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Key PMR’s

Kiln Shell Ovality measurement (Shelltest)


Procedure

1. PURPOSE
The kiln shell ovality measurement (also known as Shelltest) measures the elastic
deformation on the areas adjacent to the tires. An excessive ovality value will have
a negative impact on the lifetime of the refractory bricks and must be kept under
acceptable limits (which vary according to kiln diameter). The creep (relative
movement must be measured as well, since they are closely related and it is the
shimming (reduction of clearance between tire and shell) the method to reduce
ovality.

As can be inferred, this measurement is relevant for kilns with loose (floating)
tires. Those equipped with the more modern splined (toothed) tires are not
affected; there is virtually no creep and therefore the ovality measurement is not
required .

HGRS recommends the measuring device "Shelltest" which is briefly described in


this paper. Nowadays, several suppliers (e.g. Refratechnik, Phillips Kiln Services)
offer an electronic version of this device, in case a plant or Group Company needs
to buy a new one.

2. SAFETY
This inspection is carried out with the kiln running! Pay close attention to the
moving parts (shell, tires, rollers) to avoid hits/pinches and burns.

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Use a long sleeved protective jacket and gloves, to protect yourself from the shell
heat radiation.

Wear all required Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) according to local


regulations. This may include, but it is not limited to: hardhat, safety shoes, safety
glasses, earplugs, gloves, long sleeved shirt or protective clothing.

3. RESULTS AND ACCEPTABLE VALUES

The results from the ovality measurement are from two types:

• The ‘Ovality’ value, which is compared against the recommended values.


This varies according to the kiln diameter. See Figure #1

0.8

0.6
Ovality %

0.4

0.2

0.0
3 4 5 6 7
Kiln Diameter
(Meters)
Figure #1. Recommended ovality values, according to kiln diameter

Combined with creep measurement, the ovality value will indicate whether tire
shimming is needed or not.

In addition, thanks to the graphical representation of the deformed kiln cross


section (polar graph), information can be obtained on:
• Tire clearance
• Tire stiffness (older kilns with hollow tires)
• Roller adjustment (in some cases)

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Figure #2. Polar graph showing three curves labeled A, B and C

The following figures show different scenarios that can be interpreted from the polar
diagram:

1. Ideal situation: the diagram on Figure #3 can be considered as the ideal


scenario. There is a low ovality (notice the almost round shape of the curve
on the graph).

Figure #3. Polar graph on an ideal situation.

2. High ovality scenario: in the case of Figure #4, there is a flattening of the
curve at the top. This is evidence of a high ovality. Furthermore, it can be
seen that one of the support rollers (right hand side) is pushing with more
force than the other one, causing additional deformation of the shell.

Based on the creep value, this tire needs shimming (to correct the flattening
at the top) and an assessment of the roller skewing (see visual inspection on

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thrust collar and lead wire Key PMR’s) to confirm that it is excessively
pushing the kiln.

Flattening at the top

Roller exerting high force

Figure #4. High ovality diagram.

4. FREQUENCY OF REALIZATION

The ovality measurement should be performed every 6 months on a preventive


manner (at least once a year, before the main kiln shutdown, where tire shimming
would be feasible), always together with a creep measurement. This test should be
performed whenever there are refractory problems (e.g. bricks falling down) close to
tires or after any shimming operation.

5. STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE

5.1 Tools:

Shelltest device (mechanical version - made by Holcim) or electronic one (made by


Philips Kiln Services, Refratechnik)
Tools to remove eventual obstacles (e.g. heat shields on roller station bearings)
Marker (Paint, Chalk)
Assessment sheets (see Annex) for the mechanical Shelltest or the analysis
software for the electronic one.

5.2 Steps:

1. Select a spot on the shell as close as possible to the tire, on both sides of it (feed
and discharge side). Make sure that there is sufficient space between the rotating
kiln and the heat shields for the shelltest device to pass through (see Figure #5).

