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PORTUGU

ÊS
BR_ASIL
Adam
know s
that
targetc
om pany
is
based
in NJ.
How
ever,
he
decides
to
check
it out.
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Ethical Hacking

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Introduction

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EC-Council

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Introductions

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\u00a4<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.03em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.08em;


letter-spacing: 0.08em;">Name</span><br>

\u00a4<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Company Affiliation</span><br>

\u00a4<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: 0.04em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Title / Function</span><br>
\u00a4<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: 0.04em; color: #000000;
margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Job Responsibility</span><br>

\u00a4<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">System security related experience</span><br>

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\u00a4<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.03em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Expectations</span>

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EC-Council

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Course Materials

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\u00a4

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Identity Card

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\u00a4

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Student Courseware

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Lab Manual/<span class="ib" style="width: 0.16em;"> </span>Workbook

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Compact Disc

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\u00a4

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Course Evaluation

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\u00a4

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Reference Materials

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EC-Council

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Course Outline

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¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Module I: Introduction to Ethical
Hacking</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Module II: Footprinting</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Module III: Scanning</span><br>
¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.16em; color: #000000; margin-right:
-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Module IV: Enumeration</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Module V: System Hacking</span><br>

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EC-Council

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Course Outline (contd.)

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¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Module VI: Trojans and Backdoors</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Module VII: Sniffers</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Module VIII: Denial of Service</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Module IX: Social Engineering</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.02em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Module X: Session Hijacking</span><br>

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Course Outline (contd.)

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#FC0128; letter-spacing: 1.59em; top: 15.02em;">

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Module XI: Hacking Web Servers</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Module XII: Web Application Vulnerabilities</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Module XIII: Web Based Password Cracking</span><br>

</p>

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0.05em;">

Techniques

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letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: 0.01em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Module XIV: SQL Injection</span>

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letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Module XV: Hacking Wireless Networks</span>

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</div>

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<img class="absimg" style="left: 4em; clip: rect(0.07em, 48.32em, 6.63em, 0.07em); display:
block; height: 6.69em; top: 1.75em; width: 48.38em;"
src="https://html2-f.scribdassets.com/f5zoh70np2ws1kw/images/7-4a465b63dd/000.jpg">

</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 18;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff19" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.10em;">

EC-Council

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 3.76em; font-size: 21.74em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 2.04em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Course Outline (contd.)

</div>

<p class="pl ff80" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; line-height: 5.65em; color:
#FC0128; letter-spacing: 1.59em; top: 14.92em;">

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.16em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Module XVI: Viruses</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Module XVII: Physical Security</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.13em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Module XVIII: Linux Hacking</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Module XIX: Evading IDS, Firewalls and Honey pots</span><br>
¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: 0.02em; color: #000000; margin-right:
-0.02em; letter-spacing: 0.02em;">Module XX: Buffer Overflows</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.16em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Module XXI: Cryptography</span><br>

¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Module XXII: Penetration Testing</span><br>

</p>

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div></div>

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EC-Council

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<div class="ff19" style="left: 4.44em; font-size: 18.41em; color: #FFFFFF; top: 1.66em;
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EC-Council<span class="ff98" style="left: 0.33em; font-size: 1.18em; word-spacing:


-0.15em; margin-right: 0.23em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;"> Certified e- business</span>

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#FFFFFF; top: 2.65em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Certification Program

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11.13em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

There are several levels of certification tracks under<span class="ff19" style="left: 0.35em;
font-size: 0.85em; word-spacing: -0.32em; margin-right: 0.47em; letter-spacing: -0.11em;">EC-Counc
i<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l</span> Accreditation

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0.05em;">

body:

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letter-spacing: -0.08em;">

1.

</div>

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17.56em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Certified e-Business Associate

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<div class="ff98" style="left: 12.60em; font-size: 8.41em; color: #660033; top: 19.89em;
letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

2.

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 15.46em; font-size: 8.41em; word-spacing: -0.03em; top:


19.89em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Certified e-Business Professional

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letter-spacing: 0.06em;">
3.

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22.22em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Certified e-Business Consultant

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 12.60em; font-size: 8.41em; color: #660033; top: 24.57em;
letter-spacing: 0.08em;">

4.

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 15.46em; font-size: 8.41em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


24.57em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

E++ Certified Technical Consultant

</div>

<div class="ff52" style="left: 13.14em; font-size: 8.06em; color: #660033; top: 28.05em;
letter-spacing: 0.12em;">

5.

</div>

<div class="ff52" style="left: 16.13em; font-size: 8.06em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color:


#FC0128; top: 28.05em; letter-spacing: 0.14em;">

Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH)

</div>

<div class="ff22" style="left: 46.25em; font-size: 6.98em; color: #FC0128; top: 32.34em;
letter-spacing: 0.86em;">

ß<span class="ff88" style="font-size: 0.93em; word-spacing: -0.21em; margin-right:


-0.21em; letter-spacing: 0.21em;">You are here</span>

</div>

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letter-spacing: 0.08em;">

6.

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 15.46em; font-size: 8.41em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


29.24em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

Computer Hacking Forensic Investigator (CHFI)

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 12.60em; font-size: 8.41em; color: #660033; top: 31.59em;">
7.

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 15.46em; font-size: 8.41em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


31.59em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

EC-Council Certified Security Analyst (ECSA)

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 12.60em; font-size: 8.41em; color: #660033; top: 33.92em;
letter-spacing: 0.11em;">

8.

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 15.46em; font-size: 8.41em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


33.92em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

EC-Council Certified Secure Programmer (ECSA)

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 12.60em; font-size: 8.41em; color: #660033; top: 36.27em;
letter-spacing: 0.08em;">

9.

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 15.46em; font-size: 8.41em; word-spacing: -0.01em; top:


36.27em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

Certified Secure Application Developer (CSAD)

</div>

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#660033; top: 38.60em; letter-spacing: -0.08em;">

10 .<span style="left: 1.50em; word-spacing: -0.03em; color: #000000; margin-right:


1.45em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Licensed Penetration Tester (LPT)</span>

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 12.60em; font-size: 8.41em; color: #660033; top: 40.93em;
letter-spacing: -0.08em;">

11.

</div>

<div class="ff98" style="left: 15.46em; font-size: 8.41em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


40.93em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Master of Security Science (MSS)

</div>

</div>
</div>

</div>

</div></div>

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EC-Council

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EC-Council<span class="ff98" style="left: 0.33em; font-size: 1.18em; word-spacing:


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</div>

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Student Facilities

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Building Hours

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Phones

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Parking

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Messages

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Restrooms

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Smoking

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Recycling

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Meals

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Class Hours

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</div>

</div>

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EC-Council

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¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;


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to reinforce the classroom

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sessions

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¤<span class="ff98" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">The sessions are intended</span>

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line-height: 1.20em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 16.48em;">

to give a hands on<br>

experience only and does<br>

not guarantee proficiency.<br>

</p>

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Lab Sessions

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Ethical Hacking

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Module I

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Introduction to Ethical

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0.05em;">

Hacking
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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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Module Objectives

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.16em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.07em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">Understanding the</span>

</div>
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importance of security

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<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 20.71em;
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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.17em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Introducing Ethical</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


10.68em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

Hacking and essential

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11.81em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

terminology for the module

</div>

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letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">J<span class="ib" style="width: 0.09em;"> </span>ob
role of an ethical</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


14.54em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

hacker: why hacking as a

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 15.69em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

profession?

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 37.50em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Ethical hacking vis-à-vis</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.03em; top:


18.42em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">
Penetration Testing

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 43.43em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.16em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.07em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">Understanding the</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.01em; top:


21.15em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

different phases involved in

</div>

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22.28em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

a hacking exploit

</div>

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letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.17em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Introducing hacking</span>

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0.04em;">

technologies

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


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10.68em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

identification of exploit

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0.04em;">

categories

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letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.20em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Comprehending ethical</span>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.67em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 14.54em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

hacking

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.02em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Legal implications of</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.67em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 17.27em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

hacking

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 42.71em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 40.95em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Hacking, law and</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.67em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 20.00em; letter-spacing:


0.07em;">

punishment

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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Module Flow

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The Need for Security

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Computer<span style="left: 0.24em; font-size: 1.12em; margin-right: 0.21em;


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style="width: 0.06em;"> </span>e<span class="ib" style="width: -0.01em;"> </span>s</span>

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and Implications
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Hacker<span style="left: 0.25em; font-size: 1.12em; margin-right: 0.23em; letter-spacing:


0.02em;">Cla<span class="ib" style="width: 0.04em;"> </span>s<span class="ib" style="width:
0.01em;"> </span>s<span class="ib" style="width: 0.01em;"> </span>e<span class="ib" style="width:
0.01em;"> </span>s</span>

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Modes<span style="left: 0.26em; font-size: 0.89em; word-spacing: -0.11em; margin-right:


0.21em;">of Ethical Hacking</span>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 30.48em; font-size: 10.17em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


24.85em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

Skill<span style="left: 0.20em; font-size: 1.12em; margin-right: 0.20em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">P<span class="ib" style="width: 0.03em;"> </span>r<span class="ib" style="width:
0.06em;"> </span>o<span class="ib" style="width: 0.01em;"> </span>file</span> of a Hacker

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The Hacking Steps

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Hacking<span style="left: 0.20em; font-size: 0.89em; margin-right: 0.16em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">Terminology</span>

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Ethical Hacking

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Problem Definition – Why Security?

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.18em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Evolution of technology focused on ease of
use.</span>

</div>

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letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.18em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Increasing complexity of computer</span>

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.63em; font-size: 17.77em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:
9.63em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

infrastructure administration and management.

</div>

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letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.18em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Decreasing skill level needed for exploits.</span>

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 29.57em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.18em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Direct impact of security breach on
corporate</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.63em; font-size: 17.77em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


15.08em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

asset base and goodwill.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 37.19em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.18em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Increased networked environment and
network</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.63em; font-size: 17.77em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


18.57em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

based applications.

</div>

</div>

</div>

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The Security, Functionality and Ease

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of Use Triangle

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letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">The number of exploits gets</span>

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:
8.40em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

minimized when the number of

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


9.98em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

weaknesses are reduced.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 25.12em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">The functionality of the system gets</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 13.16em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

minimized.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 32.01em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Moving towards security means</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


16.33em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

moving away from functionality

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


17.92em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

and ease of use.

