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IS 2911 (Part 4) : 2013

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Indian Standar~V
DESIGN AND CONSTRU~ ~~ N OF PILE
FOUNDATIONS - CODF(~l PRACTICE

PART 4 LOAD TEST~PILES

( Second ~~ion )

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© BIS 2013

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS

MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG

NEW DELHI 110002

December 2013 Price Group 7


Soil and Foundation Engineering Sectional Committee, CED 43

FOREWORD
This Indian Standard (Part 4) (Second Revision) was adopted by the Bureau Of~I :£!!.an Standards, after the draft
finalized by the Soil and Foundation Engineering Sectional Committee had been a 'I@'ed by the Civil Engineering
Division Council. ~

Pile load test is the most direct method for determining the safe loads on Qt;j'~~including its structural capacity
with respect to. s.oil/rock in which it is installed. It is consider.ed more r~~o~ account of its being in-~itu test
than the capacItIes computed by other methods, such as statIc forrhula~namlc formulae and penetratIOn test
data. There are widely varying practices followed for load tests onJ!61' Particularly, the difficulties regarding
the establishment of an acceptable criterion, for determining the u' e and safe bearing capacity of piles, and
predicting the pile group behaviour from the test data obtained fr ' . dividualload test on single piles cannot be
under estimated as the factors affecting are many. However, an . . pt is made to bring out a unified approach to
the various aspects of load test on piles. ~

This standard (Part 4) was first published in 1979 to covo~est on piles. The other parts of this standard are
as follows: ~
(Part 1)
(Part 2)
Concrete piles
Timber piles
rfi!J

f£!
(Part 3) Under-reamed piles ~
The standard was first revised in 1985 to giV~:jtdetails in regard to the rate of loading and unloading and the
details of the situations when the differe~~pes of tests are conducted. Later Amendment No.1 to the standard
was issued in May 1989 modifying th~'oad for routine test of piles.
It has now been felt that the provisl~egardingthe load test of piles should be further revised to take into
account the recent developments i~his:neld. T~ision has been brought out to incorporate these developments.
In this revision following ma~ficati~ave been incorporated:
a) Definitions of var~~erms ha .~~n modified as per the prevailing engineering practice;
b) The frequency ~~tial tes - een modified;
c) The test 10ad40~itial tes has been added; and
d) In case of tC~ertiCal~~' test and pull-out test, separate criteria for determining safe load of piles
have bee:§J)ecified o~~asis of diameter of piles.
For rock sock~~lesand ~les
through rock, assessment of safe load for different mode of loadings shall

:
conform to Ib..m~3 199~eSign and construction of bored cast in-situ piles founded on rocks - Guidelines ' .

The comp~n of mmittee responsible for the formulation of this standard is given in Annex C.

For the~ose of 1 g whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value,

obsetrm;"calc •, expressing the result of a test or analysis shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960
'Ra~or ro~n~ off numerical values (revisecl) , . The number of significant places retained in the rounded off
v1tl~should O"~ same as that of the specified value in this standard.
IS 2911 (part 4) : 2013

Indian Standard '


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PILE

FOUNDATIONS - CODE OF PRACTICE

PART 4 LOAD TEST ON PILES

( Second Revision)

1 SCOPE
1.1 This standard (Part 4) covers the load test on all
types of piles covered in IS 2911 (Part l/Sec 1), IS 2911
IS No.
(Sec 4) : 20
e ~
~
Title
. recast concrete piles in prebored

holes (first revision)

(Part l/Sec 2), IS 2911 (Part l/Sec 3), IS 2911 (Part 1/ 2911 0 ~ Code of practice for design and

Sec 4), IS 2911(Part 2) and IS 2911 (Part 3) and ~ construction of pile foundations :

provides guidelines for determination of safe load (P~t<..~~{980 Timber piles (first revision)

based on the following types of loadings: (PaIt~: 1980 Under reamed piles (first revision)

a) Vertical load test (compression), 3~~


( MINOLOGY
'l~ER
b) Lateral load test, and ~r the purpose of this standard, the following
c) Pull-out test. ~(lefinitions shall apply:
1.1.1 High strain dynamic test, statnamic test m1~ 3.1 Cut-Off Level - It is the level where a pile is

e~bedded load cell method are beyond the sco~ cut-off in order to make structural connection to the

this standard. Q pile caps or beams or any other structural components

1.2 Load tests under vibratory loads, TI\.,.~ts and at that level.

other forces and sequence of load~' ng ~R~r special 3.2 Datum Bar - A rigid bar placed on immovable

circumstances like yield load capacity, kling piles supports.

are not covered in this standard.

