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(1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the
President. If he approves the same, he shall sign it; otherwise, he shall veto it and return the same
with his objections to the House where it originated, which shall enter the objections at large in its
Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of all the Members of
such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other
House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of all the Members of
that House, it shall become a law. In all such cases, the votes of each House shall be determined by
yeas or nays, and the names of the Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. The
President shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty days
after the date of receipt thereof; otherwise, it shall become a law as if he had signed it.

(2) The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation,
revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object.

The President has three (3) options when a bill passed by Congress is presented to him:
1. to approve it, by signing it; or
2. to veto it, by returning it with his objections to the House where it originated within thirty (30)
days after the date of receipt thereof; or
3. to refuse to sign it or unwilling to disapprove it, by inaction (allowing the bill to lapse into law),
eg. Bar Flunkers Bill during the time of President Quirino.

Three (3) methods by which a bill may become a law:

1. When the President signs it;
2. When the President vetoes it but the veto is overridden by two-thirds vote of all the members of
each House; and
3. When the President does not act upon the measure within 30 days after it shall have been
presented to him.

Can the President veto a bill and return the same without his objections?
No. The Constitution requires the President to return it with his objections (“veto message”) so
that the same can be studied by the members of Congress.

Is partial veto allowed under the Constitution?

The general rule is that the President must approve entirely or disapprove in toto. The exception
applies to appropriation, revenue and tariff bills, any particular item or items of which may be
disapproved without affecting the item or items to which he does not object.

The thirty-day period during which the bill is supposed to be considered by the President is counted
from the date of its receipt by him.

Rule on presentment – “Every bill passed by Congress must be presented to the President for approval
or veto.” In the absence of presentment to the President, no bill passed by Congress can become a law.

Legislative (or Congressional) veto – a provision requiring the President or an agency official to present
the proposed regulations to Congress, which retained a right to approve or disapprove any regulation
before they take effect. Accordingly, from the moment the law becomes effective, any provision of law
that empowers Congress or any of its members to play any role in the implementation or enforcement
of the law violates the principle of separation of powers and is thus unconstitutional.

Power of oversight (or Congressional oversight) – embraces all activities undertaken by Congress to
enhance its understanding of and influence over the implementation of legislation it has enacted. It
concerns post-enactment measures undertaken by Congress:
(a) to monitor bureaucratic compliance with program objectives,
(b) to determine whether agencies are properly administered,
(c) to eliminate executive waste and dishonesty,
(d) to prevent executive usurpation of legislative authority, and
(e) to assess executive conformity with the congressional perception of public interest.

Three (3) categories of congressional oversight functions:

(a) Congressional Scrutiny
(b) Congressional Investigation
(c) Congressional Supervision