Você está na página 1de 8

EPRL

Nerves, A.C.; Savet, F.J., "Voltage and Reactive-Power Control Optimization in a Distribution
System," TENCON 2006. 2006 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no., pp.1,4, 14-17 Nov. 2006
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2006.343787
Abstract: A new method is proposed for coordinating voltage/reactive-power control in a distribution
system using a modified dynamic programming approach. The method is able to coordinate the action
of substation on-load tap changer and the switching of substation and feeder capacitor banks that
results in reduced distribution system losses, an improved voltage profile, and lesser tap changer and
capacitor switching operations. Voltage limits of 0.95 and 1.05 per unit are imposed on feeder lines
while reactive power flow through the main transformer is included in the cost by using the utility's
power factor discount/penalty formula. Using a tap-estimator that searches for only the feasible tap
settings reduces computational burden. The results of simulations show that the method is effective in
bringing down costs in system operation.

Nerves, A.C.; Julian, G.B., "Optimal feeder configuration in expansion planning using simulated
annealing," TENCON 2007 - 2007 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no., pp.1,4, Oct. 30 2007-
Nov. 2 2007
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2007.4428981
Abstract: An efficient method for optimal feeder configuration for distribution system expansion
planning is presented. The problem is formulated as a combinatorial constrained optimization problem
with a nonlinear, non-differentiable objective function. A solution methodology based on simulated
annealing is proposed to determine an optimum configuration of existing and new feeder sections that
would minimize the sum of the outage cost, the cost of feeder resistive loss, and the corresponding
investment and maintenance costs of new lines and switches. Results obtained from a test distribution
system show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

Nerves, A.C.; Roncesvalles, J.C.K., "Application of evolutionary programming to optimal siting


and sizing and optimal scheduling of distributed generation," TENCON 2009 - 2009 IEEE Region
10 Conference , vol., no., pp.1,6, 23-26 Jan. 2009
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2009.5396071
Abstract: This study proposes a method for sizing, siting, and scheduling distributed generators using
an evolutionary programming algorithm. The distribution system is modelled using a loadflow
formulation wherein the distributed generator is modelled as injected real and reactive power.
Evolutionary programming is implemented by perturbing distributed generator outputs and evaluating
the fitness values of the resulting systems. Optimal locations and sizes of distributed generators are
determined using a fitness value based on system loss reduction, while an optimal distributed generator
schedule is determined for a 24-hour period using a fitness value based on energy cost. A mathematical
model is developed to represent different customer types within the distribution system and different
types of energy sources are represented based on their availability and cost. Spot market prices are
modelled based on a typical 24-hour price curve. The method is found to be effective and flexible
based on results for a 69-bus test system.
Nerves, A.C.; Morales, R.S., "Supply cost minimization for distribution systems with multi-cost
multi-point supply through network reconfiguration," IPEC, 2010 Conference Proceedings , vol.,
no., pp.62,67, 27-29 Oct. 2010
doi: 10.1109/IPECON.2010.5697131
Abstract: This paper develops an algorithm for reconfiguring distribution systems having multiple
supply points with different nodal prices, to minimize total supply costs subject to a system loss limit.
The method starts from a fully meshed configuration followed by a series of linear economic dispatch
runs to find optimal supply mix. The supply optimization terminates when the system loss level is
reached, after which, a heuristic based switch opening procedure is performed. The system loss is
modeled as a linear combination of power injections whose coefficients vary for every economic
dispatch run and switch-opening in the system. The solution is reached when no electrical loops exist in
the distribution network. Results for an actual test system are also presented.

