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Partiendo del hecho que:

𝑦̈𝜈 = −2𝜔𝑜2 𝑦𝜈 + 𝜔𝑜2 𝑦𝜈−1 + 𝜔𝑜2 𝑦𝜈+1

𝑦0̈ −2𝜔𝑜2 𝜔𝑜2 0 0 𝑦0


𝑦̈ 𝜔2 −2𝜔2 𝜔2 0 𝑦
[ 1 ] = 𝑜 2 𝑜 2 𝑜 2 [𝑦1 ]
𝑦2̈ 0 𝜔𝑜 −2𝜔𝑜 𝜔𝑜 2
𝑦3̈ 2 2 𝑦3
[ 0 0 𝜔𝑜 −2𝜔𝑜 ]

Calculando los valores propios:

𝜆
(2 +
) −1 0 0
𝜔𝑜2
−(2𝜔𝑜2 + 𝜆) 𝜔𝑜2 0 0 𝜆
2 2 2
−1 (2 + 2 ) −1 0
𝜔 −(2𝜔𝑜 + 𝜆) 𝜔𝑜 0 𝜔𝑜
det[𝜔 − 𝜆𝐼] = 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝑜 2 2 2 = −𝜔𝑜2 𝑑𝑒𝑡
0 𝜔𝑜 −(2𝜔𝑜 + 𝜆) 𝜔𝑜 𝜆
2 2 0 −1 (2 + 2 ) −1
[ 0 0 𝜔𝑜 −(2𝜔𝑜 + 𝜆) ] 𝜔𝑜
𝜆
0 0 −1 (2 + 2 )
[ 𝜔𝑜 ]

𝜆
Si: 𝑐 = 2 +
𝜔𝑜2

𝑐 −1 0 0 −1 −1 0
−1 𝑐 −1 0] = −𝜔2 [𝑐𝐶 + 1𝐶 + 0𝐶 + 0𝐶 ] = −𝜔2 [𝑐𝐶 + 𝐶 ] = −𝜔2 [𝑐𝐶 + det [ 0
det[𝜔 − 𝜆𝐼] = −𝜔𝑜2 𝑑𝑒𝑡 [ 𝑜 11 12 13 14 𝑜 11 12 𝑜 11 𝑐 −1]]
0 −1 𝑐 −1
0 0 0 −1 𝑐
−1 𝑐
det[𝜔 − 𝜆𝐼] = −𝜔𝑜2 [𝑐𝐶11 + [−1𝐶21 + 1𝐶23 + 0𝐶23 ]] = −𝜔𝑜2 [𝑐𝐶11 − 𝐶21 + 0 + 0] = −𝜔𝑜2 [𝑐𝐶11 − 𝐶21 ]

Con lo cual se puede reescribir como:

−𝜔𝑜2 det[𝑐]𝑁 = −𝜔𝑜2 { 𝑐 det[𝑐]𝑁−1 − det[𝑐]𝑁−2 }

det[𝑐]𝑁 = 𝑐 det[𝑐]𝑁−1 − det[𝑐]𝑁−2 𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑎 𝑁 ≥ 2

 Cuando N=2

det[𝑐]2 = 𝑐 det[𝑐]2−1 − det[𝑐]2−2

det[𝑐]2 = 𝑐 det[𝑐]1 − det[𝑐]0

𝑐 −1
[ ] = 𝑐 − det[𝑐]0
−1 𝑐

𝑐 2 − 1 = 𝑐[𝑐] − det[𝑐]0

𝑐 2 − 1 = 𝑐 2 − det[𝑐]0

−1 = − det[𝑐]0

1 = det[𝑐]0

Como conclusión: det[𝑐]0 = 1 ; det[𝑐]1 = 𝑐 ; det[𝑐]2 = 𝑐 2 − 1


Si: det[𝑐]𝑘 = 𝑝𝑘

𝑝𝑁 = 𝑐𝑝𝑁−1 − 𝑝𝑁−2

𝑝𝑁 𝑐𝑝𝑁−1 − 𝑝𝑁−2
=
𝑝𝑁−2 𝑝𝑁−2

𝑝2 = 𝑐𝑝 − 1

𝑝2 + 𝑐𝑝 − 1 = 0

𝑐 ± √𝑐 2 − 4
p=
2

Si: 𝑐 = 2cos(𝜃)