~ 3.3 Total Elastic Displacement - This is the


2 REFERENCES ~ h'-'> magnitude of displacement of the pile head during
~ rebound on removal of a given test load. This comprises
The standards listed below In provisiRn~ which
~ two components:
through reference in this t nstitute~9,.visions of
this standard. At the ti ' U~lica. h.~,f\e editions a) Elastic displacement of the soil participating
indicated were valid standar e subject to in the load transfer; and
revision and parti~ agree ased on this b) Elastic displacement of the pile shaft.
standard are encou~.a;ecfto in#,te the possibility
3.4 Factor of Safety - I t is the ratio of the ultimate
of applying the IR0.@?' ecent . ns of the standards

indicated belo~~ ~~ load capacity of a pile to the safe load on the pile.

r17J'V ~ 3.5 Gross Displacement - The total movement of


IS No. ~ ~~ Title the pile top under a given load.
1904 : 19d!:,..f@ Co ' , practice for design and
~~

i1
CQ. tion of foundations in soils 3.6 Group Test - A minimum of three piles shall be
~ ~ eneral requirements (third considered as group for the purpose of testing.
¢'~~ ¢ ision)
~ 3.7 Initial Load Test - A test intended to be conducted
~ esign and construction of pile on initial test pile at the initial stage of the project to
foundations - Code of practice: determine the load carrying capacity of the pile by
(Part I) Concrete piles, loading either to its ultimate load or to two and half
(Sec 1) : 201 0 Driven cast in-situ concrete piles times the estimated safe load whichever occur earlier.
(second revision)
(Sec 2) : 2010 Bored cast in-situ concrete piles NOTE ­ In case of sites where large negative drag is
anticipated and piles with deep cut-off levels, test load shall
(second revision) be selected by analytical approach. Wherever applicable,
(Sec 3) : 2010 Driven precast concrete piles (second estimated negative drag shall be added to the test load while
revision) testing the initial test pile for initial load test.
IS 2911 (Part 4) : 2013

3.8 Initial Test Pile ­ One or more piles, which are f) Depth of water table and sub strata details with
not working piles, may be installed to assess the load applicable test results;
carrying capacity of a pile. g) Back up calculations for arriving the safe load
3.9 KentIedge - Dead-weight used for applying a and ultimate load capacity;
test load on piles. h) Availability and provision of type of piles or
anchors or kentledge for reaction;
3.10 Net Displacement - The net vertical movement
j) Nature of loading/loading plan with a
of the pile top after the pile has been subjected to a test
particularly mention of pile(s) which may be
load and subsequently released.
free standing ~n scour is expected;
3.11 Routine Test ­ It is carried out on a working k) Permissible ~considered in design; and
pile with a view to check whether pile is capable of m) Any otheI'~rmation concerning planning
taking the working load assigned to it without and con~ng the tests including the relevant
exceeding permissible settlement. pastn~ence concerning similar testes).
3.12 Safe Load ­ It is the load derived by applying a
factor of safety on the ultimate load capacity of the 5 TYPE~.~STS
pile or as determined from load test.
<> rJt
There a1': . ' types of tests, name~y, initial ~nd ro~tine
3.13 Ultimate Load Capacity - The maximum load
test f~~'db type (mode) of loadmg (that IS, vertIcal,
which a pile can carry before failure, that is when the late!'. d pull-out).

founding strata fails by shear as evident from the load ~I~tial Test
settlement curve or the pile fails as a structural member. ~~
~.' IS test is required for one or more of the following
3.14 Working Load/Design Load - The load~;.purposes:
assigned to a pile as per design. (f'~ ,
.it:f! a) Determination of ultimate load capacity and
3.15 Working Pile - A pile forming part O~~t;
foundation system of a given structure. QD arrival at safe load by application of factor of
safety,
3.16 Constant Rate of Penetration (CRP) - this b) To provide guidelines for setting up the limits
method, test pile is made to penetrate~~il at a of acceptance for routine tests,
constant speed while the force applied~'op of the c) To get an idea of suitability of piling system,
pile to maintain the rate of penetratiQn~ontinuously and
measured. As a result of the pile m~;nt the ~i:!,is d) To have a check on calculated load by
progressively stressed until it~ai . hear#, w ~i'that dynamic or static approaches.
occurs the ultimate load of th . '.' s reac .
g~ 5.1.1 The number of initial tests may be selected as
3.17 Cyclic Load Test -~carri~d t~n initial given below depending upon the nature of sub-strata,
test piles to determine ~R~~tion f . 'n friction number of piles and past experience at the site.
and point bearing loa...~'f()ading~ nloading in
cycle. rF~ . ¢~" a) For small size projects (for piles less than
dJ
'=" .roM 1 000 numbers), a minimum of two tests.
4 NECESSAR~ORM~ b) For large size projects (for piles more than
The fOllowin;pormation \~cessary for pile(s) on 1 000 numbers), a minimum of two tests for
which test is posed: (f'~ first 1 000 piles and additional one test for
':2'dI every additional 1 000 piles and part thereof.
a)l.® typ luding material and
. force ails, group of piles, if any; The frequency of testing stipulated above is applicable
\l¥ Q:~ etho riving/installation with record
for each diameter of pile and rated capacity of pile in
~~ inclu. ate of casting, date of testing, each type (mode) of loading. The number of tests may
~ form ~ evel, cut off level as per relevant be increased/decreased depending upon whether the
pile data sheets given in IS 2911 (Part l/Sec strata is erratic/uniform, subjected to a minimum of
1 to 4); two tests.
c) Pile depth(s) and details of cross-section(s); 5.1.2 The test load provision in the initial load test shall
d) Type of test desired;
not be less than the estimated safe load multiplied by
e) Layout of the pile(s) - Space available the minimum factor of safety of 2.5.

