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ANALISIS FITUR CITRA DAUN PADA TAMANAMAN CABAI

MENGGUNAKAN AUTOMATED COLOUR EQUALIZATION


(ACE)
ANALYSIS OF LEAF FEATURES FEATURES IN COAL PARK USING AUTOMATED COLOR
EQUALIZATION (ACE)

Basiroh1, Nuning Kurniasih2, Dian Asmara Jati1, 4,5


1
Nahdlatul Ulama Alghazali University Cilacap, Cilacap, Indonesia
2
Faculty of Communication Sciences, Library and Information Science, Padjadjaran University,
Bandung Indonesia
3
4

e-mail: basyirohtest@gmail.com

Abstrak

Abstract

Chili is a varieties of crop groups that have promising business prospects. To obtain optimal
agricultural yield, then the process of plant care and how to planting should be maximal. Constraints
often expereinced by farmers in the process of planting chili in Magelang regency of Indonesia is a
disease of yellow leaves. Some diseases in plants can be identified using precision technology, one of
them is by using image or image-based technology. In previous studies no one has analyzed using
feature extraction using ACE as an analysis to detect plant disease in chili. In this study will extract
features using Automated Color Equalization (ACE) which is then classified using SVM (Support
Vector Mechine) for disease identification based on its leaves. With this method the accuracy of the
extraction results a combination of 80% texture features, color feature extraction, and a combination of
80% color feature texture.

Keywords: Feature Extraction, Automated Colour Equalization, SVM

1. Pendahuluan

1. Preface

Chili is a varieties of crop groups (like shrubs) in certain species or species that can be
distinguished from other groups based on a particular trait or trait [1]. The location of agriculture in
Magelang regency is expanded to 1,723 Ha, with Production Area 2,447 Ha, in 2017 reaching 136,915
quintal of cayenne pepper [1]. The previous year's land area was 1,573 with a production area of 1.594
with production reaching 99,153 kwiental by 2016 [1].

Constraints often experienced by farmers in the process of planting chili in Magelang district
is a yellow leaf disease. Some diseases in plants can be identified using technological precision. The
process of disease identification can use image-based technology or imagery has been done by some
previous researchers. The researcher by [2] the title Fuzzy Inference System Based Unhealthy Region
Classification in Plant Leaf Image was examined by K. Muthukannan, P. Latha [3] on the method
used image cropping, and the artificial neural network of the researcher still stated the result of the less
accurate data. Orchid Disease Detection Using Image Processing and Fuzzy Logic was examined by
Muhammad Thaqif bin MohamadAzmi and Naimah Mat Isa Selangor [4] researchers used the MoM
method, which it said that was not suitable for detecting disease.The three defuzzification methods
show that the leaves are least diseased though MoM method May not be suitable because of the result
of one pattern. Detection of unhealthy region of plant leaves using Image Processing and Genetic
Algorithm.Vijay Sigh Asst Proffesor IMS Engg college, Varsha Asst Proffesor JSSATE Noida, Uttar
Pradesh, India and Prof. A K Misra Professor, MNNIT Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India [5]. A
Predictive Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosis of Cassava Plant Diseases diteliti Oleh Awoyelu, I. O.
& Adebisi, R. O 2015. Department of Computer Science and Engineering Obafemi Awolowo
Unversity, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Dalam penelitiannya menggunakan metode Fuzzy Expert System dimana
peneliti hanya mengkhususkan untuk meniliti ditanaman ketela pohon untuk menidentifikasi atau
mendiagnosa [6].A Predictive Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosis of Cassava Plant Diseases is
studied by Awoyelu, I. O. & Adebisi, R. O 2015. Department of Computer Science and
Engineering Obafemi Awolowo Unversity, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. In his research using Fuzzy
Expert System method where researchers only specialize to research the cassava planted to
identify or diagnose [6].

Pada penelitian terdahulu belum ada yang menaganalisa menggunakan ekstraksi fitur
menggunakan ACE sebagai analisis untuk mendeteksi penyakit tanaman pada cabai. Pada penelitian
ini akan mengekstraksi fitur menggunakan automated Colour Equalization yang kemudian
diklasifikasikan menggunakan SVM (Support Vector Mechine ) untuk identifikasi penyakit
berdasarkan pada daunnya. In previous studies no one has assessed using feature extraction using ACE
as an analysis to detect plant disease in chili. In this study will extract features using automated Color
Equalization which is then classified using SVM (Support Vector Mechine) for disease identification
based on its leaves. Penelitian ini bertujan untuk mengetahui akurasi masing – masing hasil ekstraksi
yang digunakan untuk identifikasi penyakit pada tanaman cabai. Penelitian ini menggunakan ruang
warna RGB untuk mempresentasikan warna. This research is raining to know the accuracy of each
extract used for disease identification in chili plants. This study uses RGB color space to present the
colors.

