ih' foimd em this wulely adoptcd series at
www.pullins.com/txt/JJnguaLatina.him.

ISBN 10: I 68510-050-1


ISBN 978-1-58510-050-7

(^ fó C U S Publishing
R. Pullíns Company
PO Box 369
Newburyport, MA 01950
www.pullins.com 9