around and position in the group for single 5.1.3 Initial test piles should be installed by the same
pile test; technique, same type of equipment as that proposed

2
IS 2911 (part 4) : 2013

for working Separate test piles shall be installed 6.2 the load and deflection
for different ofloadings vertical, measurement should be made at the pile top. Datum
lateral and pull-out). Initial load tests shall bars should rest on firm ground.
preferably be carried out prior to execution of piling
6.3 In particular cases where upper part of pile is likely
job.
to be later on due to scour, dredging,
5.2 Routine Test Jlqluetactlon or otherwise then contributed by
of the load test shall be
This test is rprml1rpi1 for one or more of the following accounted for or simulated of
purposes: the
a) the safe load as determined from
'-""",v"UBE',

[see IS 2911 lISec 1 to resting


2) and IS 2911 3)];
b) Detection of any unusual be carried out at cut-off level
contrary to the findings of the initial test, if able, otherwise suitable allowance
done; and mt(,rpret:atl()n of the test results/
c)

The number of tests shan be 0.5 percent of the total in case of vertical load test
number of to a minimum of one test. d at a level higher than cut-off level or in case
The number of tests may be increased up to 2 percent n''''~n'''f,pr< over the between the ground
in particular cases upon the nature, of" d cut-off level is an annular space
structure and sub-strata condition. I be created to remove the effect of skin friction
above cut-off level of
5.2.1 The to be tested for routine tests suitable diameter diameter.
preferably be selected on the basis of the follow' 1'lnUfP'vpr effect of over burden pressure may be taken

a) Abnormal variation in concrete into account for analysis of vertical load test.
b) Sudden in concrete 6.4.2 in case of lateral load test, test load
construction of piles. at cut-off level; otherwise lateral
c) Problems encountered displacement at cut-off level shall be determined based
tremie operation. on measurements done at different level. However, the
d) variation in acceptance criteria of deflection shall be at cut-off level
respect to other .,rliA.r.Ni'1trN:!rri or scour level or dredge level or depth, as
record. the case may be.
e) Anomalies 6.S Load cells may be used for load.
6.6 In case of off-shore and marine simulated
f)
load test may be conducted on-shore.
g)
6.7 of load displacement curve shall be done
on rational basis suitable scale for load
and settlement axis.
tI in 5.1.1 (a), 5.1.1 (b) and
for each type (mode) of
aleral and pull-out), subject 7 VERTICAL LOAD TEST (COMPRESSION)

. ned in 5.1.1 (a), 5.1.1 (b) and 7.1 General


able separately for each diameter of
In this type of test, compression downward)
q~ pile pacity of pile.
load is to the pile top by means of a hydraulic
6~NERA QUIREMENTS APPLICABLE jack rolled steel joist or suitable load frame
TO ALL TYPES OF TESTS with and the settlement is recorded
by dial Maintained
6.1 Pile test may be carried out on a or a
load method as given in 7.2 should be used for
group of piles as In case groups, caps
determination of safe load. However, for specific
shall be such that the required conditions
and CRP which are
of actual use are fulfilled. Pile cap can also be
may be used as mentioned in 7.3
provided for to accommodate load
requirements for these
jacks, etc.

3
IS 2911 (part 4) : 2013

three methods are given from 7.1.1 to 7.1.6, as may be 7.1.4 Settlement (not Applicable to CRP Methocl)
applicable.
7.1.4.1 Settlement shall be recorded with minimum
7.1.1 Preparation oj Pile Head 4 dial gauges of 0.01 mm sensitivity for both single
pile and grau ps. The dial gauges shall be placed
The pile head should be chipped off to natural
symmetrically and at equal distances from the pile(s)
horizontal plane till sound concrete is met. The
and normally held by datum bars resting on immovable
projecting reinforcement should be cut-off or bent
supports at a distance of 3 D (subject to minimum of
suitably and the top finished smooth and level with
2.0 m) from the edge of the piles, where D is the pile
cement plaster or similar synthetic material where
stem diameter of circular piles or diameter of the
required. A bearing plate with a mark at the centre
circumscribing circl~@he case of square or non-
should be placed on the head of the pile for the jacks
circular piles. ~'
to rest. Finished pile head level may be measured prior
and after the load test by suitable survey instrument. 7.1.4.2 From saf~<:point ofv~e~ and to minimize the
disturbance j?~um bars, It IS .prefera.ble to ~se
7.1.2 Application oj Load (not Applicable to CRP

remotely c~olled linear vanable dIfferential


Methocl)