</div>

<div class="ff5" style="left: 24.55em; font-size: 10.86em; top: 27.76em; letter-spacing:


0.10em;">

FUNCTIONALITY

</div>

<div class="ff5" style="left: 39.35em; font-size: 10.86em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


27.76em; letter-spacing: 0.11em;">

EASE OF USE
</div>

<div class="ff5" style="left: 33.80em; font-size: 10.86em; top: 10.37em; letter-spacing:


0.11em;">

SECURITY

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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Can Hacking be Ethical?

</div>

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">The noun ‘hacker’<span class="ib" style="width:
0.09em;"> </span>refers to a person who enjoys learning</span>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.52em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


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the details of computer systems and stretch their

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capabilities.

</div>

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letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">The verb ‘hacking’<span class="ib" style="width:
0.09em;"> </span>describes the rapid development of</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.52em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


13.04em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

new programs or the reverse engineering of already


</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.52em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


14.44em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

existing software to make the code better, and efficient.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 9.40em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 35.34em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">The term ‘cracker’<span class="ib" style="width:
0.09em;"> </span>refers to a person who uses his hacking</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.52em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


17.68em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

skills for offensive purposes.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 9.40em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 42.37em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">The term ‘ethical hacker’<span class="ib"
style="width: 0.09em;"> </span>refers to security professionals</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.52em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


20.90em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

who apply their hacking skills for defensive purposes.

</div>

</div>

</div>

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Essential Terminology

</div>

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letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.03em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Threat – An action or event that might
prejudice</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


7.73em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

security. A threat is a<span class="ff65" style="left: 0.29em; font-size: 0.94em;


margin-right: 0.19em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">p<span class="ib" style="width: 0.02em;">
</span>o<span class="ib" style="width: -0.02em;"> </span>t<span class="ib" style="width: 0.01em;">
</span>en<span class="ib" style="width: 0.03em;"> </span>t<span class="ib" style="width:
0.01em;"> </span>ia<span class="ib" style="width: 0.01em;"> </span>l</span> violation of security.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 19.95em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Vulnerability –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.36em;"> </span>Existence of a weakness, design, or</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


10.21em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

implementation error that can lead to an unexpected,

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


11.21em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

undesirable event compromising the security of the

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 12.23em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

system.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 29.72em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Target of Evaluation –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.34em;"> </span>An IT system, product, or</span>
</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


14.70em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

component that is identified/<span class="ib" style="width: 0.15em;"> </span>subjected


as requiring

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.13em; top:


15.72em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

security evaluation.

</div>

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letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Attack – An assault on system security that
derives</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


18.20em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

from an intelligent threat. An attack is any<span class="ff65" style="left: 0.21em;


font-size: 0.94em; margin-right: 0.19em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">a<span class="ib" style="width:
0.03em;"> </span>ct<span class="ib" style="width: 0.03em;"> </span>io<span class="ib" style="width:
0.00em;"> </span>n</span> that

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


19.21em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

attempts to or violates security.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.88em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Exploit –<span class="ib" style="width: 0.35em;">
</span>A defined way to breach the security of an IT</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


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system through vulnerability.

</div>

</div>

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</div>

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Elements of Security

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Security is the state of well-being of information
and</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


7.73em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

infrastructures in which the possibility of successful yet

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


8.75em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

undetected theft, tampering, and disruption of

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.03em; top:


9.75em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

information and services is kept low or tolerable.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 24.34em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Any hacking event will affect any one or more of
the</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


12.23em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

essential security elements.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 29.72em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">
¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;
margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Security rests on confidentiality, authenticity,
integrity,</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


14.70em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

and availability

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 19.36em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Confidentiality is the concealment of information or resources.</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 20.83em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Authenticity is the identification and assurance of the origin of</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; top: 21.86em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">

information.

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 23.33em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Integrity refers to the trustworthiness of data or resources in</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


24.35em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

terms of preventing improper and unauthorized changes.

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 25.82em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Availability refers to the ability to use the information or</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


26.84em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">
resource desired.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 104;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">


<div class="ff75" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">

EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 3.59em; font-size: 22.78em; word-spacing: -0.03em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 1.91em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

What Does a Malicious Hacker Do?

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 9.97em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 14.58em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Reconnaissance</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.45em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 9.74em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.16em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.03em;


letter-spacing: 0.03em;">Active/ passive</span>

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 9.97em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 20.39em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Scanning</span>

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 9.97em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 23.56em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Gaining access</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.45em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 14.72em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.03em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.04em;


letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Operating system level/</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.64em; font-size: 12.60em; top: 15.74em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">

application level

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.45em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 17.22em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.04em;


letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Network level</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.45em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 18.69em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.04em;


letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Denial of service</span>

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 9.97em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 36.52em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Maintaining access</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.45em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 21.91em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.16em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Uploading/ altering/</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.64em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.13em; top:


22.93em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

downloading programs or

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.64em; font-size: 12.60em; top: 23.95em; letter-spacing:


0.07em;">

data

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 9.97em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 46.00em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Covering tracks</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 37.74em; font-size: 11.39em; top: 12.45em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">

Clearing

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 38.26em; font-size: 11.39em; top: 13.72em; letter-spacing:
0.04em;">

Tracks

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 39.82em; font-size: 11.39em; top: 21.67em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">

Maintaining

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 41.28em; font-size: 11.39em; top: 22.94em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

Access

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 33.00em; font-size: 11.39em; top: 27.37em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

Gaining

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 33.44em; font-size: 11.39em; top: 28.65em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

Access

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 24.97em; font-size: 11.39em; top: 22.32em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

Scanning

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 26.40em; font-size: 11.39em; top: 13.09em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

Reconnaissance

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 3.59em; font-size: 22.78em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 1.91em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Phase 1 - Reconnaissance

</div>

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Reconnaissance refers to the preparatory phase
where</span>

</div>

<p class="pl ff18" style="left: 6.58em; word-spacing: -0.08em; font-size: 15.19em;


line-height: 1.52em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 8.38em;">

an attacker seeks to gather as much information as<br>

possible about a target of evaluation prior to launching<br>

an attack. It involves network scanning either external<br>


or internal without authorization.<br>

</p>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 32.93em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Business Risk –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.35em;"> </span>‘Notable’<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>–<span class="ib"
style="width: 0.35em;"> </span>Generally noted as a</span>

</div>

<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 6.58em; word-spacing: -0.18em; font-size: 15.19em;


line-height: 1.52em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 16.43em; width: 25.70em;">

<span class="nw">"rattling the door knobs" to see if someone is watching</span>

<span class="nw">and responding. Could be a future point of return when</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.07em;">noted for ease of entry for an attack when more
is</span>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


21.25em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

known on a broad scale about the target.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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</div>

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Phase 1 - Reconnaissance (contd.)

</div>

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.18em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Passive reconnaissance involves monitoring</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.63em; font-size: 17.77em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


7.21em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

network data for patterns and clues.

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.97em; font-size: 15.19em; color: #660033; top: 10.32em;
letter-spacing: 0.62em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Examples include sniffing, information gathering</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.97em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 11.59em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">

etc.

</div>
<div class="ff78" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 25.02em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.18em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Active reconnaissance involves probing the</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.63em; font-size: 17.77em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


12.74em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

network to detect:

</div>

<p class="pl ff18" style="left: 6.97em; font-size: 15.19em; line-height: 1.71em; color:
#660033; letter-spacing: 0.62em; top: 16.43em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.04em;


letter-spacing: 0.04em;">accessible hosts</span><br>

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">open ports</span><br>

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">location of routers</span><br>

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">details of operating systems and services</span><br>

</p>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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</div>
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<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 110;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 3.59em; font-size: 22.78em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 1.91em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

Phase 2 - Scanning

</div>

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letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Scanning refers to the pre-attack phase when the
hacker</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


9.11em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

scans the network with specific information gathered

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.13em; top:


10.87em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

during reconnaissance.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 28.43em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Business Risk –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.36em;"> </span>‘High’<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>–<span class="ib"
style="width: 0.36em;"> </span>Hackers have to get a single</span>

</div>
<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 6.58em; word-spacing: -0.18em; font-size: 15.19em;
line-height: 1.77em; letter-spacing: 0.04em; top: 14.49em; width: 24.53em;">

<span class="nw">point of entry to launch an attack and that could be a</span>

<span class="nw">point of exploit when a vulnerability of the system is</span>

<span class="nw" style="letter-spacing: 0.05em;">detected.</span>

</p>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.81em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Scanning can include use of dialers, port
scanners,</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


22.42em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

network mapping, sweeping, vulnerability scanners, etc.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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<div class="page" id="page24" style="height: 39.81em; width: 56.38em; display: none; transform:
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<div class="layer" style="z-index: 111;">

<div class="inner_layer">

<img class="absimg" style="left: 4em; clip: rect(0.07em, 48.32em, 6.63em, 0.07em); display:
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</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 112;">


<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff75" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">

EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 3.59em; font-size: 22.78em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 1.91em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Phase 3 - Gaining Access

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 15.01em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Gaining Access refers to the true attack phase.
The</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


8.18em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

hacker exploits the system.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 21.49em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.03em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">The exploit can occur over a LAN, locally,
Internet,</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


11.16em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

offline, as a deception or theft. Examples include stack-

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


12.43em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

based buffer overflows, denial of service, session

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:
13.70em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

hijacking, password filtering, etc.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 33.46em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Influencing factors include architecture and</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


16.68em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

configuration of target system, skill level of the

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


17.95em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

perpetrator and initial level of access obtained.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 42.70em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Business Risk –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.36em;"> </span>‘Highest’<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>- The hacker can gain
access</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


20.93em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

at the operating system, application or network level.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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<div class="layer" style="z-index: 113;">

<div class="inner_layer">

<img class="absimg" style="left: 4em; clip: rect(0.07em, 48.32em, 6.63em, 0.07em); display:
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</div>

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<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 114;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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#FFFFFF; top: 1.91em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Phase 4 - Maintaining Access

</div>

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Maintaining Access refers to the phase when the
hacker</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.12em; top:


8.64em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

tries to retain his ‘ownership’<span class="ib" style="width: 0.09em;"> </span>of the


system.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 23.03em;
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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;
margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">The hacker has exploited a vulnerability and can
tamper</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


12.12em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

with, and compromise, the system.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 30.59em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Sometimes, hackers harden the system from
other</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


15.61em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

hackers as well (to own the system) by securing their

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


17.14em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

exclusive access with Backdoors, RootKits, Trojans and

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


18.65em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Trojan horse Backdoors.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.76em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Hackers can upload, download or manipulate
data/</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


22.14em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

applications/<span class="ib" style="width: 0.15em;"> </span>configurations on the


‘owned’system.