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Remove obstacles if required. Measurements have to be made less than 2 meters
from the tire center.

Figure #5. Shelltest device adhered to the kiln shell. Note the proximity of the
shelltest device to the kiln tire and the proper clearance between shell and
roller station heat shields

2. Mark the kiln shell using chalk or paint on both sides of all kiln tires on 3 spots 120°
apart on the circumference (See Figure #6)
The markings have to be aligned between themselves and identified with the
letters A, B and C.
The letters have also to be aligned along the kiln (i.e. point A must fall on the same
straight line on all kiln stations; see Figure #7)
• These points should be the same ones used for lead wire test.

Figure #6. Marking to be done on the kiln shell

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A
B
A
B
A

Figure #7. Marking (A, B, C) must be co-linear along the whole kiln

Note: Use a reference point, such as a manhole, as position 0°


Do not mark the kiln tires, on most kilns they run at different speeds.
It is recommended to place permanent marks, for example by welding steel
indication plates on the shell that are readily visible.

3. Set the instrument at a marked measuring point (point A) while the kiln is rotating
and make sure that the instrument adheres sufficiently. The diagram should always
face the same direction for all measurements taken (e.g. the direction of the kiln
inlet side)
• Important: attach first the device magnetic foot towards the upgoing side of
the kiln and then the second one (otherwise, it will be more difficult and the
device may fall down and hit you); see figure #8

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Attach this foot
first!

Kiln rotation
sense

Figure #8. Correct sequence for placing the shelltest device

• Safety: once you attach the shelltest device, do not stay right underneath it
and always keep your sight on it in case it slips and falls down from the
shell. This way you can avoid being hit.

4. Adjust the pencil by means of the micrometer screw to a suitable position (in the
middle of the diagram). Let go of the instrument for the first kiln turn.
5. When the instrument returns to your position, press the pencil slightly forward until
it engages in its second position "record", with its touching the diagram·
6. After one or two rotations (measuring time) retract the pencil, holding it at the
pressure knob in the "off" position·
7. After one more turn, remove the instrument for next measuring point (B). A single
diagram disk can be used for the three measurements A, B and C (pencil position
has to be modified, to avoid overwriting curves)·
8. After each measurement, identify the resulting curve (A, B, C). if the curve is not
easily readable, remark it with a pencil.· Note on the rear of the diagram all
necessary data (inlet or outlet side of tire, distance from the tire centerline, relative
movement, no. of tire, time, date, etc.)
9. Cool down the magnetic feet of the Shelltest device with water. Magnetics will lose
their strenght if overheated.
10. Look for the next measurement point (e.g. B) and repeat steps from 3 to 9.
Remember: three measurements on each side of the tire are needed, making a
total of six curves for each pier.
11. Once you are finished on a kiln pier, measure the tire creep and the shell
temperature in the measuring area by means of a pyrometer or a thermometer with
magnetic support. The temperatures are additional information regarding the
condition of the refractory lining and/ or the coating.

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For mechanical Shelltest device:

12. Calculate from each curve the radial deformation (δs); this value is obtained by
measuring the maximal difference between sector height (Δh) divided by a factor of
15 (magnification factor of the shelltest device). See figure #9.

Figure #9. Determination of radial deformation (δs)

13. Enter this value on the following data sheet (available on the following annex; see
below). Repeat calculation for each and every curve for all kiln stations.

"PW Kiln Shelltest E


templates horizontal1

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SHELLTEST MEASUREMENTS
Plant : Kiln No.: Dim :

GRAPH OF OVALITY TABLE OF RESULTS


Kiln diameter d(m) RR MP dn XE XA t d SL δ ωr S ωm u S th
1,4 o T
ωr(%)

m m m mm m mm % C % mm mm
7
1
1,2 A 2
6 3
1
1
1,0
Ovality

5 B 2
3
0,8 1
4
C 2
0,6 3
3 2
1
D 2
0,4 3
1
0,2 E 2
3
3
Deformation δ (mm) 1
0 F 2
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 3
1
δ= h 15 G 2
t
S th