transdu~~VDT) with a digital read out for


The test should be carried out by applying a series of recordi~t;lre settlement. The LVDTs shall be
vertical downward incremental load each increment calibr~
being of about 20 percent of safe load on the pile. For
testing of raker piles it is essential that load is applied
7. ~inished pile head level may be measured prior
er the load test by suitable survey instrument.
along the axis of the pile.
.5 The safe vertical load on single pile for the initial
7.1.3 Reaction
t should be least of the following;
The reaction may be obtained from the following: ~
a) For piles up to and including 600 mm
a) Kentledge placed on a platform supp~ diameter:
clear of the test pile. In case of.la.ad tepJ71ifId'<1w 1) Two-thirds of the final load at which the
under-pinned structure, the eXlstmg l~ure, total displacement attains a value of
if having adequate weight a~-sllitable 12 mm unless otherwise required in a
construction may serve as ke'4t~e. The given case on the basis of nature and type
centre of gravity of the k~~ge should of structure in which case, the safe load
coincide with the axis of tlT~~and the load should be corresponding to the stated
applied through th~j' c Sfiould .~~e total displacement permissible; and
coaxial with this pile .. :': ltiplej:.~re to 2) Fifty percent of the final load at which
be used, these shaW~ ranged ~arallel the total displacement equal to 10 percent
and connected t0Jo.~e hyd~a1Jlj.'<.pump and of the pile diameter in case of uniform
pressure ~auge~~ ~~©r. diameter piles and 7.5 percent of bulb
b) Anchor pIlescw:r:t9 centre-~tre distance diameter in case of under-reamed piles.
from the tes~~ not less>~~3 ti~~s the test b) For piles more than 600 mm diameter:
pile sha~t.a'ffieter s~!'-~ to mlmmum of
1) Two-thirds of the final load at which the
2 m. IF ancho~es are permanent
total displacement attains a value of
world' pi es, it sr(@i be ensured that their
18 mm or maximum of 2 percent pile
resi uplift i,s?~~in limits. Care should
diameter whichever is less unless
b rcise~eRsure that the datum bar
otherwise required in a given case on the
arts ar~ected by heaving up of the

i
Q'1. r[Jjj}
,<!§D oc~~s with distance from.the ne~rest

~ edg ~ piles at rock level bemg 2 times

basis of nature and type of structure in


which case, the safe load should be
corresponding to the stated total

~ the test IIe shaft diameter or 1.5 m, whichever

displacement permissible; and


2) 50 percent of the final load at which the
is greater.
total displacement equal to 10 percent of
NOTE - In case wedge failure governs in the pile anchors! the pile diameter in case of uniform
rock anchors, the pile distance shouLd be suitably maintained
diameter piles and 7.5 percent of bulb
to avoid interference of the wedge with the test pile.
diameter in case of under-reamed piles.
7.1.3.1 The reaction to be made available for the test
7.1.5.1 However, routine test shall be carried for a test
should be 25 percent more than the final test load
load of at least 1.5 times the working load; the maximum
proposed to be applied.

4
IS 2911 (part 4) : 2013

settlement at the test load being not greater than 12 mm 2) Maximum settlement of pile exceeds a
for piles diameter up to and including 600 mm and value of 40 mm.
18 mm or 2 percent of pile diameter whichever is less b) In case of routine load test:
for piles of diameter more than 600 mm. 1) Applied load reaches the working load;
7.1.6 The safe vertical load on groups of piles for initial or
test shall be least of the following: 2) Maximum settlement of pile exceeds a
value of 25 mm.
a) Final load at which the total displacement
attains a value of 25 mm unless otherwise 7.3 Cyclic Method
use~t
~e
required in a given case on the basis of nature
and type of structure; and This method is of initial test to find out
separately skin fric · , ~ d point bearing load on single
b) 1\vo-thirds of the final load at which the total
piles of unifoi7m ,~ tef. The procedure as given in
displacement attains a value of 40 mm.
Annex A or b lable instrumentation may be used.
7.1.6.1 However, routine test on group of piles shall Q
be carried for a test load of at least equal to the working 7.4 CR~Mtd
load; the maximum settlement of the test loading in This me ~ .() hich is used for initial test is generally
position being not exceeding 25 mm. con~id 0 be more suitable for determining ultimate
NOTE- For differential settlements. IS 1904 shall be referred. loa city than by the maintained load test but the
. . 10~~-9.e ection characteristics are quite different from
7.2 Mamtamed Load Method ~~fthe maintained load test and cannot be used to
This is applicable for both initial and routine test. In" dict settlement of the pile under working load
this method, each stage of loading shall be maintained_ ~ on~itions. This method s~ou~d n~t be included in
till the rate of move~ent of the pile top is .not mo~ routine test. The procedure IS gIven In Annex B.
tha~ 0.2 m~ or until. 2. h have elapsed, whIch~v~ 8 LATERAL LOAD TEST ON PILES
earlier subject to a mInImUm of 1 h. The m~~m
test load shall be maintained for 24 h. IV 8.1 The test may be carried out by introducing a
hydraulic jack with gauge between two piles or pile
7.2.1 Duration of Vertical Loading ~
groups under test or the reaction may be suitably
7.2.1.1 Vertical loading on Sing~~ shall be obtained otherwise. If it is conducted by jack located
continued till one of the following ~lace: between two piles or groups, the full load imposed by