</div>

</div>
</div>

</div>

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<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 116;">

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 3.59em; font-size: 22.78em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color:


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Phase 5 - Covering Tracks

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Covering Tracks refers to the activities undertaken
by</span>

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:
8.42em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

the hacker to extend his misuse of the system without

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.12em; top:


9.80em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

being detected.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 25.28em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Reasons include need for prolonged stay, continued
use</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


13.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

of resources, removing evidence of hacking, avoiding

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


14.44em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

legal action, etc.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 35.34em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Examples include Steganography, tunneling,
altering</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


17.68em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

log files, etc.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 42.37em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Hackers can remain undetected for long periods or
use</span>

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:
20.90em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

this phase to start a fresh reconnaissance to a related

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


22.30em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

target system.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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class="absimg" style="left: 12.63em; clip: rect(15.75em, 37.32em, 18.63em, 18.75em); display: block;
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class="absimg" style="left: 8em; clip: rect(18.75em, 18.63em, 21.63em, 0.07em); display: block;
height: 27.69em; top: 5.57em; width: 48.38em;"
src="https://html1-f.scribdassets.com/f5zoh70np2ws1kw/images/27-9a01c7c04b/000.jpg"><img
class="absimg" style="left: 12.63em; clip: rect(18.75em, 37.32em, 21.63em, 18.75em); display: block;
height: 27.69em; top: 6.38em; width: 48.38em;"
src="https://html1-f.scribdassets.com/f5zoh70np2ws1kw/images/27-9a01c7c04b/000.jpg"><img
class="absimg" style="left: 8em; clip: rect(21.75em, 18.63em, 24.63em, 0.07em); display: block;
height: 27.69em; top: 6.19em; width: 48.38em;"
src="https://html1-f.scribdassets.com/f5zoh70np2ws1kw/images/27-9a01c7c04b/000.jpg"><img
class="absimg" style="left: 12.63em; clip: rect(21.75em, 37.32em, 24.63em, 18.75em); display: block;
height: 27.69em; top: 6.57em; width: 48.38em;"
src="https://html1-f.scribdassets.com/f5zoh70np2ws1kw/images/27-9a01c7c04b/000.jpg"><img
class="absimg" style="left: 8em; clip: rect(24.75em, 18.63em, 27.63em, 0.07em); display: block;
height: 27.69em; top: 6.75em; width: 48.38em;"
src="https://html1-f.scribdassets.com/f5zoh70np2ws1kw/images/27-9a01c7c04b/000.jpg">

</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 144;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff75" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">

EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 4.47em; font-size: 22.78em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 1.34em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Penetration Testing vis-à-vis Ethical

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 4.47em; font-size: 22.78em; color: #FFFFFF; top: 2.48em;
letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Hacking

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 12.27em; font-size: 10.17em; word-spacing: -0.16em; top:


9.91em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">
GOAL DEFINITION

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.56em; font-size: 10.17em; top: 20.97em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

VULNERABILITY<span class="ib" style="width: 0.17em;"> </span>DETECTION

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.76em; font-size: 10.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


24.91em; letter-spacing: 0.01em;">

ATTACK AND PENETRATION

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 12.16em; font-size: 10.17em; word-spacing: -0.18em; top:


27.84em; letter-spacing: 0.01em;">

RESULT, ANALYSIS

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 12.78em; font-size: 10.17em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


29.10em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

AND REPORTING

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 10.41em; font-size: 10.17em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


13.35em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

INFORMATION GATHERING

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 10.49em; font-size: 10.17em; word-spacing: -0.23em; top:


16.50em; letter-spacing: 0.02em;">

INFORMATION ANALYSIS

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 12.94em; font-size: 10.17em; word-spacing: -0.13em; top:


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AND PLANNING

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32.02em;">

CLEAN UP

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34.60em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">
PENETRATION TESTING

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13.86em; letter-spacing: 0.02em;">

RECONNAISSANCE AND SCANNING

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17.81em; letter-spacing: -0.01em;">

VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS

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0.02em;">

COUNTERMEASURES

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25.70em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

REPORT GENERATION

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UPDATE INFORMATION

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GOAL DEFINITION

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ETH<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>ICAL H<span class="ib" style="width:


0.10em;"> </span>ACKING

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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Hacker Classes
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letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff5" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.13em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.14em; letter-spacing: 0.14em;">Black hats</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 9.69em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Individuals with</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.01em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.18em; top:


10.83em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

extraordinary computing

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.01em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


11.98em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

skills, resorting to malicious

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.01em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


13.13em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

or destructive activities.

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.01em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


14.28em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Also known as ‘Crackers.’

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letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff5" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.28em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.17em; letter-spacing: 0.17em;">White Hats</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 17.78em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Individuals professing to</span>

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.01em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:
18.93em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

have hacker skills, using

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0.04em;">

them for defensive

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21.24em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

purposes. Also known as

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.01em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


22.39em; letter-spacing: 0.02em;">

‘Security Analysts’.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 8.82em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 43.51em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff5" style="font-size: 2.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.17em;


letter-spacing: 0.17em;">Gray<span class="ib" style="width: 0.17em;"> </span>Hats</span>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 25.89em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Individuals who work both</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.01em; font-size: 12.60em; top: 27.04em; letter-spacing:


0.03em;">

offensively and defensively

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.01em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


28.36em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

at various times.

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<div class="ff78" style="left: 40.41em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 14.54em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">
¤<span class="ff5" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.14em; color: #000000;
margin-right: -0.13em; letter-spacing: 0.13em;">Ethical Hacker Classes</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 24.34em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 9.94em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span class="ff5" style="font-size: 0.95em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.15em; letter-spacing: 0.15em;">Form<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;">
</span>er Black Hats</span>

</div>

<p class="pl ff18" style="left: 29.05em; font-size: 11.39em; line-height: 1.71em; color:
#919191; letter-spacing: 0.53em; top: 12.46em;">

–<span style="word-spacing: 0.02em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Reformed crackers</span><br>

–<span style="word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">First-hand experience</span><br>

–<span style="word-spacing: -0.03em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">Lesser credibility perceived</span><br>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 24.34em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 16.32em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span class="ff5" style="font-size: 0.95em; word-spacing: -0.20em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.17em; letter-spacing: 0.17em;">White Hats</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 29.05em; font-size: 11.39em; color: #919191; top: 19.87em;
letter-spacing: 0.53em;">

–<span style="word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Independent security</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 30.11em; font-size: 11.39em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


21.14em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

consultants (may be groups

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 30.11em; font-size: 11.39em; word-spacing: -0.01em; top:


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as well)

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 29.05em; font-size: 11.39em; color: #919191; top: 24.14em;
letter-spacing: 0.53em;">
–<span style="word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.04em;
letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Claim to be knowledgeable</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 30.11em; font-size: 11.39em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


25.41em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

about black hat activities

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 24.34em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 24.59em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span class="ff5" style="font-size: 0.95em; word-spacing: -0.33em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.15em; letter-spacing: 0.15em;">Consulting Fir m s</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 29.05em; font-size: 11.39em; color: #919191; top: 29.03em;
letter-spacing: 0.53em;">

–<span style="word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Part of ICT firms</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 29.05em; font-size: 11.39em; color: #919191; top: 30.75em;
letter-spacing: 0.53em;">

–<span style="word-spacing: -0.02em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Good credentials</span>

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Hacktivism

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Refers to ‘hacking with/<span class="ib" style="width:
0.16em;"> </span>for a cause’.</span><br>

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Comprised of hackers with a social or political agenda.</span><br>

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Aims at sending across a message through their
hacking</span><br>

</p>

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12.10em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

activity while gaining visibility for their cause and

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0.05em;">

themselves.
</div>

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Common targets include government agencies,
MNCs,</span>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.14em; top:


16.72em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

or any other entity perceived as ‘bad’<span class="ib" style="width: 0.09em;"> </span>or


‘wrong’<span class="ib" style="width: 0.09em;"> </span>by these

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.17em; top:


18.12em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

groups/ individuals.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 43.34em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">It remains a fact however, that gaining
unauthorized</span>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


21.36em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

access is a crime, no matter what the intent.

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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What do Ethical Hackers do?

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; color: #000000; letter-spacing:


-0.04em;">“<span class="ff65" style="font-size: 0.94em; word-spacing: -0.06em; margin-right:
-0.07em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">If you know the enem<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;">
</span>y and know yourself, you need</span></span>

</div>

<div class="ff65" style="left: 6.99em; font-size: 14.30em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


8.49em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

not fear the result of a hundred battles.”

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 11.41em; font-size: 11.39em; color: #919191; top: 12.52em;
letter-spacing: 0.53em;">

–<span class="ff65" style="font-size: 0.94em; word-spacing: -0.02em; color: #000000;


letter-spacing: 0.07em;">– Sun Tzu,<span class="ff18" style="left: 0.21em; font-size: 1.06em;
word-spacing: -0.19em; margin-right: 0.16em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;"> Art of War</span></span>

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 23.31em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Ethical hackers try to answer:</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 14.74em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">What can the intruder see on the target system?</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


15.88em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

(Reconnaissance and Scanning phase of hacking)

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 17.48em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">What can an intruder do with that information? (Gaining</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


18.62em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Access and Maintaining Access phases)

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 20.22em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">
•<span style="word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;
letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Does anyone at the target notice the intruders attempts or</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


21.37em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

success? (Reconnaissance and Covering Tracks phases)

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 41.57em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">If hired by any organization, an ethical hacker asks
the</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


20.29em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

organization<span class="ff65" style="left: 0.32em; font-size: 0.94em; margin-right:


0.26em; letter-spacing: 0.09em;">w<span class="ib" style="width: 0.08em;"> </span>h<span
class="ib" style="width: -0.02em;"> </span>a<span class="ib" style="width: -0.01em;">
</span>t</span> it is trying to protect,<span class="ff65" style="left: 0.24em; font-size: 0.94em;
word-spacing: -0.22em; margin-right: 0.17em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;"> against w<span class="ib"
style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>hom</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.03em; top:


21.43em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

and<span class="ff65" style="left: 0.30em; font-size: 0.94em; word-spacing: -0.21em;


margin-right: 0.22em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;"> w<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;">
</span>hat resources</span> it is willing to expend in order to

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.01em; top:


22.58em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

gain protection.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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Skill Profile of an Ethical Hacker

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<div class="ff78" style="left: 39.26em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 14.78em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Computer expert adept at</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.28em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


7.95em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

technical domains.