Nerves, A.C.; Morales, R.S., "Supply cost minimization for distribution systems with multi-cost
multi-point supply through network reconfiguration," IPEC, 2010 Conference Proceedings , vol.,
no., pp.62,67, 27-29 Oct. 2010
doi: 10.1109/IPECON.2010.5697131
Abstract: This paper develops an algorithm for reconfiguring distribution systems having multiple
supply points with different nodal prices, to minimize total supply costs subject to a system loss limit.
The method starts from a fully meshed configuration followed by a series of linear economic dispatch
runs to find optimal supply mix. The supply optimization terminates when the system loss level is
reached, after which, a heuristic based switch opening procedure is performed. The system loss is
modeled as a linear combination of power injections whose coefficients vary for every economic
dispatch run and switch-opening in the system. The solution is reached when no electrical loops exist in
the distribution network. Results for an actual test system are also presented.

Viray, Z.N.C.; Nerves, A.C., "Integrated energy and reserve electricity market analysis using
probabilistic optimal power flow," TENCON 2010 - 2010 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no.,
pp.598,603, 21-24 Nov. 2010
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2010.5686755
Abstract: In this study a probabilistic optimal power flow approach is used to analyze an energy and
reserve co-optimized electricity market using the Philippine Wholesale Electricity Spot Market
(WESM) model. The probabilistic optimal power flow problem is solved using the Point Estimate
Method which is shown to be faster and more efficient than the traditional, resource-heavy and time
consuming Monte Carlo Simulation method. Simulation of test cases using various market set-ups are
performed to evaluate the performance and accuracy of the Point Estimate Method as applied to the
probabilistic optimal power flow problem. The resulting locational marginal prices, generator energy
schedules, zonal reserve prices and generator reserve schedules are then compared with the results
obtained using the Monte Carlo Simulation method. Analyses of the results show that the Point
Estimate Method significantly reduces simulation time while maintaining accuracy.
Nerves, A.C.; Umali, L.M.D., "Risk assessment of energy trading for a generation company with
bilateral contracts," IPEC, 2010 Conference Proceedings , vol., no., pp.1123,1128, 27-29 Oct. 2010
doi: 10.1109/IPECON.2010.5696991
Abstract: A methodology is developed to quantify the financial risk for a multi-unit generation
company with bilateral contracts in a competitive electricity market, using Value-at-Risk as a risk
measure. A Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to calculate the Value-at-Risk by modeling
different pricing scenarios, bids and schedules of generation. An artificial neural network is used to
forecast hourly market prices which determine generating unit schedules through a price-based unit
commitment method using a genetic algorithm approach. An economic dispatch then determines local
generation and purchase schedules using a linear programming solution. The profit and loss distribution
that is obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations becomes the basis for Value-at-Risk calculations.
Bidding strategies are formulated from a sensitivity analysis of the Value-at-Risk for various market
conditions.

Francisco, V.J.E.; Nerves, A.C., "Strategic bidding and scheduling in reserve co-optimized based
Electricity Spot Markets," TENCON 2010 - 2010 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no.,
pp.592,597, 21-24 Nov. 2010
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2010.5686751
Abstract: In electricity spot markets, revenue of independent power producers (IPPs) is dependent on
successful bidding strategies. This research establishes a model for strategic bidding and short-term
generation scheduling in reserve co-optimized markets like the Philippine Wholesale Electricity Spot
Market. The model, which is applicable to independent power producers, is based on the combination
of security constrained economic dispatch and a probabilistic bidding model. The security constrained
economic dispatch models fundamental price drivers in the market, and takes into account transmission
network parameters, marginal loss factors and reserve co-optimization to solve schedules and nodal
prices for energy and reserve. The bidding model then determines optimum bid prices for each trading
interval, by maximizing the probability of a bid being cleared while at the same time capitalizing on
positive returns from the market. A simulation tool is developed to implement the strategic bidding
model where strategies are derived for various scenarios. The test system includes an independent
power producer with corresponding energy and reserve offers for electricity market trading. Several
bidding strategies, derived from the model are then presented and discussed.