r ~ the jack shall be taken as the lateral resistance of each


a) In case of initialload
pile or group. The loading should be applied in
1) Applied load re· 2.5 tim~ safe increments of about 20 percent of the estimated safe
estimated loa~'f! t» lateral load.
2) Maximum ~~ent o~ \ceeds a
value of l~peIcent of diameter in 8.2 The next increment should be applied after the
case o~rm ~i er piles and rate of displacement is less than or equal to 0.1 mm
7.5 per~of bulb eter in case of per 30 min subject to minimum of 30 min.
unde~amed p~() 8.3 In case of unapproachable cut-off levels,
b) In ca~~utine l"est: displacements shall be read by using at least two dial
1) ~ied 10aAhches 1.5 times the gauges or LVDTs of 0.01 mm sensitivity (see Fig. 1)
~rking . ru spaced at 30 cm and kept horizontally one above the
A~axim tlement of pile exceeds a other on the test pile and the displacement shall be
~~ value mm for piles diameter up to interpolated at cut-off level from similar triangles.
fP~ an¢ ding 600 mm and 18 mm or However, for approachable cut-off levels, one dial
q '$:d)
~ 19.' urn of 2 percent of pile diameter gauge or LVDT placed diametrically opposite to the
~ w'~liever is less for piles of diameter jack shall directly measure the displacement. Where,
more than 600 mm. it is not possible to locate one of the dial gauges in the
line of the jack axes, there two dial gauges may be
7.2.1.2 Vertical loading on group of piles shall be kept at a distance of30 cm at a suitable height and the
continued till one of the following takes place: clisplllc.~mf':nt intf':rp()l~tf':(l l1t l<:wj point from similar

a) In case of initial load test: triangles.


1) Applied load reaches 2.5 times the safe NOTES
estimated load; or lOne of the methods for keeping dial gauge on pile surface is

5
IS 2911 (Part 4) : 2013

to chip off uneven concrete on the side of the pile and to fix a 9 PULL-OUT TEST ON PILES
glass piece of 20 to 30 mm square. The dial gauges tips shall
rest on the central portion of the glass plate. 9.1 Uplift force may preferably be applied by means
2 In case the hydraulic jack is placed in between test pile and of hydraulic jack(s) with gauge using a suitable pull­
reaction pile, one dial gauge or LVDT shall be suitably placed out set up. Pile top shall preferably be at cut-off level.
on reaction pile to measure the displacement of reaction pile.
Displacement measurement shall be made at pile top
8.4 The safe lateral load on the pile for initial test, for with at least two dial gauges placed at diametric

both free head and fixed head shall be taken as the opposite ends of pile.

least of the following:

NOTE - One of the method s for pull-out tests that may be


a) Fifty percent of the final load at which the used is where hydrauJic~Jh':.k is made to rest on rolled steel
joist(s) resting on tW0till~s on the ground. The jack reacts
total displacement increases to 12 mm; against a frame all~~ the top of the test pile such that
b) Final load at which the total displacement when the jack is op~l$~d, the pile gets pulled up and t.he
corresponds to 5 mm; and reaction is transfer(~v.o the ground through the supports which
are at least 2.~1 from the test pile periphery (where D is
c) Load corresponding to any other specified pile stem ~et~r of circular piles or diameter of the
displacement as per performance or design circumscribirrg,circle in the case of square piles). The
requirements. fr~me~o~an be .attached to the pile to~ with the
remfot~\i'{ bars which may be tlu'eaded or to which threaded
8.4.1 Routine lateral load test shall be carried out for a bolts !fu!? be welded. As an alternative it is sometimes
test load equal to the working load; the maximum pf..~~e to use a central rod designed to take pile I,oad and
em~daed centrally in the pile to a length equal to the bond
deflection of test loading in position shall not exceed

~
th load required. It will have threads at top for fixing it to
Smm. . amework. For larger loads the number of rods may have
~~ to be more and depending on the set-up these may be put in a
NOTES ~ line or in any other symmetrical pattern. For routine tests, the
1 The above displacement is at the cut-off level of on-shore. ~ framework is normally attached to the reinforcing bars but a
piles and at the scour line/mud line of off-shore piles, as t~e-~ central rod may also be used in case the upper portion of the
case may be. £~ pile is required to be built up.
2 In actual practice the piles are partially fixed or ' .
Accordingly, to derive the advantage of increased It;e~ ad 9.2 The test pile shaH have adequate steel to withstand
due to partial fixitylfixity condition, it is desirable ~out pulling. In some cases, in order to allow for neck
(a) Lateral load test on group of piles with pile cap, or (b) tension in a pull-out test, it may be necessary to provide
Single pile may be tested for lateral loa~~ . . ustained additional reinforcement in the piles to be tested .
vertical load . ~"»
3 Suitable analytical method may be c~~ to interpret 9.3 The pull-out load increments and consequent
load test results carried at free head c~..s>n to fixed head
condition. . fff!!: displacement readings shall be read as in the case of
vertical load test.