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<div class="ff78" style="left: 39.26em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 20.71em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">In-depth knowledge about</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.28em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


10.68em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

target platforms (such as

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.28em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


11.81em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

windows, Unix, Linux).

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 39.26em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 29.10em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Exemplary knowledge in</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.28em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


14.54em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

networking and related

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.28em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.20em; top:


15.69em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

hardware/ software.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 39.26em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 37.50em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Knowledgeable about</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.28em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


18.42em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

security areas and related

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.28em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.03em; top:


19.56em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">
issues – though not

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.28em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


20.69em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

necessarily a security

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 19.28em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 21.84em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

professional.

</div>

</div>

</div>

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How do they go about it?

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Any security evaluation involves three
components:</span>

</div>

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letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Preparation –<span class="ib" style="width: 0.35em;"> </span>In this phase,
a formal contract is signed that</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


11.15em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

contains a non-disclosure clause as well as a legal clause to

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


12.30em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

protect the ethical hacker against any prosecution that he may

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:
13.45em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

attract during the conduct phase. The contract also outlines

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


14.60em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

infrastructure perimeter, evaluation activities, time schedules

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


15.74em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

and resources available to him.

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 17.34em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Conduct –<span class="ib" style="width: 0.36em;"> </span>In this phase,
the evaluation technical report is</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


18.50em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

prepared based on testing potential vulnerabilities.

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 20.09em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Conclusion –<span class="ib" style="width: 0.36em;"> </span>In this phase,
the results of the evaluation is</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


21.24em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

communicated to the organization/<span class="ib" style="width: 0.14em;">


</span>sponsors and corrective

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


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advice/<span class="ib" style="width: 0.15em;"> </span>action is taken if needed.

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Modes of Ethical Hacking

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Remote network –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.34em;"> </span>This mode attempts to simulate an</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


7.50em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

intruder launch an attack over the Internet.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 19.17em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Remote dial-up network - This mode attempts
to</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


9.72em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

simulate an intruder launching an attack against the

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


10.61em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

client’s modem pools.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 25.92em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Local network –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.35em;"> </span>This mode simulates an employee with</span>
</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


12.82em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

legal access gaining unauthorized access over the local

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 13.71em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">

network.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 32.66em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Stolen equipment –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.35em;"> </span>This mode simulates theft of a</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


15.93em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

critical information resource such as a laptop owned by

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


16.82em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

a strategist, (taken by the client unaware of its owner

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


17.71em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

and given to the ethical hacker).

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 41.34em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Social engineering –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.35em;"> </span>This aspect attempts to check the</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.13em; top:


19.93em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

integrity of the organization’s employees.

</div>
<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 46.16em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Physical entry –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.35em;"> </span>This mode attempts to physically</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.17em; top:


22.15em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

compromise the organization’s ICT infrastructure.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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Security Testing

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">There are many different forms of security
testing.</span>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


8.42em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Examples include: vulnerability scanning, ethical

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9.80em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

hacking and penetration testing. Security testing can be

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conducted using one of two approaches:

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letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Black-box (with no prior knowledge of the infrastructure to be</span>

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0.06em;">

tested).

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 18.80em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">White-box (with a complete knowledge of the network</span>

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0.06em;">

infrastructure).

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 22.04em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Internal Testing is also known as<span class="ff65" style="left: 0.27em;
font-size: 0.94em; margin-right: 0.23em;">Gr<span class="ib" style="width: 0.01em;"> </span>a<span
class="ib" style="width: 0.02em;"> </span>y<span class="ib" style="width: 0.07em;"> </span>-<span
class="ib" style="width: -0.02em;"> </span>b<span class="ib" style="width: 0.00em;">
</span>o<span class="ib" style="width: -0.02em;"> </span>x</span> testing and this</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


23.44em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

examines the extent of access by insiders within the network.

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Deliverables

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Ethical Hacking Report.</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 10.52em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Details the results of the hacking activity, matching it against</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


11.92em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

the work schedule decided prior to the conduct phase.

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 13.75em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Vulnerabilities are detailed and avoidance measures suggested.</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


15.16em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">
Usually delivered in hard copy format for security reasons.

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letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Issues to consider</span>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 19.22em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Nondisclosure clause in the legal contract - availing the right</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


20.63em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

information to the right person

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 22.47em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Integrity of the evaluation team</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 24.31em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Sensitivity of information.</span>

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</div>

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Computer Crimes and Implications

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Cyber Security Enhancement Act 2002 – mandates
life</span>

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8.42em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

sentences for hackers who ‘recklessly’<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;">


</span>endanger the

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lives of others.

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;
margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">The CSI/<span class="ib" style="width: 0.15em;">
</span>FBI 2002 Computer Crime and Security</span>

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.13em; top:


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Survey noted that 90% of the respondents

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acknowledged security breaches, but only 34% reported

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15.84em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

the crime to law enforcement agencies.

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letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">The FBI computer crimes squad estimate that
between</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


19.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

85 and 97 percent of computer intrusions are not even

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 20.46em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

detected.

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<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 48.42em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Stigma associated with reporting security
lapses.</span>

</div>

</div>

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Legal Perspective (US Federal Law)

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Federal Criminal Code Related to Computer Crime:

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¤
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18 U.S.C. § 10<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>29.<span class="ff8"


style="left: 0.55em; font-size: 0.94em; word-spacing: -0.19em; margin-right: 0.39em; letter-spacing:
0.16em;"> Fraud and Related Activity in Connection</span>

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12.41em; letter-spacing: 0.13em;">

w<span class="ib" style="width: 0.17em;"> </span>ith Access Devices

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13.47em; letter-spacing: 0.02em;">

18 U.S.C. § 10<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>30<span class="ib"


style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>.<span class="ff8" style="left: 0.55em; font-size: 0.94em;
word-spacing: -0.19em; margin-right: 0.40em; letter-spacing: 0.16em;"> Fraud and Related Activity in
Connection</span>

</div>

<div class="ff8" style="left: 8.42em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.24em; top:


15.85em; letter-spacing: 0.16em;">

w<span class="ib" style="width: 0.13em;"> </span>ith Com<span class="ib" style="width:


0.15em;"> </span>puters

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 36.17em;">

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.93em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


16.72em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

18 U.S.C. § 1362.<span class="ff8" style="left: 0.54em; font-size: 0.94em; margin-right:


0.39em; letter-spacing: 0.15em;">Co<span class="ib" style="width: 0.00em;"> </span>m<span
class="ib" style="width: 0.15em;"> </span>m<span class="ib" style="width: 0.17em;">
</span>u<span class="ib" style="width: 0.06em;"> </span>n<span class="ib" style="width: 0.05em;">
</span>i<span class="ib" style="width: -0.05em;"> </span>c<span class="ib" style="width: -0.06em;">
</span>a<span class="ib" style="width: 0.02em;"> </span>t<span class="ib" style="width: 0.02em;">
</span>i<span class="ib" style="width: -0.06em;"> </span>o<span class="ib" style="width: 0.00em;">
</span>n<span class="ib" style="width: 0.35em;"> </span>L<span class="ib" style="width: -0.01em;">
</span>i<span class="ib" style="width: -0.05em;"> </span>n<span class="ib" style="width: 0.05em;">
</span>e<span class="ib" style="width: -0.04em;"> </span>s<span class="ib" style="width: 0.00em;">
</span>,<span class="ib" style="width: 0.21em;"> </span>S<span class="ib" style="width: 0.01em;">
</span>t<span class="ib" style="width: 0.02em;"> </span>a<span class="ib" style="width: 0.02em;">
</span>t<span class="ib" style="width: 0.00em;"> </span>i<span class="ib" style="width: -0.06em;">
</span>o<span class="ib" style="width: 0.01em;"> </span>n<span class="ib" style="width: 0.06em;">
</span>s<span class="ib" style="width: -0.01em;"> </span>,<span class="ib" style="width: 0.21em;">
</span>o<span class="ib" style="width: 0.01em;"> </span>r</span>

</div>

<div class="ff8" style="left: 8.42em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.32em; top:


19.30em; letter-spacing: 0.16em;">

Sy stem s

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</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.93em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.03em; top:


19.98em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

18 U.S.C. § 2510 et seq.<span class="ff8" style="left: 0.54em; font-size: 0.94em;


word-spacing: -0.15em; margin-right: 0.39em; letter-spacing: 0.15em;">W ire and Electronic</span>

</div>

<div class="ff8" style="left: 8.42em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.17em; top:


22.75em; letter-spacing: 0.16em;">

Com<span class="ib" style="width: 0.15em;"> </span>m<span class="ib" style="width:


0.15em;"> </span>unications Interception and Interception of Oral

</div>

<div class="ff8" style="left: 8.42em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.42em; top:


24.24em; letter-spacing: 0.17em;">

Com m unications

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 52.94em;">

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.93em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


24.62em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

18 U.S.C. § 270<span class="ib" style="width: 0.09em;"> </span>1 et seq.<span


class="ff8" style="left: 0.54em; font-size: 0.94em; word-spacing: -0.12em; margin-right: 0.39em;
letter-spacing: 0.15em;">Stored W<span class="ib" style="width: 0.20em;"> </span>ire and
Electronic</span>

</div>
<div class="ff8" style="left: 8.42em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.26em; top:
27.68em; letter-spacing: 0.17em;">

Com<span class="ib" style="width: 0.15em;"> </span>m<span class="ib" style="width:


0.15em;"> </span>unications and Transactional Records Access

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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Section 1029

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.01em; top:
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Subsection (a)<span class="ib" style="width: 0.52em;"> </span>Whoever -

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(1) knowingly and with intent to defraud produces, uses,

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9.19em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

or traffics in one or more counterfeit access devices;

</div>

<p class="pl ff18" style="left: 6.58em; word-spacing: -0.08em; font-size: 15.19em;


text-indent: -1.20em; line-height: 1.01em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 10.65em;">

(2) knowingly and with intent to defraud traffics in, or<br>

uses, one or more unauthorized access devices during<br>

any one-year period, and by such conduct obtains<br>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.12em; top:


13.69em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

anything of value aggregating $1,000 or more during

</div>

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14.70em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

that period;

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(3) knowingly, and with intent to defraud, possesses

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


17.18em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

fifteen or more devices which are counterfeit or

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:
18.20em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

unauthorized access devices;

</div>

<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 6.58em; word-spacing: -0.18em; font-size: 15.19em;


text-indent: -1.20em; line-height: 1.02em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 19.65em; width: 22.74em;">

<span class="nw">(4) knowingly, and with intent to defraud, produces,</span>

<span class="nw">traffics in, has control or custody of, or possesses</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.10em;">device-making equipment;</span>

</p>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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Section 1029 (contd.)

