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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By Wayne Tomasi




Often used to represent characters and symbols

such as letters, digits and punctuation marks.
Another terms: Data Communications
1)  character codes Codes
 character sets
 symbol codes
 character languages

Sometimes called the Telex Code, was the first fixed

2) length character developed for machines rather Baudot Code
than forpeople.

A French postal engineer who developed the

3) baudot code in 1875 and named after Emile Baudot, Thomas Murray
an early pioneer in telegraph printing.

4) Fixed-length source code. Fixed Length Block Code

Stands for United States of America Standard Code USASCII

for Information Exchange, better known as ASCII-63.

The standard character set for source coding the

alphanumeric character set that humans understand
6) but computers do not (computers only understand 1s ASCII
and 0s).
It is a seven bit fixed-length character set.

7) Fixed-length source code. Fixed Length Block Code

Extended binary coded decimal interchange-code, EBCDIC

an eight bit fixed length character developed in
1962 by International Business Machines Corporation.

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Omnipresent block and white striped stickers that

seem to appear or virtually every consumer item in
9) Bar Codes
the US and most of the rest of the world.

It has spaces or gaps between characters. Each

10) character is independent of every other character. Discrete Code

It does not include spaces between characters. An

11) Continuous Code
example is Universal Product Code.

It stores data in two dimensions in contrasts with

12) conventional linear bar codes which stores data 2D code
along only one axis.

It uses an alphanumeric code similar to ASCII code. It

contains 9 vertical elements (5 bars & 4 spaces). It
consists of 36 unique codes representing the 10 digits
and 26 uppercase letters.
13) Code-39
Other Names:
 Code 3 of 9
 3 of 9 code

A continuous code since there are no

14) interchangeable spaces. Each UPC label contains a Universal Product Code
12-digit number.

Start & Stop Guard

It consists of a 101 (bar-soace-bar) sequence, which
15) Pattern
is used to frame the 12 digit UPC number.

It separates the left and right halves of the label and Center Guard Frame
consists of two long bars in the center of the label.

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Caused by electrical interference from natural

Classification of Data Com Errors:
 single bit
 multiple bit Transmission Errors
17)  burst

Categories of Error Control :

 Error Detection
 Error Correction

Errors with only one bit within a given a given string is Single Bit Errors
in error.

Errors with two or more non-consecutive bits within a

19) Multiple-bit error

Errors when to or more consecutive bits within a

Burst Error
20) given data string are in error. It can affect one or
more characters within a message.

The theoretical (Mathematical) expectation of the

21) Probability of Error
rate at which errors will occur.

The actual historical record of a system’s error perfor-

22) Bit-Error Rate

The process of monitoring data transmission and

deter mining when errors have occurred. It neither
23) Error Detection
correct errors nor identify which bits are in error-they
only indicate when an error has occurred.

Adding of bits for the sole purpose of detecting errors

Types of redundancy checks:
24)  vertical redundancy checking, Redundancy Checking
 checksum,
 longitudinal redundancy checking
 cyclic redundancy checking

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A form of error detection by duplicating each data

25) unit for the purpose of detecting errors.

26) An error detection bit. Parity

Vertical Redundancy
27) The simplest error-detection scheme and is generally
Checking (VRC)
28) referred to as character parity.

29) An error detection bit in each character. Parity Bit

30) The parity bit which is always a 1. Marking Parity

31) The parity bit which is not sent or checked Ignored Parity

Form of redundancy error checking where each

32 character has a numerical value assigned to it.

A redundancy error detection scheme that uses
Redundancy Checking
33) parity to determine if a transmission error has
occurred with n a message.

Message Parity
34) An error occurred within a message.
Block or Frame of Data
35) The group pf characters that comprise a message
Block Check Sequence
(BCS) or Frame Check
36) The bit sequence for the LRC. Sequence (FCS)

A convolution coding scheme that is most reliable Cyclic Redundancy

37) redundancy checking technique for error detection. Checking
Almost 99.999% of all transmission errors are detected

Lost Message Damaged

38) Types of Error Messages. Message

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One that never arrives at the destination or one that Lost message
is damaged to the extent that it is unrecognizable.

One that is recognized at the destination but Damaged Message

contains one or more transmission errors.