2. Metode Penelitian

2.1 Alur Penelitian

2.1.1 Pengambilan Data

Research methods

2.1 Research Flow


2.1.1 Data Collection

Pengumpulan data diambil dari dinas pertanian dan ketahanan pangan, subbagian HPT kabupaten
Magelang dengan survey lokasi di wilayah Borobudur, data citra daun cabai yang baik maupun yang
berpenyakit diambil gambarnya menggunakan kamera. Hasil dari tahapan ini adalah mendapatkan
gambar atau citra daun cabai.

Data collection was taken from agriculture service and food security, subsidy of Magelang
regency HPT with survey location in Borobudur area, data of chili leaf image good and ill have taken
picture using camera. The result of this stage is to get a picture or image of chili leaves.

2.1.2 Data Acquisition

2.1.2 Akuisisi Data

Citra daun cabai yang telah diakuisisi oleh pakar diberi label kemudian jumlah label sesuai
dengan penyakit tamanan cabai yang akan diidentifikasi. Citra daun yang diidentifikasi sesuai dengan
data yang diambil dari pengumpulan data. The image of chili leaves that have been acquired by
experts is labeled then the number of labels corresponding to the chili pest disease to be identified. The
leaf image is identified according to the data taken from the data collection.

2.1.3 Identifikasi

Identification

Setelah tahapan akuisisi, berikutnya adalah identifikasi penyakit tanaman cabai yang sudah
terbentuk dilakukan uji coba dengan menggunakan data testing. Hasil uji coba berupa seberapa akurat
system yang digunakan untuk mengolah data penyakit tanaman pada cabai. Identifikasi penyakit
diawali dengan pengolahan data pre-proses, tujuannya data yang mau di uji dipersiapkan untuk
tahapan selanjutnya yaitu untuk ekstraksi fitur. After the acquisition phase, the next is the
identification of chili disease that has been formed is done by using trial data testing. The test results
are how accurate the system used to process plant disease data on chili. The disease identification
begins with pre-process data processing, the purpose of which the data will be tested prepared for the
next stage is for feature extraction. Hasil dari tahapan ekstraksi fitur yaitu daerah citra yang
representative dalam 2 bentuk yaitu bentuk transformasi RGB kedalam bentuk kaebu-abuan atau
(grayscale) dan citra transformasi dari bentuk RGB ke ruang trasformasi bentuk ACE. Schaefer
menggabungkan 2 teknik normalisasi popular, yaitu Grayworld dan Max RGB untuk meningkatkan
kekontrasan warna [7].[8] The result of the feature extraction stage is the image area represented in 2
forms ie RGB transformation form into kaebu-abuan or (grayscale) form and transformation image
from RGB shape to ACE shape transformation space. Schaefer combines two popular normalization
techniques, namely Grayworld and Max RGB to increase the contrast of color [7]. [8]

Proses tahapan selanjutnya yaitu ekstraksi fitur tekstur dengan menngunakan Automated
Colour Equalization (ACE) dalam tahapan ini adalah ekstraksi fitur yang menghasilkan matriks dari
masing-masing fitur . Nilai minimal batas antara warna digunkaan untuk membangun fungsi
keanggotaan [7]. The next stage process of texture feature extraction by using Automated Color
Equalization (ACE) in this stage is feature extraction that produces the matrix of each feature.
Minimum value of boundary between colors used to build membership function [7]. Proses terakhir
dari tahap ini adalah klasifikasi, klasifikasi di dalam penelitian ini menngunakan SVM (support Vector
Mechine) . Penelitian ini menggunakan SVM karena cocok untuk mengolah data yang sedikit dan
memberikan hasil akurasi yang cukup tinggi . The last process of this stage is the classification, the
classification in this study using SVM (support Vector Mechine). This study uses SVM because it is
suitable for processing a small amount of data and gives a fairly high accuracy.

In general, the description of the research process includes several stages can be seen in the
following figure.

Secara umum gambaran proses penelitian meliputi beberapa tahapan dapat dilihat pada
gambar berikut .