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


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(5) knowingly, and with intent to defraud effects

</div>

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transactions, with 1 or more access devices issued to

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another person or persons, to receive payment or any

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other thing of value during any 1-year period the

</div>

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10.15em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

aggregate value of which is equal to or greater than

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$1,000;

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(6) without the authorization of the issuer of the access

</div>

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13.26em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">
device, knowingly, and with intent to defraud, solicits a

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


14.15em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

person for the purpose of—

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


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(A) offering an access device; or

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.40em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


19.91em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

(B) selling information regarding, or an application to obtain, an

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


20.80em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

access device;

</div>

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18.44em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

(7) knowingly, and with intent to defraud, uses, produces,

</div>

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19.33em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

traffics in, has control or custody of, or possesses a

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


20.22em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

telecommunications instrument that has been modified

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


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or altered to obtain unauthorized use of

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: 0.01em; top:


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telecommunications services;

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</div>

</div>

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Section 1029 (contd.)

</div>

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(8) knowingly, and with intent to defraud, uses, produces, traffics in,
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<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.93em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


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has control or custody of, or possesses a scanning receiver;

</div>

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text-indent: -1.44em; line-height: 1.53em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 11.72em; width: 31.13em;">

<span class="nw">(9) knowingly uses, produces, traffics in, has control or custody of,
or</span>

<span class="nw">possesses hardware or software, knowing it has been configured to</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.06em;">insert or modify telecommunication identifying


information</span>

</p>

<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 7.93em; word-spacing: -0.17em; font-size: 12.60em;


line-height: 1.52em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 16.31em; width: 31.41em;">

<span class="nw">associated with, or contained in, a telecommunications


instrument</span>

<span class="nw">so that such instrument may be used to obtain telecommunications</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.07em;">service without authorization; or</span>

</p>

<p class="pl ff18" style="left: 7.93em; word-spacing: -0.08em; font-size: 12.60em;


text-indent: -1.44em; line-height: 1.53em; letter-spacing: 0.06em; top: 21.33em;">

(10) without the authorization of the credit card system member or its<br>

agent, knowingly, and with intent to defraud, causes or arranges<br>

for another person to present to the member or its agent, for<br>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.93em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


26.17em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

payment, 1 or more evidences or records of transactions made by

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.93em; font-size: 12.60em; top: 27.70em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">

an access device.
</div>

</div>

</div>

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Penalties

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(A) in the case of an offense that does not occur after a

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conviction for another offense under this section--

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.45em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 11.06em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">(i) if the offense is under paragraph (1), (2), (3), (6), (7), or (10<span
class="ib" style="width: 0.08em;"> </span>) of</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.64em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


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subsection (a), a fine under this title or imprisonment for not

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13.36em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

more than 10 years, or both; and

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 7.45em; font-size: 12.60em; color: #660033; top: 14.95em;
letter-spacing: 0.83em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">(ii) if the offense is under paragraph (4), (5), (8), or (9) of</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.64em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


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subsection (a), a fine under this title or imprisonment for not

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 8.64em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


17.25em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

more than 15 years, or both;

</div>

<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 5.79em; word-spacing: -0.17em; font-size: 15.19em;


text-indent: -1.20em; line-height: 1.14em; letter-spacing: 0.04em; top: 15.66em; width: 25.60em;">

<span class="nw">(B) in the case of an offense that occurs after a conviction</span>

<span class="nw">for another offense under this section, a fine under this</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">title or imprisonment for


not more than 20 years, or</span>
</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.79em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.12em; top:


19.16em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

both; and

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 4.59em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


20.75em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

(C) in either case, forfeiture to the United States of any

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.79em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


21.88em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

personal property used or intended to be used to commit

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.79em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


23.02em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

the offense.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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Section 1030 – (a)(1)

</div>

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7.97em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Subsection (a) Whoever--

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(1) having knowingly accessed a computer without authorization or

</div>

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10.96em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

exceeding authorized access, and by means of such conduct having

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line-height: 1.27em; letter-spacing: 0.06em; top: 12.10em;">

obtained information that has been determined by the United States<br>

Government pursuant to an Executive order or statute to require<br>

protection against unauthorized disclosure for reasons of national<br>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.97em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


16.06em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

defense or foreign relations, or any restricted data, as defined in

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.97em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.12em; top:
17.34em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

paragraph y of section 11 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, with

</div>

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18.61em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

reason to believe that such information so obtained could be used to

</div>

<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 6.97em; word-spacing: -0.19em; font-size: 12.60em;


line-height: 1.27em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 19.75em; width: 30.84em;">

<span class="nw">the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any


foreign</span>

<span class="nw">nation willfully communicates, delivers, transmits, or causes to be</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.11em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">communicated, delivered,


or transmitted, or attempts to</span>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.97em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


23.71em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

communicate, deliver, transmit or cause to be communicated,

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.97em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


24.99em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

delivered, or transmitted the same to any person not entitled to

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.97em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


26.26em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

receive it, or willfully retains the same and fails to deliver it to the

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.97em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


27.54em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

officer or employee of the United States entitled to receive it;

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</div>

</div>

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Section 1030 (2)(A)(B)(C)

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(2) intentionally accesses a computer without

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8.42em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

authorization or exceeds authorized access, and thereby

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0.06em;">

obtains--

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text-indent: -1.20em; line-height: 1.40em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 13.67em;">

(A) information contained in a financial record of a financial<br>

institution, or of a card issuer as defined in section 160<span class="ib" style="width: 0.08em;">


</span>2(n) of<br>

title 15, or contained in a file of a consumer reporting agency on<br>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


18.08em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

a consumer, as such terms are defined in the Fair Credit

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19.48em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.);

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21.33em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

(B) information from any department or agency of the United

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


22.72em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

States; or

</div>

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24.57em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

(C) information from any protected computer if the conduct

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 9.60em; font-size: 12.60em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


25.97em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

involved an interstate or foreign communication;

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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Section 1030 (3)(4)

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(3) intentionally, without authorization to access any

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nonpublic computer of a department or agency of the

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United States, accesses such a computer of that

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department or agency that is exclusively for the use of

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line-height: 0.89em; letter-spacing: 0.04em; top: 10.21em; width: 25.69em;">

<span class="nw">the Government of the United States or, in the case of a</span>

<span class="nw">computer not exclusively for such use, is used by or for</span>

<span class="nw">the Government of the United States and such conduct</span>

<span class="nw">affects that use by or for the Government of the United</span>

<span class="nw" style="letter-spacing: 0.05em;">States;</span>

</p>

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(4) knowingly and with intent to defraud, accesses a

</div>

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15.93em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

protected computer without authorization, or exceeds

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16.82em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

authorized access, and by means of such conduct

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


17.70em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

furthers the intended fraud and obtains anything of

</div>
<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:
18.59em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

value, unless the object of the fraud and the thing

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<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 6.58em; word-spacing: -0.19em; font-size: 15.19em;


line-height: 0.89em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 19.53em; width: 24.74em;">

<span class="nw">obtained consists only of the use of the computer and</span>

<span class="nw">the value of such use is not more than $5,000 in any</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.12em;">1-year period;</span>

</p>

</div>

</div>

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Section 1030 (5)(A)(B)

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5.64em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

(5)(A)(i) knowingly causes the transmission of a

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6.52em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

program, information, code, or command, and

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as a result of such conduct, intentionally causes

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damage without authorization, to a protected

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0.06em;">

computer;

</div>

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text-indent: -0.99em; line-height: 0.88em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 12.30em; width: 20.95em;">

<span class="nw">(ii) intentionally accesses a protected computer</span>

<span class="nw">without authorization, and as a result of such</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.08em;">conduct, recklessly causes damage; or</span>

</p>

<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 7.97em; word-spacing: -0.18em; font-size: 15.19em;


text-indent: -0.99em; line-height: 0.89em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 15.39em; width: 20.95em;">

<span class="nw">(iii) intentionally accesses a protected computer</span>


<span class="nw">without authorization, and as a result of such</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.10em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">conduct, causes damage;


and</span>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 4.60em; font-size: 17.77em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


15.82em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

(5)(B) by conduct described in clause (i), (ii), or

</div>

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16.71em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

(iii) of subparagraph (A), caused (or, in the case

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.63em; font-size: 17.77em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


17.59em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

of an attempted offense, would, if completed,

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.63em; font-size: 17.77em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


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have caused)--

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Section 1030 (5)(B) (contd.)