It includes enough redundant information with each

transmitted message to enable the receiver to
determine hen an error has occurred.

41) Examples: Error-Detecting Codes

 Parity bits
 block and frame check characters
 cyclic redundancy characters

It includes sufficient extraneous information along

with each message to enable the receiver to
determine hen an error has occurred and which bits
is in error.
42) Error-correcting Codes
Two primary methods for error correction:
 Retransmission
 Forward Error Correction

When a receive station requests the transmit station

43) Retransmission
to resend a message when the message is received
in error.

A two-way radio term which automatically a

retransmission f the entire message.
Automatic Repeat
Types of ARQ:
Request (ARQ) or
44) Automatic Retransmission
 Discrete
 Continuous

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The recipient of data sends a short message back to

the sender acknowledging receipt of the last
Types of acknowledgements:
 Positive Acknowledgement
 Negative

A receive station becomes the transmits station such

as when acknowledgments are sent or when
46) Line Turnarounds
retransmission are sent in response to a negative

It uses acknowledgments to indicate the successful Discrete ARQ

or unsuccessful reception of data.

It can be used when messages are divided into

smaller lock or frames that are sequentially Continuous ARQ
numbered and transmitted in succession, without
waiting for acknowledgments between blocks.

The sending station does not receive an

Retransmission Time-Out
49) acknowledgment after a predetermined length of

The destination station asynchronously requests the

retransmission of specific frame of data and still be
Selective Repeat
50) able to reconstruct the entire message once all
frames have been successfully transported through
the system.

The error-correction scheme that detects and Forward Error Correction

51) corrects transmission errors when they are received (FEC)
without requiring a retransmission.

A mathematician who was an early pioneer in the

Richard W. Hamming
52) development of error-detection and correction
procedures, developed the Hamming Code while
working at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

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An error-correcting code used for correcting

transmission errors in synchronous data streams. Hamming Code
It requires the addition of overhead to the message,
consequently increasing the length of a transmission.

54) Inserted into a character at random locations. Hamming Bits

The combination of the data bits and the hamming Hamming Code

56) It means to harmonize, coincide, or agree in time. Synchronize

Involves identifying the beginning and end of a

57) Character Synchronization
character with in a message.

Its literal meaning is “without synchronism”.

58) In Data Com, it means “without a specific time

Asynchronous communications is called as such

Start-stop Transmission
59) because each data character is framed between
start and stop bits.

A condition when the transmit and receive clocks Clock Slippage

are substantially different

It occurs when the transmit clock is substantially Under slipping

lower than the receive clock.

Occurs when the transmit clock is substantially higher

62) Overslipping
than the receiver clock.

63) Synchronous Data

It involves transporting serial data at relatively high
speeds in groups pf characters.

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65) Plain old Telephone system

It is comprised of three basic elements:

transmitter (source)
 transmission path (data channel)
Data Communications
 receiver (destination)
66) System
3 fundamental components of endpoints:
 data terminal equipment
 data communications equipment
 serial interface

It can be virtually any binary digital device that

Data Terminal
generates transmits, receives, or interprets data
67) Equipment (DTE)
messages. It is where information originates or

Devices used to input, output and display Terminal

information such as keyboards, printers and monitors

Basically a modern-day terminal with enhance

69) Client
computing capabilities

High-powered, high capacity mainframe computers Hosts

that support terminals.

71) It functions as modern-day host. Servers

A general term use to describe equipment that

interfaces data terminal equipment to a transmission
channel, such as a digital T1 carrier or an analog
telephone circuit. It is a signal conversion device, as
Equipment (DCE)
it converts signals from a DTE to a form more suitable
72) Data Communications
to be transported over transmission channel.

Types of DCE:
 channel service units (CSUs)
 Digital service units (DSUs)
 data modems

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Data Circuit-terminating
73) Another term for DCE.
Equipment (DCTE)

A DCE used to interface a DTE to an analog

74) telephone circuit commonly called POTS. Data Modem

It controls data flow between several terminal

75) Cluster Controller
devices and the data communications channel.

Station Controllers
76) Line control units at secondary stations.

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/transmitter UART

it is designed for asynchronous data transmission.

A special purpose UART chip manufactured by
78) Motorola.
Interface Adapter

It means that an asynchronous data format is used Asynchronous Data

79) and no clocking information transferred between the Transmission
DTE and the DCE.