Abundo, M.L.S.; Nerves, A.C.; Ang, M.R.C.O.; Paringit, E.C.; Bernardo, L.P.C.; Villanoy, C.L.,
"Energy potential metric for rapid macro-level resource assessment of tidal in-stream energy in
the Philippines," Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), 2011 10th International
Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,4, 8-11 May 2011
doi: 10.1109/EEEIC.2011.5874712
Abstract: This paper presents preliminary efforts in developing a rapid evaluation tool for tidal in-
stream energy (TISE) in the Philippines. We study the possibility of using an energy density metric
based on the sea surface elevation (SSE) or tide height difference at the boundaries of a site of interest
as a gauge for the TISE potential of that site. Results show good correlation with high potential sites
and the proposed metric. Verde Island Passage was assessed, through a combination of DELFT3D
simulation and Matlab-based power computations, to have four potential TISE sites with a total energy
density of 271.90 kW-h /m2 in a month.
Nerves, A.C.; Cleto, S.C., "Marginal Loss Surplus redistribution through Aumann-Shapley Joint
transmission loss cost allocation in electricity markets," TENCON 2011 - 2011 IEEE Region 10
Conference , vol., no., pp.949,953, 21-24 Nov. 2011
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2011.6129250
Abstract: Marginal Loss Surplus (MLS) in a Locational Marginal Price (LMP)-designed electricity
market is a consequence of allocating the non-linear losses to market participants based on their
marginal loss contribution. Though small in value relative to congestion surplus, MLS merits detailed
analysis since it is substantial enough to cause dispute among market stakeholders. Game Theory's
Aumann-Shapley Joint Cost Allocation method (AS) is utilized in this study to separate the
transmission loss and redistribute the MLS among market participants. This method employs loss
sensitivities calculated from the Distributed Slack Bus with Angle Reference Transposed load flow
formulation (DSBARTF) to eliminate the arbitrariness of the solution to the choice of the slack bus and
to reflect actual system operation.

Flores, B.F.; Salonga, J.H.M.; Nerves, A.C., "Multi-objective Transmission Expansion Planning
Using an Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm with Fuzzy Decision Analysis,"
Modelling Symposium (AMS), 2011 Fifth Asia , vol., no., pp.168,173, 24-26 May 2011
doi: 10.1109/AMS.2011.39
Abstract: The main objective of transmission expansion planning in deregulated power systems is to
provide a non-discriminatory competitive environment for all stakeholders, while maintaining power
system reliability. In this paper, a static transmission expansion methodology is proposed using a multi-
objective optimization framework that is able to handle different incommensurable objectives with
conflicting or supporting relations. Investment cost, reliability, and congestion cost are considered in
the optimization as three objectives. An elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is used
followed by a fuzzy decision making analysis to obtain the final optimal solution. The crowding
distance method is used to determine shared fitness values in the genetic algorithm. The proposed
transmission planning method allows more flexibility by producing a set of Pareto-optimal solutions
instead of the one optimal solution of the single-objective formulation. The proposed method is tested
on the Luzon grid and the results are found to be superior to results obtained for the single-objective
formulation and to historical plans by the grid operator.
Pacaba, D.D.P.; Nerves, A.C., "Multiagent-based market simulator for the wholesale electricity
spot market," TENCON 2012 - 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no., pp.1,6, 19-22 Nov.
2012
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2012.6412310
Abstract: As electricity markets develop into more complex structures, new modeling and simulation
techniques are required to simulate the market and to identify strategic behavior that can profitably
influence electricity prices. This study proposes an agent-based model to characterize and investigate
the complex interaction between the physical network infrastructure of the power system and the
economic behavior of the electricity market. Market clearing prices are determined by a single-sided
auction where the profit-seeking behavior of a generation company is modeled using an autonomous
adaptive agent capable of endogenously developing its own bidding strategies through a Roth-Erev
reinforcement learning algorithm that determine their price and quantity offers in the hourly auction.
The agent-based model in this study implements the generator-reported cost function as a piecewise
linear function in order to more accurately represent bidding behavior and strategies. Market clearing
can then be formulated as a DC optimal power flow problem that is solved using linear programming.
An agent-based model developed for the Wholesale Electricity Spot Market (WESM) in the Philippines
is able to show the effects on locational marginal prices and network congestion and losses, of the
profit-seeking and strategizing behavior of the generation companies.