2cos(𝜃) ± √(2cos(𝜃))2 − 4 2cos(𝜃) ± √4[cos2 (𝜃) − 1] 2cos(𝜃) ± 2√−sen2 (𝜃)


p= = = = cos(𝜃) ± isen(θ) = e±𝑖𝜃
2 2 2

Con lo cual:

det[𝑐]𝑘 = 𝐶1 𝑝1𝑘 + 𝐶2 𝑝2𝑘 = 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑖𝑘𝜃 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑖𝑘𝜃 = 𝐴1 cos(𝑘𝜃) + 𝐴2 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑘𝜃)

- Aplicando las condiciones encontradas:


det[𝑐]0 = 𝐴1 cos(0) + 𝐴2 𝑠𝑒𝑛(0)
1 = 𝐴1

det[𝑐]1 = 1 cos(𝜃) + 𝐴2 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃)

𝑐 = cos(𝜃) + 𝐴2 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃)

2 cos(𝜃) − cos(𝜃)
= 𝐴2
𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃)

cos(𝜃)
= 𝐴2
𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃)

Finalmente:
cos(𝜃)
det[𝑐]𝑁 = cos(𝑁𝜃) + 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑁𝜃)
𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃)
𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃) cos(𝑁𝜃) + cos(𝜃) 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑁𝜃) 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑁𝜃 + 𝜃) 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃(𝑁 + 1))
det[𝑐]𝑁 = = =
𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃) 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃) 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃)

Como el determinante debe ser igual a 0


det[𝑐]𝑁 = 0

𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃(𝑁 + 1))
=0
𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃)
𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜃(𝑁 + 1)) = 0
𝜃(𝑁 + 1) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛−1 (0)
𝑛𝜋
𝜃=
𝑁+1
Como:

𝜆
𝑐 =2+
𝜔𝑜2

𝜔𝑜2 𝑐 = 2𝜔𝑜2 + 𝜆
𝑛𝜋
2𝜔𝑜2 cos ( ) = 2𝜔𝑜2 + 𝜆
𝑁+1
𝑛𝜋
𝜆 = 2𝜔𝑜2 cos ( ) − 2𝜔𝑜2
𝑁+1
𝑛𝜋
𝜆 = 2𝜔𝑜2 [cos ( ) − 1]
𝑁+1
𝑛𝜋
𝜆 = −2𝜔𝑜2 [1 − cos ( )]
𝑁+1

Con 1 ≤ 𝑛 ≤ 𝑁

Reescribiendo en términos de la matriz diagonalizada:

𝑞0̈ 𝜆1 0 0 0 𝑞0
𝑞1̈ 0 𝜆2 0 0 𝑞1
[ ]=[ ] [𝑞 ]
𝑞2̈ 0 0 𝜆3 2
𝑞3̈ 0 0 0 𝜆4 𝑞3

𝑞0̈ 𝜆1 𝑞0
𝑞1̈ 𝜆 𝑞
[ ] = [ 2 1]
𝑞2̈ 𝜆3 𝑞2
𝑞3̈ 𝜆4 𝑞3
𝜋
−2𝜔𝑜2 [1 − cos ( )] 𝑞0
𝑁+1
𝑞0̈ 2𝜋
−2𝜔𝑜2 [1 − cos ( )] 𝑞1
𝑞1̈ 𝑁+1
[ ]= 3𝜋
𝑞2̈
−2𝜔𝑜2 [1 − cos ( )] 𝑞2
𝑞3̈ 𝑁+1
2
4𝜋
[−2𝜔𝑜 [1 − cos (𝑁 + 1)] 𝑞3 ]