An n-bit data register that keeps track of the status of Status Word
the UART’s transmits and receive buffer registers.

Transmit Buffer Empty

Transmit shift register has completed transmission
81) (TBMT)
of data character.

82) Receive Parity Error (RPE)

Set when a received character has a parity error in it.

Receive Framing Error an

Set when a character is received without any or with
83) improper number of stop bits.

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Set when a character in the receive buffer register is Receiver Overrun (ROR)
written over by another receive character.

Receive Data Available

A data character has been received and loaded
85) (RDA)
into the receive data register.

The difference in time between the beginning of a Detection Error

start bit and when it is detected.

It is used for synchronous transmission of data

between a DTE and a DCE.
Functions of USRT:
 Serial to parallel and parallel to serial
data conversions
 Error detection by inserting parity bits in
the transmitter and checking parity bits
in the receiver.
 Insert and detect unique data Universal Synchronous
synchronization (SYN) characters Receiver/transmitter
 Formatting data in the transmitter and (USRT)
 Provide transmit and receive status
information to the CPU.
 Voltage-level conversion between the
DTE and the serial interface and vice
 Provide a means of achieving bit and
character synchronization.

It should provide the ff:

 A specific range of voltages for transmit
and receive signal levels
Serial Interface
88)  Limitations for the electrical parameters
of the transmission line.
 Standard cable and cable connectors
 Functional description of each signal
on the interface.
Electronics Industries
In 1962, standardized the interface equipment
89) Association (EIA)
between data terminal equipment and data
communications equipment.

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91) It means “Recommended Standards” RS

Interface Between Data

Terminal Equipment and
Data Communications
92) The official name of the RS-232 interface Equipment Employing
Data Communications
Equipment Employing
Serial Binary Interchange

In, 1969, the third revision which was published and RS-232C
remained the industrial standard until 1987.

Sometimes referred to as the EIZ-232 standard

94) Versions D and E of the RS-232 standard changed
some of the pin designations.

It is a sheath containing 25 wires with a

DB25P-compatible male connector (plug) on one
end and a DB25S-compatible female connector
(receptacle) on the other end.
RS-232 Cable
Two full-duplex channels:
 Primary data-actual information
 secondary data-diagnostic information
and handshaking signals

It is designed for transporting asynchronous data 9-pin Version of RS-232

between a DTE and a DCE or between DTEs .

It is designed for transporting either synchronous or 25 pin Version

asynchronous data between a DTE and a DCE.

It is designed exclusively for dial-up telephone.

It is used for transporting asynchronous data
98) between a DTE and a DCE when the DCE is EIA-561
connected directly to a standard two-wire
telephone line attached to the public switched
telephone network.

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It converts the internal voltage levels from the DTE Voltage-Leveling Circuits
and DCE to RS-232 values.

A voltage leveler wherein its output signals onto the

100) cable. Driver

101) It accepts signals from the cable. Terminator

Protective ground, frame ground, or chassis FUNCTIONS OF RS-232 PINS

102) ground. Pin 1

103) Transmit data or send data. Pin 2

104) Receive data (RD or RxD) Pin 3

105) Request to send (RS or RTS) Pin 4

106) Clear to send.(CS or CTS) Pin 5

107) Data set ready or modem ready.(DSR or MR) Pin 6

108) Signal ground or reference ground. Pin 7

109) Unassigned and non-EIA specified often held at +12V Pin 8

Receive line signal detect, carrier detect or data Pin 9

carrier detect (RLSD, CD or DCD)

Unassigned and often held at -12 Vdc for test

111) Pin 10

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Secondary receive line signal detect, secondary

Pin 12
112) carrier detect or secondary data carrier detect

Pin 13
113) Secondary clear to send.
Secondary transmit data or secondary send data
114) Pin 14

Transmission signal element timing or serial Clock Pin 15


116) Secondary received data Pin 16

117) Receiver signal element timing or serial clock receive

Pin 17

118) Unassigned is used for local loopback signal Pin 18

119) Secondary request to send Pin 19

120) Data terminal ready. Pin 20

121) Signal quality detector. Pin 21

122) Ring indicator (RI) Pin 22

123) Data signal rate selector (DSRS) Pin 23

Transmit signal element timing or serial clock

Pin 24
124) transmit-DTE

Unassigned. It is sometimes used as a control signal

from the DCE to the DTE to indicate that the DCE is in
Pin 25
125) either the remote or local loop back mode.