Zano, R.O.; Nerves, A.C., "An Aumann-Shapley approach to allocation of bilateral transmission
loss cost in a gross-pool energy market using independent marginal losses and transaction loss
factors," TENCON 2012 - 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no., pp.1,5, 19-22 Nov. 2012
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2012.6412286
Abstract: In a mixed pool/bilateral, Locational Marginal Price based energy market, each participant,
i.e., either the Generating Company or the Distribution Utility must pay its share of the losses in the
transmission network. For multiple Generator-Load pairs bounded by a physical bilateral contract,
these losses must be accounted for accordingly. A transaction-based loss allocation technique which
uses a Transaction Loss Factor (TLF) coupled with the Independent Marginal Loss (IML) formulation
and Aumann-Shapley methodology is used in this study to determine the bilateral loss cost allocation.
The TLF accurately and fairly allocates loss for each bilateral transaction, the IML solves the reference
bus dependency of the marginal loss sensitivity while the Aumann-Shapley method from game theory
tackles the multiple-entrant, joint cost allocation problem.
Ranola, J.A.P.; Nerves, A.C.; del Mundo, R.D., "An optimal Renewable Portfolio Standard using
Genetic Algorithm - Benders' decomposition method in a Least Cost Approach,"TENCON 2012 -
2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no., pp.1,6, 19-22 Nov. 2012
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2012.6412275
Abstract: This paper presents the Least Cost Renewable Energy Portfolio Analysis (LCREPA)
approach that utilizes the Genetic Algorithm - Benders' decomposition (GA-BD) method, which could
achieve an order of magnitude of improvement in terms of run times at larger instances, in determining
the optimal Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) percentage. The detailed demonstration of the
LCREPA approach is implemented through a case study that analyzes RPS scenarios - status quo, base
case and sensitivity cases - in the Philippine Luzon grid. The timing of candidate generating units in the
base case and sensitivity case models is calculated using the GA-BD computer program developed to
evaluate the most economical power generation expansion planning for additional generating units
subject to the integrated requirements of power demands, power capacities, energy availability and
reliability. In sensitivity case models, the base case inputs - RPS cap, peak demand, capacity factor, fuel
cost and investment cost - are adjusted. The outputs of the scenarios - total RPS percentage, levelized
cost of electricity, total CO2 emission reduction, capacity and energy mix - are examined and compared
with the Philippines' Planned RPS.

Calibjo, C.C.; Nerves, A.C., "Reference Grid Performance Assessment Model for transmission
company regulation," IPEC, 2012 Conference on Power & Energy , vol., no., pp.621,626, 12-14
Dec. 2012
doi: 10.1109/ASSCC.2012.6523340
Abstract: Applying a novel non-dominated sorting differential evolutionary algorithm (NSDEA)
procedure to a DC power flow based multi-objective transmission expansion planning (MOTEP)
model, this paper aims to develop a Reference Grid Performance Assessment Model that can be used as
a benchmark when evaluating investment proposals for the transmission upgrade. Investment cost, line
rental cost and amount of load curtailment are considered in the optimization as the three objective
prerequisites. In addition, the static MOTEP problem has been investigated in both green field and
expansion planning problem with and without generation rescheduling considerations. The proposed
model was applied to a realistic 46-bus South Brazilian system. Simulation results show the accuracy,
outstanding convergence performance in finding the optimal solution, simple implementation as well as
satisfactory computation time of the proposed solution technique.
Nerves, A.C.; Bunyi, J.E.A., "A no-arbitrage approach to pricing of Flexible Electricity Contracts
considering transmission line rentals," TENCON 2012 - 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol.,
no., pp.1,6, 19-22 Nov. 2012
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2012.6412290
Abstract: This study considers the impact of transmission line rentals on the pricing of Flexible
Electricity Contracts, which allow flexible scheduling of electric energy, using a no-arbitrage approach.
A Flexible Electricity Contract requires the buyer or seller to schedule the amount of energy to be
supplied for each time interval. Given stochastic models for spot and line rental prices, this approach
determines the optimal price of the Flexible Electricity Contract by determining the opportunities that
can be advantageous to the buyer or seller, and setting the price of the contract such that there is no
arbitrage. The stochastic spot prices are modeled using autoregressive models. On the other hand,
stochastic line rental prices are modeled using simple linear regression, with the spot prices as the
predictor variable. Based on the said stochastic models for the spot prices and line rental prices, the
optimal contract price is determined using Monte Carlo simulation. Simulations are conducted using
spot and line rental price information from the Philippine Wholesale Electricity Spot Market. Analysis
performed in this study shows that considering transmission line rentals has a significant impact on the
pricing of Flexible Electricity Contracts. Furthermore, this study also considers the impact of daily and
hourly scheduling provisions on the contract prices.