Reescribiendo:
𝑛𝜋 𝑛𝜋
𝜔𝑛2 = 2𝜔𝑜2 [1 − cos ( )] = 4𝜔𝑜2 𝑠𝑒𝑛2 ( )
𝑁+1 2(𝑁 + 1)

𝑞0̈ −𝜔02 𝑞0
𝑞̈ −𝜔12 𝑞1
[ 1] =
𝑞2̈ −𝜔22 𝑞2
𝑞3̈ [−𝜔2 𝑞 ]
3 3

Que corresponden a las ecuaciones de osciladores armónicos.

Conclusión:
Las frecuencias de los modos normales de oscilación vienen dadas por:

𝑛𝜋
𝜔𝑛 = 2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( )
2(𝑁 + 1)

𝑦𝜈𝑛 = 𝐴𝜈𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑛 ) → ̈ = −𝜔𝑛2 𝑦𝜈𝑛


𝑦𝜈𝑛
Como:

𝑦̈𝜈 = −2𝜔𝑜2 𝑦𝜈𝑛 + 𝜔𝑜2 𝑦(𝜈−1)𝑛 + 𝜔𝑜2 𝑦(𝜈+1)𝑛

−𝜔𝑛2 𝑦𝜈𝑛 = −2𝜔𝑜2 𝑦𝜈 + 𝜔𝑜2 𝑦(𝜈−1)𝑛 + 𝜔𝑜2 𝑦(𝜈+1)𝑛

[−𝜔𝑛2 + 2𝜔𝑜2 ]𝑦𝜈𝑛 = 𝜔𝑜2 [𝑦(𝜈−1)𝑛 + 𝑦(𝜈+1)𝑛 ]

[−𝜔𝑛2 + 2𝜔𝑜2 ]𝐴𝜈𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡) = 𝜔𝑜2 [𝐴(𝜈−1)𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡) + 𝐴(𝜈+1)𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡)]

[−𝜔𝑛2 + 2𝜔𝑜2 ]𝐴𝜈𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡) = 𝜔𝑜2 [𝐴(𝜈−1)𝑛 + 𝐴(𝜈+1)𝑛 ] cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡)

[−𝜔𝑛2 + 2𝜔𝑜2 ]𝐴𝜈𝑛 = 𝜔𝑜2 [𝐴(𝜈−1)𝑛 + 𝐴(𝜈+1)𝑛 ]

𝜔𝑛 2
[2 − ( ) ] 𝐴𝜈𝑛 = 𝐴(𝜈−1)𝑛 + 𝐴(𝜈+1)𝑛
𝜔𝑜

𝑐𝐴𝜈𝑛 = 𝐴(𝜈−1)𝑛 + 𝐴(𝜈+1)𝑛

𝑛𝜋
2 cos ( ) 𝐴 = 𝐴(𝜈−1)𝑛 + 𝐴(𝜈+1)𝑛
𝑁 + 1 𝜈𝑛

Si 𝜈 = 1

𝑛𝜋
2 cos ( ) 𝐴 = 𝐴(1−1)𝑛 + 𝐴(1+1)𝑛
𝑁+1 𝑛
𝑛𝜋
2 cos ( ) 𝐴 = 𝐴0𝑛 + 𝐴2𝑛
𝑁+1 𝑛
Como la amplitud del primer oscilador es 0
𝑛𝜋
2 cos ( ) 𝐴 = 𝐴2𝑛
𝑁+1 𝑛

Si 𝜈 = 𝑁

𝑛𝜋
2 cos ( ) 𝐴 = 𝐴(𝑁−1)𝑛 + 𝐴(𝑁+1)𝑛
𝑁 + 1 𝑁𝑛
𝑛𝜋
2 cos ( ) 𝐴 = 𝐴(𝑁−1)𝑛
𝑁 + 1 𝑁𝑛

𝜈𝑛𝜋 𝜈𝑛𝜋
 Si: 𝐴𝜈𝑛 = 𝐴1 𝑛 cos (𝑁+1) + 𝐴2𝑛 sen (𝑁+1) 𝜈 = 0

𝐴0𝑛 = 𝐴1 𝑛 cos(0) + 𝐴2𝑛 sen(0)