</div>

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(i) loss to 1 or more persons during any 1-year period (and,

</div>

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line-height: 0.89em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 7.55em;">

for purposes of an investigation, prosecution, or other<br>

proceeding brought by the United States only, loss<br>

resulting from a related course of conduct affecting 1 or<br>

more other protected computers) aggregating at least<br>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: 0.04em; top:


11.04em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

$5,000 in value;

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


12.38em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

(ii) the modification or impairment, or potential


</div>

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13.26em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

modification or impairment, of the medical

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


14.15em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

examination, diagnosis, treatment, or care of 1 or more

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 15.04em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">

individuals;

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


16.38em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

(iii) physical injury to any person;

</div>

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17.71em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

(iv) a threat to public health or safety; or

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


19.04em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

(v) damage affecting a computer system used by or for a

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


19.93em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

government entity in furtherance of the administration

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


20.82em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

of justice, national defense, or national security;

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Section 1030 (6)(7)

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<span class="nw">(6) knowingly, and with intent to defraud, traffics</span>

<span class="nw">(as defined in section 1029) in any password or</span>

<span class="nw">similar information through which a computer</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.07em;">may be accessed without authorization, if--</span>

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(A) such trafficking affects interstate or foreign

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commerce; or

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(B) such computer is used by or for the Government of

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the United States;

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text-indent: -1.02em; line-height: 1.01em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 14.47em; width: 19.83em;">

<span class="nw">(7) with intent to extort from any person any</span>

<span class="nw">money or other thing of value, transmits in</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.06em;">interstate or foreign commerce any</span>

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communication containing any threat to cause

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damage to a protected computer;

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Penalties

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(1)(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more

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than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under

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subsection (a)(1) of this section which does not occur


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after a conviction for another offense under this section,

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or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under

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this subparagraph; and

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(B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than

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twenty years, or both, in the case of an offense under

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<span class="nw">subsection (a)(1) of this section which occurs after a conviction</span>

<span class="nw">for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.11em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">an offense punishable


under this subparagraph;</span>

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(2)(A) except as provided in subparagraph (B), a fine

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<span class="nw">under this title or imprisonment for not more than one</span>
<span class="nw">year, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.09em;">(a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(5)(A)(iii), or (a)(6) of this


section</span>

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which does not occur after a conviction for another

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offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an

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offense punishable under this subparagraph;

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Penalties (contd.)

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


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tortious act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the

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United States or of any State; or

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•<span style="word-spacing: -0.05em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">(iii) the value of the information obtained exceeds $5,000;</span>

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¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


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line-height: 1.02em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 18.42em; width: 25.63em;">

<span class="nw">than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under</span>

<span class="nw">subsection (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(6) of this section which</span>

<span class="nw">occurs after a conviction for another offense under this</span>

<span class="nw">section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.11em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">under this


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section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable

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under this subparagraph; and

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<span class="nw">than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under</span>

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offense</span>

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under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense

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punishable under this subparagraph; and

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Penalties (contd.)

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(4)(B) a fine under this title, imprisonment for not more

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<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 6.58em; word-spacing: -0.17em; font-size: 15.19em;


line-height: 1.02em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 12.22em; width: 24.23em;">

<span class="nw">than 5 years, or both, in the case of an offense under</span>

<span class="nw">subsection (a)(5)(A)(ii), or an attempt to commit an</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.08em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">offense punishable under


that subsection;</span>

</p>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 5.39em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


15.72em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

(4)(C) a fine under this title, imprisonment for not more

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


16.73em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

than 20 years, or both, in the case of an offense under

</div>

<p class="pj ff18" style="left: 6.58em; word-spacing: -0.16em; font-size: 15.19em;


line-height: 1.01em; letter-spacing: 0.05em; top: 17.74em; width: 25.67em;">

<span class="nw">subsection (a)(5)(A)(i) or (a)(5)(A)(ii), or an attempt to</span>

<span class="nw">commit an offense punishable under either subsection,</span>

<span class="nw">that occurs after a conviction for another offense under</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.06em;">this section.</span>

</p>

</div>

</div>
</div>

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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<div class="ff18" style="left: 3.59em; font-size: 22.78em; color: #FFFFFF; top: 1.91em;
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Summary

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 15.45em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Security is critical across sectors and
industries.</span>

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 19.72em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">
¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;
margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Ethical Hacking is a methodology to simulate
a</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


10.61em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

malicious attack without causing damage.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 27.28em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.03em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Hacking involves five distinct phases.</span>

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 31.55em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Security evaluation includes preparation, conduct
and</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


16.06em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

evaluation phases.

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 39.13em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Cyber crime can be differentiated into two
categories.</span>

</div>

<div class="ff78" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 43.41em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff18" style="font-size: 2.17em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">U.S. Statutes § 1029 and 1030 primarily address
cyber</span>

</div>

<div class="ff18" style="left: 6.58em; font-size: 15.19em; top: 21.52em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

crime.

</div>
</div>

</div>

</div>

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Ethical Hacking

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 15.97em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


16.14em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Module II

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 15.97em; font-size: 16.94em; top: 18.01em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">

Footprinting

</div>
</div>

</div>

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</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 232;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff82" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">

EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; color: #FFFFFF; top: 2.05em;
letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Scenario

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 16.37em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


8.51em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

Adam is furious. He had applied for the netw<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;">
</span>ork
</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 16.37em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


9.86em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

engineer job at targetcom<span class="ib" style="width: 0.13em;">


</span>pany.com<span class="ib" style="width: 0.40em;"> </span>He believes

</div>

<p class="pj ff73" style="left: 16.37em; word-spacing: -0.19em; font-size: 11.87em;


line-height: 1.35em; letter-spacing: 0.06em; top: 11.04em; width: 25.54em;">

<span class="nw">that he w<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>as rejected


unfairly. He has a good track</span>

<span class="nw">record, but the econom<span class="ib" style="width: 0.12em;"> </span>ic


slow<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>dow<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;">
</span>n has seen m<span class="ib" style="width: 0.12em;"> </span>any</span>

<span class="nw">layoffs including his. He is frustrated –<span class="ib" style="width: 0.36em;">


</span>he needs a</span>

<span class="nw">job and he feels he has been w<span class="ib" style="width: 0.12em;">
</span>ronged. Late in the</span>

<span class="jbr"></span>

</p>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 16.37em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


16.63em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

evening he decides that he w<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>ill prove


his m<span class="ib" style="width: 0.13em;"> </span>ettle.

</div>

<p class="pl ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; line-height: 3.66em; color:
#FC0128; letter-spacing: 1.13em; top: 39.64em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">What do you think Adam would do?</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Where would he start and how would he go about it?</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Are there any tools that can help him in his effort?</span><br>

</p>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 51.40em;
letter-spacing: 0.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Can he cause harm to targetcompany.com?</span>

</div>
<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 55.06em;
letter-spacing: 1.13em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">As a security professional, where can you lay<span
class="ib" style="width: 0.49em;"> </span>checkpoints and how</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


28.52em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

can you deploy countermeasures?

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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</div>

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<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 234;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff82" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l


</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.04em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 2.05em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Module Objectives

</div>

<p class="pl ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; line-height: 4.01em; color:
#FC0128; letter-spacing: 1.22em; top: 12.35em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Overview of the Reconnaissance Phase</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.17em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Introducing Footprinting</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.07em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">Understanding the information gathering</span><br>

</p>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.13em; top:


11.71em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

methodology of hackers

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 28.35em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.16em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Comprehending the implications</span>

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 32.36em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Learning some of the tools used for</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


17.02em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

reconnaissance phase

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 39.40em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Deploying countermeasures</span>

</div>
</div>

</div>

</div>

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</div>

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<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 238;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.05em; color:


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Module Flow

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 10.57em; font-size: 10.86em; top: 13.73em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">
Reconnaissance

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 29.35em; font-size: 10.86em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


22.24em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

Information gathering

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 28.34em; font-size: 10.86em; word-spacing: -0.12em; top:


13.73em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Defining Footprinting

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 11.72em; font-size: 10.86em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


22.42em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Hacking Tools

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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<div class="layer" style="z-index: 239;">

<div class="inner_layer">

<img class="absimg" style="left: 4em; clip: rect(0.07em, 48.32em, 6.63em, 0.07em); display:
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</div>

</div>

<div class="layer" style="z-index: 255;">

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src="https://html2-f.scribdassets.com/f5zoh70np2ws1kw/images/57-31876fa530/000.png">

</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 254;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff82" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">

EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.04em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 2.05em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

Revisiting Reconnaissance

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 23.20em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 17.33em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">

Clearing

</div>
<div class="ff91" style="left: 23.74em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 18.65em; letter-spacing:
0.04em;">

Tracks

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 25.46em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 27.24em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">

Maintaining

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 27.00em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 28.57em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

Access

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 18.10em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 33.38em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

Gaining

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 18.56em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 34.71em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

Access

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 9.47em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 27.92em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

Scanning

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 11.05em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 18.01em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

Reconnaissance

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 23.20em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 17.33em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">

Clearing

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 23.74em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 18.65em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">

Tracks

</div>
<div class="ff91" style="left: 25.46em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 27.24em; letter-spacing:
0.06em;">

Maintaining

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 27.00em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 28.57em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

Access

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 18.10em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 33.38em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

Gaining

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 18.56em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 34.71em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

Access

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 9.47em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 27.92em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

Scanning

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 11.05em; font-size: 8.98em; top: 18.01em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

Reconnaissance

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 42.71em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 15.11em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Reconnaissance refers to</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 21.89em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.15em; top:


8.63em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

the preparatory phase

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 21.89em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


9.95em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

where an<span class="ff73" style="left: 0.31em; font-size: 0.99em; word-spacing:


-0.21em; margin-right: 0.25em;"> attacker seeks</span>
</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 22.16em; font-size: 14.30em; word-spacing: -0.12em; top:


11.43em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

to gather as m<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>uch

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 22.16em; font-size: 14.30em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


12.77em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

inform<span class="ib" style="width: 0.12em;"> </span>ation as possible

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 21.89em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


13.95em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

about a target of

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 21.89em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.03em; top:


15.28em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

evaluation prior to

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 21.89em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


16.60em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

launching an attack.

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 42.71em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 38.09em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.02em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">It involves network</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 21.89em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


19.73em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

scanning, either external

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 21.89em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


21.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

or internal, without

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 21.89em; font-size: 14.48em; top: 22.40em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">

authorization.
</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div></div>

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color:


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Defining Footprinting

</div>

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¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color: #000000;
margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Footprinting is the blueprinting of the
security</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


7.61em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

profile of an organization, undertaken in a

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.13em; top:


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methodological manner.