~ rt;Jcg
o (;::,

."~Z)
¢

JACK

~i:0L
5~\'~AUGE
DATUM BAR / (1 No. DIAL GAUGElLVDT Where
SUPPORT / CUT-OFF LEVEL IS APPROACHABLE
2 No. DIAL GAUGES/LVDTs FOR
/
UNAPPROACHABLE CUT-OFF LEVELS)

FIG. 1 POSITION OF DATUM BAR SUPPORTS

6
IS 2911 (part 4) : 2013

9.4 The safe uplift load shall be taken as the least of working load or 12 mm total displacement for piles
the following: diameter up to and including 600 mm and 18 mm or
maximum of 2 percent of pile diameter, whichever is
a) For piles up to and including 600 mm
less for piles of diameter more than 600 mm, whichever
diameter:
is earlier.
1) Two-thirds of the load at which the total
displacement is 12 mm or the load 9.7 Pull-out test shall be carried out preferably on
corresponding to a specified permissible initial test piles. In case it is found necessary to conduct
uplift; and pull out test on working piles the following
2) Half of the load at which the load considerations shall be~de:
displacement curve shows a clear break a) To check tha~ile shaft is designed to cater
(downward trend). for such u~oad; and
b) For piles more than 600 mm diameter: b) To ~imi~e displacement within elastic
I) Two-thirds of the load at which the total defo · n of pile beyond which the test
displacement is 18 mm or maximum of shou e discontinued.
2 percent of pile diameter whichever is 10 REO~~G OF DATA AND PRESENTATION
less or the load corresponding to a (5
specified permissible uplift; and 10.1 ~ ile test data essentially contains three
2) Half of the load at which the load vari~~, namely, time, load and displacement. These
displacement curve shows a clear break ar~~ be recorded sequentially for the tests under
(downward trend). QA.~fderation and recorded in a suitable tabular form
~ng with the information about the pile.
9.5 The initial test shall be carried out up to 2.5 times the_ ~ .
~ up l II!
•; ted sale
eSuma ' ~t Ioad or un t'l
I th e Ioad d'ISPI aceme ~
~ 10.2 The data may be. SUitably presented by curves

~
drawn between the variables and safe loads shown on
curve sows
h a cIear break (downward trend).
the graphs . Load displacement curve shall be an
9.6 Routine test shall be carried out to 1.5 t f e essential part of presentation.

~~
~ .
fj~ ~~NNEXA
~ Q' (Clause 7.3)
i rt:::J ~IC LOAD TEST METHOD
A-I METHOD ~ t) if:! A-2.1.3 Draw a straight line through the origin and
dunl ~ parallel to the straight portion of curve I to divide the
Alternate loading aM. oadi~~?~~JIl be carried out at load into two parts and thereby obtain approximate
each stage as in f['\.~lJand ea~ading stage shall be values of point resistance and skin friction.
maintained as :7:2'and ea IF! loading stage shall be
'n and the subsequent A-2.l,4 From the approximate value of skin friction
e should be measured and knowing the loads on top of pile, compute the
accurate . dial ga r LVDTs as in 7.1.4. elastic compression of the pile corresponding to these
loads, by the following formula:
A-l,,~"LYSI; 'f'~SULTS FOR FRICTIONAL
~~AN~~
A-2.l Graphical Method AE

A-2.1.l The analysis shall be done as explained


in Fig. 2. !:l = elastic compression of pile, in cm;
A-2.l.2 Assuming that there is no compression in the T load on pile top, in kgf;
pile, plot a graph relating total elastic recovery and F = frictional resistance, in kgf;
load at the pile top. L = length of the pile, in cm;

7
IS 2911 (Part 4) : 2013

. LOAD ON PILE rap ·It'i TONNES


,
80 JOO

0~5

E ,- a
E
z
w
o SKIN FRICTION
~
a::
<.!)
I
co
:J
(f)

LL ~:.r----''I:-~------'IIiIP'-T-- PARALLE L
o
\ \. . II
z 2·5 .
\ ~ \
o \~"!~ \
Cf)
Cf) _~~ POINT 1.11 AND ·FINAL
w ~\ R~ST ANCE \
~
~ \~©)
3-0
::E \
i..~\- ~
o
U
3-5
If fA,y \
PARALLEL
~
¢~~ \ \

~«t9} \ \

~
~~ \\ \
\
\ \
\ \
\ \
\ \
.
\ ~\
\ \

FIG. 2 ANALYSIS OF CYCLIC LOAD TEST DATA FOR SEPARATION OF SKIN FRICTION AND POINT RESISTANCE

8
IS 2911 (Part 4) : 2013

A = cross-sectional area of the pile, in cm 2 ; and Sb elastic settlement at any point 'b' on the
E = modulus of elasticity of the pile material, in straight line;
kgf/cm2 . Sa = elastic settlement at any point 'a' on the
straight line;
(The value should normally be measured from an
exposed portion of pile stem by means of Llr change in applied load (Tb -Ta), in kgf;
compressometer during the load test itself.) Tb = applied load at the point 'b';
Ta =

... (3)

S = mP+ ... (4)


AE
where
P point bearing, in kgf; and
F = skin friction, in kgf.