Ahmadi, A.; Pedrasa, M.A.A., "Optimal design of hybrid renewable energy system for
electrification of isolated grids," TENCON 2012 - 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no.,
pp.1,6, 19-22 Nov. 2012
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2012.6412230
Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm for optimal design of hybrid renewable energy system
consisting of wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, micro-hydro and biomass units. In this approach,
unit cost of energy ($/kWh) is used to compare different renewable projects. For each renewable
generating unit, energy cost is computed using the unit's levelized cost and annual energy production.
An objective function with aim to minimize the average cost of electricity by reducing the energy
purchased from existing diesel generators is designed. The developed algorithm selects the least cost
combination of generators from a list of commercially available renewable units taking into account
hourly demand, hourly renewable resources input and market availability of each renewable unit. To
examine the proposed methodology, a computer program is developed and the simulation results are
presented.
Ramos, J.N.; Bugnosen, M.; Reyes, E.; Pedrasa, M.A., "Implementation and comparison of
modified binary particle swarm optimization approaches to an interruptible load dispatch
problem," TENCON 2012 - 2012 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no., pp.1,6, 19-22 Nov. 2012
doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2012.6412272
Abstract: The nature of interruptible load programs- immediate, variable, and complex- set it apart
from most dispatch type optimization problems. Not only does one have to minimize the total cost of
interruption, but also has to generate a dispatch that follows time-based operational limits, and
sometimes minimize the frequency of interruptions made. Previous studies have shown the promise of
binary particle swarm optimization in obtaining a dispatch that operates within constraints. However,
although much improvement has been demonstrated and tested on the binary particle swarm
optimization method itself, some are not yet tested in solving an interruptible load dispatch problem.
The study explored recent published improvements to the binary particle swarm optimization algorithm
to see if making changes to the way particles update and communicate will help the swarm find more
optimal solutions. The study found that using the canonical binary particle swarm still provides the
most optimal results of those evaluated. The study also determined that the essential version of BPSO
also holds great potential in obtaining optimum solutions while ensuring that particles update according
to their trajectory.

Michael Abundo, Allan Nerves, Enrico Paringit, Cesar Villanoy, A Combined Multi-Site and
Multi-Device Decision Support System for Tidal In-Stream Energy, Energy Procedia, Volume 14,
2012, Pages 812-817, ISSN 1876-6102.
Abstract: This paper combines site and device suitability approaches into one framework to assist
stakeholders in identifying locations fit for Tidal In-Stream Energy (TISE) extraction as well as
nominating devices that are matched to the conditions of those locations. A Matlab-based decision
support system is developed using the framework. Site-Device matching is performed considering
resource data, device power generation, energy production, and cost. A case study, involving four sites
in the Philippines, is presented. Hydrodynamic simulations using DELFT3D are done. The suitability
of modeled TISE conversion devices is investigated over several locations in the case study. Device
nominations are made for respective locations using highest energy production as dominating criterion.