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 22.32em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Footprinting is one of the three pre-attack</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.12em; top:


12.07em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

phases. The others are scanning and

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; top: 13.40em; letter-spacing:


0.07em;">

enumeration.

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 31.59em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Footprinting results in a unique organization</span>

</div>

<p class="pj ff91" style="left: 5.90em; word-spacing: -0.21em; font-size: 16.94em;


line-height: 1.33em; letter-spacing: 0.04em; top: 16.35em; width: 20.47em;">

<span class="nw">profile with respect to networks (Internet/</span>

<span class="nw">Intranet/ Extranet/ Wireless) and systems</span>

<span class="nw">involved.</span>

</p>
</div>

</div>

</div>

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<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 264;">

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<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color:


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Information Gathering Methodology

</div>
<p class="pl ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; line-height: 4.28em; color:
#FC0128; letter-spacing: 1.95em; top: 12.43em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #00AD00;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Unearth initial information</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #00AD00; margin-right:


-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Locate the network range</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Ascertain active machines</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.03em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Discover open ports/<span class="ib" style="width: 0.17em;">
</span>access points</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Detect operating systems</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.01em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Uncover services on ports</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Map the Network</span><br>

</p>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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Unearthing Initial Information

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 5.72em; font-size: 14.30em; word-spacing: 0.01em; top:


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Com<span class="ib" style="width: 0.13em;"> </span>m<span class="ib" style="width:


0.13em;"> </span>only includes<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 1.01em; letter-spacing:
0.00em;">:</span>

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¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Domain name lookup</span><br>
¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing:
0.04em;">Locations</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Contacts (Telephone/</span><br>

</p>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.65em; font-size: 14.48em; top: 13.38em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

mail)

</div>

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15.23em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

Inform<span class="ib" style="width: 0.12em;"> </span>ation Sources<span class="ff91"


style="left: -0.02em; font-size: 1.01em; margin-right: -0.02em; letter-spacing: 0.00em;">:</span>

</div>

<p class="pl ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; line-height: 3.45em; color:
#FC0128; letter-spacing: 0.60em; top: 33.94em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.01em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Open source</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">Whois</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">Nslookup</span><br>

</p>

<div class="ff37" style="left: 5.65em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.25em; top:


21.71em; letter-spacing: 0.15em;">

Hacking Tool<span class="ff91" style="left: -0.08em; margin-right: -0.08em; letter-spacing:


0.00em;">:</span>

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 48.38em;
letter-spacing: 0.60em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Sam Spade</span>

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>
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<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color:


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Passive Information Gathering

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 12.85em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.07em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">To understand the current security status of
a</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


7.37em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">
particular Information System, the

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


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organizations carry out either a Penetration

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


9.76em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Test or utilizing other hacking techniques.

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 23.76em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Passive information gathering is done by</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


12.62em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

finding out the details that are freely available

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


13.81em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

over the net and by various other techniques

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


15.01em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

without directly coming in contact with the

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.27em; top:


16.20em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

organization’s servers.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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Competitive Intelligence Gathering

</div>

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letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Competitive Intelligence Gathering is the</span>

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


7.37em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

process of gathering information from

</div>
<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:
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resources such as the Internet.

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 21.27em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">The competitive intelligence is
non-interfering</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


11.42em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

and subtle in nature.

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 27.21em;
letter-spacing: 1.22em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Competitive Intelligence is both a product
and</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 5.90em; font-size: 16.94em; top: 14.28em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">

process.

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Competitive Intelligence Gathering (contd.)

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¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.02em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">The various issues involved in Competitive</span>

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Intelligence are:

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<p class="pl ff91" style="left: 7.31em; font-size: 14.48em; line-height: 1.66em; color:
#660033; letter-spacing: 0.65em; top: 10.12em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Data Gathering</span><br>

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">Data Analysis</span><br>

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">Information Verification</span><br>
•<span style="word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing:
0.06em;">Information Security</span><br>

</p>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 10.04em; font-size: 8.15em; color: #FC0128; top: 30.62em;
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¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: 0.01em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Cognitive Hacking</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 7.31em; font-size: 14.48em; color: #660033; top: 19.06em;
letter-spacing: 0.65em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: 0.01em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.04em;


letter-spacing: 0.04em;">Single source</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 7.31em; font-size: 14.48em; color: #660033; top: 20.72em;
letter-spacing: 0.65em;">

•<span style="word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Multiple source</span>

</div>

</div>

</div>

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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Hacking Tools

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#FC0128; letter-spacing: 1.22em; top: 12.20em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Whois</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">Nslookup</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.01em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">ARIN</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Neo Trace</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; word-spacing: -0.17em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">VisualRoute Trace</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">SmartWhois</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.03em; letter-spacing:


0.03em;">VisualLookout</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.08em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing:


0.05em;">eMailTrackerPro</span><br>

</p>

</div>

</div>

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</div>

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<div class="layer" style="z-index: 287;">

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class="absimg" style="left: 35.69em; clip: rect(0.07em, 12.07em, 0.13em, 0.07em); display: block;
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height: 5.63em; top: 27.19em; width: 12.13em;"
src="https://html2-f.scribdassets.com/f5zoh70np2ws1kw/images/65-c91ca0669c/000.png">

</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 286;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff82" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">
EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; color: #FFFFFF; top: 2.05em;
letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Whois

</div>

<div class="ff37" style="left: 33.66em; font-size: 8.40em; top: 11.86em; letter-spacing:


0.15em;">

Registrant:

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 34.46em; font-size: 8.40em; word-spacing: -0.16em; top:


13.20em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

targetcompany (targetcompany-DOM)

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 34.46em; font-size: 8.40em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


14.53em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

# Street Address

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 34.46em; font-size: 8.40em; word-spacing: 0.29em; top:


15.87em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

City, Province

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 34.46em; font-size: 8.40em; word-spacing: -0.15em; top:


17.21em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

State, Pin, Country

</div>

<div class="ff37" style="left: 34.46em; font-size: 8.40em; word-spacing: 0.09em; top:


18.53em; letter-spacing: 0.14em;">

Domain Name<span class="ff91" style="margin-right: -0.17em; letter-spacing:


0.00em;">:</span> targetcom<span class="ib" style="width: 0.14em;"> </span>pany.COM

</div>

<div class="ff33" style="left: 19.66em; font-size: 5.25em; top: 63.71em;">

Domain servers in listed order:

</div>

<div class="ff33" style="left: 22.94em; font-size: 5.25em; top: 65.54em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">
NS1.WEBHOST.COM

</div>

<div class="ff33" style="left: 47.86em; font-size: 5.25em; top: 65.54em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX

</div>

<div class="ff33" style="left: 22.94em; font-size: 5.25em; top: 67.38em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

NS2.WEBHOST.COM

</div>

<div class="ff33" style="left: 47.86em; font-size: 5.25em; top: 67.38em; letter-spacing:


0.01em;">

XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX

</div>

<div class="ff37" style="left: 30.08em; font-size: 7.24em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


28.66em; letter-spacing: 0.13em;">

Adm<span class="ib" style="width: 0.14em;"> </span>inistrative Contact:

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 31.68em; font-size: 7.24em; word-spacing: 0.30em; top:


29.99em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Surname, Name (SNIDNo-ORG) t<span class="ff37" style="left: 0.01em; word-spacing:


-0.42em; margin-right: -0.14em; letter-spacing: 0.15em;">argetcom pan y@dom ain .com</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 27.31em; font-size: 8.40em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


27.03em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

targetcompany (targetcompany-DOM)<span class="ib" style="width: 0.53em;"> </span>#


Street Address

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 27.54em; font-size: 8.40em; word-spacing: 0.02em; top:


28.35em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

City, Province, State, Pin, Country

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 31.94em; font-size: 7.24em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


34.41em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Telephone:<span style="left: 0.24em; word-spacing: -0.26em; margin-right: 0.51em;


letter-spacing: -0.01em;">X XXX X</span> Fax<span style="left: 0.46em; word-spacing: -0.26em;
margin-right: 0.48em; letter-spacing: -0.02em;">X XX XX</span>
</div>

<div class="ff37" style="left: 30.08em; font-size: 7.24em; word-spacing: -0.32em; top:


35.74em; letter-spacing: 0.14em;">

Techn ical Contact<span class="ff91" style="letter-spacing: 0.00em;">:</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 31.68em; font-size: 7.24em; word-spacing: 0.30em; top:


37.07em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Surname, Name (SNIDNo-ORG) t<span class="ff37" style="left: 0.01em; word-spacing:


-0.42em; margin-right: -0.14em; letter-spacing: 0.15em;">argetcom pan y@dom ain .com</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 27.31em; font-size: 8.40em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


33.13em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

targetcompany (targetcompany-DOM)<span class="ib" style="width: 0.53em;"> </span>#


Street Address

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 27.54em; font-size: 8.40em; word-spacing: 0.02em; top:


34.47em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

City, Province, State, Pin, Country

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 31.94em; font-size: 7.24em; word-spacing: 0.21em; top:


41.51em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">

Telephone:<span style="left: 0.26em; word-spacing: -0.26em; margin-right: 0.29em;


letter-spacing: -0.01em;">X XXX X</span> Fax XXXXX

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

<div class="layer" style="z-index: 292;">

<div class="inner_layer">

<a class="ll" orig="bWFpbHRvOmFyZ2V0Y29tcGFueUBkb21haW4uY29t

" style="left: 35.75em; height: 0.94em; top: 21.50em; width: 11.94em;" target="_blank"
href="mailto:argetcompany@domain.com" rel="nofollow"></a><a class="ll"
orig="bWFpbHRvOmFyZ2V0Y29tcGFueUBkb21haW4uY29t

" style="left: 35.75em; height: 0.94em; top: 26.63em; width: 11.94em;" target="_blank"
href="mailto:argetcompany@domain.com" rel="nofollow"></a>

</div>
</div>

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<div class="layer" style="z-index: 295;">

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<div class="layer" style="z-index: 297;">

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</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 296;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff82" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">

EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; color: #FFFFFF; top: 2.05em;
letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Nslookup
</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 18.02em;">

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 8.32em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.20em; color:


#FC0128; top: 8.63em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

http:/ / www.btinternet.com/ ~simon.m.parker/ IP-

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 8.32em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.25em; color:


#FC0128; top: 9.83em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

utils/ nslookup_<span class="ib" style="width: 0.09em;"> </span>download.htm

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 19.98em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Nslookup is a program to query Internet domain
name</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


10.85em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

servers. Displays information that can be used to

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


12.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

diagnose Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure.