Data

metric
results

acquisition

Data Set
classificatio
HPT
n

pre-process Extraction

Result of
Identificati
on

Gambar 1. Alur Penelitian

Picture 1. Research Flow

2.2 Analisis Hasil

Analysis of Results

2.2.1 Segmentasi

Segmentation
Berikut proses segmentasi citra menggunakan thresholding. Adapun tahapan proses segmentasi
citra daun tanaman cabai dimulai dengan pemisahan red channel, green channel dan blue channel
dari citra RGB channel . Here is the process of image segmentation using thresholding. The stages of
chili leaf segmentation process begins with the separation of red channel, green channel and blue
channel from RGB channel image.

(a) Citra Asli original image (b) Citra biner binary image

Gambar 2. (a) citra asli (b) citra biner

Setelah pemisahan red channel, green channel dan blue channel citra RGB channel dilakukan pengolahan
dengan diproses menggunakan Thresholding Otsu sehingga diperoleh citra biner. After the separation of red
channel, green channel and blue channel RGB channel image is processed by processing using Otsu
Thresholding to obtain binary image.

(a) Citra biner (b) Citra Thresholding

Gambar 3. (a) Citra Biner (b) Citra hasil Thresholding Thresholding image results

2.2.2 Ekstraksi fitur warna

Color feature extraction

Citra daun tanaman cabai yang telah di-cropping dan diberikan operasi imadjust pada Matlab, kemudian
dilakukan konversi warna dari warna RGB menjadi warna CIELAB dengan menggunakan fungsi srgb2lab pada
Matlab. Hasil konversi warna RGB ke ruang warna CIELAB . Image of pepper plant leaves that have been
cropping and given imadjust operation on Matlab, then done the color conversion from RGB color to CIELAB
color by using srgb2lab function in Matlab. Results of RGB color conversion to CIELAB color space.
(a) Citra Input (b) Citra Output

Picture 4. Input Image (b) Output Image

2.2.3 Ekstraksi fitur ACE

ACE feature extraction

Algoritma ACE

Tahap ini algorithma ACE terdiri dari dua tahapan yaitu penyesuaian kromatik/spatial dan
penyekalan ‘tone’ secara dinamis. Tahap algoritma ACE dapat dilihat pada gambar 4 yang
Merupakan citra input, M merupakan citra intermediat dan O merupakan citra Output sedangkan
subscript c menunjukan masing – masing chanel RGB.

ACE algorithm

This stage of the ACE algorithm consists of two stages: chromatic / spatial adjustment and
dynamic tone alignment. The ACE algorithm stage can be seen in figure 4 which represents the input
image, M is the intermediate image and O is the Output image whereas the subscript c shows each
RGB channel.

Chromatic Dynamic tone


Upgrade / spacing
Ic Rc Oc
Spatial

Picture 5. Steps of ACE Algorithm


(a) RGB Image (b) Grayscale Image

Picture 6. Konvert (a) Citra RGB ke (b) citra Grayscale Convert (a) RGB Image to (b)
Grayscale image

Nilai fitur warna antara citra asli dengan citra hasil pre proses yang siap diekstrak menggunakan
metode ACE dan digunakan untuk tahap berikutnya. The color feature value between the original
image and the pre-process result image is ready to be extracted using the ACE method and used for the
next step.

Tabel 1. Nilai ekstraksi citra asli dan citra ACE Table 1. Extraction values of original image
and ACE image

Value
Image Type
Mean Input Output
citra asli original image

125.14 48.1842 -0.213791

Citra hasil pre proses image


of pre-process result

130.636 52.5269 -0.829886

3. Hasil dan Pembahasan

Results and Discussion

Citra grayscale hasil dari proses tahap tersebut mempunyai nilai pixel tertinggi yaitu 237. Matrik
nilai pixel citra grayscale. The grayscale image of the stage process has the highest pixel value of 237.
The grayscale image pixel value matrix.

Tabel 2. Matrik Hasil Bagian Nilai Pixel Citra Grayscale Results Matrix of Grayscale Image
Pixel Value Picture (b)

1 6 2 2 7 3

4 1 2 1 1 1
1 3 1 7 1 5

1 4 1 5 2 3

3 1 15 2 6 4

2 1 6 2 4 97

Tahap berikutnya adalah melakukan ekstraksi fitur tekstur menggunakan metode ACE (Automated
Colour Equalization) fitur tekstur yang dihitung adalah kromatik/spatial peningkatan Contrast, dari 4
arah yaitu 0o, 45o, 90o, dan 135o yang disimulasikan seperti pada gambar 6. The next step is to extract
the texture feature using the ACE (Automated Color Equalization) method. The calculated texture
feature is a chromatic / spatial increase in Contrast, from 4 directions ie 0o, 45o, 90o, and 135o
simulated as shown in picture 6..