ANNEXB
(Clause 7.4)
CRPTEST

LVDTs will be selected for conducting the test. With


continuous application of pressure on the pile top by
operating of the jack, a person watches the rate of
settlement of the dial gauge/LVDT against a stop watch
held in his hand and directs the pump operator to pump
faster or slower or at the same rate as needed to
maintain the prescribed rate of settlement say at every
0.25 mm settlement, he gives an indication to take
readings. Immediately, other persons record the
pressure gauge readings and other dial gauge/LVDT

9
IS 2911 (Part 4) : 2013

readings. The pump supplying the jack may be hand penetration more than 10 percent of the diameter of
or mechanically operated. For force up to 200 tonne the pile base.
hand pumping is convenient. If a mechanical pump is
B-1.3 As the test proceeds a curve between load and
used, it should, for preference, have an 'infinite
penetration should be drawn to determine when the
variable' delivery, controlled either by a bleed valve
ultimate load capacity has been reached.
or a variable speed drive.
B-l.2 The jack should be operated to cause the pile to B-2 ULTIMATE LOAD CAPACITY
penetrate at uniform rate which may be controlled by B-2.1 The curve of load versus penetration in the case
checking the time taken for small increments of of a predominantly fri n pile will represent either a
penetration and adjusting the pumping rate accordingly. peak and the subs ownward trend, or a peak
Readings oftime, penetration and load should be taken and then almost t line, as shown in Fig. 3A.
at sufficiently close intervals to give adequate control The peak load m A in Fig. 3A will represent the
of the rate of penetration. A rate of penetration of about ultimate load Ciil; y of pile.
the~ e of predominantly end-bearing pile
0.75 mm per minute is suitable for predominantly
friction piles. For pre-dominantly end-bearing piles in B-2.2 In
sand or gravel, rate of penetration of 1.5 mm/min may the e similar to that shown in Fig. 3B and
be used. The rate of penetration, if steady, may be half oad capacity may be taken as the load
or twice these values without significantly affecting corre ng to the penetration equal to 10 percent
the results. The test should be carried out for the ofth meter of the pile base.

~ff::~
100
A ~

80

!
.....
60
....
o
«
o
40
....J

10 15 20 25 30 35
3A PREDOMINANTLY FRICTION PILES

FIG. 3 LOAD versus PENETRATION CURVE IN CRP TEST - (Continued)

10
IS 2911 (Part 4) : 2013

200

~
16 a ~
~

~
/'
f 120 L ~

/ ~
... ~

~"V
/)

Cl
<t
o 80 / 0::..~
~
~

-l
t· ~ ;;:
p~

40 .1 ~~

I
I 4~
~
~ ....
~
a 12·5 25.a~ 3 7.5
~":iJ!;
5 0.0 62·5 75·0
3B PREQ~IANTLY END BEARING PILES

FIG. 3 LO~~US PENETRATION CURVE IN CRP TEST

~ s

~ rg©

~ rhO
~~ r&D

~ ~~

~ ~~

rt@~ ~

~~
#~
~~
'V ~~

11
IS 2911 (Part 4) : 2013

ANNEXC
(Foreword)
COMMITTEE COMPOSITION
Soil and Foundation Engineering Sectional Committee, CED 43

Organization Represelltative(s)
In personal capacity (188/90, Prince Anwar Shah Road, DR N. SOM (Chairman)

Kolkata 700045)

A.P. Engineering Research Laboratories, Hyderabad SHRI P. SIVAKANTHAM ~


SHRI P. JOHN V~Alternate)
AFCONS Infrastructure Limited, Mumbai SHRI V. S. KUL~
SHRI DHA~ ACHYUT BHIDE (Alternate)
AIMIL Limited, New Delhi REPRESENT~rs~
Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (India), Bangalore REPRESEN%rr~E
Association of Piling Specialists (India), Mumbai SHRI~V~.. ANPULE
~ ADHUKAR LODHAIA (Alternate)
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, New Delhi SJ:!R~' PUSHPAKARAN
~tl RI HEMANT MALHOTRA (Alternate)
Central Board of Irrigation & Power, New Delhi ~IRECTOR
Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee ~~RI A. GHOSH
~. SHRI K. S. M. KARTHIGEYAN (Alternate)
Central Designs Organization, Water Resources Department, _ ~ SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER
Government of Maharashtra, Nashik ~ EXECUTIVE ENGINEER (Alternate)

Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi ~ DIRE~~:r~Tg~~CTOR (TCD) (Alternate)

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi iF ~ SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER (DESIGN)


Y EXECUTIVE ENGINEER (DESIGN-V)
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi ~ SHRI SUDHIR MATHUR

~elhi
SHRI VASANT G. HAVANGI (Alternate)
Central Soil & Materials Research Station, DR R. CHImA (CRO)

~ SHKI MAHAVIK D,XIT (Alternate)


Consulting Engineering Services (II!~t'Ltd, N~# SHRI DIPANKAR PAUL

9
SHRI T. K. Roy CHOUDHURY (Alternate)
Delhi Development Authority, ~ SHRI SATYA PRAKASH
SHRI K. A. RAJMOHAN (Alternate)
Delhi Technological univers~~hi ~ PROF ASHOK KUMAR GUPTA
Engineer-in-Chief's Bran~S), Ne~~~ SHRI A. K. JAIN
CEIPD ADG (D&C) (Alternate)
E,gi,re~ I,cli. Limi"iQ;~ D'I~~ SHRI S. DEBNATH
SHRI V. K. PANWAR (Alternate)
ES. Engineers p~~ted, C~n@ DR A. VERGHESE CHUMMAR
Gammon Indi~rted, Mu~"')) SHRI VENKATARAMANA. N. HEGGADE
SHRI SANDEEP M. GHAN (Alternate)
GeOIOgiCa~y of In@kata SHlU T. S. PANGTEY
SHRI K. V. S. SHARMA (Alternate)