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 28.39em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Helps find additional IP addresses if authoritative
DNS</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; top: 14.92em; letter-spacing:


0.04em;">

is known from whois.

</div>
<p class="pl ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; line-height: 3.45em; color:
#FC0128; letter-spacing: 1.59em; top: 33.67em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">MX record reveals the IP of the mail
server.</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.03em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Both Unix and Windows come with an Nslookup
client.</span><br>

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000; margin-right:


-0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">Third party clients are also available –<span class="ib" style="width:
0.37em;"> </span>e.g. Sam Spade.</span><br>

</p>

</div>

</div>

</div>

<div class="layer" style="z-index: 298;">

<div class="inner_layer">

<a class="ll" orig="aHR0cDovL3d3dy5idGludGVybmV0LmNvbS9+c2ltb24ubS5wYXJrZXIvSVA=

" style="left: 10.00em; height: 1.50em; top: 10.06em; width: 29.19em;" target="_blank"
href="http://www.btinternet.com/~simon.m.parker/IP" rel="nofollow"></a>

</div>

</div>

</div></div>

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<div class="layer" style="z-index: 300;">

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</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 303;">

<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff82" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">

EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 2.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Scenario (contd.)

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 16.03em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


9.40em; letter-spacing: 0.08em;">

Adam know<span class="ib" style="width: 0.09em;"> </span>s that targetcom<span


class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>pany is based in NJ.

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 16.03em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


11.03em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

How<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>ever, he decides to check it


out.<span class="ib" style="width: 0.50em;"> </span>He runs a

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 16.03em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


12.64em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

w<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>hois from an online w<span class="ib"


style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>hois client and notes the

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 16.03em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.13em; top:


14.26em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

dom<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>ain inform<span class="ib"


style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>ation. He takes dow<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;">
</span>n the em<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>ail IDs

</div>
<div class="ff73" style="left: 16.03em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.12em; top:
15.89em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

and phone num<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>bers. He also discerns


the dom<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>ain

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 16.03em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


17.51em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

server IPs and does an interactive Nslookup.

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 40.65em;
letter-spacing: 1.13em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Ideally, what is the extent of information that should
be revealed to</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.14em; top:


21.54em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

Adam during this quest?

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 47.55em;
letter-spacing: 1.13em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.14em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.07em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">Are there any other means of gaining information?
Can he use the</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.07em; top:


24.95em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

information at hand in order to obtain critical information?

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 54.43em;
letter-spacing: 0.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">What are the implications for the target company?
Can he cause</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


28.34em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

harm to targetcompany.com at this stage?

</div>
</div>

</div>

</div>

</div></div>

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display: block; height: 23.88em; top: 11em; width: 23.88em;"
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class="absimg" style="left: 8.07em; clip: rect(23.69em, 12.5em, 23.82em, 0.07em); display: block;
height: 23.88em; top: -11.94em; width: 23.88em;"
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class="absimg" style="left: 8.07em; clip: rect(23.44em, 13.07em, 23.57em, 0.07em); display: block;
height: 23.88em; top: -2.32em; width: 23.88em;"
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</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 305;">

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<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff82" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">

EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 2.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Locate the Network Range

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 6.89em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


9.06em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Com<span class="ib" style="width: 0.13em;"> </span>m<span class="ib" style="width:


0.13em;"> </span>only includes:

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 22.33em;
letter-spacing: 0.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.14em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.07em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">Finding the range of IP</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.02em; top: 12.62em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">

addresses

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 29.76em;
letter-spacing: 0.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.10em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.07em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">Discerning the subnet mask</span>

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 6.89em; font-size: 11.87em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


16.97em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

Inform<span class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>ation Sources:

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 38.13em;
letter-spacing: 0.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">ARIN (American Registry of</span>
</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


20.43em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

Internet Numbers)

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 45.58em;
letter-spacing: 0.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.06em;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Traceroute</span>

</div>

<div class="ff37" style="left: 6.81em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.16em; top:


24.57em; letter-spacing: 0.14em;">

Hacking Tool:

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 53.95em;
letter-spacing: 0.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; color: #000000; margin-right: -0.05em;


letter-spacing: 0.05em;">NeoTrace</span>

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 13.79em; font-size: 5.93em; color: #FC0128; top: 58.14em;
letter-spacing: 0.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.03em; word-spacing: -0.21em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Visual Route</span>

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div></div>

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</div>

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<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 315;">

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; color: #FFFFFF; top: 2.05em;
letter-spacing: 0.01em;">

ARIN

</div>

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</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 8.32em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.18em; color:


#FC0128; top: 8.51em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

http:/ / www.arin.net/ whois/

</div>
<div class="ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 17.48em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.04em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">ARIN allows for a search</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


9.51em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

of the whois database in

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


10.58em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

order to locate

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.02em; top:


11.64em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

information on a

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.28em; top:


12.71em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

network’s autonomous

</div>

<p class="pj ff91" style="left: 6.90em; word-spacing: -0.19em; font-size: 14.48em;


line-height: 1.06em; letter-spacing: 0.06em; top: 13.74em; width: 12.11em;">

<span class="nw">system numbers (ASNs),</span>

<span class="nw">network-related handles</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.06em;">and other related point</span>

</p>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


16.96em; letter-spacing: 0.04em;">

of contact (POC).

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 38.27em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.04em; color: #000000;


margin-right: -0.03em; letter-spacing: 0.03em;">ARIN whois allows for</span>

</div>
<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.14em; top:
19.55em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

the querying of the IP

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


20.62em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

address to help find

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


21.69em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

information on the

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


22.74em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

strategy used for subnet

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; top: 23.81em; letter-spacing:


0.06em;">

addressing.

</div>

</div>

</div>

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href="http://www.arin.net/whois/" rel="nofollow"></a>

</div>

</div>

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Screenshot: ARIN Whois Output

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line-height: 1.33em; letter-spacing: 0.04em; top: 33.24em; width: 16.38em;">

<span class="nw">ARIN allows search on the whois</span>

<span class="nw">database to locate information on</span>

<span class="nw" style="word-spacing: -0.09em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">networks autonomous


system</span>

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<span class="nw">numbers (ASNs), network-related</span>


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</p>

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; color: #FFFFFF; top: 2.05em;
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Traceroute

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 15.55em;
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¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.11em; color: #000000;


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<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.01em; top:


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Protocol called TTL, or Tim<span class="ib" style="width: 0.09em;"> </span>e To Live.

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¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.09em; color: #000000;


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two systems by sending out consecutive UDP packets

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with<span class="ff73" style="left: 0.34em; font-size: 0.99em; margin-right: 0.33em;


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class="ib" style="width: 0.05em;"> </span>cr<span class="ib" style="width: 0.04em;">
</span>ea<span class="ib" style="width: 0.02em;"> </span>s<span class="ib" style="width:
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</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 34.00em;
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¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.07em; color: #000000;


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class="ib" style="width: 0.02em;"> </span>s</span> the</span>

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.04em; top:


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TTL. When the TTL reaches zero, it sends back a "TTL

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 6.90em; font-size: 14.48em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


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exceeded" message (using ICMP) to the originator.

</div>

<div class="ff102" style="left: 11.69em; font-size: 6.99em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.86em;
letter-spacing: 1.59em;">

¤<span class="ff91" style="font-size: 2.07em; word-spacing: -0.08em; color: #000000;


letter-spacing: 0.06em;">Routers with DNS entries reveal the<span class="ff73" style="left: 0.25em;
font-size: 0.99em; word-spacing: -0.20em; margin-right: 0.18em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;"> nam<span
class="ib" style="width: 0.11em;"> </span>e of routers,</span></span>

</div>

<div class="ff73" style="left: 6.99em; font-size: 14.30em; word-spacing: -0.05em; top:


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netw<span class="ib" style="width: 0.12em;"> </span>ork affiliation<span class="ff91"


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scale(1.10865); transform-origin: left top 0px;">

<div class="layer" style="z-index: 358;">

<div class="inner_layer">

<img class="absimg" style="left: 4em; clip: rect(0.07em, 48.32em, 6.63em, 0.07em); display:
block; height: 32.19em; top: 1.75em; width: 48.38em;"
src="https://html1-f.scribdassets.com/f5zoh70np2ws1kw/images/77-3dac24136b/000.jpg"><img
class="absimg" style="left: 7.57em; clip: rect(6.75em, 43.13em, 32.13em, 0.07em); display: block;
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</div>

</div>

<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 361;">


<div class="middle_layer">

<div class="inner_layer" style="font-size: 0.10em;">

<div class="ff82" style="left: 5.55em; font-size: 8.23em; color: #FC0128; top: 44.69em;
letter-spacing: -0.11em;">

EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.12em; color:


#FFFFFF; top: 2.05em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Screenshot: VisualRoute Mail Tracker

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 28.99em; font-size: 10.86em; word-spacing: -0.11em; top:


25.53em; letter-spacing: 0.07em;">

It shows the number of hops made

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 28.99em; font-size: 10.86em; word-spacing: -0.09em; top:


26.86em; letter-spacing: 0.06em;">

and the respective IP addresses,

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 28.99em; font-size: 10.86em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


28.19em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

Node names, Locations, Time

</div>

<div class="ff91" style="left: 28.99em; font-size: 10.86em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


29.54em; letter-spacing: 0.05em;">

zones, Networks, etc.

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div>

</div></div>

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<div class="layer" style="z-index: 362;">

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<div class="layer scale_hack" style="z-index: 365;">

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EC-Counci<span class="ib" style="width: 0.10em;"> </span>l

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 3.77em; font-size: 21.72em; word-spacing: -0.06em; color:


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Tool: eMailTrackerPro

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 24.19em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.06em; top:


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eMailTrackerPro is the e-mail

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 24.19em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.08em; top:


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analysis tool that enables analysis

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 24.19em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.10em; top:


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of an e-mail and its headers

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<div class="ff91" style="left: 24.19em; font-size: 12.02em; word-spacing: -0.15em; top:
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automatically providing graphical

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0.06em;">

results

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