Nilai fitur Contrast dari citra dihitung dengan persamaan 4, fitur correlation dengan persamaan 5,
fitur energy dengan persamaan 6 dan fitur homogeneity menggunakan persamaan 7. Hasil dari
ekstraksi fitur tekstur dengan metode ACE dari semua arah dan rata-rata ditampilkan pada tabel 3
berikut.The value of the Contrast feature of the image is calculated by equation 4, the correlation
feature with equation 5, the energy feature with equation 6 and the homogeneity feature using Eq. 7.
The result of texture feature extraction with ACE method of all directions and average is shown in
table 3 below.

Tabel 3 Nilai Ekstraksi Fitur Citra Dengan ACE Extraction Image Feature Value With ACE

Feature 0o 45o 90o 45o Mean

Contrast 0.91852 1.912 1.255 1.394 1.3699

Correlation 0.90217 0.78849 0.86224 0.84593 0.84971

Energy 0.15407 0.11829 0.12825 0.12833 0.13223

Homogeneity 0.84286 0.75937 0.79517 0.78722 0.79615

Chanel RGB unggul 5 metode pengukuran di scenario pengujian dengan nilai tertinggi, setelah
dilakukan uji coba sebanyak 10 kali pengujian chanel Grayscale mempunyai nilai tertinggi yaitu 237 .
Hasil ekstraski fitur tekstur, menunjukkan bahwa nilai contrast citra BD1 lebih tinggi dibandingkan
dengan citra lain yang artinya perbedaan nilai pixel tetangga semakin tinggi. Channel RGB excel 5
methods of measurement in the test scenario with the highest value, after testing as much as 10 times
testing Grayscale chanel has the highest value of 237. The extrusion of texture features shows that the
contrast value of BD1 image is higher than the other image which means the difference of the higher
pixel value of neighbor. Nilai correlation semua citra tidak memiliki perbedaan yang tinggi. Nilai
energy juga pada citra BD1 juga paling tinggi yang menunjukkan kemiripan nilai pixel satu sama lain
citra BD1 paling tinggi dibandingkan citra lain. The correlation values of all images do not have a high
difference. The energy value also in the BD1 image is also the highest showing the similarity of pixel
value to each other BD1 image is highest compared to other image.

4. Simpulan

Conclusion
Dari hasil uji coba yang telah dilakukan dalam penelitian ini didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa
identifikasi jenis penyakit tanaman cabai menggunakan fitur tekstur dengan metode ACE, fitur warna
menggunakan segmentasi dan klasifikasi menggunakan metode SVM menghasilkan kombinasi hasil
semua fitur tekstur san fitur warna menghasilkan nilai rata-rata yang tinggi, hal ini dikarenakan dalam
pengujian ini semua fitur yang ada pada daun digunakan seluruhnya sebagai pembeda antar kelas
penyakit yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini. From the results of experiments that have been done in
this study it was concluded that identification of chili plant disease type using texture feature with
ACE method, color feature using segmentation and classification using SVM method resulted in a
combination of results of all features of texture san color features produce a high average value , this is
because in this test all the features that exist on the leaves are used entirely as a differentiator between
classes of diseases used in this study.

Daftar Pustaka

Bibliography

[1] Dinas Pertanian dan ketahanan Pangan Kabupaten Magelang Juni 2018

[2] Muhammad Thaqif bin MohamadAzmi dan Naimah Mat Isa Orchid Disease Detection Using
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System Engineering.

[3] Vijay Sigh, Prof. A K Misra 2015.Detection of unhealthy region of plant leaves using Image
Processing and Genetic Algorithm. 2015 International Conference on Advances in Computer
Engineering and Applications (ICACEA)IMS Engineering College, Ghaziabad, India

[4] Muhammad Thaqif bin MohamadAzmi dan Naimah Mat Isa Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam, 2013. Orchid Disease Detection Using Image
Processing and Fuzzy Logic

[5] Awoyelu, I. O. & Adebisi, R. O 2015. A Predictive Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosis of Cassava
Plant Diseases diteliti Department of Computer Science and Engineering Obafemi Awolowo
Unversity, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

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studi Teknik Informatika Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Alghazali, Cilacap Juni 2018
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