G''IY''inOO'i~oJ. N,w D,lhl SHlU ASHOK KUMAR JAIN


SHRI NEERAJ KUMAR JAIN (Alternate)
~ Engine~esearch Institute, Vadodara SHRI L. V. ASHARA
SHlU K. L. DAVE (Alternate)
Hydraulic Engineering Instruments (HEICO), New Delhi SHRI JATTINDER SINGH
SHlU H. B. SAHU (Alternate)
Indian Geotechnical Society, New Delhi SECRETARY
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore PROF T. G. SrrHARAM
PROF G. L. SIVAKUMARA BABU (Alternate)
Indian Institute of Technology Chennai, Chennai PROF S. R. GANDHI

12
IS 2911 (part 4) : 2013

Orgall;zaf;on RepreselJ/a/;ve( s)

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi DR G. V. RAMANA


DR J. T. SHAHU (Alferna/e)
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur DR SARVESH CHANDRA
DR NIHAR RANJAN PATRA (Allernafe)
Indian Institute of Technology Mumbai, Mumbai SHRI G. VENKATACHALAM
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee PROF M. N. VILADKAR
DR MAHENDRA SINGH (Alternate)
Indian Road Congress, New Delhi SECRETARY GENERAL
DIRECTOR (T) (Al~e)
Indian Society of Earthquake Technology, Uttaranchal REPRESENTATIVE ~
lTD Cementation India Ltd. Kolkata SHRI P. S. SENG~
SHRI MAN~UMAR (Alternate)
Jadhavpur University, Kolkata PROF SID-;'~~';;KHERJEE
PROF~ ~NDU BIKAS SAHU (Alternate)
Kirloskar Pneumatic Company Limited, Pune REPRES~JIVE

Larsen and Toubro Limited, Chennai DR ~~AMAKRISHNA


"-~~ JESUDOSS ASIRVATHAM (Alternate)
M.N. Dastur & Company (P) Limited, Kolkata ",~DHIJIT DASGUPTA
h SHRI SUVENDU DEY (Alternate)
MIs Cengrs Geotechnica Pvt Ltd, New Delhi ~~~RI SANJAY GUPTA
<)~ ~ SHRI RAvl SUNDARAM (A/temate)
MECON Limited, Ranchi ~~ SHRI SHANKAR RAY
Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways, New D I SHRI A. K. BANERJEE
~ SHRI SATISH KUMAR (A/ternate)
Mumbai Port Trust, Mumbai
rF' ~
IT' SHRIMATI R. S. HARDIKAR
SHRI A. J. LoKHANDE (A/ternate)
Nagadi Consultants Pvt Limited, New Delhi Y DR V. V. S. RAo
~ SHRI N. SANTOSH RAo (A/ternate)
National Institute of Disaster Management, ~Ihi REPRESENTATIVE
National Thermal Power Corporation l..,imjJ~~oida DR D, N. NARESH
~ SHRt R. R. MAIiRYA (Allf.rnall~)
Pile Foundation Constructions Co (I)_~~ KOlkata~ SHRI D. P. GUHA Nlyom
,5-:\ --:(' .-K)) SHPI S. BH(\"'I1IY. (Alfern(Jtr)
f~nf':h f1 I' ium~nd Stnndnrd[.. ~~tiQn (F.cr~ Minir.try
11.
uf Railways, Lucklluw
RITES Limited, Gurgaon
er"~
'V,~
"If.i;y."
~~
P.upnUEntlT.\TI'.'U

REPRESENTATIVE

Safe Enterprises, MUmb~ <>-ffl:Y SHRI VIKRAM SINGH RAo


SHRI SURYAVEER SINGH RAo (A/temate)
School of Planning a~~rchitectu;:;,~@jjI Delhi PROF V. THIRIVENGADAM
Simplex Infrastruct~imited, ~)i SHRI SHANKAR GUHA

Eng~g
SHRI S. RAY (A/femate)
Structural Researfi:.tre, Chennai SHRI N. GOPALA KRISHNAN
SHRJ J. RNASANKAR (A/temate)
TCE con~rJf1fEnginee~ted' Mumbai SHRI SANJEEV GUPTA

w,ltfjj p"n~
SHRI B. K. RNA GOPALAN (A/ternate)
Th ~~ure Ih~
..
.....) Pvt Limited, M
urn al b' SHRI V. C. DESHPAN DE
SHRI PUSHKAR V. DESHPANDE (A/temate)
~ity of J~~r, Jodhpur SHRI G. R. CHOWDHARY
In personal capacity (C-2IJ55, West Enclave. P;tampura, New DR K. G. BHATIA
De/hi J 10034)
BIS Directorate General SHRI A. K. SAINI, Scientist 'F' & Head (CED)
[Representing Director General (Ex-officio)]

Member Secretary
SHRIMATI MADHURIMA MADHAV
Scientist 'B' (CED), BIS

13
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This Indian Standard has been developed from Doc N~ 43 (7678).


~

Amendments~d Since Publication

Amend No. ~teofIssue Text Affected

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