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It specifies a 37-pin primary connector DB37 and a 9

pin secondary connector DB9 for a total of 46 pins
which provides more functions, faster data
transmission rates and spans greater distances than
the RS-232.

Primary goals of RS-449:

 Compatibility with the RS-232
interface standard
 Replace the set of circuit names and
 Provide separate cables and
126) connectors RS-449 Serial Interface
 Reduce crosstalks
 offer higher data transmission
 longer distances over twisted pair
 loopback capable
 improve performance and reliability
specify a standard connector

Two categories:
 Category I
 Category II

Used by the DTE to request a local loopback from the 10 CIRCUITS IN RS-449
127) DCE.
1.Local Loopback

Used by the DTE to request a remote loopback

128 2.Remote Loopback
from the distant DCE.

Allows the DTE to select the DCE’s transmit and 3. Select frequency
receive frequencies.

Used by DTE to signal the DCE that a test is in

129) 4.Test Mode

5. Receive Common
130) Common return wire for unbalanced signals
propagating from the DCE to the DTE

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Used by the DTE to signal the DCE whether it is 6. Terminal in Service


Used by the DTE to request that the DCE switched to

132) 7. Select Standby
standby equipment.

Used with a modem at the primary location of a

133) 8. New Signal
multipoint data circuit.

It was intended to operate at data rates between 20

136) RS-530 Serial Interface
kbps and 2 Mbps using the same DB25 connector

It is used to interface computers, computer networks

to analog transmission media
Data Communications
Alternate names:
137) Modem
 datasets
 dataphones
 modems

A contraction derived from the words Modulator

and Demodulator.
Primary Block of a Modem:
 Serial interface Circuit
 Modulator Circuit
138) Modem
 Bandpass filter and equalizer circuit
 telco interface circuit
 demodulator circuit
 carrier and clock generation circuit

Data communications modems designed to operate

139) Voice-band Modem
over the limited bandwidth of the PSTN.

140) It is able of transporting higher bit rates. Broadband Modem

141) Digital to analog converter. DAC

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142) Analog to digital converter. ADC

It is a rate of change of signals on the transmission

143) medium after encoding and modulation have

Refers to the rate of change of a digital information Bit Rate


145) It is classified as low-speed voice-band modems Asynchronous Modems

Synchronous data transported by asynchronous Isochronous Transmission


It uses PSK or quadrature amplitude modulation Synchronous Modems

to transport data.

A special, internally generated bit pattern in transmit

148) Training Sequence

Located in the transmit section of a modem and

149) Compromise Equalizers
provide pre-equalization

Located in the receiver section of a modem where

Adaptive Equalizer
they provide post-equalization to the received

The first internationally accepted standard fro ITU-T V.29

9600bps data transmission rate.

It is intended to provide synchronous data

V.29 Standard
152) transmission over four-wire leased lines.

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153) Five bits. Quin bits

A technique for full-duplex operation over two wire

Echo Cancellation
154) switched telephone lines.

It address asynchronous-to synchronous transmission

conversions and error control that includes both
155) V.32 Specification
detection and correction. It specifies a new protocol
called Link Access Procedures for Modems.

It is the next generation data transmission with data

rates of 28.8 Kbps without compression possible using

V.34 Innovations:
156)  Nonlinear coding
 multidimensional coding and
constellation shaping
 Reduced complexity
 precoding of data
 line probing

An enhanced standard adopted by ITU in 1996.

It adds 31.2 kbps and 33.6 kbps to the V.34
157) V.34+

Developed by ITU-T in February 1998 during a

meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. It defines an
asymmetrical data transmission technology where
158) V.90 Recommendation
the upstream 33.6kbps and downstream of 56kbps.

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A new modem standard in 2000 which offers

3 improvements over V.90 that can be achieved
only if both the transmit and receive modems and
the internet Service Provider(ISP) are compliant.
159) V.92 Recommendation
It offers:
 upstream transmission rate of 48 kbps
 faster call setup capabilities
 incorporation of a hold option

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