0 = 𝐴1𝑛

Con lo cual:
𝜈𝑛𝜋
𝐴𝜈𝑛 = 𝐴2𝑛 sen ( )
𝑁+1
𝜈𝑛𝜋 𝜈𝑛𝜋 𝜈𝑛𝜋
𝑦𝜈𝑛 = 𝐴2𝑛 sen ( ) cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑛 ) = 𝐴2𝑛 sen ( ) [𝐶1𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡) + 𝐶2𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜔𝑛 𝑡)] = sen ( ) [𝐶1𝑛 𝐴2𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡) + 𝐶2𝑛 𝐴2𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜔𝑛 𝑡)]
𝑁+1 𝑁+1 𝑁+1
𝜈𝑛𝜋
𝑦𝜈𝑛 = sen ( ) [𝑎𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝜔𝑛 𝑡)]
𝑁+1
Como cualquier combinación lineal también será solución:

𝑁 𝑁
𝜈𝑛𝜋
𝑦𝜈 = ∑ 𝑦𝜈𝑛 = ∑ sen ( ) [𝑎𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen(𝜔𝑛 𝑡)]
𝑁+1
𝑛=1 𝑛=1

𝑁
𝜈𝑛𝜋 𝑛𝜋 𝑛𝜋
𝑦𝜈 = ∑ sen ( ) [𝑎𝑛 cos (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡)]
𝑁+1 2(𝑁 + 1) 2(𝑁 + 1)
𝑛=1

𝑙
Como: 𝑙 = 𝑎𝑁 → 𝑎
=𝑁

𝑁
𝜈𝑛𝜋 𝑛𝜋 𝑛𝜋
𝑦𝜈 = ∑ sen ( ) [𝑎𝑛 cos (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡)]
𝑙 𝑙 𝑙
𝑛=1 +1 2 ( + 1) 2 ( + 1)
𝑎 𝑎 𝑎
𝑁
𝜈𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎
𝑦𝜈 = ∑ sen ( ) [𝑎𝑛 cos (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡)]
𝑙+𝑎 2(𝑙 + 1) 2(𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

Como 𝜈 denota cada particula entonces, 𝜈𝑎 = 𝑥 → 𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑐𝑖ó𝑛 𝑒𝑛 𝑙𝑎 𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑒𝑠𝑡á 𝑙𝑎 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎


𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎
𝑦𝜈 = ∑ sen ( ) [𝑎𝑛 cos (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡)]
𝑙+𝑎 2(𝑙 + 1) 2(𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1
Caso continuo:

Para el caso continuo, se tiene en cuenta 𝑎 → 0

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎
lim 𝑦𝜈 = lim ∑ sen ( ) [𝑎𝑛 cos (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡)]
𝑎→0 𝑎→0 𝑙+𝑎 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 2(𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎
lim 𝑦𝜈 = ∑ lim {sen ( ) [𝑎𝑛 cos (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡)]} 𝑐
𝑎→0 𝑎→0 𝑙+𝑎 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 2(𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎
lim 𝑦𝜈 = ∑ {lim sen ( )} {lim [𝑎𝑛 cos (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡)]}
𝑎→0 𝑎→0 𝑙+𝑎 𝑎→0 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 2(𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎
lim 𝑦𝜈 = ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 lim [cos (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡)] + 𝑏𝑛 lim [sen (2𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛 ( ) 𝑡)]}
𝑎→0 𝑙 𝑎→0 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 𝑎→0 2(𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋𝑎 1 𝑛𝜋𝑎 2 1 𝑛𝜋𝑎 4 𝑛𝜋𝑎 1 𝑛𝜋𝑎 2 1 𝑛𝜋𝑎 4
lim 𝑦𝜈 = ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 lim [cos (2𝜔𝑜 [ − [ ] + [ ] + ⋯ ] 𝑡)] + 𝑏𝑛 lim [sen (2𝜔𝑜 [ − [ ] + [ ] + ⋯ ] 𝑡)]}
𝑎→0 𝑙 𝑎→0 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 2 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 4! 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 𝑎→0 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 2 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 4! 2(𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎 2 1 𝑛𝜋𝑎 4 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎 2 1 𝑛𝜋𝑎 4
lim 𝑦𝜈 = ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 lim [cos (𝜔𝑜 [ −[ ] + [ ] + ⋯ ] 𝑡)] + 𝑏𝑛 lim [sen (𝜔𝑜 [ −[ ] + [ ] + ⋯ ] 𝑡)]}
𝑎→0 𝑙 𝑎→0 (𝑙 + 𝑎) 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 12 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 𝑎→0 (𝑙 + 𝑎) 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 12 2(𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑇 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎 2 1 𝑛𝜋𝑎 4 𝑇 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑛𝜋𝑎 2 1 𝑛𝜋𝑎 4
lim 𝑦𝜈 = ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 lim [cos (√ [ −[ ] + [ ] + ⋯ ] 𝑡)] + 𝑏𝑛 lim [sen (√ [ −[ ] + [ ] + ⋯ ] 𝑡)]}
𝑎→0 𝑙 𝑎→0 𝑚𝑎 (𝑙 + 𝑎) 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 12 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 𝑎→0 𝑚𝑎 (𝑙 + 𝑎) 2(𝑙 + 𝑎) 12 2(𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1
Despreciando términos cuadráticos y superior

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑇 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑇 𝑛𝜋𝑎
lim 𝑦𝜈 ≈ ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 lim [cos (√ [ ] 𝑡)] + 𝑏𝑛 lim [sen (√ [ ] 𝑡)]}
𝑎→0 𝑙 𝑎→0 𝑚𝑎 (𝑙 + 𝑎) 𝑎→0 𝑚𝑎 (𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

𝑚 = 𝑎𝜆

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑇 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑇 𝑛𝜋𝑎
𝑦 ≈ ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 lim [cos (√ 2 [ ] 𝑡)] + 𝑏𝑛 lim [sen (√ 2 [ ] 𝑡)]}
𝑙 𝑎→0 𝑎 𝜆 (𝑙 + 𝑎) 𝑎→0 𝑎 𝜆 (𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑇 𝑛𝜋𝑎 𝑇 𝑛𝜋𝑎
𝑦 ≈ ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 lim [cos (√ [ ] 𝑡)] + 𝑏𝑛 lim [sen (√ [ ] 𝑡)]}
𝑙 𝑎→0 𝜆 (𝑙 + 𝑎)𝑎 𝑎→0 𝜆 (𝑙 + 𝑎)𝑎
𝑛=1

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑇 𝑛𝜋 𝑇 𝑛𝜋
𝑦 ≈ ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 lim [cos (√ [ ] 𝑡)] + 𝑏𝑛 lim [sen (√ [ ] 𝑡)]}
𝑙 𝑎→0 𝜆 (𝑙 + 𝑎) 𝑎→0 𝜆 (𝑙 + 𝑎)
𝑛=1

𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋 𝑇 𝑛𝜋 𝑇
𝑦 ≈ ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 cos ( √ 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen ( √ 𝑡)}
𝑙 𝑙 𝜆 𝑙 𝜆
𝑛=1

Definiendo:

𝜋 𝑇
𝜔𝑜 = √ → 𝜔𝑛 = 𝑛𝜔𝑜
𝑙 𝜆
𝑁
𝑛𝜋𝑥
𝑦 ≈ ∑ sen ( ) {𝑎𝑛 cos(𝜔𝑛 𝑡) + 𝑏𝑛 sen(𝜔𝑛 𝑡)}
𝑙
𝑛=1