3
4
1
dn

H 2
d

Ovality
3
1
I 2
XE XA ω = 4 d 2 δ 100 (%) 3
3 dn 5
1
K 2
Sign.: Date :
3

Figure #10. Data sheet for plotting of results

TABLE OF RESULTS
RR MP dn XE XA t d SL δ ωr S ωm u S th
o T
m m m mm m mm % C % mm mm
7
1
A 2
6 3
1
1
5 B 2
3
4 1
C 2
3
3 2
1
D 2
3
1

RR: riding ring (tire).


MP: Measurement position. ‘A’ stands for inlet side and ‘B’ for discharge side.
dn: inner diameter of the shell section. To be used only if calculating ovality
through the formula (not recommended) instead of graphically.
XE: distance from tire middle to the actual measurement point, inlet side.
XA: distance from tire middle to the actual measurement point, discharge side
t: shell thickness section. Same comments as for dn apply.
d: nominal diameter of shell section

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SL: measurement spot: 1, 2 and 3 refer to the three positions around the kiln
circumference (same as A, B and C).
δs: radial deformation
ωr: relative ovality (value to be compared against the recommended range). This
value can be determined graphically or through the formula (not recommended).
ST: Shell temperature on the section where the measurement was made.
ωm: average relative ovality. This is the average from the three readings for a single
measurement point (e.g. Tire 1 inlet side)
Δu: measured creep at that tire.
Sth: running clearance or gap (result of Δu/π)

14. Once δs is calculated, ωr can be obtained from the following graph. It is the
intersection of δs with the corresponding curve for the kiln shell nominal diameter.

GRAPH OF OVALITY
Kiln diameter d(m)
1,4
ωr(%)

7
1,2
6
1,0
Ovality

0,8
4

0,6 3

0,4

0,2

Deformation δ (mm)
0
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4

Figure #11. Example of a 6 m diameter kiln with a radial deformation of 0.54


mm. Resulting ovality is in the range of 0.43

15. Once the average ovality values are known, they can be compared against the
recommended limits (See Figure #1) and the polar graphs can be analyzed.

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For electronic version of shelltest device

The steps 1 to 11 are the same. The main difference comes during the evaluation:
no need to remark any curves with pencil nor plotting ovality results. The provided
software calculates all values automatically.

6. OTHER ADVICE

Since the recommended ovality is given as a range, the calculated ovality does not
need to be exact to the second decimal place. Therefore, the graphical method
suffices and is far less complicated than using the formula.

Be careful not to confuse the information between marks A, B and C and make sure
the data is entered for the correct tire station.

It is advisable to always have the same people carrying out these inspections, in
order to obtain experience and to become familiar with the particularities of the kiln.

Always compare the measured creep as a double check of your measurements. A


high ovality is usually accompanied by a higher creep.

Look in the polar diagram for other possible causes of high ovality that may not be
related to creep, e.g. deformation due to a soft tire or strong roller skewing. For the
last case, compare results from lead wire test and visual inspection of thrust collar.

7. CORRECTIVE ACTIONS IN CASE OF DEVIATIONS


If a high ovality is measured, look at the creep value. If this value is already close to
30 mm/rev, tire shimming will be most likely required.

On the other hand, take a look at refractory history. Fallen bricks are a sure sign
that the ovality is indeed too high and that tire shimming is needed.

A training presentation on shelltest measurement, including its principle is available


on HolSpace under the link:

https://web.holcim.com/livelink_815/livelink.exe/fetch/2000/3413/24748/261585/262
187/262296/464350/Shelltest.pdf?nodeid=724276&vernum=0

Another one on tire shimming is to be found under:

https://web.holcim.com/livelink_815/livelink.exe/fetch/2000/3413/24748/261585/262
187/262296/464350/Kiln_tire_shimming_E.pdf?nodeid=317083&vernum=0

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